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Hindi Hungarian Indonesian Irish Italian Japanese Korean Latin Norwegian Persian (Farsi) Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbo-Croatian ‘Tagalog (Piipino) hai Turkish Vietnamese Yiddish English for Spanish Speakers EDUCATIONAL SERVICES CORP. 1725 K Street, NW., Suite 408 Washington, D.C. 20006 (202) 298-8424 www language30.com E5) EDUCATIONAL SERVICES LANGUAGE /30 START SPEAKING TODAY! Phrase Dictionary and Study Guide A FEW WORDS FROM CHARLES BERLITZ WORLD FAMOUS LINGUIST Let me introduce you to the cassette course you have chosen to study. In it you will find the bale phrases needed for communication in this lan guage. There are two important things to remem ber about learning a new language: Be interested in the people, their country and language. Want to learn the language. Practice it as often as you can. Nothing is more effective in creating a friendly atmo- sphere and nothing flatters people more than when a foreigner tries to speak their language. The voice on these cassettes will say a phrase in English. Then you will hear the translation of the phrase repeated twice. During the pause after the second repetition, repeat the phrase aloud. Try to imitate the pronunciation as nearly as you can. Read the words as they are spoken on the cas: | sete and use the guide to help you remember the words and pronounce them during the pauses. Remember, knowing the language is the best way of knowing the country and enjoying it more. Charles Berlitz Phrase Dictionary and Study Guide Persian casi ctl 0-910542-75-9 LANGUAGE /30 Educational Services Washington, D.C. Farsi Editor Mandana Navidi, Ph.D. Edited by Annie Scarborough Produced by Annie Scarborough Recorded by Evan Haning, Raymounde Bekhti ‘and Homayoun Majd Published by Educational Services Corporation 1725 K Street, N.W., Suite 408 Washington, D.C. 20006 {©1004 Educational Services Corporation, Washington, D.C. ‘Al tights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced ‘any form without permission trom the publisher. All LANGUAGE/30 components produced in the U.S.A. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION i PRONUNCIATION HINTS .......0000000s eens i ‘THE FARSI ALPHABET Meas sci SOUNDS OF THE FARSILANGUAGE ............. GENERAL EXPRESSIONS Salutations .. 1 Everyday Expressions .. 1 Introductions ....-. 3 Getting Acquainted... 6 Inquiries on the Street 9 MINBERS, TIME, COLORS fd 2), Numbers PCa Aree eet Tine deme One e 12 Days of the Week CON te 18 Months of the Year. i eRe ete oh irae 4 The Weather... 2... 15 Colors sstare: aoc 15 PERSONAL NEEDS AERATOR MMOs. es cnt Ati Rs ial ily anes ine 16, Money ........ oo jos tach te, Food and Drink (Side 3) . apsinseriat tea wee. Atthe Restaurant 2.0.2.0... . ie eae) ‘Shopping i 25 Leisure... 27 COMMUNICATIONS The Post Office P 29 At the Office (Side 4) . 31 The Telephone : 31 TRANSPORTATION Travel... Inthe Car. Atthe Airport ‘At Customs EMERGENCY SITUATIONS . SOCIAL CUSTOMS .......2.-- BASIC FARSI GRAMMAR (not recorded) IMPORTANT SIGNS (not recorded) VOCABULARY INDEX a 43 48, Read the introduction before turning on cassette side 1. INTRODUCTION Farsi, also known as Persian, is spoken by about thirty-eight million people worldwide, primarily in Iran, but also in ‘Afghanistan (where it is called Dari) and in the Central Asian republic of Tajikistan (where itis called Tajik) Farsi belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family and is closely related to Pashto and Kurdish, and more distantly to Sanskrit, Hindi, and Bengali. While Farsi is written in the Arabic script and has borrowed a large amount of vocabulary from Arabic, Farsi and Arabio are unrelated. English and Farsi, however, have a common ancestor: Indo-European. ‘The earliest form of Farsi is called Old Persian. It was written in cuneiform (wedge-shaped characters), and was the language of the Achaemenids, who ruled Persia from §59- 331 BC. Between 225-651 AD, Persia was ruled by the Sasanians. It was not until this time that a language written in an alphabet was brought to Persia. The language of the Sasanians, developed in Iran, was Pahlavi. This language became known as Middle Persian. In 651, Persia was conquered by the newly Islamicized Arabs fromthe Arabian Peninsula, After the Islamic conquest, Middle Persian went into decline for over three centuries as Arabic became the language of scholarship and education. In the early eleventh century, the resurgence of the Persian language was triggered by the composition of a Persian epic work called Shah-nameh or The Book of Kings by the celebrated author, Firdausi. After this, New Persian, as the language of this period is called, began to gain ground, and supplant ‘Arabic as the literary medium. By the thirteenth century, the language had become standardized, signaling the beginnings of Classical Persian. This became the language of the courts and literature, not only in ran, butin other areas under strong Persian influence, such as Ottoman Turkey and Mogul India. In the nineteenth century, Classical Persian began to adopt features of the spoken language of the educated elite in Tehran. This developed into the modern standard Persian in use today, which is referred to as Farsi ‘The name Farsi is derived from the southwestern province of Fars, whose dialect came to dominate Iran. The ancient Greeks called the whole country pers after this province; hence the name Persia. The name /ran comes from the Old Iranian word aryanam which means of the Aryans. Since Modern Farsi developed during the Islamic period, it was strongly influenced by Arabic, the language of Islam. Approximately half of the vocabulary of the Farsi language is of Arabic origin and, with the exception of the Taki dialect where itis written in the Cyrillic alphabet, Farsi is written in the Arabic script. Like all languages written in the Semitic script, Farsi is written from right to left. Only the consonants and long vowels are written; the short vowels are not indicated. ‘As a result of centuries of cultural contact, many Farsi words have entered the English language. For example, bazaar, pajama, caravan, seersucker, khaki (earth-colored), divan (originally meaning an office), check-mate (originally Shah ‘maat, meaning the king is dead) and kiosk (from kuushk, meaning palace) are all borrowed from Farsi When you start the cassette player, you will hear the Farsi alphabet, followed by the sounds of the Farsi vowels and consonants. You will then hear English phrases immediately translated into Farsi. The Farsi phrase is repeated, then followed by a pause. During the pause, say the Farsi phrase aloud. Tests gw that a word spoken ten to twenty times is remembered more readily than a word seen fifty to one hundred fnes, so say the phrases aloud as often as possible. ‘When you hear Farsi words, in conversation and on television or radio, ay them to yourself. Try to pronounce words you ‘see 01 ign, and in books, magazines, and newspapers. PRONUNCIATION HINTS In the pronunciation column, boldface letters indicate a stressed syllable, and hyphens indicate syllable breaks. A double short vowel indicates the corresponding long vowel. In a Farsi word, the stress falls on the last syllable with the following exceptions. Verbal prefixes like mi- or be- receive the stress, The accusative marker -raa and the indefinite ending -/ are never stressed; instead, the stress shifts to the first syllable. Inacompound noun, the second member receives the stress, while in a verb phrase, the stress falls on the first member. Each Farsi letter or letter combination has, by and large, only ‘one sound. However, as in every language, there are exceptions to rules of pronunciation. Note that throughout the text the pronunciation of certain Farsi letters varies depending on the adjacent sounds. Training your ear to detect these variations will sharpen not only your pronunciation skills, but also your understanding of spoken Farsi. The best way to develop good pronunciation is to listen closely to the Farsi speakers and imitate their pronunciation. ‘The pronunciation used in this course will serve you wherever Farsi is spoken. Side 1 pe THE FARSI ALPHABET ation -as in boy bo-zorg Buss se cee ogy! -asin pen peer CrycpUSSGGE EBL LO © -asintall tash-reef & -asinsad sa-waab SOUNDS OF THE FARSI LANGUAGE c -asinjam > jaan & cheap ch ile chaa-dor ier ist wad dar = *-asinhappy hn gx hagh Diphthongst e like the German ch — kh 14s kho-daa Gl -asinprey ey oS kheyr inBach 3! -asoundbetween ow 39 dowr a slike the Englishd, Lys daryaa the ow sounds in but with the tongue grow and now closer to the teeth Vowels 3% -asinzebra z o> zen = -asoundbetween a os mard 2 -asinrose raul rast the vowels in bed 3 -see zaal, above and bad 3 -as s inmeasure zh 3 mozh-de asin father aa tS ketaab o -see se, above s ple — salaam — — -asinget e Ss oyek ui -asinship sh i shab ~ -asinski ee Se chez v2 -sameas seen, s gale — saaheb “y_-Similarto 00 in book, 0 to rokh above ‘but more rounded we see Zaal, above z za-'eef ’ ~as in boot 00 we khoob - -same as te, above t yb taraf Consonants & -same as ze, above 2 4b zateef ail inthe middle rat aa ou pe-sar & “the glottal stop; we alee the end of a word, it ‘similar to the sound is the long vowel aa made when saying at the beginningof a sw! asb “uh-uh’ in English aword, itis aglottal e sve! em-rooz pa sopandmey cary "ipsa eagatee ons each the vowel a, the ‘3 This sound is indistinguishable from ze and zaad which follow. The Vowel s, or the zaal and zaad occur primarily in words borrowed from Arabic, in Which they have sounds distinct rom the ze. vowel 0 Qo iad 4 The letters se and saad are used only in words borrowed from {pling iva combination of wo vowel soundsin one sylable. Arabic. w arsiletter ce C. cor chh -like the German asin sagen or the French r; pronounced in the throat -as in fan “pronounced as, gheyn, above -as in king as in good -asin lap as in mother -as inno ~as in vent; also doubles as the long vowel uu (see “Vowels") -as inhat -or at the end of aword, if preceded by the short vowel e, the ‘eis not normally pronounced -as in yet. Italso doubles as the long vowel 2 v gh <237-e> faar-see gha-sam kaar gah lak meez naan vaght ha-me yaad ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION gag GENERAL EXPRESSIONS SALUTATIONS cle pL Hello! se-laam. Welcome! khosh aa-ma-deed Good morning. sobh be-kheyr. Good day. rooz be-kheyr. Good afternoor asr be-kheyr. Goodevening. or shab be-kheyr.1 Good night Goodbye. kho-da haa-fez. Agila Jas. EVERYDAY ae EXPRESSIONS 3. Yes. Thankyouvery meri sob ESI 1 When greeting someone, or welcoming quests during the evening hhours, Iranians use the more general greeting, salaamn. ® This is more formal than na. ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH ‘PRONUNCIATION I don't know. ne-mee-daa-nam. hungry go-ros-neh Ithink so. fekr mee-ko-nam. thirsty tected tired khasteh don't think so. os ne-mee- Pec eter sole sad gham-geen Whatde ya mine. khoo-bam. think? AERSan ine | Tiere ce tac eraafcee Please do not lotfan mo-zaa- Whyney? shegestenes disturb me. he-meman ‘Are you sure? mot-ma-en na-sha-veed. has-tee? Doyoulike this? een-raa doost i Is fine. knob ast dea-tee? Certainly. hat-man. its beautiful ‘gha-shang ast Weyee Sava delicious khosh ma-zeh isit possible? aa-yaa momr-ken Soe ae ee a interesting jaaleb exciting ha-yajaan Itdoesn't matter. mo-hem neest. eee I'm very grateful. —_khey-lee mam- Where is the too-aa-let ko-jaast? ola cll ss oo-nam. bathroom? 7 jo-vaa-zeb bash! Be careful mo-vaa-z imsstehions Look at this! bbe een ne-gaah kon! : My name is ‘es-meman Lsten to this! be een goosh kon theme arene Comewith mel baa man bee-yaal Wigs eee SRE Whats this? ‘een cheast? name? cheest? ‘Whatis that? ‘aan chest? Whatishisname? es-me oo cheest? Whatis the matter? che-te? orate hes name? mola. ‘sar-dam ast. Ee ee ees hot ‘garm ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ey ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ea ‘Are you Miss aa-yaa sho-maa pe Li ‘Where do you ko-jaa zen-de-gee Say LS. Shahnaz Rasuli? —_ khaa-no-me colsaaty jlo live? mee-ko-need? *hiSie oe a ae Ilive in New York dar nee york 8855 Jags os 8 eae zen-de-gi pSe Letmeintroduce ejaazehbe-da- lai artsy o5Le! mee-ko-nam. (Mr. Hashemi. Rood agsahaas¥e, |G ail How do you sayit —een-raabe 4 wg Lil eee SS ui in Farsi? faar-see che- sai Sae mo-ar-te-fee mee-goo-eed? be-ko-nam. z my colleague ham-kaar-am_ pula te yout roe sage tia! ? Sauals paul mae doen a inglish’ ba-la-deed’ i'm pleased to azaash-naaee Lah studi 3 ee ba'-e-le ka-mee. meet you. baa sho-maa ists Idon’t speak faar-see khoob khosh-vagh-tam. Farsi well. ba-lad nees-tam. Howare you? haeleshomaa jbo Lad Jl Couldyou please lot-fan ya-vaash- che-towr ast? Sul speak more tar soh-bat be- 2 : imfine, thanks; mer-sikhoob-am, Lah aay pupa sowy ko-noed. and you? sho-maa Sasaglae Do you aa-yaa mee- che-tow-reed? understand? meed? Howarethings? ow-zaw che-towr ap ¢ Les Idon’t ne-mee-fah-mam. ped al ast? Secauul understand. Where are you ah-le ko-jaa suas LS Jal I'm sorry. mo-te-a-se-fam. perry irome. has teed?! Could you please mee-sha-vadaan- 1a) {31 apd Imfromthe USA, ah-le aam-ri-kaa gu (S. sai Jal repeat it? raa lotfan do- SES has-tam. baa-reh tek-raar 6. 3s. Great Britain britaanee-aaye 4S lily be-ko-need? sy easbess Excuse me. bbe-bakh-sheed, Canada kaa-naa-daa Labts 0 Australia os-tra-lee-aa UL ial 4 5 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION Ea ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION eu GETTING He is not in. codarkhaa-neh cua GL jo 5! ACQUAINTED ah GAT orShe is not in. neest. Wecanyolt,, MolMacemnan tala GS When willhe keybarmee-gar Sua Su np GS staying? Hee return? dad? orWhen will she Tam staying at dar ho-te-le ros- py Sia os rates the Rostam Hotel. tam has-am. ul = Would youlike to maa-yerleed eGsabl Hig etiben | seaoalce, 2 obs! ys ase tins ee nets Iran before? ran boo-de-eed Sul ose en Saturday? Race Thisismyfirst een sa-fa-re aonb bee-aa-yeed? WiC Bae Mate oul lal Would youliketo -maa-ye-leed ba- e eee ei ‘come to my raa-ye naa-haar Afghanistan af-ghaa-nes-taan tulad folio Geikenee wien Sale ‘Are youmarried? — aa-yaa sho-ma ate GE Gi lunch? bee-aa-yeed? mo-te-a-hel Sass dinner shaam als has-teed? tea chaay ee Give my regards be khaa-ne-vaa- 56 salsa & coffee ghah-veh att toyourfamily. de-taansalaam = ss3Lury» p3lew Please come in. lotfan be-far= Badly tah be-re-saaneed. maa-eed too. your wife khaa-no-me-taan Please sitdown. lotfanbene- —~«s.4:, UL} your husband sho-ha-re-taan aaa at ‘your mother maa-da-re-taan a joiriaiher ipPdatre- ean Make yoursell —eenrjaaraamesie Li fil, Gul your daughter dokh-ta-te-taan atone knee ny sales aS your son pe-sa-re-taan ogeetean, your sister khaa-ha-re-taan bewaunead your brother ba-raa-da-re-taan Would youlike —aa-yaamey! daa- ‘ishebakat abe something reed chee-zee toeat? be-kho-reed? home? khaa-neh ast? 2 to drink noo-shee-dan aediss 6 7 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION Doyousmoke? _si-gaar Areyouready? —aa-yaahaa-ze- mee-ke-sheed? reed? Do youhave keb-rit Please wait mee-ta-vaa-need it? daa-reed? for me! lotfan mon-ta-zer don’t smoke. si-gaar man be-sha-veed?, ne-mee-ke-sham. Weare inahurry. — ajal-leh daa-reem. pyle de Would youmind mee-sha-vad aoa ees not smokit si-gaar eraser Gals Slaial, please? na-ke-sheed? Thanks fora khey-lee khosh Whichwayisthe —paari«ko-daam wonderful time. go-zasht. park, please? ta-raf ast? the main square mey-daa-ne Come again soon. baaz-ham bee-yaa. aie What are you cche-kaar Weta ee doing? mee-ko-need? Foeceels Where are you‘ ko-jaa mee-ra-vid? the US. consulate kon-sul ga-ree-ye going? aam-ree-kaa Tm going towork. _sa-re kaar Whatisthename es-mee een khes- mee-ra-vam. ofthis street? aa-baan chest? shopping [leas Howfararethe ‘ta ae-saa-re baas- Could I go with ruins of taa-nee-ye takh-te you? baa sho-maa Persepolis? Jam-sheed che- bee-aa-yam? ghadr rah ast? Ihave tobe back — baa-yad ta eis eel Gab Which wayis ssho-maal ko-daam byseven o'clock. saa-acte haft Se north? terafast? bar-gar-dam, south jo-noob We're leaving daarimha-minal 321 uaa paylo Bas saa) ‘ightnow. ol west hart Tinos ‘gom sho-deh ai ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION es ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION eau aaa eee ka SO Please showme _ot-fan.az roo-ye Gal aay 5! abd eleven yaaz-dah oa3h where we are eennagh-sheh nds; GLAI Ghai twelve da-vaaz-dah s5lys onthis map. ne-shaan be-da- aie ESL thirteen seez-dah sacs heed maa ko-jaa fourteen cche-haar-dah ole has-teem. fifteen paanz-dah oayil Could you please —_lotfan ne-shaan sixteen shaanz-dah asgals showme? be-da-heed, seventeen hef-dah oaks Could youplease _ lot-fan be-ne-ve- aalieen bee on ‘Gite koa? ei nineteen nooz-dah oa3gi 5 twenty beest ous Tur right be raast be-peech. “ ‘twenty-one beesto-yek hy coats Tum be be chap be-peech. feniaino peeehoeis ere Go straight mos-ta-gheem tiny ze Gu ahead. bo-ro. forty che-hel Jez Go that way. beaantaralboro. 4 a,b gig fifty pan-jaah olay sixty shast 522 seventy hattaad “ter NUMBERS, TIME, COLORS eighty hash-taad sta ninety na-vad 4 eee ae one hundred sad a z610 sefr si two hundred de-veest ays one vyek a five hundred paan-sad sails ip dow s fone thousand he-zaar an three seh cory i ae wees a first avallee i) : second do-vo-mee wns five pan on ° Be ee oe thira se-vo-mee pam eA ea _ fourth chaa-haa-ro-mee ole eight, hasht cube once yekbaar iS nine rnoh 4 twice do baer bs ten dah on ten percent dah dar-sad er 10 " ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION engl ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ga Howoldare you? —chandsaa-latast? cu! cllis sin in two hours do saa-a-te dee Ses cel gs lam34. si-va-cha-haar dies nae saa-lam ast oul at noon zohr a ee at midnight nes-fe shab ‘second yok saa-ni-eh Whatiimeisit? saa-e-techandast? foul wis cela : aminute vyek da-ghi-gheh IPs one o'clock saa-a-te yek ast. cual oh Seles anhour yok saa-at Wsfourotlock. saat charhaar cul sys cele ast DAYS OF THE Its ten to eight. dah da-ghi-ghehbe cuts q EEK hashtast. seal Monday ‘do shan-beh Wsaquarterpast saa-ateno-horob gi 9 4 celus Tuesday seshan-beh nine. ast. cual Wednesday char shan-beh : : Thursday anj shan-beh its half past one. ko neem ast. oul gel : rae Lick oe Friday jom-eh Ws ery, 00d ast. onl Saturday shan-beh late deer cul oo surlen en atthree inthe saa-atese-hesobh que tu cela ieave today Sreceniaa morning cal vam at four o'clock do-rostsare saga Sells ju cua tomorrow far-daa exactly teche-haar ite the day after pas far-dlaa : ; tomorrow Shall we meet mom-ken astba“ad j[iay Gaul San inthe afternoon? az zohrham-deo- 1; Sasaa gh nemeeek. Hat te ae yen-cen, gar raa be-bee- 5 larrived dee-t00z re-see- neem? yesterday. dam, ‘tomorrow at ten far-daa saa-a-te os cele lagi the day before i: Brrr dah yesterday this evening em-shab al last week inten minutes dahda-ghee-ghe S324 adeg he dee-gar 12 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION aaa ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION e506 aweek yek hat-teh tia S ares ga arom yexmanh ses Howisthe weather havaayeemrooz jhe jal lea MONTHS OF today? che-towr ast? seul THE YEAR it's cold. ha-vaa sard ast. cul aye Lye January zhaan-vee-eh als C3 cS February fev-ree-eh bet gam vs March a sunny aat-taa-bee Atal April aav-reel windy baad mee-aa-yad sy be al May meh its raining, baa-raan me-baa- ol abe June zhoo-an rad. duly zhoo-s6-0h, Its snowing. barf me-baa-rad Slacdgs ‘August oot September ane How will the ha-vaa-ye far-daa ashe layi La are ere weather be che-towr ast? Scull November no-vaambr SUN? December de-saambr itwillbe cloudy. _-ha-vaaab-ee we gel Ga Whatistoday's _eenvrooz chee reais fe date? taa-ree-cheest? oe saan a foggy meh-2a-lood agli de itis May sich. she-sho-me maa- he meh ast. COLORS YS this week sor eres. Itig black, siyaah ast. sual ol this month een-maah blue ‘aa-bee wl 7 brown ghah-ve-ee elgg this year ‘em-saal & Ma gray khaa-kes-ta-ree aus last year paar-saal green sabz oe next year sae-le aa-yan-deh pink soo-ra-tee wane itis spring barhaar ast. purple ay na summer taa-bes-taan red gher-mez at fall paa-eez white se-feed a winter ze-mes-taan yellow zard wb 14 15 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ay ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION fo Like this color. een rang-raa east 1 SL cal 'sthere a better otaaghebebtar SujJo i< fig GLb! doost daa-ram. pols room? ee-daa-reed? cheaper ar-zaan-tar aba) PERSONAL NEEDS larger bo-zorg-tar Ly = smaller koo-chek-tar Sous ATTHE HOTEL Jia 3 nse, Pee “pmsl Valco toresere —meyidacvamyek bl Ss ls ae May lhavea Deena cele lye a otaagh re-zerv Sob wake-up call at saaateshe-she jiu que stab be-ko-nam, 6am, please? sobh bee-daar onde Ihave reserved yek re-zer-vaa-si-on — yysaulg93) Se ko-need? an oo are pl Couldihavemy ——_ke-lee-de 1 all ak Doyouhavea aayaao-taaghe 6a 9 Glbl Li key, please? o-taa-gham raa suas double room? do-na-fa-reh Sala be-daheed. Ganteod?, ity Onwhatflooris _o-taa-gham el jo pale single otaache my room? dar ko-daam Seal dials yek-na-fa-reh ta-ba-gheh ast? Ba youhevea enyancteghbea. ples | SULl Uf Take the elevator. az aa-saan-sor SLAT 3 Sore he-maaty te kho- aes estte-faa-deh HS saliteal i ite bath? seas! caus” Sa, le ones. ashower 100s fies a = twin beds cee oe Sie Goupthe stairs. azpeHehhaabaa- yyy YL La eh 5} naca-reh j aoe weet air conditioning koo-ler AS gaan eee aN afan pan-keh Sy There is no hot aa-be garm neest. Sl Whatisthe rate ghey materoozaa- die lj, cad weer perday? neh chand ast? ‘Seaal Ineedsome ice, —ka-meeyakhlaa-— als 33 Ga eS Is breakfast baasob-hea-néh Souu/ Glue & pose ees 1 Seuss included? ast? ort another blanket —_yek pa-foo-ye aL! ces ch - ms e-zaafe Vibe staying for do shab Lage ad 53 a drinking glass yeklee-vaan ly obs two nights. mee-maa-nam, 16 7 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION aed aiebcricta, = I wish to speak baamodireeenjaa eis! sas 4 ion yek o-t00 to the manager. mee-khaa-ham a alae yal ictieah hart be-za-nam. ae shaam-poo Could you please mome-Ken asta aly cul Saw saa-boon calla taxi for raa-yam yektak-si Iiuo juuSt kea-ghaz me? se-daa be-za-nid? too-aa-let yekho-leh ey What time is sobhaanesazate sel. Glogs Whereisthebank? bankkojaaast? tau) GS ai breakfast chandservmee- Sapive gy sin Where can | kojaamecta-vaa- ys pilgie LS served? sha-vad? ‘exchange foreign nam poo-le khaa- "Wess Isitpossible to mee-sha-vad een ral ‘currency? re-jee-raa ta’-veez SPS Cait have these le-baashaaraa Scud | lpusll be-ko-nam? othes washed?’ shost?, peel Whatistoday’s _ner-kheta'vee-ze ee dry-cleaned khoshkshoo-ec 4S (iytSts dollarexchange —-do-laarem-rooz A kare rate? che-ghadr ast? Seal yan When willthe keylebaashaa ala Upuulal (S Couldyouplease _mee-ta-vaa-need Ghul aslsae Glothes be hhaa-zer knaa- Sugg bale dtagethe Gratenal Cshemie ready? hand shod? money into rial? _ta-veez ko-need? SaaS Can you direct le-baas-shoo-ee GS eau smal ils es-ke-naas alse! me tothe koja ast? ‘Scual coins poo-le khord Ade {auncromat? Do you cash aa-yaa che-ke Silas de Li Pane seen es a traveler's ieee | ecm nee barber shop sal-maa-nee Shaye labs checks? ord Satoru? ei mar-daa-neh - Doyouaccept __eenkre-deel May Thy the Soorat-he-saab Lib) sluuad syn this creditcard? _—kaart-raa gha-bool bill please? lotfan, ana? 19 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ga ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION Side 3 broccoll bro-ko-lee 5 Sieh cabbage ke-tam FOOD AND DRINK 7" carrots ha-vee| eal cauliflower gol ka-lam Where isthe baa-zaarkojaasi? ules Jbl chick peas no-khod market place? cucumbers khee-aar the supermarket soo-per maar-ket SLs gaye eggplant baa-dem-jaan the bakery naan-vaa-ee lst garic seer Where can buy ko-jaambta-vaa- leive. keabeo, fruit? nam mee-veh mart Taree be-kha-ram? ghee zeytoon anee a onions pe-yaaz apricots zar-daa-loo oe felted bananas, ae potatoes seb za-mee-ni dated eens string beans loo-bi-yaa sabz is ater tomatoes gow-jch fa-ran-gee grapes an-goor Iwould ike some megh-daaee lemons lee-moo meat ‘goosht mee- melons taa-le-bee khaa-ham, oranges por-te-ghaal beet ‘goosh-teh gaav gS oaks peaches ho-loo chicken morgh bx pears golaa-bee lamb goos-fand sia S pineapples aa-naa-naas mutton goosh-teh sieyS cath plums aa-loo goos-fand pomegranates a-naar veal goo-saa-leh dls raisins kesh-mesh, Tike fish. 5 z some watermelon hen-de-vaa-neh - narleoree: aaleR tle Iwould like some —_ka-mee sab- carp maa-hee goo! US pale vegetables. ‘mee-khaa-ham. perch maa-hee vlge gale arlichokes aar-tee-sho khaar-daar beans loo-bi-yaa salmon maa-hee aa-zaad li gale 20 at ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ge ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION shrimp mey-goo Se atypical ranian _yekres-to-raa-ne sturgeon maa-hee-ye Yi dba ale restaurant ee-raa-nee trout Gezelanian| Ipreferto sitin tar-jeeh mee-da- Ineedto buy baa-yad naan poe oe ab anareawithless ham jaa-ee-ke bread. be-kha-ram, \ cigarette smoke. _kamtar doo-de butter ka-reh oS si-gaar baa-shad. acake keyk SS by the window da-me pan-je-reh candy aab na-baat ols Gi ‘over there aan-jaa cashew nuts baa-dam hen-di es lal May Isee the Tecan oer bewneny menu? me-nu-raa chocolate sho-ko-laat ere cookies shee-ree-nee noodles resh-te "mon alow-fat —_gha-zaa-ye kam olive oil ro-ghan zey-toon oS char-bee mee- peanuts baa-daa-me Cee Sesyasies saltfree be-doo-ne na-mak has Supt pistachio nuts: pes-teh es Vm avegetarian. gee-yaah khaar pleut 5153 o LS a sandwich saan-de-veech eel has-tam. vinegar ser-keh Sou Enjoy yourmeal. _noo-she jaan. cee Vd like dozen yekdo-jeentokh-me 33 cnass S Ineed a knife, chaa-ghoolaa-zem- aslo p3¥ sale eggs. morgh. please. daa-ram. half dozen neem dojeen aan cea kilo of rice yek kilo be-ren aspoon ghaa-shogh Be ) atteaspoon a i a i uxdidield aplate bosh-ghaab Could you mee-ta-vaa-need napkin dast-maal sofreh recommendan _yek res-lo-raa-ne acup fen-jaan inexpensive ar-zaan ghey-mat abow! kaa-seh restaurant? peesh-na-haad salt na-mak ko-nid? pepper fel-fel 22 23 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ag ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ae mustard khar-dal Jas giledlamband —ka-baabbarreh = g Loe OLS ketchup, ka-chaap obs rice baa po-o Talike a glass of Eee lamb stew with kho-resh-te leek cat asd water, please, mee-khaa-ham, | eggplant bee deyeeD a mineral water aa-be ma‘-da-nee q derlaaur soc eee Shey salad saa-laad Jt oka eect pickles khee-yaar shoor la yy TEL vegetablestew ghor-mesabzee «jus das ara She ean asteak es-teyk lead wate ase nainan Fordessert,'d bavaayede-ser ayia jus GL Turkish coffee ghah-veh tork We frat me-veh mey! pula de ‘Americancoffee ghah-veh eam- i daa-ram. 2 cE ice cream bas-a:nee ty im bklava baagh-lavea Ll, Nasa ieee acai" phased b at rice pudding fee-ree-nee = rar May | have the In soo-rat- ae Prem check, please?” saab. Wouldyoulike _aa-yaa shar-ba-te ‘SHOPPING aga. ke 2 ab-lee-mo me| lemonade eae mM Howmaythelp che farmaa-ye- Say ear fnitjuice aab mee-veh a SG eed — syn Sisohtcrink nooshea bet | Where canIbuy —kojaamee-tavaa- aie gilyiae LS Stik dosghl magazines? nam ma-j-leh hagas ram? would like meyl daa-ram aan is to order sheesh ka-baab pens eee sama ooo see video fm fitme vee-dee-o satay ol enairisbeb, eae souvenirs yee-de-gaatee ‘es8iG eg a an English rooz-naame-ye — jusKl calijey semi and rata a cones ots 2 itis standard to tip 15-20% 2A 25 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ear Id ike to buy meyldaa-ramsa- gala alo due some local naa-ye das-tee po elas handicrafts. be-kha-ram. rugs ghaa-lee Ll a traditional le-baa-se le ul costume macha-lee ‘woven goods aj-naa-se Got Gali! baafta-nee jewelry ja-vaa-her ateaumn ghoo-i Tam goingtothe be golfo-ro0-shee flor mee-ra-vam. bookstore ke-taab fo-100-shee pharmacy daa-too khaa-neh stationery store _la-vaa-ze-me tah- reer fo-roo-shee cigarette vendor? dak-ke-ye si-gaar departmentstore _fo-roosh-gaah Howmuchdoes _chand ast? itcost? This costs 10rial. dah r-alast. Tdike to buy meekhaa-hamyek — Sch palydee jacket. kot be-kha-ram, pe ‘pair of pants shal-vaar Shs ablouse borlooz, sb ashit peer-han Me asweater poo-lo-ver ile askit daaw-man gals acoat pal-to ill araincoat baa-raa-nee webu ‘Cigarette vendors are found on street Comers, 26 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION a bathing suit yek maa-yo shoes keafsh ascarf ro0-sa-ree LEISURE Where can we ko-jaa mee-ta-vaa- go swimming? neem she-naa-ko- neem? play tennis te-nis baa-zee AS ob oat ko-neem play gott golf baa-zee eS ol as ko-neem sail ghaa-yegh Calpe G28 sa-vaa-tee : scuba dive gha-vaa-see ale Wouldyoulketo — meyldaareedbe ana 4 auylo Jaw gosightseeing? —_dee-da-ne shahr Saas oe be-ra-veed? Tdlike to goto meyl daa-ram be es- pole he the pool takhr be-ra-vam. por Ail the beach ke-naate dariaa bys 5s the mountains koo hes-taan Caan, the sea dar-iaa Ly the country bee-roone shahr ot Ga Could you take Meeta-vaaneed = oh, iL) alse aphoto of us, lot-fan yok aks az Li sl oste please? maa be-ge-reed? SaaS ar ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ea ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION We'dliketoseea — meyldaa-reem yek ch gals dee How much are ghey-ma-te be-teet- traditionaldance. _ragh-se ma-ha-lee clas vel) the tickets? haa che-ghadr ast? ta-maa-shaa fests itis sold out. be-leet ta-maam ko-neem. havc festival fes-teo-vaal jp age ees Isthereacofiee- _yek ghah-veh wales housenearby? —_Kkhaa-neh een do-robar-haa Ike to go to meyl daa-ram be vo-jood daa-rad? the theater. taa-aatr be-ra- vam. COMMUNICATIONS the movies be sina-ma soccer games be mo-saa-be Seesrorcs gha-ye foot-baal Howmuchis it che-ghadr tambr be moo-zeh one tosenda letter ba-raa-ye aam- Whattime does tor che saa-a-tee gael de a tothe United ree-kaa laa-zem thetour begin? _—_sho-roo Susann Eaysb pe ee so mee-sha-vad? Howmuch isthe che-ghadrtambr (gly jua3 jae the play bar-naa-meh tb postage forthis? ba-raa-yeeen Seal 95% Sal What fms are em-shab che galgalad > uta laa-zem ast? playingtonight? —_feelrm-haa-ee esl gl Can have mom-ken ast pool 4 Js cul GSaa ne-shaan daa-deh Supete money wired bemanha-vaaieh Suis dls yo mee-sha-vad? tome here? ko-need? Where can! buy _ko-jaa mee-ta-vaa- Maylhavesome chandiaatambr —g3Y juss G sin tickets? nam be-leet stamps, please? —_laa-zem daa-ram. pe be-kha-tam? an aerogram naa-me-ye piss eek, Tike twotickets do be-leet ba-raa-ye ha-vaa-ee forthe movie. sina-maamee- a post card kaart pos-taal Jiang oS khaa-ham. someenvelopes _te’ daa-dee Sb (cul concert ba-raa-ye kon-sert aa-kat 28 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION engl Idllke six airmail shesh tamb-re Side 4 stamps. pos-teha-vaa-ee Titkeeendtie Wee aehans Where canimake ko-jaamee-ta-vaa- pile GS by airmail. een-raabaa Photocopies? Namforto-ko-pee $48. gS std pos-te ha-vaa-ee be-ko-nam? be-fe-ves-tam, May luse the ‘mee-ta-vaa-nam az 3) Slee surface mails poste za-mee- computer? kaam-pee-yoo-ter iene nee es-te-faa-deh Ses: ould special delivery pos-tesefaare ptjlds cum be-ko-nam? shee thefaxmachine dast-gaa-hefaaks Sis Kis Tike to wire meekhaaham pool yz ealySxe How much do saf-he-ee che-ghadr sia cel aia money. ha-vaa-le ko-nam. AS diya you charge mee-gee-reed? SaaySae Idike to send mee-khaaham yek hale per page? telegram. telegraatbefe- iui, GLSE er job baraayeharkaar 3S >4 sly rescam, Could send meetavaanam — SE ob pil sie ‘When willthe postkeymeere Supa S oun atelex? yekterteke hiueenec! had arive? cat? be-fe-res-tam? the mailman post-chee gn THE PELE RRONE wee Where canifind —sarrdo-ghe post LaS caus jgsin — Snel ae ry May luse the mee-tavae-nam az Gab 51 g3lsise telephone, telefon estefaa $5, sali! This package per Peas ora ae oe please? dem be-ko-nam? contains printed moh-taveeye Suu! le sabe : matter. mat-boo-aat as. wee See GS oil ais fragile material she-kas-ta-nee iS Phone directory? _ko-jaaast? Sexual 5 ir mal an ura mal are the on wo options avalabe for mai How dime ee eaes a ale ae ing ltesend packages, istdass ma (nine American sense) acalltothe vae-nam be am §qi532 Ga Ss yai and parcel post do not exis. United States? ——_ree-kate-le-fon be-za-nam? 31 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION wt ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION nla Tdliketomake ——mee-Khaa-hamyek Gif cls palse TRANSPORTATION alocal te-le-fon daa-khe- Spije als leebe-ze-nam. ; TRAVEL ¥ Ls 4 git J an international yekielefonbe ql 4 Gabel Havea(good tip” Gacer ERENT call khaa-re) : alongistance —-yektelefonbe gl 4 Sib b Where can| rent ko-jaa mee-ta-vaa- cal kheareje ote acar? nam yek maa- anate sheen ke-raa-ye SS ee ‘ko-nam? What is the city ko-de te-le-fo-nee- Ole Aili oS abicycle docnaeRnss code for Tehran? ye teh-raan cheest? Secon aboes ane! Theline isbusy. khattmash-ghool cus! fyi LA alaxi Gaicaae! ast. aminibus mee-nee-boos Hello.€ alow, gil Wheredolboatd —_ko-jaa baa-yad Whois speaking, sho-maa? La the ship? Seam conse eer be-sha-vam? ; i = 5 the boat ghaa-yegh BG Thisis Ali. man adi has-tam. ey a o tao ” ae May I speak to mee-ta-vaa-nambaa Sayut & pilsise nie — : re isthe eest-gaahegha- (aS jUbd «liu! Sorgen lense eo eermesr adr oats train station? taarkojaaast? Cone nam? rain Station” Sar ol lorem bus stop eest-gea-he ages olSiul ‘She is nothere 00 al-aan een-jaa Lau! oY! 5! 0-to-boos now. neest. informationdesk —_daf-ta-re lesb! 385 orHe is not here e-te-laa-aat now. airport fo-rood-gaah saga Could you please —mee-ta-vaa-nam ply eh elses \need a porter, baar-bar laa-zem ele 9S¥ sul takeamessage? —_yek pey-ghaam Seal please. daa-ram. be-go-zaa-ram? ® Used when answering the phone. 32 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION eau May Ihave a baar-naame-ye gla cele cabins schedule, saavat-haa-ye p07 cS please? ple laa-zem daa-ram. ticket berleet deals Whattime does gha-taareshee- <= 3! yuh sbi the trainleave raazchesaza- = Sa fel for Shiraz? tee ha-re-kat SuSan mee-ko-nad? How much is a belee-teyek-sa-re psi oS bl one-wayticket? _ehe-ghadr ast? Seal round-trip dosa-re eoaage second-class ee first-class Isthere a holiday rate? student discount? aa nesh-joo-ee sada bo Could youtellme Keybeeestgaahe js sia! oS when we reach man mee-re- my stop? seem? Isthereadining —aaryaavaa-go-ne — S|yyiuu Sly Li car? to-raan Sayle daa-reed? sleeping car vvaa-go-ne Khaab ls Sly Whattime does Keyte-aneesfaa lgial 55S the tran leave haan ha-re-kat SuiSie Sm for Isfahan? mee-ko-nad? 7” There is no senior-ctizen discount in Iran. 34 ENGLISH What time does the train get tolsfahan? Isiton time? Does this train make a stop in Herat? PRONUNCIATION te-rankey be esfaa-haan Sayan mee-re-sad? ‘safe mo-ghe mee-re-sad? ‘aa-yaaeen te-ran dar ha-rat ta-va- ghof daa-rad? How long do we stop here? INTHE CAR Does this road lead to Ahvaz? How many kilometers is it tokKirman? Can you direct me to the bridge, please? the highway ‘gas station Isitfar? Could you please draw me amap? che-ghadreen-jaa 55 la ta-va-ghof mee-ko neem? dave sh oa eenraabeah-vaaz — 3yal 4 sl, Sal mee-ra-vad? es taakermaan chand 3iS wie gle SE ki-lo-metr raah Seaual oly ja ast? mee-ta-vaa-need |, J. fies lotfan polraabe Saya GLAS cas man ne-shaan be-da-heed? bo-zorg-raah ol Se yok pom-pe Sabin ay el ben-zeen door ast? fool 93 mee-ta-vaarneed iol, {abl ail fanyeknagh-sheh i ole ba-raa-ye man be- Saad ke-sheed? ae 95 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION pee Vdlike sixlitersof sheshlitrben-zeen ais ul Gat gasoline, please. —_lot-fan. abd Please fill up lotfanbaak-raa acs loll lat the tank por ko-need. Wherecanlfind pomrpeben-zeen LS Sy5is Gay asorvice station? _ko-jaa ast? Scull Thisdoesntwork. eenkha-raabast. Sul GIA Gal Couldyourepair — mee-ta-vaacneed = hi suilgine thetire,please? laasteekraata’- = SusS asi meer ko-need? the headlight che-raagh ele need to have maa-shee-nam ub pls my car towed. baa-yad bok-sel yt LaaSiyp sha-vad. How long will che-ghadr tool wald Ub ose ittake? Khaa-had ke- Sant shed? How much will che-ghadr mee- Supainn jal. iteost? sha-vad? AT THE AIRPORT olSag53 54 Where do Igo baraayeparvaaz- (gla sla ln for domestic haa-ye daa-khe- GS dale flights? ee ko-jaa be-ra- Saas vam? international par-vaaz-haa-ye ls Shae flights khaa-re-jee ae antivals vo-rood as departures kho-roo} 5 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION Which gate do 1goto? How long willthe flight to Tabriz be delayed? ‘What time does the plane for Kabul leave? Would you please calla fight attendant? be ko-daam dar bexa-vam? par-vaa-ze be tab- reez che-ghadr ta’-e-kheerkhaa- had daasht? havaapey-maaye — JulS «clay [sa Span ssiplSe AT CUSTOMS ‘on business Is this duty free? This is my luggage. suitcase briefcase handbag Do you have anything to declare? kaa-bol che saa’- elas de ate ha-re-kat sald Sym khaa-had kard? 538 lotfanmeh-maan-— 1, ,fuilays (ab daar-raa se-daa es 1 ko-need. chee baraayeta’atee- —— odliba isle laat eenjaa aa- pleat Las! ma-deh-am. ba-raa-ye kaar be-doo-ne a-vaa-rez ast? man ast cha-me-daan kee-fo kaar keef aa-yaa chee-ze mo-hem-mee daa-reed? a7 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION au have nothing na, chee-zee els oh to declare. thave some perfume, some cigarettes chand bas-teh Se Chany si-gaar agift yek kaa-do Sb my personal a-saa-se pd ell belongings kho-dam Please open lotfan kee-fe-taan- yourbag. raa baaz ko-need. close be-ban-deed EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Whereis the bee-maarestaan GS gliujlas hospital? ko-jaaast? Soul Callan ‘yek @am-boo-laans wathgal ch ambulance! se-daa ko-need! ES Lue adoctor vyek dok-tor “p8a ch the police po-lees oul the fre e-daa-re-yeaa- GST ols) department tash ne-shaa-ni ls Fire! aa-tash! ol Help! ko-mak! ds Thisis an exie-raa-i ast cual goles! emergency! Therehasbeen _ta-saa-dof sho-de. ad Gols an accident. ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION eye It's dangerous. kha-tar-naak ast. uu! IG js Tam sick. mma-reez has-tam. =a. Canyouplease —mo-tarjemlaa-zem ala ¢3¥ pate getme an daa-ram. interpreter? tve lost my paasportamraa ——pSI piysauuly passport. gom kar-deh-am. pleas My wallet has kee-fe poolam-raa faas been stolen. za-deh-and. sil oashy Tneedto goto be dan-daan-saaz Sleslais G the dentist. eh-tee-yaal ploglsal daa-ram. Doyouhave aas-peeteen pal ASY Gamyesl any aspirin? laa-zem daa-ram. Tamaliergicto be pe-nee-see-leen cahey G penicillin. ha-saa-see-at pals cule daa-ram. lam diabetic. ma-fa-ze ghand pole i Gaye daa-ram, Myanklehuris, —— mo-che-paa-yam Ss 353 pul ge dard mee-ko-nad. arm baa-z00 back posht foot paa hand dast head sar ou back zaa-noo shy leg raan a stomach she-kam ra 39 ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION eae throat ga-loo oS tooth dan-daan las My eyes hurt. chesh-maan-am aye dard mee-ko-nad. wee ‘Thank you for azko-make-taan — pisiaa GUSS 5 your help. mam-noo-nam, 40 SOCIAL CUSTOMS In addition to the Farsi phrases you have learned, itis helpful to have some understanding of the culture. This will enable you to be sensitive to some of the differences between ‘American and Persian social customs. People greet one another by saying Salaam, meaning peace. This is a shortened form of the universal Muslim salutation ‘Salaam aleykom (Peace be upon you), which is also heard frequently. More casually, people may greet each other by asking Cheh khabar? which means What's new? You may respond by saying Hichee (Not much). A similar greeting is Vaz chetore? or Hows the situation? You may reply with Bad nest (Not bad). When addressing someone, you should add the title Aghaaye (Sir) before a man’s name and Khaanome (Madam) before a woman's name, so that Mr. John Smith would be addressed either as Aghaaye Smith, or Aghaaye John Smith. | you have to step in front of someone, say Be-bakhsheed which means Excuse me. The response is Khaahesh meekonam which means Please go right ahead. To welcome someone to your home, say Khosh aamadeed, which means Youare welcome. If you are invited toa person’s home, accept graciously by saying Az da’vate shomaa, motshakeram which means / am grateful for your invitation. The phrase Befarmaa’eed is used to say Please come in or Please have a seat. If you wish to admire something, you should preface your words of praise with the phrase Maa sha Allaah! (What God wills!). If you are offered something, express your thanks by saying Daste shomaa dard nakonad, literally meaning May your hand not give you pain. When taking leave of your host, it is customary to ask Morakhkhas meefarmaa'eed? or Ejaaze meetarmaa'eed?, meaning May I have your permission to depart? If your host, protests by saying Zood ast, meaning It is still early, you should stay a few more minutes and then ask to take your leave again. As you leave, you may say Zahmat daadam (I have given you trouble), to which the host responds Zahmat ‘kesheedeed (You have endured trouble in coming). You may 4 also say to your host Lotfe shomaaziaad, which means Your favor was excessive. Inpolite, formal conversation where youwishto show deference toa person of equal or higher social rank, you would use the word bande (literally slave) to refer to yourself, instead of the pronoun man (meaning I). For example, the phrase Manzele bande would be usedto refer toMy house, instead of manzele man. The word eeshaan (they) is used in place of he or she when referring to a person of equal or superior rank. The word to (you) may only be used to address children, close friends, family members, and people of lower social rank. When addressing someone of higher social status, or someone whom you do not know, it is customary to use the word shomaa to mean you. ‘Two major religious festivals observed by Muslims are eyde fetr, which comes at the end of Ramazan, the month of fasting; and eyde gorbaan, which comes at the end of the pilgrimage to Mecca, approximately two months and a week after the first festival. On such days, people offer prayers at ‘mosques, cook traditional meals, and visiteach other's homes. Bear in mind that no alcohol is served, for Islamic law prohibits its consumption. Pork is also forbidden in Muslim countries. For Iranians, the main annual celebration is New Year's Day, called Now Rooz (literally: New Day). This falls on the first of Farvardin, the first month of the solar calendar, and coincides roughly with the vernal equinox (around the 20, 21, or 22 March). This festival has been celebrated for close to three thousand years, long before the Arab invasion and the arrival of Islam in Persia. In recent times, many English loan-words have entered Farsi. See how easy it is to recognize the following: otomobil polis taaksee sinamaa masheen hotef restoran footbaal paark Congratulations! - tabreek! You are already well on your way to learning Farsi! Good luck! - Mowaffagh baasheed! 42 BASIC FARSI GRAMMAR Nouns: There is no word in Farsi corresponding to the in English. The noun mard may therefore signify manor theman, depending on the context, However, a noun may take the ‘ending -f, which indicates that the noun is indefinite. For example: aman mardi Farsi nouns do not usually have gender. However, in he case of animals, the termnar (male) ormaadeh (female) may follow the noun to indicate the gender. Therefore, gave naris a ull \while gave maaddeh is a cow. Nouns borrowed from Arabic form the feminine by adding a final vowel -e. Thus, malek means king and maleke means queen. Farsi nouns have different forms (cases) according to their sage inthe sentence. The Farsinounas listed inthe dictionary isin the nominative case, that is, the form used when the noun is the subject of the sentence. The genitive (or possessive) ase, is used for the thing possessed when two nouns form a relationship of possession. When a definite noun is the direct object of the verb, itis in the accusative case, and when the ‘noun is the indirect object of a verb, it is in the dative case. ‘Anounin the genitive case is pronounced (but not written) with afinal vowel-e. For example, ifthe wordketaab (book) is used inthe possessive phrase the book of the boy, itis pronounced as ketaab-e pesaar. ‘Anounin the accusative case has the sutfix-raa. For example: Ghalamraa be man dad. pen tome she gave She gave the pen to me. Anounin the dative caseis usually preceded by the preposition be (to). See man (me) above. Most animate nouns form the plural by adding the suffix aan \o the singular. For example: zan awoman zanaan women 43 Names of inanimate things and small creatures (such as insects) form the plural by adding the suffix -haa to the singular. For example: rooz aday roozhaa days ‘This rule reflects Classical Persian usage; in colloquial Farsi, the plural of nouns is usually formed by adding -haa. Hfaplural subject refersto rational beings, it takes a pluralvverb. If it refers to irrational beings or inanimate objects, it takes a singular verb. For example: Doostaan-e shomaa aanjaa hastand. friends your there are (plural verb) Your friends are there. Medaadhaa cenjaa ast. the pencils here _is (Singular verb) The pencils are here. ‘The Personal Pronouns are: I man We maa You (sing) to You (pl) shomaa He, she, it 00 They eeshaan It is not necessary to use personal pronouns with a verb, because the verb ending indicates the subject of the action. Adjectives generally follow the noun they modify. A noun followed by an adjective will then have a final vowel -e. The form of the adjective does not change. For example: the big city shahr-e bozorg the good men mardaan-e khoob anew bed takht-e now" Verbs: The past tense of verbs is formed from the infinitive, withthe ending-tan, -dan, or-idan removed, to which personal suffixes (the verb endings which indicate who or what the subject is) are then added. The present tense is formed from the present stem (which must be learned), to which the prefix ‘mee is added. The personal suffixes are the same in the past and present tenses. 44 The verb boodan (to be) is therefore as follows: Past Present Singular i boodam meebaasham You (sing.) boodee meebaashee He, she, it bood ‘meebaashad Plural We boodeem meeboosheem You (pl.) boodeed meeboosheed They boodand meebooshand Negatives are formed by placing the prefix ne-before a verb. For example: You are eating You are not eating. Meekhoree. Nemeekhoree. ‘Questions in Farsi are marked by rising intonation at the end of a sentence. For example: You are eating Are you eating? Meekhoree. ‘Meekhoree? 45 eu PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH IMPORTANT SIGNS Lisl ehtee-yaat Caution oleh! — ete-laa-at Information obli —a-ghaa-yaan Gentlemen siljasl—en-he-raat Detour Suusi aahes-teh Slow Lupsil otSiuyl —eest-gaa-he Bus Stop o-to-boos sk baz Open ols baano-vaan Ladies syle ely baraayee/jaaren For Rent ba-raa-yefo-roosh For Sale bas-teh Closed bon-bast No Exit paar-keeng Parking paar-keeng No Parking mam-noo pee-yah-deh Pedestrians te-raa-fee-ke ‘Through Traffic do ta-ra-fe too-aa-let Tollets jaa-deh dardas-te Men at Work ta-meer ha-ghe ta-gha-dom Yield Right of baa raast Way kha-raab Out of Order kho-r09} Exit kho-toc-jeezte- Emergency Exit raa-ree kha-tar Danger khee-yaa-baa-ne One Way Street yek tacra-fe 46 PRONUNCIATION see-gar na-ke- sheed dast na-za-need te-serv sho-deh sor-at kam, ta-ra-fe raast mar-kaz-e ko-mak- haa-ye a-va- lee-ye mo-zaa-hem Na-sha-veed vo-rood vo-fo0d mam-noo 47 ENGLISH No Smoking Do Not Touch Reserved Reduce Speed Keep Right First Aid Station Do Not Disturb Entrance No Entry VOCABULARY INDEX Note that itis not always possible to translate phrases literally from one language to another. The page numbersin this index, along with the table of contents, will guide you to the English word used in this course. beach 22D eoe AT, BY, 82 A Deans sess 20 CAME nner 25 (to) accept... 19. beautiful 8 Canada erncncnnn 4 i vn 88 bed candy beet C2 before careful (0) begin nn. 28 COMP. belongings... 88 carrots... a better... (lo) cash 19 air mail. bicycle cashew nuts......22 airmail... CALIHOWET noone 21 airpor... CVI en nnnene BA allergic CotiNly nnnnon 2 ambulance (to) change... 19 ‘American... (to) charge «31 ankle. cheaper .. 7 another check 25 anything cheese 2 apples -. Chick peas eon 21 apricots chicken... area... chocolate arm. cigarette ..23, 26, 38 arivals ven 35. City code... (to) arrive briefcase «nu. 87 (to) close... atichokes orwns20 BFOCCOH nsesennue 21 clothes aspirin 89 brother non 8 ClOUD.. Australia coat coffes vn 7, 24 B caffes-house .... 29 back GON nonin dh ag wn cold. m2, 15 bakery colleague baklava . color bananas (to) come.. bank. fe ‘computer barber shop... 18 concert. bath consulate (to) contain cookies. 6001 snssnsnsnnnies 15 @QGPIANE enone 24, 25, from (lo) cost... 26,38 eggs son Bt COSTUME nen 2B CIBCHC ncn 18 tlt ioe country 227 eleVAtOF venann crecit card... 19 emergency... 38 & ‘cucumber .......24 English game 2B ‘cucumbers .....21 (10) enjoy . garlic cup . 28, 24. envelope .. gas station vn. 35 CUFTERGY woven 19 evening gasoline 36 exactly gate. o (to) exchange . (to) get ANE vernon BB exchange tate... 19° gift... dangerous .......99. exclting 3 (to) 16 glass... dates (to) go <8, 10, 17,27 daughter. golt ay 900d (to) declare, goodbye .. (to) delay a7 goods, delicious. 3 ‘grapes dentist. 89 ‘grateful department store 26 en departures nun 36 father nn Great Brith son 4 60980 snnnes BB FAK MACHINE venue BY GEE rancennnane 15 GiabOtie nro 39 ASHIVA nneane 2B (0) grill 25 diet “23. figs : dining caf vce 84 (0) fll up nnn 8A dinner... “7 fm 25, 2B hairdresser on. 18 (to) direct.48, 35. (fo) find... 30, 96. hall 12,22 (0) stu vesvinine 3 fN@ sesonnsnn 2,84 NANG warcevennnen BO {to) do 8 fire ‘88 handbag 37 doctor. 38 fire department .. 8 handicrafts... 26 Ola cena 19 fist 6,41 happy . B domestic 96 firstclass..........84 (to) have....8, 17, 29 double $6 ISH cnrerninee 21 (10) NAVE Denne 8 OWN sr 17. light sonnnn 36, 37 head dozen 22 fight attendant... 37 headlight (10) draW nee 35 fl0Ot “17 hello (to) drink forist (to) ry-clean foggy duty tree E early . east (to) eat 49 horse... 33. last . meat gna hospital von 38 late. (10) Meet vue, 12 Ot nesnon 2,18, 17 laundromat. melons 20 hour... 13. (to) lead (10) mention sn 1 house .. 7 (to) leave MENU eens 2B how .4,5, 15,25, 31 MESSAGE oon B2 how far . 9 midnight 13 how long - 35,98, 37 lemonade how many wren 35 lemons .. how much "26, 29. tent HOW Old wasn 12. loss. hungry 3 (to) et funy encncnsns8 latter (to) hurt ."39, 40. lettuce. husband --6 light (to) lke 8, 7,20, 21 ! line 32 ice 17 listen... Be ice cream 25 Ito 36 it un8, 7,8, 12, 18 litle 5 (10) Include... 18. (10) lve. 5 inexpensive wn... 22 local 32 information desk’. 88. long-distance ....32 interesting nnn. look a2 international ..32, 36 (to) lose 39 interpreter... 39. lost me (to) introduce «4 lowe 2M Fra 6 Nig G 290 7 MAME een onenenn 8,9 iron 7 MapkiN vernon 28 t nearby 29 (to) need 17, 22, 23, se B5MOWSPAPEF onvsnn 25 30 next 30 nice «. rmaliman cose 80 night main no (to) make..7,31, 32, noodles 22 Manager enwnseve 19 n00N MAP owen 10,95. north market place ....20 nothing married 6 now... material (Go) matter 9 mater. o'dock maybe OK orn meal oive ol... 50 21. police 38 salad... 25 10,17, 28,97 pomegranais .. 20 salmon 21 35 pool salt. 23 Potter nn SAIC nen 2B one-way possible sandwich 2 cnions post card (to) say 5 (10) open postage sear. 27 oranges potatoes schedle ws... 34 (to) order... (to) preter (lo) scuba dive .. 27 B printed matter sea oO privat... 800d ve 11, 13 30 purple .. second-class... 34 26 (10) $08 nes 23, 28 2 (to) send.” 29, 30, 31 ceconeainnese 9 QUART enim ¥2 (to) Serve. 1 PaSSPOrt nn. 39 quieter........... 17 service station... 36 St nn " peaches peanuts (10) rain pears... raincoat penicilin raisin an pepper... rate... Peppers (to) reach per day. FOADY on per job... really .. set shrimp Be per page. (lo) recommend .. 22 Sick... 39 percent 15 sightseeing........ 27 perch .. 6 Single. nuove 18 perfume : 33. sister 6 personal . (to) repair 36. (to) sit. 7.23 Pharmacy vvuene 2B (10) peat noncn 5. Skit worsvernscine 28 Phone directory ..31 (to) reserve ....... 18 sleeping car ...... 34 photo... 27 restaurant... 22, 23 slowly 5 photocopy... 81. (to) return 7 small. 19 pickles 25 rice smaller 17 BiIOW vercccvsevens 18 (10) SMOKE none B pineapples ....... 20 SMOKE snes 2B pink... 6 (10) sn0W ns 15 pistachio nuts... 22 18 plane .. 87 28 plate .. 23 24 (to) play... 27, 28 29 BBY vn Bg 7 please ..1,3,5, 7,8 6 pleased 8 plums 5 51 SOUP sn sesnsnsnen 25. theater. video .. 25 south 9 ere village 28 SOUVENITS vn 25. thing .. vinegar 22 (to) speak 5,19, 32. (to) think. visit 6 special delivery... 30 third.. ‘spoon 3 w spring md (to) wait. square 8 wake-up call. stairs ae ty) wallet stamps 29, 80 (to) wash stationery store... 26 water . (10) tay oan 6, 16 watermelon steak today .13, 14, 15, 19 way... (to) steal, toilet paper... 18 weather . stew. tomatoes... 21 stomach tomorrow. 12, 19, 15 (to) stop. tonight 28 siop 40 straight 28 sect i + 38 Sting bean 21 18 Student decourl 94. ectlonal 38:8 B00 i Ba nn hE 80GB nnn 24a BLOM suiteas summer. sunny supermarket. BUF verre surface mail... 30 SWORE nnn 26 swimming «sn 27 ¥ wonderful anu 3, 8 i (lo) understand... 5 (to) take... 17, 27,92 United States 29, 31 (to) wish wins 2, 816,23, 2a teaspoon telegram telephone telex (to) tel 7 tenris .. 7 vegetables .. (to) then 7.48540 vegetarian that es 2,10 vendor 82 NOTES