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8.

.
.

8.1.
High. Anticyclone

Trough

Upper front

Secondary front

Eye of storm

Sleet

il

Ridge

Ridge of high pressure

.
Thunderstorm (TSTM)

Thunder

Depression

Rain

Long-range forecast

Mist. Haze

Isobars. Isotherms

Short-range forecast

Shower
.
Sleet

Damp

Frost, freezing
. /
Drizzle

Monsoons

Cloud

Widely-scattered TSTMS

Occlusion

Precipitation

Sea subsiding
Overcast

Polar front
Hurricane warning
Discontinuance
Forecast
Clearing up
Dew
Col
Strong
Occasional
Snow. Sleet
Blizzard
Snow pellets
Stratosphere
Dry
Typhoon
Dew point
Tropical cyclone
Troposphere
Fog. Haze
Moderate
Hurricane
Front. Cold/warm
Thunderhead
Frontal wave
Low. Cyclone
Squall
Storm warning

119

8.2.
Beaufort scale
,
Calm, less than 1 knot

Light air, 1-3 knots 1


Light breeze, 4-5 knots

Gentle breeze, 7-8 knots


Moderate breeze,

11-16 knots

5
Fresh breeze,

17-21 knots
6
Strong breeze,

22-27 knots

Near (hard) gale, 7

22-33 knots

8 Gale, 34-40 knots
9
Strong gale,

41-47 knots
()
10 Storm, 48-55 knots

11 Violent storm,
?
56-63 knots
-
10
12
Hurricane, 64 and over

knots

. Gust. Gusty wind


Squall

Sea breeze


Land breeze


Prevailing wind

Trade-wind
()

Bora

Sirocco


Norther

2

3
4

, ,
1
,
2 , 0,2-0,3
,
3 , 0,5- 1,25
,
4 , 1,25- 2,5

5 , 2,5-4,0

6 , 4-6


2
2-4
4

120

8.3.

Wave
7 , 6-9
Calm (glassy)

8 , 9-12
Calm (rippled)

9 , 12
Smooth (waveless)
5

Slight


Moderate


Rough

Very rough

No swell
Low swell
Moderate swell
Heavy swell
Confused swell
Surge
Surf
Tsunamis

8.4.

100
100-200

200 over

Whirlwind, water-spout
Duststorm
Sandstorm
Shift of wind veer
Shift of wind back
Typhoon
Low
The wind is blowing
from S
The weather is
improving
The weather was bad
The weather will be
fine
The wind has fallen
What is the w. f. for
Tomorrow?
SE wind near 10 kt
Monsoon
Tornado
Wind ahead (adverse
wind, foul wind, head)
Wind aft (following)
Side wind
Relative wind
Wind-force
Becalmed wind
Choppy wind

High
Very high
Phenomenal
Seas less than 5 fts
Heavy sea
Surge
Wave lent
I low sea
Surging sea (angry)
Ground sea

Breaker
Short swell waves
0-100 m
Average swell
waves 100-200 m
Long swell waves
200 m
Chopping (choppy)

8.5.


- 0
- 1
M - 2
- 3

- 4

- 5

Head sea, meeting wave


Bow-sea, quarter head
wave
Astern sea, following
wave

8.6. ( )
Pancake -

Brash - 1
- 6
Ice cakes - 2

Sinai I floe - 3
- 7
Medium floe - 4
- 8
- 9
-
Big floe - 5

Quarter(ing) sea
Sea abeam, athwart sea
]

Vast floe - 6
Giant floe - 7
Fast ice - 8
Iceberg - 9
No form -

8.7. ( )

New ice - 1 - 1
Medium first-year
- 2
Nilas - 2
- 1
ice - 1
- 4
Grey ice - 4
Thick first-year
- - 5
Grey-white ice - 5
- 4
ice - 4
/ Thin first-year/White
- 7
Old ice - 7
- 7
ice - 7

8.8.
Iceberg

Bare ice


Friendly ice

Pancake ice

Ice-bound

Big floe

Large fracture
,
Large ice field

Fracturing

Giant fIoe

Glacier ice

Rotten ice
,
Sleet

Concentration boundary

Fast-ice boundary

Ridge

Ridge ice

Ridging

Second-year ice

Anchor ice

Pack ice

Beset

Bight

Flaw polynya

Snow covered ice

Sastrugi


Flooded ice

Flaw lead

Fracture zone

Finger rafting

Finger-rafted ice
Lead
Ice limit
Ice edge
Fast-ice edge
Small floes
Glowler
Easy area, slight ice
Ice of land origin
Stranded ice
Grounded ice
Glacier
Ice boundary
Ice cover
Ice blink
Brash ice, slab ice
Ice wall
Floe
Grease ice
Ice front
Ice island
Young coastal ice
Ice Jam
Ice keel
Ice mass if
Ice canopy
Small fracture
Small icefield
121





(
)


(A)










122

Ice cake
Multi-year ice
New ice
Consolidated ridge
Frost smoke
Sea ice
Rafting
Rafted ice
Hostile ice
Floeberg
Nil as
Medium floe
Bergy bit
Vast floes
First-year ice
Medium first-year ice
Lake ice
Sky light
Open water
Very close pack ice
Calving
Floating ice
Shearing
Icefoot
Bummick
Belt
Ridged ice zone
Strip
Flaw
Polynya
Shore polynya
Shore lead
Tide crack
Fast ice
Thaw hole
Ice patch
Fracture
Diffuse ice edge
Open pack ice
Glacier berg
Very open pack ice
River ice
Level ice
Standing floe
New ridge





Topoc

Light Nilas
Grey-white ice
Grey ice
Nip
Ice under pressure
Icefield
Consolidated pack ice
Ice breccio
Puddle
Snowdnft
Slush
Compacting
Compacted ice edge
Concentration
Compacted pack ice
Close floating ice
Medium fracture
Medium ice field
Mean ice edge
Grounded hummock
Aged ridge
Old ice
Recurring polynya
Tabular berg
Ram
Dark Nilas
Small ice cake
Thick first-year ice
Thin first-year ice
Hummock
Hummocked ice
Hummocking
Crack
Difficult area
Very small fracture
Firn
Ice-free / open water
Iceport
Ice shelf
Shuga
Iceberg tongue
Glacier tongue
Tongue

8.9. -
()
Tidal amplitude

Anomalous tides
()
Coastal line

Great diurnal range


Bore

Range of tide

Night water

Age of tide

Time of low water


Duration of fall

Time of high water

Duration of rise

Stand of tide

Higher low water (HLW)


Higher High water (HHW)
Height of low water
Height of high water
Height (rise) of tide
Spring rise
Height of mean level
(ML)
Harmonic constants
Depth at any moment

(,
)




(MB)




()

()






()

()


Depth at low water


Depth at high water
Depth at chart datum
The depth at any moment
Sea level at any moment
Secondary point
Slacken
Slack water
Low water neaps (LWN)
High water neaps (HWN)
Neap tide
Rat ion of (tide) ranges
Lunar (Lunitidal)
interval
Low water (LW)
Low water neaps
Low water springs
Shallow tide
Mixed tide
Lower Low water (LLW)
Lower high water (LHW)
Datum; datum of
soundings
Chart datum
Datum level
Standard port
Ebb; falling water
Ebb current; ebb tide
stream
Period
Rise
Rise (height) above
datum of sounding
High water (HW)
High water neaps
High water springs
Semi-diurnal tide

Broken (bn)
Boulders ()
Weeds (Wd)
Volcanic (V)
Sticky (Sy)
Shingle (Sn)
Gips
Clay ()
Loamy mud
Globigerina
Boulders ()
Pebbles (P)
Gravel (G)
Ground (Gr)
Sponge (Sp)
Diatom mud





20



()


()






()


()

(,
)


8.10.

SiIty sand

Allowance
Time difference
Height difference
Correction for high
water full and change
High water full and
change
It is high water full 2
and change at port at
2 h 20m
Low water full and
change
Tide; flood; raising
water
Tidal wave
Interval from high
water/low water
Dead tide
High (low-water)
spring
Spring
Mixed tide
Fall of tide
Mean sea level
Mean high water spring
(Neaps)
Mean tide level
Mean range of tide
Mean higher high water
High (low water) stand
Slack water
Diurnal inequality
Diurnal tide
Tidal current tables
Tide tables
Height of tide
Morning water
Quarter-diurnal tide

Carcareous (Ca)
Mud (M)
Stones (St)
Quarts (Qr)
Shingle (Sn)
Corals (Co)
Lava (Lv)
Glacial (Gl)
Manganese (Mg)
Chalk (Ck)
Fine (f)
Marl (Ml)
Soft (so)
Pumice (Pm)
Sand (S)
123

Sundy mud
Hard ground
Radiolaria
Shells (Sh)
Light (Lt)
Rock (R)
Schist

Stiff (sf)
Dark (d)
Tufa (T)
Oysters (Oy)
Scoria (Sc)
Grus (Gr)

8.11.

(
3 )

()





(
)

() c





()






()




3



(






124

Characteristic of barometric tendency


(3-hours pressure change)

bi

Ice of land origin (icebergs)

Ch
l
Cm
ci
Di
Ds
(Course)
dd

Type of high cloud (cirrocumulus, cirrostratus)


Type of low cloud (stratocumulus stratus, cumulus)
Type of medium cloud (altocumulus, altostratus, nimb)
Concentration of sea ice
Bearing of principal ice edge
Direction towards which ship is moving

ff

Wind speed in knots or metres (second)

Direction in tens of degrees, from which wind


is blowing
dw1 (dw2) Direction from which first swell waves are
coming
Direction from which (second) swell waves are
coming
Es Es
Thickness of ice accretion in cm

UTC GG
Hour of observation in whole hours UTC
Hw Hw
Height of sea waves in half metres
Hw1 (Hw2) Height of first swell waves in half metres
Height of (second) swell waves in half metres
h
Height of the lowest cloud
LaLaLa
Latitude in degrees and tenths
LoLoLo
Longitude in degrees and tenths
N
Total amount of cloud; total cloud cover
Nh
Lowest cloud cover
PwPw
Period of sea waves in seconds
Pw1 (Pw2) Period of first swell waves in seconds
Period of (second) swell waves in seconds

Pressure in millibars and tenths

TwTwTw

Amount of barom. tendency during 3 hrs preceding


the time of observation
Rate of ice accretion
Stage of development of sea ice
Sign of temperature in code
Air temperature in whole degrees and tenths
(dry bulb temperature) )
Dew-point temperature in whole degrees and
tenths
Sea-surface temperature in degrees and tenths

VV
Vs
W1W2

Horizontal visibility
Speed of ship, ship's average speed
Past weather (1-primary, 2-secondary)

Rs
Si
Sn

TdTdTd

()








WW

MM
YY
2i

Present Weather
Year
Month
Day of the month
Ice situation and trend

UUU

zz
RRR
Is
iw
iR
ix

Humidity of the air in per cent


Speed of the current
Hundreds of metres of depth
Amount of precipitation
Ice accretion cause
Wind indicator
Precipitations data indicator
Weather data indicator

Qc

Quadrant

8.12.

about
ABV
above

ACPY
accompany

ACRS
across
,

ADVN
advance


AFTN
afternoon
,

AMS
air mass

,
ARND
around

AT
attitude
,
,
AVG
average

become

BCMG
becoming


BGF
big floe

BGN
begin
,
,
BHND
behind
,

BLO
below



BRKN
broken
fog

CHG
change

CLO
cloud ,

CLR
clear
(33-43 )

CLRG
clearing

CMNC
commence
(12-15 )
CN
concentra
tion

CND
condition

,
CNTR
centre

CONTN
continue

close pack

ice

, CSTL
costal
()
BSH
brash ice

DCR
decrease
,
, DCRG
decreasing
,

developing vicinity
low
()
)
OMSH
diminish

,
DNS
dense

,
DFT
drift

DRZL
drizzle

DSIPT
disperse

DSNT
distant

DST
destroy

DWLP
development

DWPNT
dew point

ENDG
ending


floe

ENTR
FCST
FLD
FIG
FLW
FQT
FQT SHWRS
FRMG

entirely
forecast
field
falling
follow
frequent
frequent
shower
forming

FRST
FRZ
FRZN
GENLY
GND

frost
freeze
frozen
generally
ground

GNDFG

ground

GRDL
GRP
GW

gradual
group
gale
wind

HIGH
SEAS
HRZN
HURCN
HUREP
HZY
ICE FREE
ICG
I NCR
INDFT
INTS
INVIC

horizon
hurricane
hazy
icing
increase
indefinite
intensive
in

IPV
LCL
LCLY
LGT
LEAD
LKLY
LTL
LVL
LWR
LYR
MBS
MDF

improve
local
locally
light

MDT

moderate

likely
little
level
lower
layer
millibars
medium

125

MID
MIDN
MIN
MOV
MRNQ
MSL

middle
midnight
minimum
movement
morning
mean sea
level

NRN northen

OCFNT occlusion
front

OCLN occlusion

OCN occasion

OPEN
WATER
1
OPWR open water

OVC overcast

PCPN precipita
tion

PRO
period

PRTG protracting

PSBL possible

PSN
position

PRLY partly

PVL
prevail

QS
quasistationary

RDG ridge

RMN remain

RPDLY rapidly

SCTD scattered
SHWRS showers

SFC
surface

SHFT shift
,
SHLW shallow

SHWR shower
, ,
SL
slush

SLGTLY slightly

SLOWLY

SLT
sleet

SMF
small floes

SMK smoke


( 48 )

SNW snow
SQLL squall
STA
stationary
STM storm
STNY stationary
STNRY stationary
SVRL several
SW
storm wind
SYN
TD

synopsis
tropical
depression

thaw hole

THN thin

TROG through

TS
tropical
storm

TSNWR thundershower

TSTM thunderstorm

TWO toward(s)

TY
typhoon

UNK unknown
VAF
vast floes

VAR variable

VCPK very close (10
)
pack ice

VEL
velocity

VOPK very open
pack ice

VSB
visible

VSBY visibility

WO
wide

WK
weak

WKN weaken

WLY westerly

WNO wind

WRM warm

WRN western
WWD westward