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TORQUE SLIP

CHARACTERISTICS OF
INDUCTION MOTOR
 

By
Avinash Srivastava
Ravi Kumar
(MTECH CAID MSRIT)
Basic Induction Motor
Concepts
 The Development of Induced Torque in an
Induction Motor
τ ind = kB R ×B S

If the induction motor’s rotor were the rotor bars would be stationary relative
turning at synchronous speed to the magnetic field

no rotor current no induced voltage

no rotor magnetic field Induced torque = 0

Rotor will slow down due to friction


 Slip of induction motor
The speed of induction motor must always be less than the
synchronous speed and as the load increased the spree of the
motor will decrease. The difference between the speed of the
stator and the actual speed of the rotor is known as the slip
speed of induction motor.
nslip =nsync − nm

Where nslip = slip speed of the machine


nsync = speed of the magnetic field.
nm = mechanical shaft speed of the motor
The slip can be expressed in rpm and radians per second, but
usually it is expressed as a fraction or percentage of synchronous
speed n n − nm
Slip, s = slip × 100% = sync × 100%
nsync nsync

Slip may also be described


ωsyncin − ωm of angular velocity, ω .
terms
s= x100 %
ωsync
 The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor
When the rotor is stationary, rotor conductor are being cut by the
rotating flux at the synchronous speed , the frequency of rotor current
(or emf) is the same as that of supply frequency.
And rotor frequency may be expressed as:

f r =sf e
since slip is given by


nsync n
S = m

nsync
And since nsync =120fe / P,

fr =
P
( nsync − nm )
120

This shows that the relative difference between synchronous speed


and the rotor speed will determine the rotor frequency.
 The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor

– The Transformer Model of an Induction Motor

The transformer model or an induction motor, with rotor and stator


connected by an ideal transformer of turns ratio aeff .

 
– The Rotor Circuit Model

– The reactance of an induction motor rotor depends on the inductance of the rotor and the frequency
of the voltage and current in the rotor. With a rotor inductance of LR, the rotor reactance is:

rω π
– The rotor current flow is XR =
L = fL 2
R r R

Sincef sf r =
e ,
X R s= =
fL
e2Rπ
sX R 0

ER ER ER
IR = = 0
=
RR + jX R RR + RRR + jX
0jsX
s R0
– The Final Equivalent Circuit
To produce the final per-phase equivalent circuit for an induction motor,
it is necessary to refer the rotor part of the model over to the stator side.
If the effective turns ratio of an induction motor is aeff , then the
transformed rotor voltage becomes

The rotor current E1 = E R' = a eff E R0

And the rotor impedance I


I2 = R
aeff
If we make the following definitions:
2  RR
R2 = a2eff RR; X2 = a2eff XR0Z 2 = aeff 
 + jX R0 
 s
The final per-phase equivalent circuit is as shown  below
The Derivation of the
Induction Motor Induced-

Torque Equation
 The Derivation of the Induction Motor Induced-Torque Equation
 Torque speed equation based upon the power flow diagram of an induction motor. We know that,

 

By definition, air gap power is the power transferred from the stator to the rotor via the air gap in the induction machine. Based upon
P
• the induction motor equivalent circuit, the air gap power may be defined as: P
τ = conv
or τ = AG
ind
ωm
ind
ω sync

R2
PAGperphase I = 22
s
h en
Our next task is to find I2 (current flow c
inet o
thetala
, irg
rotor a pp o
circuit). wereasiest
The : way is via the construction of the Thevenin equivalent circuit.

R2
PAG I=3 2
2
s

 
Calculation via thevenin equivalent method
1. Derive the thevenin voltage (potential divider rule):

jX m
VTH = Vφ
R1 + jX 1 + jXm
Hence the magnitude of thevenin voltage:
 

Xm
VTH = Vφ
 

R12 + ( X 1 + mX)
2

Since Xm >> X1 , Xm >> R1, therefore the magnitude may be approximated


to:
 
Xm
VTH ≈ Vφ
2. Find the thevenin impedance X1 + X m
 

Take out the source and replace it with a short circuit, and derive the
equivalent impedances.
 

Since Xm >> X1, Xm >> R1, jX m ( R1 + jX)1


ZTH =
R1 + jX 1 + jXm
 
2
 X m
RTH ≈R 1  
 X 1 +X m

X TH ≈X 1
Representing the stator circuit by the thevenin equivalent, and
adding back the rotor circuit, we can derive I2,
VTH
I2 =
R
RTH + 2 + j( X TH + X2 )
Hence the magnitude will be, s
VTH
I2 =
( )
2
R2
(+ 2+)X
2
RTH + X TH
s
Hence air gap power,
2
 
 
VTH R 2
PAG = 3 

(R )  2 s
2
R
 TH + 2 + X
s ( TH+ X  2)
 

Hence, induced torque,


2
 
 
VTH R
3 2

( ) s
2
R2
+( X TH + X2 )
2
 RTH + 
s
τ ind =  
ω sync
If a graph of Torque and speed were
plotted based upon changes in slip
Comments on the Induction Motor Torque Speed
Curve
 
• Induced Torque is zero at synchronous speed.
• The graph is nearly linear between no load and full load (at
near synchronous speeds).
• Max torque is known as pull out torque or breakdown
torque
• Starting torque is very large.
• Torque for a given slip value would change to the square of
the applied voltage.
• If the rotor were driven faster than synchronous speed, the
motor would then become a generator.
• If we reverse the direction of the stator magnetic field, it
would act as a braking action to the rotor – plugging.
To be continued
by
Avinash…………
Maximum (Pullout) Torque in an Induction
Motor
Based upon the maximum power transfer theorem,
maximum power transfer will be achieved when the
magnitude of source impedance matches the load
impedance. Since
Z the=Rsource
+ jX impedance
+ jX is as follows:
source TH TH 2

R
+X(TH X occurs
2)
2
Hence maximum
2
power
= R+T2H transfer during
s

Hence max power


smax transfer
= isRpossible
2 when slip is as
+ (X TH + X 2 )
2
follows: 2
RTH

2
3VTH
Put in the value ofτ max = into the torque equation,
Smax
2ω sync  RTH + R2TH + ( X TH + X2 ) 
2

 
• From above equation we conclude that:
1. Torque is related to the square of the applied voltage
2. Torque is also inversely proportional to the machine
impedances
3. Slip during maximum torque is dependent upon rotor
resistance
4. Torque is also independent to rotor resistance as shown in
the maximum torque equation

• By adding more resistance to the machine impedances, we


can vary:
1. Starting torque
2. Max pull out speed
Variations in Induction Motor
Torque-Speed Characterictics
A torque-speed characteristic curve
combining high-resistance effects at
low speeds (high slip) with low
resistance effects at high speed (low
slip).
Effect of rotor resistance on
torque-slip or torque-speed
relation
Effect of change in supply
voltage on the torque and slip
(or speed)
Effect of varying supply
voltage and supply
frequency
Current – speed
characteristics
Torque speed curve and
operating region