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400KV PROTECTION

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)
gk_aptransco@yahoo.co.in,
Mobile:9440336984

BASICS
OF
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

1. IN THIS TWO BUSES ARE PRIOVIDED.

BUS-1

BUS-2

BUS-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

2. THESE TWO BUSES ARE INTER-CONNECTED BY THREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS.

BUS-1

BUS-2

BUS-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

3. THEY ARE DESIGNATED AS 1-52 CB, 2-52 CB, 3-52 CB.

1-52 CB

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

2-52 CB

3-52 CB
BUS-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

4. LINE - 1 IS CONNECTED IN BETWEEN 1-52 CB & 2-52 CB.


5. LINE - 2 IS CONNECTED IN BETWEEN 3-52 CB & 2-52 CB.

1-52 CB

LINE-1

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1
1-52 CB

LINE-1

6. LINE-1 HAVING TWO FEEDING PATHS i.e


A. VIA BUS-1 & 1-52 CB
B. VIA BUS-2, 3-52 CB & 2-52 CB
7. LINE-2 HAVING TWO FEEDING PATHS i.e
A. VIA BUS-2 & 3-52 CB
B. VIA BUS-1, 1-52 CB & 2-52 CB

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2

2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

8. FOR INTURUPTING LINE-1 THE 1-52CB AND 2-52CB IS TO BE TRIPPED.


9. FOR INTURUPTING LINE-2 THE 3-52CB AND 2-52CB IS TO BE TRIPPED.

1-52 CB

LINE-1

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

10. FOR ANY PROBLEM IN LINE-1 OR LINE-2 ALONG WITH MAIN BREAKER
THE MIDDLE BREAKER OR SAY TIE BREAKER (2-52 CB) MUST TRIP.

1-52 CB

LINE-1

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1
1-52 CB

LINE-1

11. NORMALLY IN ALL TYPES OF BUSBAR CONFIGUARATIONS ONE BREAKER


IS SUFFICIENT FOR ONE FEEDER.
12. HERE TWO FEEDERS ARE CONTROLED BY THREE BREAKERS.
13. SO THESE TWO FEEDERS CONTROLLED BY THREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
IT IS CALLED ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM.

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

1-52 CB

LINE-1

2-52 CB

LINE-2

14. THE BAY BETWEEN BUS-1 & LINE-1 IS CALLED MAIN BAY FOR FEEDER-1.

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

LINE-1

2-52 CB

LINE-2

15. THE BAY BETWEEN LINE-1 & LINE-2 IS CALLED TIE BAY FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

1-52 CB

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

LINE-2

3-52 CB
BUS-2

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

2-52 CB

16. THE BAY BETWEEN BUS-2 & LINE-2 IS CALLED MAIN BAY FOR FEEDER-2.

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

LINE-1

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

LINE-2

3-52 CB
BUS-2

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

2-52 CB

17. IN THIS SYSTEM FULL DIA MEANS 2 FEEDERS CONTROLLED BY 3 CBs.


18. HALF DIA MEANS 1 FEEDER CONTROLLED BY 2 CBs.
(Nothing but Double CB System)

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

LINE-1

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

3-52 CB
BUS-2

BUS-2

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

LINE-2

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

2-52 CB

GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU


ADE/MRT/ T&C/400KV SS/
O/O CE/400KV / L&SS/ VS
APTRANSCO, HYDERABAD
gk_aptransco@yahoo.co.in
Mobile: 9440336984

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

LINE-1

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

BUS-1

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT

DIA6

BAY17
BAY18

BAY14
BAY15

BAY16

DIA5

BAY11

BAY8
BAY9

BAY5

FEEDER11

BAY13

DIA4

FEEDER9

BAY10

DIA3

BAY6

BAY2
BAY3

FEEDER7

BAY12

DIA2

BAY1

BUS-1 DIA1

FEEDER5

BAY7

FEEDER3

BAY4

FEEDER1

(I-CONFIGUARATION)

BUS-2

FEEDER2

FEEDER4

FEEDER6

FEEDER8

FEEDER10

FEEDER12

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(D-CONFIGUARATION)
FEEDER5

FEEDER10
BAY14

BAY13

BAY7

DIA1

FEEDER9

BAY8

BAY3

BAY1

BAY2

FEEDER6

DIA3

BAY15

FEEDER2

BAY9

FEEDER1

DIA5

BUS-1

BAY5

FEEDER3

BAY11

FEEDER4

FEEDER7

DIA6

BAY18

BAY16

DIA4

BAY12

BAY10

DIA2

BAY6

BAY4

BUS-2

BAY17

FEEDER8

FEEDER11

FEEDER12

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(DOUBLE BUS & DOUBLE BREAKER SYSTEM)
FEEDER1

FEEDER3

FEEDER1

FEEDER3

BAY6

BAY5

BAY2

BAY1

BAY7

BAY5

BAY3

BAY1

BUS-1

BUS-1

BAY8

BAY7

BAY4

BAY3

BAY8

BAY6

BAY4

BAY2

BUS-2

BUS-2

FEEDER2

FEEDER4

FEEDER2

FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 800KV SYSTEM

FEEDER 8

FEEDER 1
1-52 CB

FEEDER 2
2-52 CB

8-52 CB

FEEDER 7

3-52 CB

MESH / RING
LAYOUT

7-52 CB

4-52 CB

5-52 CB

6-52 CB
FEEDER 6

FEEDER 3

FEEDER 5

FEEDER 4

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(DOUBLE MAIN BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM)
T/F-1

T/F-2

BUS-2

BAY3
BAY1

BAY2

FEEDER1 FEEDER2

BAY4

TRANSFER BUS

BAY5

TRANSFER BUS
COUPLER

BUS COUPLER

BUS-1

BAY6

BAY7

BAY8

FEEDER3 FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 400 & 220 KV SYSTEM

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(DOUBLE MAIN BUS & CB BYPASS ISO SYSTEM)
T/F-1

BAY1

BAY2

T/F-2

BAY6

BAY4
BUS COUPLER

BUS-1

BAY7

BUS-2

BAY3

FEEDER1

FEEDER2

BAY5

WHEN ANY CB PROBLEM OR FOR


PREVENTIVE MAINTANENCE THEN ALL
OTHER
FEEDERS
SHIFTED
TO
ANOTHER BUS OF FAULTED CB BUS
AND CLOSE THE BYPASS ISOLATOR,
THEN PROTECTION IS SHIFTED TO BUS
COUPLER AND OPEN THE FAULTY CB.

FEEDER3

FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 220KV SYSTEM

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM)
T/F-2

T/F-1

TRANSFER BUS COUPLER

TRANSFER BUS

BUS-1
BAY1

FEEDER1

BAY2

FEEDER2

BAY3

BAY4

BAY5

BAY6

FEEDER3

BAY7

FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 220 & 132 KV SYSTEM

CT METHODS
IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

DIFFERENT CT METHODS OF ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM

CB
LINE
CB
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE

CB

CB
3 CT METHOD

CB

CB
4 CT METHOD

CB

CB

CB

5 CT METHOD
CB

CB

CB

6 CT METHOD
CB

CB

CB

6 CT METHOD
CB

CB
6 CT METHOD

CB

AT/F
AT/F
AT/F
AT/F
AT/F
AT/F

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(3CT METHOD)

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

P1

P1

3 3-CT

1-89A

3-89A

3
3

2-CT

P1

2-89A 2-52CB
1-89L

P2

2-89B
3-89T

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(4CT METHOD)

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

P1

P1

3 3-CT

1-89A

3-89A

P2

2-89A
1-89L

P1

2-BCT

2-ACT

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89T

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(5CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3 3-CT

P1

1-89A

3-89A

2-CT
2-89A

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L
1L-CT

3-89T
P2

3P1

P2
P1

3 3T-CT

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89
P2
P1

3-89

31A-CT

3A-CT

1-52CB
P2

P2

3 P1

3-52CB

3 1B-CT

3B-CT

P1

1-89A

P1

3-89A

2-89A

P1

2B-CT

P2

2A-CT

1-89L

P2

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89T

T/F-1
LINE 1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
P2

3-52CB

3 1-CT

3-CT

P1

1-89A

2-89A

P1

P2

2B-CT
P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L

31L-CT
P1
LINE 1

P1

3-89A
2A-CT

P2

P2

3-89T

3T-CT

P2

3 P1

T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89
P2

P2

3 1-CT

1-52CB

3-52CB

1-89A

3-89A

2-89A

P1

2B-CT

P2

2A-CT

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L

31L-CT
P1
LINE 1

3 3-CT

P1

P1

P2

3-89

3-89T

3T-CT

P2

3 P1

T/F-1

TYPICAL ONE & HALF BREAKER


SYSTEM ADOPTED IN GIS

DS : DISCONNECTOR SWITCH, GS: GROUNDING SWITCH, CT: CURRENT TRANSFORMER, VD: VOLTAGE DIVIDER

TYPICAL ONE & HALF BREAKER


SYSTEM ADOPTED IN GIS

DS : DISCONNECTOR SWITCH, GS: GROUNDING SWITCH, CT: CURRENT TRANSFORMER, VD: VOLTAGE DIVIDER

1-1/2 CB SYSTEM
(SIEMENS VATECH)

VD

VD

CT
DS

CT
CB

CT
DS

DS

CT
CB

GS

GS

GS

GS

VD
GS

GS

GS

GS

VD

CT
DS

DS

CT
CB

DS

CORE WISE
APLICATION OF
CTs IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 3CT METHOD
1 CT
2 CT
3 CT
CORE 1

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO MAIN
PROTECTION FOR
TRANSFORMER

CORE 2

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO BACKUP
PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR
FOR TRANSFORMER

( PS)

( PS)

CORE 3

SPARE

CORE 4

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR


SPARE
FEEDER

( 0.5 / 0.2)

(0.5 / 0.2)

METERING & ENERGY METER


FOR AT/F

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE

BUSBAR-2

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 3CT METHOD
1 CT
2 CT
3 CT
CORE 1

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO MAIN
PROTECTION FOR
TRANSFORMER

CORE 2

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO BACKUP
PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR
FOR TRANSFORMER

( PS)

( PS)

CORE 3

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR


SPARE
FEEDER

CORE 4

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO MAIN-2
PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR FOR

(0.5 / 0.2)

( PS)

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 4CT METHOD
1- CT
2-BCT
2-ACT
3-CT
CT SECONDARY
CT SECONDARY
SPARE
SPARE
CORE-1
CORE IS
CORE IS
(PS)

CONNECTED TO
BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

CORE-2

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

(PS)

CONNECTED TO
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

SPARE

SPARE

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

CORE-3

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS & ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS & ENERGY METER

CORE-4

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
BACKUP PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

CORE-5

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND CONNECTED TO
MAIN PROTECTION

(0.5/0.2)

(PS)

(PS)

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 5CT METHOD
1-CT

1-LCT

2-CT

3-TCT

3-CT

CORE-1
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

CORE-4
(PS)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(1-52)

MAIN-2
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(2-52)

BACKUP
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(3-52)

CORE-5
(PS)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

Paralleling of 2Nos CTs to the Main-1/Main-2/Backup line protection is not required. This gives better
transient response. Separate STUB protection can be connected (Nothing BUT TEED Protection).

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 6CT METHOD
(GIS or AIS with DEAD TANK CBs)
1B-CT
CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

BUSBAR-1

PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP

PROTECTION

(SPARE)

SPARE

1A-CT

2B-CT

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2A-CT

3A-CT

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE 2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN
CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
BACKUP PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR
AFTER LBB/BFR
2CTs SECONDARIES ARE 2CTs SECONDARIES ARE
CONNECTED IN
CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS &
PANEL METERS &
ENERGY METER
ENERGY METER

3B-CT
BUSBAR-2

PROTECTION

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP

PROTECTION

(SPARE)

SPARE

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 6CT METHOD
1-CT
CORE1
(PS)
CORE2
(PS)

1L-CT 2A-CT 2B-CT

3T-CT

3-CT

TEED
PROT-1
(BAY
1&2)

SPARE

SPARE

TEED
PROT-1
(BAY
2&3)

BUSBAR
-2
PROTEC
TION

BUSBAR
-1
CHECKU
P

TEED
PROT-2
(BAY
1&2)

SPARE

SPARE

TEED
PROT-2
(BAY
2&3)

BUSBAR
-2
CHECKU
P

SPARE

METERI
NG &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

BUSBAR
-1
PROTEC
TION

PROTECTIO
N (SPARE)

CORE3
(0.5/0.
2)

SPARE

METERI
NG &
ENERGY
METER

PROTECTIO
N (SPARE)

SPARE

CT CORES
CONEECTION
DIAGRAMS IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

3
3
3
2

BB-EVT
/ CVT
1-52CB

BUS BAR CHECKUP PROT

2
CORES
3
4

3
3
3

3
P1

MAIN-1 PROTECTION

MAIN-2/BACKUP PROTECTION
3

BUS

METERING

1-89
P2

BUS BAR PROTECTION

SINGLE BUS SYSTEM


1-CT
5
1-89L
1-CVT

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 3 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
79

CVT
VBB1

21M1
VBB1

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF
87L 21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
CVT VL2

MAIN-1
BF
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1

VBB2
CVT

VBB2

79

MAIN-2

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)

25
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 4 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
79

CVT
VBB1

21M1
VBB1

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF
87L 21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
CVT VL2

MAIN-1
BF
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1

VBB2
CVT

VBB2

79

MAIN-2

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)

25
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
CVT

21M1

VBB1

BF

79
VBB1

VL1

25

87L 21M2

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
CVT VL2

MAIN-1
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1

VBB2
CVT

VBB2

BF

79

MAIN-2

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)

25
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 5 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
21M1

79

CVT
VBB1

VBB1

VL1

87 TD1 HZ

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF

87L 21M2

87 TD2 LZ

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2

.
BF
VBB2

VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1

CVT
VBB2

CVT VL2
MAIN-1

87 TD2 LZ

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)
MAIN-2

79
87 TD1 HZ

25

BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
21M1

79

CVT
VBB1

VBB1

VL1

87 TD1 HZ

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF

87L 21M2

87 TD2 LZ

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2

.
BF
VBB2

VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1

CVT
VBB2

CVT VL2
MAIN-1

87 TD2 LZ

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)
MAIN-2

79
87 TD1 HZ

25

BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
21M1

VL1

87 TD1 HZ

CVT
VBB1

BF
79
VBB1

87L 21M2

87 TD2 LZ

VL1

CVT

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2

79

CVT VL2
25

MAIN-1

87 TD2 LZ

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)
MAIN-2

BF

VBB2
CVT

87 TD1 HZ
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT CT METHODS


CT
PURPOSE

3 CT
METHOD

4 CT
METHOD

6 CT (S)
METHOD

5 CT
METHOD

6 CT (T1)
METHOD

6 CT (T2)
METHOD

BUSBAR &
BUSBAR
CHECKUP
PROTECTION

1 CT

1 CT

1B CT

1 CT

1 CT

1 CT

MAIN-1
MAIN-2
PROTECTION
&
METERING

ABOVE FOR BUS-1

BLIND
ZONE

BELOW FOR BUS-2

3 CT

3 CT

3B CT

3 CT

3 CT

3 CT

1 - CT & 2
- CT

1 CT & 2
B - CT

1 A CT &
2 B CT

1 L - CT

1 L - CT

1 L - CT

ABOVE CT SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED PARALLEL FOR FEEDER-1
BELOW CT SECONDARIES ARE
CONNECTED PARALLEL FOR FEEDER-2
3 - CT & 2
CT

ADDITIONAL
PROTECTION
AVAILABLE

&

3 - CT & 2
A - CT

3 A - CT &
2 A - CT

ABOVE FOR FEEDER-1


BELOW FOR FEEDER-2

3 L - CT

3 L - CT

3 L CT

STUB-1 & STUB-2 PROTECTION


FOR LINE & AT/F

TEED-1 & TEED-2 PROTECTION


FOR LINE & AT/F

STUB-1 & STUB-2 PROTECTION IS A


NORMALLY INBUILT PROTECTION FOR
MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 RELAYS, IN CASE OF
LATEST NUMERICAL RELAYS. STUB
PROTECTION WORKS WHEN LINE
ISOLATOR OPEN CONDITION ONLY.

TEED1 IS NORMALLY HIGH


IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY &
TEED-2 IS NORMALLY LOW IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY. THESE ARE
NOT INBUILT FUNCTIONS OF MAIN-1
& MAIN-2 RELAYS.

A FAULT BETWEEN CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND CT (END FAULT) MAY THEN STILL BE FED FROM ONE SIDE
EVEN WHEN THE BREAKER HAS BEEN OPENED. CONSEQUENTLY, FINAL FAULT CLEARING BY CASCADED
TRIPPING HAS TO BE ACCEPTED IN THIS CASE. THIS SITUATION LBB/BFR OPERATES AND TIME TAKEN TO
CLEAR FAULT IS ABOUT 300 mSECs. THIS IS BLIND ZONE AREA.

400KV C.T. INFORMATION


P1

PRIMARY CONNECTIONS : P1 P2
CURRENT RATING : 2000 AMPS

2S12
2S 3
2S

4S1
4S2
4S3
4S4

1
5S S2
5 S3
5 S4
5

3
3

1
1S S1
1S 2
3

2S1
2S2
2S3

__

__

3
3

5S1
5S2
5S3
5S4
4S1
4S2
4S3
4S4

2S1
2S3

2S1
2S2
2S2
2S3

1S1
1S2
1S3

1S1
1S3

1S1
1S2
1S2
1S3

500/
1A

BUSBA
R
CHECK
UP
PROTE
CTION

1000/
1A

PS

BUSBA
R
PROTE
CTION

2000/
1A

3S1
3S2
3S3
3S4

COR
E-2

PS

PURPO
SE

3S1
3S2
3S3
3S4

COR
E-1

CLA
SS

P1 P2

3
3

COR
ES

SECONDARY
CONNECTIONS
CURRENT RATING : 1A

P2

HAIR
PIN /
U SHAPE
DESIGN

EYE BOLT
DESIGN

DEAD TANK DESIGN

MAIN-1, MAIN-2
PROTECTION &
METERING
FOR LINE
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED IN APTRANSCO


FOR TRANSMISIION LINES & DISTRIBUTION LINES ( FEEDER / LINE PROTECTION )

Sr.
No
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

VOLTAG
E

MAIN- 1 PROTECTION

MAIN-2 PROTECTION/
BACKUP PROTECTION

2 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N )

3 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N )

SWITCHED DISTANCE
SCHEME OR
NUMERICAL DISTANCE
SCHEME (21P+ 21N)

DIRECTIONAL O/L & E/F


RELAYS WITH HIGH SET (
67 + 67N )

220 KV
LINES

NON SWITCHED
DISTANCE SCHEME OR
NUMERICAL DISTANCE
SCHEME (21P + 21N)

SWITCHED DISTANCE
SCHEME OR
NUMERICAL DISTANCE
SCHEME (21P+ 21N)

400 KV
LINES

NUMERICAL DISTANCE
SCHEME (21P + 21N) +
in BUILT DEF RELAY(67N)

NUMERICAL DISTANCE
SCHEME (21) OR LINE
DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME
(87L) WITH 67N

11 KV
LINES
33 KV
LINES
66 KV
LINES
132 KV
LINES

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE


P2 P2 P2 CT MB

IR5 / A511
IY5 / A531
IB5 / A551

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

(4CT METHOD)

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

IN5 / A571

REL 521
ACTIVE START

TRIP

1-CVT

CLASS: PS
3 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-CT
4 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-BCT
6 CT METHOD : 1-ACT & 2-BCT

DISPLAY
C

CT MB

2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S2

5S2

5S2

5S4

5S4

5S4

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

VR11 / E111
VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

CORE 1
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(4CT METHOD) (NEW DEVELOPMENT)
P2 P2 P2 CT MB
IR5 / A511
IY5 / A531
IB5 / A551

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

IN5 / A571

3 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-CT


4 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-BCT
6 CT METHOD : 1-ACT & 2-BCT

CLASS: PS

ESC

IN5 / A571

3 3 3

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

ENABLED
TRIP

CT MB

2-BCT
CORE-5

IA =250.10 A
IB =250.10 A
IC =250.10 A
VAB =400.0 KV
VBC =400.0 KV
VCA =400.0 KV

5S2

5S2

5S2

5S4

5S4

5S4

CLASS: PS

IB5 / A551
IY5 / A531
IR5 / A511

P2 P2 P2

INST
TIME
COMM
SOTF
ZONE1
ZONE2
ZONE3
ZONE4

SEL

ENT

TARGET
RESET

PH-A
PH-B
PH-C
GND
50
51
79 RESET
79 LOCKOUT

SEL- 421
PROTECTION
AUTOMATION
CONTROL

VR11 / E111
VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

1-CVT
CORE 1
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(5CT METHOD)

P2 P2 P2 CT MB
IR5 / A511
IY5 / A531
IB5 / A551

1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

IN5 / A571

REL 521
ACTIVE START

TRIP

VR11 / E111
VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171
1-CVT

CLASS: PS

DISPLAY
C
E

CORE 1
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(4CT METHOD)
50Z

P2 P2 P2 CT MB
1-CT

RAICA

CORE-4

LBB / BFR

3 3 3

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451
IN4 / C471

REL 316
ACTIVE START

TRIP

1-CVT

CLASS: PS
3 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-CT
4 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-BCT
6 CT METHOD : 1-ACT & 2-BCT

DISPLAY
C
E

CT MB

2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S2

4S2

4S2

4S4

4S4

4S4

RAICA

CLASS: PS

LBB / BFR
P2 P2 P2

50ZT

VR21 / E211
VY21 / E231
VB21 / E251
VN21 / E271

CORE 2
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(4CT METHOD) ( NEW DEVELOPMENT)
P2 P2 P2 CT MB
IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

IN4 / C471

3 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-CT


4 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-BCT
6 CT METHOD : 1-ACT & 2-BCT

CLASS: PS

CT MB

2-BCT

3 3 3

CORE-4
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

IN4 / C471
4S2

4S2

4S2

4S4

4S4

4S4

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

IB4 / C451
IY4 / C431
IR4 / C411

VR21 / E211
VY21 / E231
VB21 / E251
VN21 / E271

1-CVT
CORE 2
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MULTI FUNCTION NUMERICAL RELAY FOR


MULTI BREAKER, MULTI CT & CVT/PT APPLICATION
3-52 CB

BUS-1 PT

BUS-2 PT
59

50 BF-1 50 BF-2

79-1 79-2 25-1

25-2

21P 50P 51P 67P


21N 50N 51N 67N

2-52 CB

1-52 CB

(NEW APPLICATION) (ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM or RING BUS SYSTEM)

3
LINE CVT
LINE

27

1-52,2-52: MAIN & TIE CIRCUIT BREAKER


21P: PHASE DISTANCE PROTECTION
21N: GROUND DISTANCE PROTECTION
27: UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY
67: DIRECTIONAL RELAY
50: INST OVER CURRENT RELAY
51: TIME OVER CURRENT RELAY
59: OVER VOLTAGE RELAY
64: EARTH FAULT RELAY
50BF-1: LBB/BFR OF MAIN CB
50BF-2: LBB/BFR OF TIE CB
79-1,2: AUTO RECLOSURE RELAY OF
MAIN & TIE CB
25-1,2: CHECK SYNCHRONISAM RELAY
FOR MAIN & TIE CB

MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(5CT METHOD)

P2 P2 P2 CT MB
IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451

1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

IN4 / C471

REL 316
ACTIVE START

TRIP

VR21 / E211
VY21 / E231
VB21 / E251
VN21 / E271
1-CVT

CLASS: PS

DISPLAY
C
E

CORE 2
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MULTI FUNCTION PANEL METERING & ENERGY METER


(4CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2 CT MB
IR3 / D311
IY3 / D331
IB3 / D351

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-3

3S4

3S4

3S4

3S2

3S2

3S2

IN3 / D371

3 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-CT


4 CT METHOD : 1-CT & 2-BCT
6 CT METHOD : 1-ACT & 2-BCT

CLASS: 0.5

CT MB

2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-3

3S2

3S2

3S2

3S4

3S4

3S4

CLASS: 0.5

VR31 / E311
VY31 / E331
VB31 / E351
VN31 / E371
1-CVT
CORE 3
100VA

P2 P2 P2

CLASS: 0.5/0.2

MULTI FUNCTION PANEL METERING & ENERGY METER


(5CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2 CT MB
IR3 / D311
IY3 / D331
IB3 / D351

1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-3

3S4

3S4

3S4

3S2

3S2

3S2

CLASS: 0.5/0.2
IN3 / D371

VR31 / E311
VY31 / E331
VB31 / E351
VN31 / E371
1-CVT
CORE 3
100VA
CLASS: 0.5/0.2

LBB & BUSBAR


PROTECTION
SCHEMES
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS OF LBB/BFR PROTECTION

LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP PROTECTION

A PROTECTION WHICH IS DESIGNED TO CLEAR A SYSTEM


FAULTY BY INITIATING TRIPPING OTHER CIRCUIT BREAKER(S) IN THE
CASE OF FAILURE TO TRIP OF THE APPROPRIATE CIRCUIT BREAKER.
IN MODERN NETWORKS THE CRITICAL FAULT CLEARING TIME
MAY BE LESS THAN 200ms. HENCE, IF THE FAULT IS NOT CLEARED DUE
TO FAILURE OF THE PRIMARY PROTECTIVE RELAYS OR THEIR
ASSOCIATED CIRCUIT BREAKER, A FAST ACTING
BACK-UP
PROTECTIVE RELAY MUST CLEAR THE FAULT.
THERE ARE TWO BASIC FORMS.
REMOTE BACK-UP.
LOCAL BACK-UP.

REMOTE BACK-UP

PROVIDES BACK-UP PROTECTION FOR THE BOTH THE RELAYS


(MAIN-1 & MAIN-2) AND BREAKERS AT REMOTE
SUBSTATION.

LOCAL BACK-UP

LOCAL BACK-UP PROTECTION


CATAGORIES.
RELAY BACK-UP
BREAKER BACK-UP

CAN

BE

DEVIDED

INTO

TWO

RELAY BACK-UP

DUPLICATE PRIMARY PROTECTION. i.e ONE IS NON SWITCHED


DISTANCE PROTECTION AND ANOTHER IS SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME
OR OTHER WISE BOTH SCHEMES CHARECTERSTICS ARE DIFFERENT
(QUADRALATERAL, MHO CIRCULAR, TAMOTO & OPTICAL ) OR
DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS(ABB, ALSTOM, SIEMENS, EASUN REYROLL,
SEL, GE, NXT PHASE OR BASLER) OR DIFFERENT METHODS (i.e
ELECTROMECHANICAL, STATIC, NUMERICAL{MICROPROCESSOR &DSP}).
IF MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 ARE NUMERICAL RELAYS BOTH SHOULD BE
SEPARATE CHARECTERESTICS AND SEPARATE MODELS AND ALL
FEATURES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BOTH SCHEMES AND BOTH RELAYS
SHOULD BE 100% REDENDENCY IN ALL ASPECTS.
TO INCREASE THE SECURITY, THE CIRCUIT BREAKER HAS TWO
TRIP COILS, ONE IS CONNECTED TO MAIN-1 PROTECTION AND ANOTHER
IS CONNECTED TO MAIN-2 PROTECTION.

BREAKER BACK-UP
BECAUSE OF THE HIGH COST OF HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT
BREAKERS, IT IS NOT FEASIBLE TO DUPLICATE THEM.
IN CASE OF A BREAKER FAILURE THE OTHER CIRCUIT BREAKERS
CONNECTED TO THE SAME BUS AS THE FAULTED BREAKER MUST THERE
FORE BE TRIPPED.

LBB/BFR FLOW CHART


MAIN
PROTECTION
OPERATED

YES

TRIP
MAIN
BREAKER

FAULT
CLEARED

INITIATE
BFR

RESET
BREAKER
FAILURE
SCHEME

NO

RETRIP

YES

YES

WAIT FOR
FAULT
CLEARENCE

AND

TRIP
BACK-UP/
Adjacent
BREAKERS

The Breaker Failure Protection (LBB/BFR) can operate single-stage/two-stage.


When used as single-stage protection, the Bus trip command is given to the
adjacent Circuit Breakers if the protected feeder Breaker fails.
When used as two-stage protection, the first stage can be used to repeat the
trip command to the relevant feeder Breaker, normally on a different trip coil, if
the initial trip command from the feeder protection is not successful. The
second stage will result in a Bus trip to the adjacent Breakers, if the command
of the first stage is not successful.

LBB/BFR TIME CO-ORDINATION CHART


FAULT OCCURS

NORMAL CLEARING TIME

NORMAL
CLEARING

PROTECTIVE RELAY
FOR EX: DISTANCE RELAY

RESETTING TIME OF THE


CURRENT MEASURING UNITS

BREAKER
INTURUPTING TIME

~30ms

~60ms

MARGIN

<12ms

SET TIME OF THE TIME MEASURING UNIT

INOPERATIVE
BREAKER

TRIPPING
RELAY
TIME

BACK-UP BREAKER
INTERUPTING TIME

BREAKER FAILURE RELAY START


TOTAL CLEARING TIME OF THE BREAKER FAILURE RELAY
MAXIMUM FAULT CLEARING TIME BEFORE SYSTEM INSTABILITY

MARGIN

LBB/BFR LOGIC

CURRENT INPUTS
PHASE L1

A/D
CONVERTER PHASE CURRENT SET POINT

I > ISET

PHASE L2/E
PHASE L3

I > ISET
|||

&

LED
(PHASE START)
ALARM RELAY
(PHASE START)

>1

&

ALARM RELAY
(EARTH START)

EARTH CURRENT SET POINT

OUT PUT OF DISTANCE RELAY OR


SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT RELAY

LED
(EARTH START)

BINARY INPUT
CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE INITIATE

TIMING/OUTPUT
STAGE

TRIP T1
RELAY

TIME STAGE T1

&

ALARM T1
RELAY

&

TIME STAGE T2
SWITCHED OFF

>1

TIME STAGE T2

O&
0

LED

TRIP T2
RELAY

LED
LED
CB FAILURE
INITIATE

LBB/BFR PROTECTION
LINE1
BUS-1

AT/F-1
1-52CB

50Z

2-52CB

50ZT

3-52CB

50Z

BUS-2

LBB/BFR IS LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP PROTECTION/


BREAKER FAILURE RELAY.
1No RELAY IS PROVIDED FOR EACH BREAKER.
THIS IS CURRENT OPERATED RELAY.
THIS RELAY IS ENERGISED WHEN MASTER TRIP RELAY(86-A
OR/AND 86-B)
OPERATES OR SINGLE PHASE TRIP RELAYS OPERATES AND
GIVEN SIGNAL TO BREAKER FOR TRIP.
IN THIS RELAY TIME DELAY IS PROVIDED.
THIS RELAY OPERATES WHEN THE BREAKER IS UNDER
TROUBLE/ FAILS TO OPERATE.
AFTER ENERGISED THE RELAY AND TIME DELAY

1-52 CB LBB/BFR OPERATION


86-A

50Z

DIRECT TRIP 1&2


VIA CARRIER TO
OTHER END
BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION OPTD
AND BUSBAR-1
ISOLATED

TO 86-B TRIP RELAY


OF TIE CB(2-52CB)

1-52CB
TC-1
BUS-1

ABB
REL316
MAIN-2

86-B

86-B

86-A

ABB
REL521
MAIN-1

TC-2

2-52CB
TC-2
TC-1

3-52CB
BUS-2

2-52 CB LBB/BFR OPERATION


ABB
RET521
MAIN-1

86-A

ABB
REL521
MAIN-1

86-B

ABB
REL316
MAIN-2

50ZT

DIRECT TRIP 1&2


VIA CARRIER
TO OTHER END

INTER TRIP TO
LVCB & TBCCB

TO 86-B TRIP RELAY


OF AT/F(ICT) CB (3-52CB)

TO 86-B TRIP RELAY


OF LINE CB(1-52CB)

2-52CB

1-52CB
TC-1
BUS-1

ABB
RET316
MAIN-2

3-52CB
TC-2
BUS-2

3-52 CB LBB/BFR OPERATION

ABB
RET316
MAIN-2

86-A
86-B

86-B

86-A

ABB
RET521
MAIN-1

50Z
INTER TRIP TO
LV CB & TBC CB
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION OPTD
AND BUSBAR-2
ISOLATED

TO 86-B TRIP RELAY


OF TIE CB(2-52CB)

2-52CB

1-52CB
TC-1
BUS-1

3-52CB
TC-2

TC-2

TC-1
BUS-2

BASICS OF BUSBAR PROTECTION

NEED FOR BUSBAR PROTECTION

IN ITS ABSENCE FAULT CLEARING TAKES PLACE IN ZONE-2 OF DISTANCE RELAY BY


REMOTE END TRIPPING.
THIS MEANS SLOW AND UNSELECTIVE TRIPPING AND WIDE SPREAD BLACKOUT.

EFFECT OF DELAYED CLEARENCE


GREATER DAMAGE AT FAULT POINT.
INDIRECT SHOCK TO CONNECTED EQUIPMENT LIKE SHAFTS OF GENERATOR AND
WINDINGS OF TRANSFORMER.

BASIC THEORY
KIRCHOFFs CURRENT LAW STATES THAT THE SUM OF THE CURRENTS ENTERING A
GIVEN NODE MUST BE EQUAL TO THE CURRENTS LEAVING AT THAT NODE.

BUS BAR PROTECTION SYSTEMS


1.
2.
3.
4.

HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


MODERATE-IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
LOW-IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
NUMERICAL BUS DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENCIAL PROTECTION


THE HIGH IMPEDENCE PROTECTION SCHEME, ON THE OTHER HAND, IS A GOOD SOLUTION FOR
SINGLE BUSBAR ARRANGEMENTS , ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEMS OR RING BUSBARS, PROVIDING
THAT APPROPRIATE DEDICATED CT CORES ARE AVAILABLE FOR THIS USE ALONE. IT IS SENSTIVE,
STABLE & FAST PROTECTION.
HOWEVER, SPECIAL CT REQUIREMENTS, ADDITIONAL HIGH VOLTAGE DEVICE PROTECTION,
DEMANDING MAINTANENCE etc PUT RESTRICTIONS IN ITS APPLICATIONS.
A MEASURING CIRCUIT COMPRISES A HIGH-IMPEDENCE STABILIZING RESISTOR CONNECTED
ACROSS THE CIRCULATING CURRENT ARRANGEMENT OF ALL THE CTs IN PARALLEL. THE VALUE OF
THE STABILIZING RESISTOR IS CHOOSEN SUCH THAT THE VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS THE RELAY
CIRCUIT IS INSUFFICIENT TO OPERATE THE FAULTS OUTSIDE THE PROTECTED ZONE.

LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

PUTS STRINGENT REQUIREMENTS ON CTs. Class X for all CT Cores.


NEED FOR DEDICATED CT CORES. Separate CT Cores for BUSBAR and CHECK ZONE Protection.
IDENTICAL CT RATIO, MAGNETISING IMPEDENCE.
AUX CTs RATIO CORRECTIONS UNACCEPTABLE.
IN ABILITY TO COPE WITH INCREASING FAULT CURRENT.
SLOW RESPONSE.
Advantage of Numerical Protection Technology (e.g. Fault recording, Communication etc) not available.
BASIC OPERATING TIME EXCLUDING RELAY TIME IS 15 20ms.
THIS RELAY REQUIRES CHECK ZONE FEATURE. THE TRIP COMMAND IS ONLY GIVEN WHEN
BOTH A DISCRIMINATING & CHECK ZONE SYSTEM OPERATES.

MEDIUM IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


MANY OF THE LIMITATIONS OF HIGH IMPEDENCE PROTECTION CAN BE OVERCOME
USING MODERATE MEDIUM IMPEDENCE PROTECTION (OR STABILIZED HIGH-IMP
SCHEME), WHICH IS A COMBINATION OF THE NORMAL HIGH-IMP AND STABILIZED
DIFFERENTIAL SCHEMES.

LOW IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


LOW IMPEDENCE PROTECTION(PERCENTAGE BIASED BUS DIFFERENTIAL RELAY) IS
MOST SUITABLE PROTECTION SCHEME FOR DOUBLE AND MULTIPLE BUSBAR SYSTEMS
(WITH OR WITHOUT TRANSFER BUS) WITH FEEDERS BEING SWITCHED BETWEEN
SECTIONS OF BUSBAR, WHICH OPERATES WITH FULL SELECTIVITY FOR ALL POSSIBLE
BUSBAR CONFIGUARATIONS.

ADVANTAGES

FREE OF ANY NEED FOR MATCHED CT CHARACTERESTICS OR RATIOs, LOW


LEAKAGE REACTANCE OR RESISTANCE.
OTHER PROTECTIVE RELAYS CAN BE INCLUDED IN THE SAME CIRCUIT.
STABLE FOR INFINITE FAULT LEVELS. INSENSITIVE TO CT SATURATION.
DETECTS FAULTS WITHIN 1 2ms & INITIATES TRIPPING WITHIN 5 7ms.

BASICS OF BUS BAR PROTECTION


BASIC THEORY
KIRCHOFFs CURENT LAW STATES THAT THE SUM OF THE CURRENTS ENTERING A GIVEN NODE MUST BE EQUAL
TO THE CURRENTS LEAVING THAT NODE

EXTERNAL FAULT

INTERNAL FAULT
IF

I1

I1
I2

I3

I2
I3

I4
I5

I4
I5

I6

I6

IF

IF= I6= I1+I2+I3+I4+I5

IF= I1+I2+I3+I4+I5+I6

HIGH IMPEDENCE BUSBAR PROTECTION


87BBC

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

UU

87BBM

96 BBC : BUSBAR
CHECK TRIPPING RELAY

52 CIRCUIT
BREAKER
TRIP COIL
- VE
A varistor is normally
applied across the relay
input terminals to limit
the voltage to a value
safely
below
the
insulation voltage +ofVE
the
BBM : BUSBAR
secondary96circuits
MAIN TRIPPING RELAY

UU

UU
OVER CURRENT
COIL

UU

.
Is

Id

OVER CURRENT
STARTER RELAYS

RESTRAINT
COIL

UU

UU
52 CIRCUIT
BREAKER
TRIP COIL

UU

OPERATING
COIL

LOW IMPEDENCE BUSBAR PROTECTION


+VE

96 BUS BAR
TRIPPING
RELAY

-VE

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BUSBAR SCHEMES


HIGH IMPEDENCE
BUSBAR PROTECTION

PERCENTAGE BIASED
LOW IMPEDENCE BUS
BAR PROTECTION

PRINCIPL
E

THE
CURRENTS
ENTERING
AND
LEAVING THE BUSBAR ARE COMPARED
CONTINUOSLY. IT INVOLVES CHOOSING
OF IMPEDENCE HIGH ENOUGH STABLISE
THE RELAY FOR HEAVY EXTERNAL
FAULTS. THIS IS CIRCULATING CURRENT
PRINCIPLE.

IT HAS DIFFERENTIAL AND BIAS


SETTING. THE RESULTANT BIAS IS
PROPOTIONAL TO ARITHMATIC SUM
OF ALL CURRENTS, WHEREAS THE
OPERATING CURRENT IS VECTOR
SUM OF ALL CIRCUIT CURRENTS.

CTs

IT REQUIRES ALL IDENTICAL CT RATIOs


& TURNS RATIO. LOW RESISTANCE OF
SECONDARY WINDING. Class X for all CT
Cores.
MINIMUM KNEE POINT VOLTAGE OF
300-500V.
LOW
MAGNETISING
CURRENT(FEW
MILLIAMPS).

IT CAN WORK WITH CTs OF


UNEQUAL RATIOS ALSO. FREE OF
ANY
NEED
OF
MATCHED
CT
CHARACTERESTIC OR RATIOs LOW
LEAKAGE
REACTANCE
OR
RESISTANCE. OTHER PROTECTIVE
RELAYS CAN BE INCLUDED IN THE
SAME CIRCUIT.

BURDEN

IMPOSES
COMPARATIVELY
HIGH IMPOSES LESS BURDEN ON CTs.
BURDEN ON CTs.
AUXILIARY CTs AUXILIARY CTs HAVE NO EFFECT ON
REDUCE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF SCHEME.
SCHEME

CT
SATURATI

OPERATION OF SCHEME EVEN WHEN


CTs GET SATURATED DURING INTERNAL
FAULTS.

DETAILS

OPERATION OF SCHEME EVEN


WHEN CTs GET SATURATED DURING
INTERNAL FAULTS. INSENSITIVE TO
CT SATURATION.

BUS BAR MAIN & CHECHUP PROTECTION


(ANY CT METHOD)

P2 P2 P2 CT MB
1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

3 3 3

CORE-1

REB 521

IN1 / B171
1S3

1S3

1S3

1S1

1S1

1S1

ACTIVE START

TRIP

IB1 / B151

CLASS: PS

IY1 / B131
IR1 / B111

BUS BAR
PROTECTION
FOR
BUS-1

DISPLAY
C
E

CT MB
IR1 / B111
IY1 / B131

3-CT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

ACTIVE START

TRIP

IB1 / B151

3 3 3

CORE-1

RED 521

1S1

1S1

1S1

1S3

1S3

1S3

IN1 / B171

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

BUS BAR
PROTECTION
FOR
BUS-2

DISPLAY
C
E

BUS-2

87 BB2
BUS BAR-2 PROTECTION

UU

10-CT

UU

13-CT

UU

16-CT

UU

UU

12-CT

UU

15-CT

UU

18-CT

UU

12-52

15-52

18-52

21-52

20-52

17-52

14-52

11-52

19-CT

7-CT

9-CT

19-52

16-52

13-52

10-52

7-52

4-52

1-52

87 BB1

21-CT

UU

UU

9-52

8-52

4-CT

UU

1-CT

UU

6-CT

5-52

2-52

UU

3-CT

UU

6-52

3-52

BUS BAR PROTECTION


BUS BAR-1 PROTECTION

BUS-1

BUSBAR-1 PROTECTION TRIPPING SCHEME


HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1-52 CB

1-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

4-52 CB PANEL

REB 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
4-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

7-52 CB PANEL

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
7-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

DISPLAY

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
10-52 CB

10-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB

TO START 50 LBB

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
13-52 CB

13-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

16-52 CB PANEL

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
16-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

+VE

BUSBAR PANEL

1-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

4-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

7-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

10-52CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

13-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

16-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

BUSBAR-2 PROTECTION TRIPPING SCHEME


HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
3-52 CB

3-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

6-52 CB PANEL

REB 670
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
6-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

9-52 CB PANEL

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
9-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

DISPLAY

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
12-52 CB

12-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB

TO START 50 LBB

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
15-52 CB

15-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

18-52 CB PANEL

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
18-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

+VE

BUSBAR PANEL

3-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

6-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

9-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

12-52CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

15-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

18-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

DISTRIBUTED LBB & NUMERICAL CENTRALISED BUS BAR PROTECTION


(REB 500) ABB

(7 SS 52) SIEMENS

(MICOM P740) AREVA

OR

OR

OR

OR

14-52
15-52

13-52

11-52

10-52

BUS-2

12-52

7-52
8-52
9-52

5-52
6-52

4-52

2-52
3-52

1-52

BUS-1

LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN NUMERICAL CENTRALISED BUS BAR PROTECTION

ABB

SIEMENS

AREVA

BUSBAR
PROTECTION
CENTRAL UNIT
BAY UNIT
LINE
PROTECTION
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

TRANSFORMER
PROTECTION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

REC 316*4

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1. MAIN
IN THIS
-1

NO MAIN
SEPARATE
CORE
FOR
EITHER
BUSBAR
MAIN -2
MAIN
-1 IS REQUIRED
MAIN -2
MAIN
-1
-2
PROTECTION OR LBB / BFR.
CENTRALISED BUSBAR IS CONNECTED FROM BAY UNIT OR LBB
OR BFR THROUGH FIBRE OPTIC.
BAY UNIT / BFR / LBB IS CONNECTED FROM MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 OF
B/U
MAIN PROTECTION
B/U OF
LINE
ORMAIN
MAIN & B/U
BACKUP MAIN
PROTECTION
TRANSFORMER THROUGH FIBRE OPTIC FOR REDUNDANCY TO BAY
UNIT.
THE CURRENT DATA IS TRANSFERED TO BAY UNIT TO BUSBAR
CENTRAL UNIT FROM LINE / TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONS FOR
NUMIRICAL ALGORITHAM OF LBB & BUSBAR CENTRAL UNIT AND
IT WILL OPERATE FOR INTERNAL FAULTS AND DOES NOT OPERATE
FOR THROUGH / EXTERNAL FAULTS.

ABB Network Partner AG

2.
3.

DESCRIPTION
4.

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

REC 316*4

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

MISCELENEOUS
RELAYS & PROTECTIONS
ADOPTED FOR LINE IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
(STUB, TEED AND AUTO RECLOSURE
FUNCTIONS)
PREPARED BY

GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU


ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

LINE-1

STUB-1&2
(BAY 1&2)
1-89L
REL 521
REL 316

DISTANCE / ATF
RELAYS
CONVERTED
TO STUB/BUS
OVER LOAD
RELAYS WHEN
LINE ISOLATOR
OPENS

2-52CB

1-52CB

BUS-1

STUB-1/ STUB-2 PROTECTION


3-52CB

STUB-3&2
(BAY 3&2)
3-89T

BUS-2

AT/F-1

RET 521
RET 316

WHEN A LINE IS SUPPLIED VIA TWO CIRCUIT BREAKERS IN A ONE & HALF CIRCUIT
BREAKER ARRANGEMENT, THE LINE PROTECTION INCLUDES THE AREA BETWEEN THE TWO
CTs. HOWEVER, WHEN THE LINE ISOLATOR IS OPEN THE LINE CVTs FOR THE DISTANCE
PROTECTION ARE CONNECTED TO THE LINE AND CANNOT PROVIDE THE CORRECT VOLTAGE
FOR THE STUB END.(i.e THE AREA BETWEEN THE LINE ISOLATOR AND CTs) (STUB = DEAD
END)
TO PROVIDE PROTECTION FOR A FAULT IN THIS AREA, REL 521/ REL 316 IS
PROVIDED WITH A STUB PROTECTION WHICH GIVES AN BUS OVER CURRENT TRIP IF THE
LINE ISOLATOR IS OPEN AND THE CURRENT EXCEEDS THE SET VALUE IN ANY PHASE.

STUB-1 (BAY 1&2 OR


BAY 3&2) OPERATES

IT OPERATES THE 3-PH TRIP GR-A MAIN


CB (1-52CB OR 3-52CB)
AND 3-PH
TRIP GR-A TIE CB (2-52CB)

STUB-2 (BAY 1&2 OR

IT OPERATES THE 3-PH TRIP GR-B MAIN

2-52CB

TEED-1&2
(BAY 1&2)

1-52CB

BUS-1

TEED-1/ TEED-2 PROTECTION


3

3-52CB

BUS-2

TEED-1&2
(BAY 2&3)

LINE-1
AT/F-1
TEED PROTECTION IS BASED ON KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW. THREE SETS OF CTS
ARE CONNECTED IN STAR FASHION. SOME OF THE CURRENTS MUST BE ZERO. IF ANY
UNBALANCE CURRENTS ARE NOTICED THEN IMMEDIATELY TEED PROTECTION
OPERATES. IF TEED PROTECTION BAY 1&2 OPERATED THEN IT TRIPS 1-52CB & 2-52CB.
SIMILARLY IF TEED PROTECTION BAY 2&3 OPERATED THEN IT TRIPS 2-52CB & 3-52CB.

TEED-1
PROTECTION

TEED-2
PROTECTION

SUMMATION OF INDIVIDUAL PHASES OF T-SHAPED 3 CTs


BEFORE REACHING TO RELAY. THIS IS CIRCULATING
CURRENT PRINCIPLE. THE CURRENT FLOWING
THROUGH IS ZERO DURING BALANCED CONDITION.
HIGH IMPENDENCE THREE PHASE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY IS USED AS TEED-1 PROTECTION.
T- SHAPED 3 CTs ARE CONNECTED TO RELAY. THE RELAY
HAVING OPERATING COIL & RESTAIRING COIL. BASED
ON THE DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH
THE OPERATING COIL THE RELAY OPERATES.
LOW IMPEDENCE PERCENTAGE BIASED THREE
TERMINAL THREE PHASE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY IS USED
AS TEED-2 PROTECTION.

TEED-1 PROTECTION
P2 P2 P2

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

IR5
IY5
IB5

3 3 3

CORE-5

{BAY1&2}(5CT METHOD)

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

CLASS: PS

IN5

RADHA

P1 P1 P1
P2 P2 P2

IR5
IY5
IB5

2-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S2

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

CLASS: PS

IN5

ACTIVE START

TRIP

DISPLAY
C

P1 P1 P1

P2 P2 P2
1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

CLASS: PS

IN1
1S3

1S3

1S3

1S2

1S2

1S2

3 3 3

CORE-1

IB1
IY1
IR1
P1 P1 P1

IT WORKS ON CIRCULATING
CURRENT PRINCIPLE AND
IT IS HIGH IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY.
TEED-1 PROTECTION FOR
BAY 2&3 IS ALSO SAME AS
ABOVE AND THE
FOLLOWING CTs & CORES
ARE USED
3-CT(CORE-5), 2-CT(CORE-1)
& 3-TCT(CORE-1) ARE
STARRED AND CONNECTED
TO TEED-1 PROTECTION

TEED-2 PROTECTION

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

CLASS: PS

CT MB

RAICA
LBB/BFR

1-CT

{BAY1&2}(5CT METHOD)

RAICA
LBB/BFR

P2 P2 P2 CT MB

RADSB
ACTIVE

START

P2 P2 P2

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

3 3 3

TRIP

2-CT
CORE-4

DISPLAY

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2 CT MB
1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-2

2S3

2S3

2S3

2S2

2S2

2S2

TEED-2 PROTECTION FOR


BAY 2&3 IS ALSO SAME AS
ABOVE AND THE
FOLLOWING CTs & CORES
ARE USED. 3-CT(CORE-4),
2-CT(CORE-2) & 3-TCT
(CORE-2) ARE CONNECTED
TO TEED-2 PROTECTION.
IT WORKS ON KIRCHOFFS
CURRENT PRINCIPLE & IT IS
PERCENTAGE BIASED LOW
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY

TEED PROTECTION TRIP SCHEME


ABB
RADHA
TEED-1
86-A
MTR/
HSTR

TRIP COIL-1
1-52CB
TRIP COIL-2
BUS-1
86-B
ABB
REL521
MTR/
MAIN-1
HSTR

OR
ABB
(BAY 1&2)
REL521
STUB-1
(BAY 1&2)
(BAY 1&2)

ABB
RADSB
TEED-2
OR
ABB
REL316
STUB-2

ABB
RADHA
TEED-1
86-A
MTR/
HSTR
TRIP COIL-1
2-52CB
TRIP COIL-2

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

OR
ABB
RET521
STUB-1
(BAY 2&3)
(BAY 2&3)

ABB
RADSB
TEED-2
OR
ABB
RET316
STUB-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

TRIP COIL-1
3-52CB
TRIP COIL-2
BUS-2
86-B
MTR/
HSTR

86-A : GROUP-A MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY


86-B : GROUP-B MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY
LINE/TRANSFORMER ISOLATOR OPENS THIS INTERLOCK WILL INITIATE
MAIN-1 REL 521/ RET 521 & MAIN-2 REL 316/ RET 316 CONVERTED STUB-1 & 2 PROTECTION

AUTO RECLOSURE BASICS


FAULTS ARE THREE TYPES
1. TRANSIENT FAULT: These are cleared by the immediate tripping of
Circuit Breakers and do not reoccur when the line is re-energized.
2. SEMI-PERMANENT FAULTS: These require a time interval to disappear
before a line is charged again.
3. PERMANENT FAULTS: These are to be located and repaired before the
line is re-energized.
About 80-90% of the faults occurring are transient in nature. Hence the Automatic
Reclosure of breaker (after tripping on Fault) will result in the line being
successfully re-energized.
ADVANTAGES:
A. Decreasing outage time.
B. Improving Reliability.
C. Improving system stability.
D. Reduce fault damage and Maintenance Time.
DEAD TIME: The time between the Auto-reclosing Scheme being energized and
the operation of the contacts which energize the Circuit Breaker closing
circuit.
RECLAIM TIME: The Time Following a successful closing operation measured
from the instant the Auto-Reclosing relay closing contacts make which
must elapse before the Auto-Reclosing relay initiates another reclosing
attempt. In other words, it may be said to be the time between 1st and 2nd
Auto-Reclosure.

TYPES OF AUTO-RECLOSING SCHEMES:


1. BASED ON PHASE
A. THREE PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING: This type of Auto-Reclosing causes an
immediate drift part of the two systems and hence no interchange of synchronizing
power
can take place during the dead time.
B. SINGLE PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING: In this, only the faulty phase(only SLG Faults) is
reclosed without causing interruption in interchange synchronizing power between two
systems through other two healthy phases.
2. BASED ON ATTEMPTS OF RECLOSURE
A. SINGLE SHOT AUTO-RECLOSING: In this scheme, Breaker is reclosed only once on
a given fault before lockout of Circuit Breaker Occurs. High-Speed Auto-Reclosing for
EHT System is invariably Single Shot.
B. MULTI-SHOT AUTO-RECLOSING: In this scheme, more than one reclosing attempts
made for a given fault before lockout of Circuit Breaker occurs.
B.I. DISADVANTAGES: Repeated closure attempts has with high fault level would
seriously affect the Circuit Breaker, Equipment and System Stability.
B.ii. CIRCUIT BREAKER LIMITATIONS: Ability of Circuit Breaker to Perform several Trip
Close operations in quick succession.
B. iii. SYSTEM CONDITIONS: In the percentage of the semi-Permanent faults (which
could be burnt out) is moderate, For example on the lines through the forest, multi
shot Auto-Reclosing is followed.
3. DEPENDING ON SPEED:
A. HIGH-SPEED AUTO-RECLOSING: This aids in fast restoration of supply but should
be done by taking into account the following factors.
I. System disturbance time can be tolerated without loss of system stability.
ii. Characteristics of Protection Schemes and Circuit Breaker.
B. LOW SPEED OR DELAYED AUTO RECLOSING: This is suitable for highly interconnected systems where the loss of a single line is unlikely to cause two sections
of the system to drift apart and loose synchronism.

METHOD OF ADOPTION IN ONE AND HALF BREAKER SYSTEM:


The Auto-Reclosure Functions used for the Bus Breakers 1-52CB & 3-52CB are set
as Masters and one for the Center Breaker 2-52CB(TIE) as Follower. Co-ordination
is required between the Auto-Reclosure Functions. A Synchrocheck function is
also loaded in each Relay to permit 3 pole Auto-Reclosing.
Each Line Protection relays starts both MAIN & TIE Circuit Breakers to trip for the
Concerned line. After a Successful reclosure of the Main Breaker, The Tie Breaker
will be reclosed after a supplementary time delay. Should the Main CB AutoReclosure relay not be successful in its reclosing attempts, the Tie CB AutoReclosure is blocked. If the Main CB is Open or its Auto-Reclosure Relay is not
ready
or Out of service, The TIE CB Auto-Reclosure will reclose The TIE Breaker after its own
dead time without any supplementary time delay.
CHOICES OF EHV SYSTEM:
1. CHOICE OF DEAD TIME:
A. Lower limit is decided by deionising of Circuit Breaker.
B. Upper Limit is decided by Transient Stability and Synchronism.
C. Longer Transmission Lines Require Longer dead Time.
D. The dead time for High Speed Auto-Reclosing scheme with EHV System is 0.3 to
1.2 sec.
2. CHOICE OF RECLAIM TIME:
This should not be set to such a low value that the operating cycle of Breaker is
exceeded when two faults incident occurs close together. The reclaim time will be
in the range of 10 to 30 sec., depending the breaker opening and closing
mechanisms.
3. CHOICE OF ZONE:
This should normally kept in Zone-1. It is a Zone-1 fault and SLG fault only autoreclosure is comes in to picture. In other zones the auto reclosure is blocked.

AUTO-RECLOSURE FOR
ONE & HALF BREAKER SCHEME
TRIP COMMANDS
AUTO RECLOSURE
COMMANDS

79 (A/R)+
25(SYNC)
RAAAM
RASC

79 (A/R)+
25(SYNC)
RAAAM
RASC

79 (A/R)+
25(SYNC)
RAAAM
RASC

1-52CB

2-52CB

3-52CB

ABB Network Partner AG


ABB Network Partner AG

ABB Network Partner AG

LINE-1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

C
E

21 MAIN-1
REL 521

REL531

REL531

21 MAIN-2
REL 316

ABB Network Partner AG

REC 316*4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

LINE-2
C

21 MAIN-1
REL 521

REC 316*4

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

C
E

21 MAIN-2
REL 316

AUTO RECLOSING TIMING CHART

INSTANT OF FAULT

OPERATES

RESETS

TRANSIENT FAULT

PROTECTION
OPERATING
TIME

TRIP COIL CONTACTS


ARC
CONTACTS
ENERGISED SEPARATE EXTINGUISHED FULLY OPEN

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
OPENING
TIME

CLOSING
TIME

ARCING
TIME

OPERATING TIME
OPERATES

RESETS

PROTECTION

PERMANENT FAULT

CLOSING COIL CONTACTS CONTACTS


ENERGISED
MAKE FULLY CLOSED

OPERATES

RESETS

RECLOSE
ON TO FAULT

OPERATING
TIME

TRIP COIL CONTACTS


ARC
CONTACTS
ENERGISED SEPARATE EXTINGUISHED FULLY OPEN

CIRCUIT
BREAKER

DEAD TIME

OPENING
TIME

CLOSING COIL CONTACTS CONTACTS


ENERGISED
MAKE FULLY CLOSED

CLOSING
TIME

ARCING
TIME

OPERATING TIME

DEAD TIME

CONTACTS
ARC
CONTACTS
SEPARATE EXTINGUISHED FULLY OPEN

TRIP COIL
ENERGISED

SYSTEM DISTURBANCE TIME


RECLOSE INITIATED
BY PROTECTION

RELAY READY TO RESPOND


TO FURTHER FAULT INCIDENTS
(AFTER SUCEESFUL RECLOSRE)

AUTO RECLOSE
RELAY
DEAD TIME

CLOSING PULSE TIME


RECLAIM TIME

TIME

CARRIER
INTERTRIPPING
SCHEMES
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

TYPES OF CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


PERMISSIVE TRIPPING
Permissive trip commands are always monitored by a protection relay.
The circuit breaker is tripped when receipt of the command coincides
with operation of the protection relay at the receiving end responding to
a system fault. The receipt of an incorrect signal must coincide with
operation of the receiving end protection for a trip operation to take
place. Normally, the risk of a spurious trip is lesser. The intention of
these schemes is to speed up tripping for faults occurring within the
protected zone.

BLOCKING SCHEME
Blocking commands are initiated by a protection element that detects
faults external to the protected zone. Detection of an external fault at the
local end of a protected circuit results in a blocking signal being
transmitted to the remote end. At the remote end, receipt of the blocking
signal prevents the remote end protection operating if it had detected the
external fault. Loss of the communications channel is less serious for
this scheme than in others as loss of the channel does not result in a
failure to trip when required. However, the risk of a spurious trip is
higher.

TYPES OF CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


Conventional time-stepped distance protection has One of the main disadvantages is that the
instantaneous Zone 1 protection at each end of the protected line cannot be set to cover the whole
of the feeder length and is usually set to about 80%. This leaves two 'end zones', each being about
20% of the protected feeder length. Faults in these zones are cleared in Zone 1 time by the
protection at one end of the feeder and in Zone 2 time (typically 0.25 to 0.5 seconds) by the
protection at the other end of the feeder. This situation cannot be tolerated in some applications, for
two main reasons:
I). Faults remaining on the feeder for Zone 2 time may cause the system to become unstable.
II). Where high-speed auto-reclosing is used, the non-simultaneous opening of the circuit.
Breakers at both ends of the faulted section results in no 'dead time' during the auto- reclose cycle
for the fault to be extinguished and for ionized gases to clear. This results in the possibility that a
transient fault will cause permanent lockout of the circuit breakers at each end of the line section.
Even where instability does not occur, the increased duration of the disturbance may give rise to
power quality problems, and may result in increased plant damage.
Unit schemes of protection that compare the conditions at the two ends of the feeder
simultaneously positively identify whether the fault is internal or external to the protected section
and provide high-speed protection for the whole feeder length. This advantage is balanced by the
fact that the unit scheme does not provide the back up protection for adjacent feeders given by a
distance scheme.
The most desirable scheme is obviously a combination of the best features of both arrangements,
that is, instantaneous tripping over the whole feeder length plus back-up protection to adjacent
feeders. This can be achieved by interconnecting the distance protection relays at each end of the
protected feeder by a communications channel.
The purpose of the communications channel is to transmit information about the system conditions
from one end of the protected line to the other, including requests to initiate or prevent tripping of
the remote circuit breaker. The former arrangement is generally known as a 'transfer tripping
scheme' while the latter is generally known as a 'blocking scheme'. However, the terminology of the
various schemes varies widely, according to local custom and practice.

TYPES OF CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


1. ZONE 1 EXTENSION SCHEME (Z1X SCHEME)
2. TRANSFER TRIPPING SCHEMES
I. DIRECT UNDER REACH TRANSFER TRIP SCHEME (DUTT)
II. PERMISSIVE UNDER REACH TRANSFER TRIP SCHEME (PUTT)
III. PUTT FWD SCHEME
IV. PERMISSIVE UNDER REACH ACCELERATED SCHEME
V. PERMISSIVE OVER REACH TRANSFER TRIP SCHEME (POTT)
VI. WEEK IN FEED CONDITIONS.
3. BLOCKING OVER REACHING SCHEMES
I. BLOCKING OVER-REACHING PROTECTION SCHEME USING ZONE 2.
OR DIRECTIONAL COMPARISION BLOCKING SCHEME

II. BLOCKING OVER-REACHING PROTECTION SCHEME USING ZONE 1.


III. WEEK IN FEED CONDITIONS.
4. DIRECTIONAL COMPARISON UNBLOCKING SCHEME

PROPERTIES OF COMMAND PROTECTION SYSTEMS


OPERATING
MODE

UNDER
REACHING
SENDING

OVER
REACHING
SENDING

PERMISSIVE
CRITERIA
RECEIVING

GENERAL
REQUIREMENTS

UNDER IMPEDENCE
UNDER VOLTAGE
OVER CURRENT
DISTANE &
DIRECTION

SECURE &
FAST

PERMISSIVE
UNDER
REACH
(PUTT)

ZONE-1

- - -

PERMISSIVE
OVER
REACH
(POTT)

- - -

ZONE-2

DIRECT
TRIP

ZONE-1

- - -

DISTANCE &
DIRECTION

DEPENDABLE

ACCELERAT
ED UNDER
REACH

ZONE-1

- - -

ZONE-2

SECURE &
FAST

BLOCKING
OVER
REACH

- - -

REVERSE
LOCKING

DISTANCE &
DIRECTION

FAST &

SECURE &
FAST
SECURE &

DEPENDABLE

PREFFERED APPLICATIONS OF TELE/ CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


PARAMETERS

Signal
Transmis
sion
System

PUTT

POTT

Dependable and secure


communication
channel
1. Power line carrier with
frequency
shift
modulation. HF signal
coupled to 2 phases of
the protected line, or
even better, to a parallel
circuit
to
avoid
transmission of the HF
signal through the fault
location.
2.
Microwave
radio,
especially digital(PCM)
3. Fibre -optic cables

BLOCKING

UNBLOCKING

Reliable
communicati
on
channel
(only
required
during
external
faults)
1. Power
line
carrier
With
amplitude
Modulation
(ON/OFF).
The
same
frequency
may be used
on all
terminals)

Dedicated
channel
With
continuous
signal
Transfer
1.
Power
line
carrier
With
frequency
shift keying.
Continuous
Signal
transmission
must
be
permitted.

Characte Best suited 1. Excellent All line types Same as

for longer
coverage
ristic
POTT
lines On short
Preferred

COMPARISION OF TELE/ CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


On normal two-terminal lines the main deciding factors in the choice of the type
of scheme, apart from the reliability of the signalling channel, operating speed
and the method of operation of the system. Table compares the important
characteristics of the various types of scheme.

Transfer
Tripping
Scheme

Criterion

Blocking
scheme

Speed of
operation

Fast

Not as Fast

Speed with inservice testing

Slower

As fast

Suitable for auto


Re Close

Yes

Yes

Security against mal-operation due to:


Current reversal
Special features
Special features
required
required
Loss of

Poor

good

ADVANTAGES & DRAWBACKS OF TELE/ CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


PARAMETERS
PUTT
POTT
BLOCKING
UNBLO

CKING
ADVANT
AGES

1. Simple technique
2. No coordination
Of zones and times
With the opposite
End required.
3.The combination
Of different relay
Types therefore
presents no
Problems.

1. Can be applied
without Under
reaching zone1 stage
(e.g.
overcompensated
Series compensated
lines).
2. Can be applied on
Extremely short lines
(impedance less than
minimum relay
setting)
3. Better for parallel
lines as mutual
coupling is not critical
for the overreach
zone
4. Weak in feed
terminals are no
problem. (Echo and
Weak In feed logic is
included)

Same as
POTT

Same as
POTT
but:
1. If no
signal is
Received
(no
block and
no
unblock)
then
tripping by
the
overreach
zone
is released
after 20
ms

DRAWBA
CKS

1. Overlapping
of the zone 1
reaches must
be ensured. On
parallel lines,

1. Zone reach and signal


timing coordination with the
Remote end is necessary
(current reversal).

Same as POTT
1. Slow tripping all
Tele-protection trips
must be delayed to

Same as
POTT

ADVANTAGES & DRAWBACKS OF TELE/ CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES


POTT

Not Suitable as the


Zone1 Operation is
essential and Zone1
setting in X and R
direction must be
small on Short Lines.

Suitable as the Z1B


setting may be
substantially larger than
the Line impedance so
that signal Transmission
is secure for all faults on
the Line.

Suitable as
Suitable Same as
Reverse Reach
POTT.
Setting is
independent of Line
Length.

Not Suitable as the


Zone1 Operation is
essential at Both
Ends for 100%
Coverage.

Suitable as the Strong


end detects all the Line
Faults with the OverReaching Z1B. The
Weak In-feed end then
echos the received
Signal.

Partially Suitable
Suitable Same as
as the Reverse Fault POTT.
is also Detected at
the Weak In-feed
end but no trip at
Weak In-feed end.

Amplitude
Modulated
Power Line
Carrier

Not Suitable as the


Signal must be Transmitted through the
Fault Location which
Attenuates the Signal.

Not Suitable same


as PUTT.

Suitable as the
Signal is only sent
when the Line is
not Faulted.

Not Suitable Same


as PUTT.

Frequency or
Phase
Modulated
Power Line
Carrier

Suitable as the
Signal can be
Transmitted through
the Fault Location.

Suitable same as
PUTT.

Suitable as the
Signal can be
Transmitted under
all Conditions.

Suitable Same as
PUTT.

Suitable.

Suitable.

Suitable.

Suitable.

PARAMETERS

Short Line

Weak Infeed

Communication

BLOCKING

UNBLOCKI
NG

PUTT

NSD 50/
NSD 70
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

ALARM-1
250V DC

PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL


C
S

2+
5-

C
R

6+

ALARM-2
250V DC

DISPLAY
C

1-

C
S

910+
10

C
R

1314+

G4AA TB: V9LB

TX
TRIP
A(C)

RX
TRIP
A(C)

C
S

2+

G4AC TB: V9LC

5-

C
R

TX
TRIP
B(D)

RX
TRIP
B(D)

1-

6+

C
S

910+

C
R

1314+

TX
TRIP
C(A)

RX
TRIP
C(A)

TX
TRIP
D(B)

RX
TRIP
D(B)

GA4D TB:V9LC

PROTECTION COUPLERS FOR 400KV LINE

FOR EACH LINE 2Nos PROTECTION COUPLER PANELS PROVIDED.


FOR EACH LINE 1NO CARRIER SPEECH PANEL PROVIDED.
SO, ONE LINE REQUIRES TOTAL 3 PANELS.
CARRIER SPEECH PANEL PURELY FOR VOICE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN
TWO SUBSTATIONS, i.e THE LINE CONNECTED SUBSTATIONS.
THE VOICE COMMUNICATION ARE TWO METHODS PROVIDED.
ONE IS HOTLINE COMMUNICATION/DEDICATED/ LIFT&TALK METHOD.
ANOTHER IS DIAL METHOD.
IN PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL-1 TOTAL 3 CARDS ARE IMPORTANT FOR
SENDING & RECEIVING TRIP SIGNALS.
ONE CARD FOR ALARM i.e G4AA. ONE CARD FOR PERMISSIVE/PROTECTION
TRIP i.e G4AC & ANOTHER CARD FOR DIRECT TRIPS i.e G4AD.
IN PROTECTION COUPLER-2 PANEL ALSO 3 CARDS ARE PROVIDED SIMILAR TO
PROTECTION COUPLER-1 PANEL.
THE PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL DRAWING IS SHOWN IN PREVIOUS MENU.
1SET TX & RX FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION TRIP(G4AC)
1SET TX & RX FOR BACKUP FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION IN ANOTHER
PANEL(G4AC).
1SET TX & RX FOR DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-1( G4AD).
1SET TX & RX FOR SPARE UNDER EMERGENCY(G4AD).
THE ABOVE ARRANGEMENT SIMILAR FOR PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL-2.
G4AA CARD FOR ALARM.

NSD 50

MAIN-1 PROTECTION CARRIER INTER TRIPPING


G4AC V9LC 1
G4AC V9LC 6

CARRIER RECEIVE

G4AC V9LC 5

ABB

REL521
CR
-VE
CS

G4AC V9LC 2

CARRIER SEND

G4AA V9LB 5
G4AA V9LB 6
PANEL-1

NSD 50

ABB

IN OUT

ALARM

+VE

-VE

G4AC V9LC 10
G4AC V9LC 13
G4AC V9LC 14

ABB

G4AC V9LC 9

PANEL-2

THIS IS BACKUP FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION TRIP


AND CONNECTED IN ANOTHER PANEL

NSD 50

MAIN-2 PROTECTION CARRIER INTER TRIPPING


G4AC V9LC 1
G4AC V9LC 6

CARRIER RECEIVE

G4AC V9LC 5

ABB

REL316
CR
-VE
CS

G4AC V9LC 2

CARRIER SEND

G4AA V9LB 5
G4AA V9LB 6
PANEL-2

NSD 50

ABB

IN OUT

ALARM

+VE

-VE

G4AC V9LC 10
G4AC V9LC 13
G4AC V9LC 14

ABB

G4AC V9LC 9

PANEL-1

THIS IS BACKUP FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION TRIP


AND CONNECTED IN ANOTHER PANEL

DIRECT TRIP SEND CARRIER CHANNEL-1


96 BUSBAR PROT-2 PANEL

PANEL-1

87 BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-2)

ABB
NSD 50

96 BUSBAR PROT-1 PANEL


87 BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-1)

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

CONTROL PANEL
T NC

MAIN CB(1-52CB)

TIE CB (2-52 CB)

T NC

TIE CB(2-52CB)

MAIN CB (1-52 CB)

G4AD V9LC 2
G4AD V9LC 1

50 LBB/BFR FOR MAIN CB / RAICA


59L1 / OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1
59L2 / OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2
87 HZ / TEED-1 PROTECTION
87 LZ / TEED-2 PROTECTION
50 LBB/BFR FOR TIE CB / RAICA

DC VE FROM PANEL
CONDITIONS FOR DIRECT TRIP
1. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + MAIN CB REMOTE
2. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + TIE CB REMOTE H
3. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + 96 BUSBAR-1 OPER
4. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + 96 BUSBAR-2 OPE
5. MAIN CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
6. TIE CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
7. 59L1 OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1 OPERATED.
8. 59L2 OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2 OPERATED.
9. 87 HZ TEED-1 PROTECTION OPERATED
10. 87 LZ TEED-2 PROTECTION OPERATED.

DIRECT TRIP SEND CARRIER CHANNEL- 2


96 BUSBAR PROT-2 PANEL

PANEL-2

87 BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-2)

ABB
NSD 50

96 BUSBAR PROT-1 PANEL


87 BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-1)

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

CONTROL PANEL
T NC

MAIN CB(1-52CB)

TIE CB (2-52 CB)

T NC

TIE CB(2-52CB)

MAIN CB (1-52 CB)

G4AD V9LC 2
G4AD V9LC 1

50 LBB/BFR FOR MAIN CB / RAICA


59L1 / OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1
59L2 / OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2
87 HZ / TEED-1 PROTECTION
87 LZ / TEED-2 PROTECTION
50 LBB/BFR FOR TIE CB / RAICA

DC VE FROM PANEL
CONDITIONS FOR DIRECT TRIP
1. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + MAIN CB REMOTE
2. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + TIE CB REMOTE H
3. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + 96 BUSBAR-1 OPER
4. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + 96 BUSBAR-2 OPE
5. MAIN CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
6. TIE CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
7. 59L1 OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1 OPERATED.
8. 59L2 OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2 OPERATED.
9. 87 HZ TEED-1 PROTECTION OPERATED
10. 87 LZ TEED-2 PROTECTION OPERATED.

DIRECT TRIP RECEIVE CHANNEL-1&2


PANEL-1

ABB
NSD 50

TO 86-A MASTER TRIP RELAY


(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
MAIN CB(152CB)
TO 86-A MASTER TRIP RELAY
(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
TIE CB(252CB)

DC +VE
G4AD V9LC 6
G4AD V9LC 5
PANEL-2

DIRECT TRIP-1
CARRIER RECEIVE
RELAY

+VE

-VE

ABB
NSD 50

TO 86-B MASTER TRIP RELAY


(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
MAIN CB(152CB)

DC +VE

TO 86-B MASTER TRIP RELAY


(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
TIE CB(252CB)

G4AD V9LC 6
G4AD V9LC 5

DIRECT TRIP-2
CARRIER RECEIVE
RELAY

PLCC CARRIER PROTECTION SYSTEM


(TELEPROTECTION)
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521
MAIN-1
PROTECTION
C

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
NSD 50
PANEL

NSD 50
PANEL
PLCC
PANEL

ELECTRICAL POWER LINE

PLCC
PANEL
NSD 50
PANEL

NSD 50
PANEL
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316
MAIN-2
PROTECTION

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

FIBRE OPTIC PROTECTION SYSTEM


(TELEPROTECTION)
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521
MAIN-1
PROTECTION
C

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

TUNOS

TUNOS

FOX-U
FOX-515

FOX-U
FOX-515

GECOD/ SIFOX

NSD 70
PANEL

NSD 70
PANEL
GECOD/ SIFOX

NSD 70
PANEL

NSD 70
PANEL

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316
MAIN-2
PROTECTION

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

FIBRE OPTIC CARRIER PROTECTION SYSTEM


(TELEPROTECTION)
DIGITAL RELAY CONNECTION VIA FIBRE OPTIC
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521
MAIN-1
PROTECTION

ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

TUNOS

FOX-U
FOX-515

REC 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316
MAIN-2
PROTECTION

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

OTERM

TUNOS

OTERM

FOX-U
FOX-515

REC 316*4

MAIN-1 & MAIN-2


PROTECTION FOR
AUTO TRANSFORMER
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS OF TRANSFORMER PROTECTION


1.

2.

3.

PURPOSE OF POWER TRANSFORMER PROTECTION


POWER T/F PROTECTION IS USUALLY INSTALLED TO DISCONNECT THE T/F AT:
A. INTERNAL SHORT CIRCUITS AND EARTH FAULTS IN THE T/F AND ITS CONNECTED
CIRCUITS.
B. EXTERNAL FAULTS ON OTHER CIRCUITS. (BACK-UP PROTECTION)
C. ABNORMAL SERVICE CONDITIONS SUCH AS OVERLOAD & OVER VOLTAGE.
PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON POWER T/F
A. OIL IMMERSED POWER T/F USUALLY HAVE A GAS DETECTOR AND OIL SURGE.
DETECTOR (BUCHHOLZ ALARAM & TRIP DEVICES), WHICH ARE EXCELLENT FOR
DETECTING INTERNAL FAULTS.
B. LOAD TAPCHANGER COMPARTMENTS MAY HAVE A SIMILAR OVER PRESSURE DEVICE.
C. TEMPARATURE MONITORS FOR OIL & WINDING PROVIDE GOOD OVER LOAD
PROTECTION.
D. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE IS PROVIDED TO SAFE GUARD THE T/F FROM HIGH
PRESURES.
TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
IT IS WIDELY USED AS INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION FOR SHORT CIRCUIT FAULTS
WITH IN THE DIFFERENTIAL ZONE. THIS IS TREATED AS MAIN-1 PROT FOR T/F.
THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF PROTECTION IS THE CURRENT RESTRAINT TYPE.
SOME TYPE OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS REQUIRE INTERPOSING CTs FOR CT RATIO
MATCHING AND/OR PHASE SHIFT.
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION CAN BE USED ON AUTO T/F & REACTORS.
IT COVERS ONE GALVANICALLY INTERCONNECTED WINDING (WDG DIFF). BUT NOT A
SEPARATE TERTIARY WINDING.
IT REQUIRES A THREE PHASE SET OF CTs AT THE NEUTRAL SIDE OF WINDING.

4.RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION


AT/Fs are used to couple EHV Power Networks, If the Ratio of their Voltages is Moderate.
An Alternative
to Differential Protection that can be applied to AT/Fs. A Circulating Current System is arranged between
Equal Ratio Current Transformers in the Two Groups of Line Connections and the Neutral End
Connections. The Line Current Transformers can be connected in Parallel to A Single Element Relay, Thus
providing a Scheme Responsive to Earth Faults Only. If Current Transformers are fitted in Each Phase at
the Neutral End of the Windings and a Three-Element Relay is used, A Differential System can be provided,
giving Full Protection against Phase and Earth Faults. This Provides High-speed Sensitive Protection. It is
Unaffected by Ratio Changes on the Transformer due to Tap-changing and is immune to the Effects of
Magnetizing In Rush Current. It does not respond to Interturn Faults. In Addition, This Scheme does not
respond to any Fault in a Tertiary Winding. Unloaded Delta-connected Tertiary Windings are often not
Protected.

5. BACK UP PROTECTION
A VARIETY OF RELAYS ARE AVAILABLE.
A. OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N - ANY COMBINATION OF THESE)
B. UNDER IMPEDENCE / DISTANCE ( Z<)(21T).
C. NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT PROTECTION (Un>).

6.OTHER TYPES OF RELAYS


A. OVER VOLTAGE RELAY (U >).
B. OVER FLUX/ EXCITATION (V/F >)( INVERSE TIME & DIFENITE TIME).
FOR 400KV/220KV & 765/400KV TRANSFORMERS BOTH SIDES( i.e HV & LV) OVER FLUX RELAYS ARE
PROVIDED BECAUSE BOTH SIDES HAVING GRID.
C. AT/F NEUTRAL CURRENT RELAY (51N).

NORMALLY ADOPTED POWER TRANSFORMERS CAPACITIES IN 400KV / 220KV


CAPACITY OF
TRANSFORMER

HV VOLTAGE HV CURRENT

LV VOLTAGE

LV
CURRENT

315 MVA

400 KV

454.68 A

220 KV

0826.68 A

500 MVA

400 KV

721.71 A

220 KV

1312.20 A

630 MVA

400 KV

909.35 A

220 KV

1653.37 A

NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED IN APTRANSCO


FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS & AUTO TRANSFORMERS
BACK UP
PROTECTION
S.No

CAPA
CITY

16
MVA
31.5
MVA
50
MVA
80
MVA
31.5

MAIN
PROTECTION

132KV/11
KV

132KV/33
KV

87T DIFFER

7.5
MVA
16
MVA
25
MVA
31.5
MVA

VOLTAGE
RATIO

HV

LV

3 OL +
1 DIR
EL

3 OL +
1 EL

3 OL +
1 DIR
EL

3 OL +
1 EL

3 OL +

3 OL +

ADDITI
ONAL
PROTE
CTION

SPECIA
L
PROTE
CTION

BUCHH
OLZ,
OLTC
OSR
OIL
TEMP
WDNG
TEMP

NIL

MAIN / DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FOR AT/F


(4 CT METHOD)

3-CT
5S4

5S4

5S4

5S3

5S3

5S3

3 CT METHOD : 3-CT & 2-CT


4 CT METHOD : 3-CT & 2-ACT
6 CT METHOD : 3-ACT & 2-ACT

CLASS: PS

TRIP

5S1

5S1

5S3

5S3

5S3

3 3 3

LV-CT
CORE-5

DISPLAY

CTR: 1200-800/1A

CLASS: PS

CT MB

3 3 3

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

START

5S1

P2 P2 P2

2-ACT
CORE-5

RET 521/
RET 316
RADSB

ACTIVE

5S3

5S3

5S3

5S4

5S4

5S4

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

AUX.CT Y/
0.91 / 0.577A

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

CT MB

AUX.CT Y/
0.689 / 0.577A

AUX.CT Y/
0.91 / 0.577A

P2 P2 P2 CT MB

IN CASE OF 1&1/2 CB
SYSTEM, THE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION CTs
ASSOCIATED WITH MAIN &
TIE CBs SHOULD BE
CONNECTED TO SEPARATE
BIAS WINDINGS AND THESE
SHOULD NOT BE PARALLED
IN ORDER TO AVOID FALSE
OPERATION DUE TO
DISSIMILAR CT TRANSIENT
RESPONSE.

MAIN / DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FOR AT/F


(5 CT METHOD)

3-TCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S3

5S3

5S3

AUX.CT Y/
0.91 / 0.577A

P2 P2 P2 CT MB

RET 521/
RET 316
RADSB

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

AUX.CT Y/
0.689 / 0.577A

CT MB

5S1

5S1

5S1

5S3

5S3

5S3

3 3 3

P2 P2 P2
LV-CT
CORE-5

DISPLAY

CTR: 1200-800/1A

CLASS: PS

NORMALLY LOW
IMPEDENCE BIASED
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
IS USED FOR
TRANSFORMER
DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION

SELECTION OF AUX.CTs FOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

NORMALLY 400KV/220KV AUTO TRANSFORMERS ARE OF CAPACITY 315MVA.


FOR MERZ PRICE PROTECTION IF TRANSFORMER IS CONNECTED IN STAR/STAR
THEN CT SECONDARIES ARE TO BE CONNECTED IN DELTA/DELTA.
CORRECT RATIO CTs ARE NOT AVAILABLE, THEN AUX.CTs ARE TO BE PROVIDED
FOR ACHEVING SUITABLE CURRENTS.
IF AUX CTs ARE USING THEN MAIN CT SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN STAR.
THIS IS BROUGHT TO AUX CTs. AUX CTs PRIMARY IS CONNECTED IN STAR &
SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN DELTA.
NORMALLY THE RELAY RATED CURRRENT IS 1A.
AUX.CT s SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN DELTA. FOR ACHIEVING 1A TO
RELAY, AUX.CT SECONDARY CURRENT IS TO BE 0.577A.
THE FULL LOAD PRIMARY CURRENT OF 315MVA AT/F IS 454.7A.
BUT THE 400KV CTs RATIOs ARE AVAILABLE : 2000-1000-500/1A
NEAREST VALUE TO FULL LOAD CURRENT IS 500/1A. HENCE IT IS ADOPTED.
HENCE AT FULL LOAD HV CURRENT i.e 454.7A, THEN SECONDARY OF CT
CURRENT WILL BE 0.91A.
SO HV SIDE AUX.CT RATIO IS 0.91/0.577A.
THE FULL LOAD SECONDARY CURRENT OF 315MVA AT/F IS 826.7A.
BUT THE 220KV CTs RATIOs ARE AVAILABLE: 1200-800/1A.
NEAREST VALUE TO FULL LOAD CURRENT IS 1200/1A. HENCE IT IS ADOPTED.
HENCE AT FULL LOAD LV CURRENT i.e 826.7A,THEN SECONDARY OF CT CURRENT
WILL BE 0.689A.
SO LV SIDE AUX CT RATIO IS 0.689/0.577A.
SPECIAL INFORMATION: LATEST NUMERICAL RELAYS NEED NOT REQUIRE AUX
CTs. IN THESE RELAYS, CT RATIOS MATCHING CAN BE PROGRAMMED.

BACKUP PROTECTION FOR AT/F HV


(4 CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2 CT MB

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
RAICA IB4 / C451
LBB / BFR
IN4 / C471
50Z

3-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S3

4S3

4S3

3 CT METHOD : 3-CT & 2-CT


4 CT METHOD : 3-CT & 2-ACT
6 CT METHOD : 3-ACT & 2-ACT

CLASS: PS

START

C
4S3

4S3

4S4

4S4

4S4

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

IB4 / C451
IY4 / C431
IR4 / C411

VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

3 3 3
E172
E174

CT MB

4S3

VY11 / E131

TRIP

DISPLAY

3 3 3

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

RAPDK
DIR O/L & E/F
REL 505
ACTIVE

2-ACT
CORE-4

VR11 / E111

3 3

CVT
SELECTION
BUS-1 CVT /
BUS-2 CVT /
LINE CVT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

BACKUP PROTECTION FOR AT/F HV


(5 CT METHOD)
VR11 / E111

P2 P2 P2 CT MB

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451

3-TCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S3

4S3

4S3

RAPDK
DIR O/L & E/F
REL 505
ACTIVE

START

VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

TRIP

3 3 3
E172
E174

IN4 / C471

DISPLAY
C

3 3

CVT
SELECTION
BUS-1 CVT /
BUS-2 CVT /
LINE CVT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

BACKUP PROTECTION FOR AT/F LV


P1 P1 P1 CT MB
LV-CT
CTR: 1200 800 /1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S2

4S2

4S2

4S1

4S1

4S1

CLASS: PS
P2 P2 P2

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
RAICA IB4 / C451
LBB / BFR
IN4 / C471
50Z

VR11 / E111

RAPDK
DIR O/L & E/F
REL 505
ACTIVE

START

VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

TRIP

3 3 3
E172
E174

DISPLAY

3 3
VOLTAGE

SELECTION
BUS-1 PT /

BUS-2 PT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

MISCELLENEOUS
RELAYS & PROTECTIONS
ADOPTED FOR
AUTO TRANSFORMER IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
(OVER FLUX & REF FUNCTIONS)
PREPARED BY

GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU


ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

OVER EXCITATION/FLUX RELAY


{FOR AUTO TRANSFORMER HV & LV}

VOLTAGE
SELECTION

RATUB
V/F RELAY
HV

CVT SELECTION
BUS-1 CVT /
BUS-2 CVT /
LINE CVT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

RATUB
V/F RELAY
LV

BUS-1 PT /
BUS-2 PT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F


RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY
P2 P2 P2
400KV HV
CORE-1

S2

S2

S2

S1

S1

S1

3 3 3

BUSHING CT

RADHD
ACTIVE START

TRIP

CTR: 1000/1A

CLASS: PS
P1 P1 P1
P1 P1 P1

NEUTRAL
CORE-1

S1

S1

S1

S2

S2

S2

3 3 3

BUSHING CT
CTR: 1000/ 1A

CLASS: PS
P2 P2 P2
P1 P1 P1
220KV LV
CORE-1
CTR: 1000/1A

S1

S1

S1

S2

S2

S2

3 3 3

BUSHING CT

DISPLAY

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F


3-PH HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
P2 P2 P2
400KV HV
CORE-1

S2

S2

S2

S1

S1

S1

3 3 3

BUSHING CT

RADHA
ACTIVE START

TRIP

CTR: 1000/1A

CLASS: PS
P1 P1 P1
P1 P1 P1

NEUTRAL
CORE-1

S1

S1

S1

S2

S2

S2

3 3 3

BUSHING CT
CTR: 1000/ 1A

CLASS: PS
P2 P2 P2
P1 P1 P1
220KV LV
CORE-1
CTR: 1000/1A

S1

S1

S1

S2

S2

S2

3 3 3

BUSHING CT

DISPLAY

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

315MVA, 400KV/220KV AT/F VOLAGE SELECTION


BUS-1

LINE1

1-52CB

2-52CB

3-52CB

BUS-2

AT/F-1

FEEDER HAVING LINE CVTs &BUSES ARE HAVING BUS CVTs BUT AT/Fs ARE
NOT HAVING CVTs. FOR TRANSFORMER PANEL, PT SUPPLY IS SELECTED AS
PER SELECTION DESCRIBED BELOW FOR METERING AND PROTECTION,
WHICH IS FIRST SELECTED .

BUS-1
CVT

If AT/F is feeding from Bus-1 and 1-52CB & 2-52CB is closed. Then
Bus-1 CVT is selected and this supply is extended to Control &
Relay Panels for Auto Transformer.

BUS-2
CVT

If AT/F is feeding from Bus-2 and 3-52 CB is closed & 2-52CB is


open. Then Bus-2 CVT is selected and this supply is extended to
Control & Relay Panels for Auto Transformer.

LINE
CVT

If AT/F is feeding from Direct Line and 2-52CB is closed & 1-52 CB
& 3-52 CB is open and 389T ISO is Closed . Then line CVT is
selected and this supply is extended to Control & Relay Panels for
Auto Transformer.

MAIN-1 & MAIN-2


PROTECTION FOR
SHUNT REACTOR
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS OF SHUNT REACTOR

1. TYPES OF REACTORS :
A. BASED ON REACTOR CONNECTION
i. SHUNT REACTOR.
ii. SERIES REACTOR.
B. BASED ON REACTOR LOCATION
i. BUS REACTOR
ii. LINE REACTOR
C. BASED ON CONTROL
i. 3-PH OIL IMMERSED REACTOR WITH GAPPED IRON CORE.
ii. THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR (STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR)
(APTRANSCO UTILISING SHUNT REACTORS FOR BUS & LINE IN 400KV NETWORK)
2. NEED OF SHUNT REACTOR:
A. LINE REACTOR
SHUNT REACTORS ARE USED IN ORDER TO COMPENSATE FOR THE CAPACITIVE SHUNT
REACTANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES. THE REACTOR IS CONNECTED PARALLEL TO THE LINE. THE
LOCATION OF REACTOR IS OUT GOING SIDE OF LINE i.e AFTER CIRCUIT BREAKER. LENGTH OF LINE
IS MORE THERE MAY BE VOLTAGE IS RAISING DUE TO FARANTI EFFECT(CAPACITANCE) DURING
CHARGING. IN CASE OF ZONE-2 (OPEN JUMPER) FAULT, THE FAULT CLEARED BY REMOTE END IS
FAST, BUT THIS END IT WILL TAKE TIME DELAY DUE TO ZONE-2. DURING THIS TIME, VOLTAGE MAY
RAISING. SO, LINE REACTOR IS USED FOR CONTROLLING THE SWITCHING OVER VOLTAGES AND
SAFEGUARD THE OPERATING EQUIPMENT. NORMALLY IT IS ALWAYS IN SERVICE. NORMALLY BOTH
ENDS LINE REACTORS ARE PROVIDED. THE ELECTRICAL INTERLOCK IS PROVIDED THAT IF
REACTOR ISOLATOR CLOSSED POSITION ONLY WILL GIVE PERMIT TO CLOSE THE LINE ISOLATOR.
SIMILARLY FOR OPENING REACTOR ISOLATOR THE LINE ISOLATOR SHOULD BE IN OPEN POSITION.
NEUTRAL REACTOR CONNECTED BETWEEN THE STAR POINT OF EHV SHUNT REACTOR AND THE
GROUND, LIMITS THE SECONDARY ARC CURRENT TO A LOW VALUE OF AROUND 10 AMPS
TYPICALLY FOR 400KV SYSTEM TO ENSURE COMPLETE DE-IONISATION OF ARC PATH WHEN EHV
SYSTEM DEVELOPS A SINGLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT. ARC EXTINCTION DURING LINE SINGLEPHASE AUTORECLOSE DEAD TIME IS ASSISTED BY THIS NEUTRAL REACTOR.

3.

4.

B. BUS REACTOR
THE REACTOR IS CONNECTED PARALLEL TO THE BUS i.e LIKE A FEEDER/LINE.
DURING LIGHTLY LOADED CONDITIONS THERE MAY BE POSSIBULITY OF RAISING
BUS VOLTAGES. FOR SAFEGUARD THE OPERATING EQUIPMENT BUS REACTORS
ARE UTILISING. NORMALLY IT IS NOT IN SERVICE. WHENEVER THE VOLTAGE
RAISES TO 4%TO 5% MORE THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT IN
SERVICE AND 2% TO 3% LESS THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT OUT
OF SERVICE.
SELECTION OF REACTOR
A. LINE REACTOR
NORMALLY LINE REACTORS ARE PROVIDED IF THE LINE IS MORE OR EQUAL TO
250KM. IN APTRANSCO NETWORK MAXIMUM LENTH OF LINE IS 350KM. AS PER
SYSTEM STUDIES RECOMANDATIONS IF LINE LENGTH IS 250KM TO 300KM 50MVAR
REACTOR IS TO BE USED. IF MORE THAN 300KM 63MVAR REACTOR IS TO BE USED.
B. BUS REACTOR
NORMALLY BUS REACTORS ARE PROVIDED IF THE SUBSTATION BUS VOLTAGE IS
RAISING 5% MORE THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE DURING LIGHTLY LOADED
CONDITION. BASED ON THE SYSTEM STUDIES RECOMANDATIONS BUS REACTORS
ARE TO BE PROVIDED. CALCULATIONS ARE REQUIRED FOR PROVIDING BUS
REACTOR. IN THIS THERE IS NO STANDARDISATION.
LOCATION OF REACTORS WITH CAPACITY IN APTRANSCO
A. LINE REACTOR
1. 400KV KALAPAKA-KHAMMAM 1 AT BOTH ENDS 63MVAR
2. 400KV KALAPAKA-KHAMMAM 2 AT BOTH ENDS 63MVAR
B. BUS REACTOR
1. 400KV KALAPAKA SS 2 X 50 MVAR
2. 400KV NUNNA SS(PGCIL BAYS) 1 x 63 MVAR

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


THE PURPOSE OF THE PROTECTION RELAYING IS TO DISCONNECT THE REACTOR AND
LIMIT DAMAGE IN CASE OF INTERNAL SHORT CIRCUITS, EARTH FAULTS, INTERTURN
FAULTS AND OVER VOLTAGE OR OVER LOAD.THE REACTOR FORMS CERTAIN IMPEDENCE
FOR RATED FREQUENCY, AND AS IT IS SHUNT CONNECTED, AS OVER LOAD MAY BE
CAUSED BY OVER VOLTAGE OR HARMONICS IN VOLTAGE AND CURRENT.
PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON REACTOR
A. OIL IMMERSED REACTOR USUALLY HAVE A GAS DETECTOR AND OIL SURGE.
DETECTOR (BUCHHOLZ ALARAM & TRIP DEVICES), WHICH ARE EXCELLENT FOR
DETECTING INTERNAL FAULTS.
B. TEMPARATURE MONITORS FOR OIL & WINDING PROVIDE GOOD OVER LOAD
PROTECTION.
C. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE IS PROVIDED TO SAFE GUARD THE REACTOR FROM HIGH
PRESURES.
REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
IT IS WIDELY USED AS INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION FOR SHORT CIRCUIT FAULTS
WITH IN THE DIFFERENTIAL ZONE. THIS IS TREATED AS MAIN-1 PROT FOR REACTOR.
IT CAN BE OF HIGH IMPEDENCE TYPE OR OF A SENSITIVE CURRENT STABILISED TYPE.
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RELAYS REQUIRE AN EQUAL CT TURNS
RATIO ON THE PHASE AND NEUTRAL SIDE. SENSITIVITY IS 5% OF NOMINAL REACTOR CT
CURRENT.
BACK-UP PROTECTION
A VARIETY OF RELAYS ARE AVAILABLE.
A. OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N - ANY
COMBINATION OF THESE)
B. UNDER IMPEDENCE / DISTANCE ( Z<)(21R).
C. NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT PROTECTION (Un>).
RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
IF, FOR SOME REASON, A SENSITIVE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION NOT CHOOSEN A
RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION CAN BE UTILISED.

SHUNT REACTOR (BUS & LINE)


(4CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

IL
INTER LOCK FACILITY:
WHEN 1-89R CLOSES ONLY
PERMIT TO CLOSE 1-89L AND
1-89L OPENS ONLY
PERMIT TO OPEN 1-89R.

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

P1

P1

3 3-CT

1-89A

UUU

P2

2-89A

P1

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89R

UUUU

1-PH NEUTRAL
GROUNDING REACTOR

1-89L

UUU

LINE
SHUNT
REACTOR

IL

2-BCT

P2

2-ACT

1-89R
1-RCT
P1 3

3-89A

LINE 1

BUS
SHUNT
REACTOR

SHUNT REACTOR (BUS & LINE)


(5CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

IL
INTER LOCK FACILITY:
WHEN 1-89R CLOSES ONLY
PERMIT TO CLOSE 1-89L AND
1-89L OPENS ONLY
PERMIT TO OPEN 1-89R.

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3 3-CT

P1

1-89A

2-89A

IL

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

3-89R
P2

1-89L
1-LCT

P1

P2

3P1

LINE 1

P1

3 3-RCT

UUUU

UUU
UUU

1-PH NEUTRAL
GROUNDING
REACTOR

P2

LINE
SHUNT
REACTOR

2-CT

1-89R
1-RCT
P1 3

3-89A

BUS
SHUNT
REACTOR

SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


PROTECTIONS

3,4,6S - CT METHOD

5,6T1,6T2 - CT METHOD

LINE PROTECTION
MAIN-1 PROTECTION,
MAIN-2 PROTECTION,
METERING,
BUSBAR & BUSBAR
CHECKUP PROTECTION

IN THIS REACTOR CT CURRENT IS OPPOSES THE


MAIN&TIE CT CURRENT. VECTOR SUM OF CTs i.e.
MAIN, TIE & REACTOR IS LINE CURRENT.

3CT METHOD, 4CT METHOD,


6CT(S) METHOD

AS USUAL IN
5CT METHOD,
6CT(T1) METHOD,
6CT(T2) METHOD

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


MAIN PROTECTION ( 87 R )
(DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION)

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & NEUTRAL


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF LINE SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 3-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY.

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & NEUTRAL


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF LINE SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 3-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY.

BACK UP PROTECTION(21R)
( SINGLE STEP REACTOR
IMPEDENCE PROTECTION )

1-RCT CORE-1 & SELECTED CVT IS


CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

1-RCT CORE-5 & SELECTED CVT IS


CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT


PROTECTION (64 R )

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & 1-PH


NEUTRAL GROUNDING REACTOR
EARTH BUSHING CT CORE-1.2 OF
LINE SHUNT REACTOR IS
CONNECTED TO 1-PH HIGH
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(REF).

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & I-PH


NEUTRAL GROUNDING REACTOR
EARTH BUSHING CT CORE-1.2 OF
LINE SHUNT REACTOR IS
CONNECTED TO 1-PH HIGH
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(REF).

METERING

REACTOR STAR SIDE BUSHING CT


CORE-1 IS CONNECTED TO REACTOR
METERING

REACTOR STAR SIDE BUSHING CT


CORE-1 IS CONNECTED TO
REACTOR METERING

SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


PROTECTIONS

4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

BUS SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


MAIN PROTECTION (87 R)
(DIFFERENTIALPROTECTION)

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & NEUTRAL


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF BUS SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 3-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY.

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1&
NEUTRAL BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF
BUS SHUNT REACTOR IS
CONNECTED TO 3-PH HIGH
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RLY.

BACK UP PROTECTION (21R )


( SINGLE STEP REACTOR
IMPEDENCE PROTECTION )

3-CT CORE-5 & 2-ACT CORE-5


SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED
PARALLEL & SELECTED CVT IS
CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

3-RCT CORE-5 & SELECTED CVT IS


CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT


PROTECTION ( 64 R )

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & EARTH


BUSHING CT CORE-2 OF BUS SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 1-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(REF).

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & EARTH


BUSHING CT CORE-2 OF BUS
SHUNT REACTOR IS CONNECTED
TO 1-PH HIGH IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY(REF).

SPECIAL PROTECTION
LINE SHUNT REACTOR

STUB PROTECTION

TEED-1: 1-CT, 2-CT, 1-LCT & 1-RCT


TEED-2: 1-CT, 2-CT, 1-LCT & 1-RCT

BUS SHUNT REACTOR

TEE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION :


3-CT, 2A-CT & REACTOR HV CT

TEED-1: 3-CT, 2-CT & 3-RCT


TEED-2: 3-CT, 2-CT & 3-RCT

CVT SELECTION

LINE SHUNT REACTOR: ACCORDING


TO ISOLATORS & BREAKERS
POSITION BUS-1/ BUS-2/ LINE CVT
WILL BE SELECTED.

BUS SHUNT REACTOR:


ACCORDING TO ISOLATORS &
BREAKERS POSITION BUS-1/
BUS-2 CVT WILL BE SELECTED.

REACTOR BUSHING CT CONNECTIONS


CORES

LINE SHUNT REACTOR


4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

BUS SHUNT REACTOR


4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

HV (400KV SIDE) BUSHING CTs


CORE-1(PS)

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

CORE-2(PS)

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

CORE-3*(PS)

SPARE

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

SPARE

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

TEED PROTECTION

SPARE

METERING

METERING

NEUTRAL (STAR POINT SIDE) BUSHING CTs


CORE-1
(0.2/0.5)

METERING

METERING

CORE-2(PS)

SPARE

SPARE

CORE-3(PS)

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

NEUTRAL REACTOR (MAIN REACTOR


STAR POINT SIDE) BUSHING CTs
CORE1.1(PS)

SPARE

SPARE

NEUTRAL REACTOR (EARTH POINT

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION
REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION
REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

*NOTE: NORMALLY CORE-3 OF HV

BUSHING CT IS USED FOR REACTOR


IMPEDENCE PROTECTION. FOR REACTOR
IMPEDENCE PROTECTION EITHER CORE3 OF HV BUSHING CT OR ONE OF THE
PROTECTION CORE OF EXTERNAL CT
MAY BE UTILISED.

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


.

(4CT METHOD)
1-RCT

P1

.
.
CORE 1.1
.
P2

P1

200/ 1A

1-PH NEUTRAL
GROUNDING REACTOR

UUU

P2

.
CORE 1.2
.
P1

200/ 1A

P2

.
.

1-89R
LINE

METERING
1-CT
2B-CT
LINE

CORES
3 2 1

200/ 1A
NEUTRAL BUSHING
(STAR PONT SIDE)
CTs

MAIN-2 PROTECTION

P1

3
3
3

LINESHUNT
REACTOR

UUU

P2

CORES
4 3 2

3
3
3
3
3

CORES
3 2 1

HV BUSHING
(400KV SIDE) CTs

3
3
3

200/ 1A

CORE-1: 2000-1000
-500/1
2000-1000-500/1
CORE-2: 2000-1000
1000-500/1
-500/1
2000CORE-3: 2000-1000
1000-500/1
-500/1
2000CORE-4: 2000-1000
1000-500/1
-500/1
2000CORE-5: 2000-1000
1000-500/1
-500/1
2000-

MAIN-1 PROTECTION
LINE

1-CT

1-CT
2B-CT

2B-CT

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION


SELECTED
BUS-1/ BUS-2/ LINE
CVT VOLTAGE

REACTOR METERING

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


.

(5CT METHOD)
1-RCT

P1

P2

2-CT
TEE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION-2
CORE-4
1-LCT

SELECTED
BUS-1/ BUS-2/ LINE
CVT VOLTAGE

UUU

200/ 1A

1-CT
CORE-4

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION


CORE-2

P2

.
CORE 1.2
.

1-LCT CORE-1

2-CT CORE-5

P1

P1

P2

1-CT CORE-5

P1

.
.
CORE 1.1
.

1-PH NEUTRAL
GROUNDING REACTOR

1-89R

P2

200/ 1A

TEE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIO

CORES
3 2 1

200/ 1A
NEUTRAL BUSHING
(STAR PONT SIDE)
CTs

3
3
3

LINESHUNT
REACTOR

P1

UUU

P2

CORES
4 3 2

3
3
3
3
3

CORES
3 2 1

HV BUSHING
(400KV SIDE) CTs

3
3
3

200/ 1A

CORE-1: 2000-1000
-500/1
2000-1000-500/1
CORE-2: 2000-1000
-500/1
2000-1000-500/1
CORE-3: 2000-1000
-500/1
2000-1000-500/1
CORE-4: 2000-1000
-500/1
2000-1000-500/1
CORE-5: 2000-1000
-500/1
2000-1000-500/1

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

REACTOR METERING

3-89

3-52CB
1
2

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION

2-52CB
2-89B

P1

2A-CT

3 2 1
NEUTRAL BUSHING CORES
CTs

. UUU

P1

200/
1ASHUNT
(STAR PONT SIDE)
BUS

P2

3-89R

3
3
3

P2

3
3
3

P1

3-89A

P2

4 3 2 1
CORES

3-CT

5 4 3
CORES

3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

REACTOR METERING

TEE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

P2

3
3

SELECTED
BUS-1/ BUS-2
CVT VOLTAGE

3 2 1 P1
CORES

HV BUSHING CTs
200/ 1A
REACTOR
(400KV SIDE)

RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

BUS-2

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT


REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

(4CT METHOD)

BUS BAR PROTECTION

BUS SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION

4 3 2 1
CORES

3-89A

3
3
3
3
3

P2

P2

3 2 1 P1
CORES

HV BUSHING CTs
200/ 1A(400KV SIDE)
REACTOR

3R-CT

200/
1ASHUNT
(STAR PONT SIDE)
BUS

P1

3-89R

2-89B

CORES
2 3 4

3 2 1
NEUTRAL BUSHING CORES
CTs

. UUU

P1

P1

BUSBAR CHECKUP PR

BUS BAR PROTECTIO

1
2

TEED-2 PROT (BAY 1&2)


TEED-1 PROT (BAY 1&2)

TEED-2 PROT (BAY 2&3)


TEED-1 PROT (BAY 2&3)

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

P2

3-CT

REACTOR METERING

3
3
3

P2

2-CT

P2

3
3
3

3
3
3

3-52CB

3
3
3
3
3

2-52CB P1

3-89

CORES
3 4 5

(5CT METHOD)

3
3

SELECTED
BUS-1/ BUS-2
CVT VOLTAGE

RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

BUS SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


BUS-2

CARRIER INTERTRIPPING OF LINE SHUNT REACTOR

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION TRIPPINGS WILL BE USED AS DIRECT TRIPPINGS OF LINE IN
ADDITION TO OTHER TRIPPINGS. BUS SHUNT REACTOR NEED NOT REQUIRE CARRIER INTER
TRIPPING FACILITY.
87R REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
RADHA
21R REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY
RAKZB

ABB
NSD 50

LINE PROTECTION
COUPLER PANEL-1

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

64R RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY

RADHD
REACTORS INTERNAL FAULTS

G4AD V9LC 2

GROUP-1/A TRIPPINGS

G4AD V9LC 1
87R REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
RADHA
21R REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY
RAKZB

ABB
NSD 50

DC VE FROM PANEL

LINE PROTECTION
COUPLER PANEL-2

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

64R RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY

RADHD
REACTORS INTERNAL FAULTS

G4AD V9LC 2

GROUP-2/B TRIPPINGS

G4AD V9LC 1

DC VE FROM PANEL

ADDITIONAL AND
SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
(EVENT LOGGER & DISTURBANCE
RECORDER)
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

400KV SUBSTATION: MAMIDIPALLY


19 MAR 2004 13:00:00
A 13:09:37.090 # 195
A 13:09:37.096 # 188
A 13:09:37.097 # 187
A 13:09:37.100 # 181
A 13:09:37.104 # 162
A 13:09:37.110 # 196
A 13:09:37.110 # 170
A 13:09:37.111 # 161
A 13:09:37.111 # 163
A 13:09:37.111 # 169
A 13:09:37.112 # 168
A 13:09:37.113 # 182
A 13:09:37.126 # 199
A 13:09:37.140 # 185
N 13:09:37.147 # 195
N 13:09:37.148 # 196
N 13:09:37.175 # 187
N 13:09:37.176 # 181
N 13:09:37.176 # 188
N 13:09:37.185 # 182
N 13:09:37.257 # 199
N 13:09:37.279 # 185
19 MAR 2004 14:00:00
N 14:09:48.702 # 163
N 14:09:48.704 # 161
N 14:09:48.720 # 162
N 14:10:00.903 # 169
N 14:10:00.907 # 168
N 14:10:00.907 # 170
19 MAR 2004 15:00:00

EVENT LOGGER EVENTS INFORMATION

400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE PROT TRIP


400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT STARTY
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT STARTR
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT TRIP
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 Y-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE CARRIER SEND
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 B-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 R-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 B-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 Y-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 R-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 CARRIER SEND
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-2 RECEIVED
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-1 RECEIVED
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE PROT TRIP RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE CARRIER SEND RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 START R RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT TRIP RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 START Y RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 CARRIER SEND RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-2 RECEIVED RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-1 RECEIVED RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 B-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 R-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 Y-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 Y-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 R-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 B-PH CLOSE

DISTURBANCE RECORDER

R PH VOLTAGE
Y PH VOLTAGE
B PH VOLTAGE
OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE
R PH CURRENT
Y PH CURRENT
B PH CURRENT
STAR/NEUTRAL CURRENT
MAIN CB R PH OPEN
MAIN CB Y PH OPEN
MAIN CB B PH OPEN
TIE CB R PH OPEN
TIE CB Y PH OPEN
TIE CB B PH OPEN
MAIN/TIE CB LBB OPTD
DIRECT TRIP CH-1/2 OPTD
BUSBAR PROT OPTD
MAIN-1 PROT OPTD
MAIN-2 PROT OPTD
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1/2 OPTD
STUB PROT-1/2 OPTD
MAIN-1 PROT CARRIER RECEIVE
MAIN-2 PROT CARRIER RECEIVE
DF/DT OPTD
EVENT NO
NAME OF FEEDER
DATE & TIME

PREFERRED DISTURBANCE RECORDER


400 KV LINES
ANALOG CHANNELS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

R-PH VOLTAGE
Y-PH VOLTAGE
B-PH VOLTAGE
OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE
R-PH CURRENT
Y-PH CURRENT
B-PH CURRENT
NEUTRAL/STAR CURRENT

DIGITAL CHANNELS

1. HV MAIN CB R-PH OPEN


2. HV MAIN CB Y-PH OPEN
3. HV MAIN CB B-PH OPEN
4. HV TIE CB R-PH OPEN
5. HV TIE CB Y-PH OPEN
6. HV TIE CB B-PH OPEN
7. 21 MAIN1 REL 521 OPERATED
8. 21 MAIN2 REL 316 OPERATED
9. 87 BUSBAR RELAY OPERATED
10. MAIN CB A/R OPERATED
11. TIE CB A/R OPERATED
12. PSB OPERATED
13. SOTF OPERATED
14. 27 O/V STG-1/2 OPERATED
15. 51 STUB-1/2 OPERATED
16. 87HZ / LZ TEED-1/2 OPERATED
17. MAIN CB LBB OPERATED
18. TIE CB LBB OPERATED
19. DIRECT TRIP CH-1/2 TRIP
20. 21M1 / 21M2 CARRIER RECEIVE
21. 86 GR-A/B RELAY OPERATED
22. 67N DEF/TEF RLY OPERATED
23. DF/DT RELAY OPERATED

400 KV TRANSFORMER
ANALOG CHANNELS
1. HV
2. HV
3. HV
4. HV
5. LV
6. LV
7. LV
8. LV
9. HV
10. HV
11. HV
12. HV
13. LV
14. LV
15. LV
16. LV

R-PH VOLTAGE
Y-PH VOLTAGE
B-PH VOLTAGE
OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE
R-PH VOLTAGE
Y-PH VOLTAGE
B-PH VOLTAGE
OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE
R-PH CURRENT
Y-PH CURRENT
B-PH CURRENT
NEUTRAL/STAR CURRENT
R-PH CURRENT
Y-PH CURRENT
B-PH CURRENT
NEUTRAL/STAR CURRENT

DIGITAL CHANNELS

1. HV MAIN CB R-PH OPEN


2. HV MAIN CB Y-PH OPEN
3. HV MAIN CB B-PH OPEN
4. HV TIE CB R-PH OPEN
5. HV TIE CB Y-PH OPEN
6. HV TIE CB B-PH OPEN
7. LV 220 CB R-PH OPEN
8. LV 220 CB Y-PH OPEN
9. LV 220 CB B-PH OPEN
10 87 LZ DIFF RLY OPERATED
11. HV 67 ABCN OPERATED
12. LV 67 ABCN OPERATED
13. 51 O/L RLY OPERATED
14. 64 REF / 87 HZ RLY OPERATED
15. NDR RLY OPERATED
16. HV 99T OVER FLUX OPTD
17. LV 99T OVER FLUX OPTD
18. HV 400 BUSBAR OPERATED
19. LV 220 BUSBAR OPERATED
20. HV MAIN CB LBB OPERATED
21. HV TIE CB LBB OPERATED
22. LV 220 CB LBB OPERATED
23. HV 86 GR-A/B RELAY OPTD
24. LV 86 GR-A/B RELAY OPTD
25. AT/F 21T UZ RELAY OPERATED
26. OIL TEMP HIGH TRIP
27. WNDG TEMP HV/IV/LV TRIP
28. BUCHHOLZ MAIN/OLTC TRIP
29. PRD 1/ 2 TRIP
30. AT/F NEUTRAL CURRENT TRIP

CONFIGUARATION
OF CONTROL &
RELAY PANELS IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

CONFIGUARATION OF C & R PANEL


CONTROL PANEL

CB RELAY PANEL

LINE PROTECTION
PANEL

1. AMMETERS IN
3Phs
2. VOLTMETER WITH
SEL. SWITCH
3. WATTMETER
4. VAR METER
5. 20W ANNUCIATION
FACIA
6. CB CONTROL
(TNC) SWITCH
7. ISO CONTROL
(TNC) SWITCH
8. SEMAPHORE FOR
EARTH SWITCH
9. INDICATING LAMPS
FOR CB G&R
10. INDICATING
LAMPS FOR ISO
11. INDICATING
LAMPS FOR DC

1. BREAKER FAILURE
RELAY
2. AUTO RECLOSURE
RELAY
3. CHECK
SYNCHRONISING
RELAY
4. CB ALARM RELAYS
5. CB TRIP CKT
SUPERVISION RELAYS
6. 3-PH TRIP UNITS
86-GA & 86-GB
7. 1-PH TRIP RELAYS
M1, M2 - 1 2 Nos
8. DIRECT TRIP
RECEIVE RELAYS
9. DC SUPERVISION
RELAYS

1. MAIN-1 NUM.
DIST. PROT
2. MAIN-2 NUM. DIST.
PROT.
3. O/V STAGE-1 (EXT/IN
BUILT)

4. O/V STAGE-2

(EXT/IN

BUILT)

5. DISTURBANCE
RECORDER(EXT/INB
UILT)

6. DISTANCE TO
FAULT (EXT/ INBUILT)
7. DC SUPERVISION
RELAYS
8. TEED-1
PROTECTION
9. TEED-2
PROTECTION

CONFIGUARATION OF C & R PANEL


TRANSFORMER PROTECTION PANEL
HV PROTECTION PANEL

MV PROTECTION PANEL

REACTOR
PROTECTION
PANEL

1. T/F DIFFERENTIAL 1. DIRECTIONAL O/L


1. REACTOR
PROTECTION
E/F RELAYS
DIFFERENTIAL
2. REF PROTECTION
2. OVER FLUX
PROTECTION
RELAY
PROTECTION
2. REF PROTECTION
3. DIRECTIONAL O/L
3. NEUTRAL
RELAY
E/F RELAYS
DISPALCEMENT RELAY 3. REACTOR
4. OVER FLUX
4. VOLTAGE
IMPEDENCE
PROTECTION
SELECTION RELAYS
PROTECTION
IN
THE ABOVE THE FOLLOWING
PANELS WILL BE AVAILABLE
5.ADDITION
OVER TO
LOAD
5. FUSE FAILURE
4. CVT SELECTION
1.
CONTROL
PANELS
FOR
LINE,
T/F,
B/C,
TBC,
BUS
REACTOR
(AS
& WHEN
REQ)
PROTECTION
RELAY
RELAYS
2. COMMON CONTROL PANEL
6. BUS
VOLTAGE
6. AUX RELAYS FOR
5. FLAG RELAYS
3.
BAR PROTECTION PANELS
SELECTION
RELAYS
T/F TROBLES
6. AUXSCHEME)
RELAYS
4.
TRANSFER BUS
COUPLER PROTECTION
PANEL(IN CASE OF DMT/SMT
7. BUS
FUSE
FAILURE
7. FLAG
RELAYS
7. TIMERS
5.
COUPLER
PROTECTION PANEL
(IN CASE
OF DMT/DB SCHEME)
I.RELAY
NOMINCLATURE FOR PANELS8.
ARE
NORMALLY
TIMERS
8. CIRCUIT LABEL
PANEL RLA,
RTB, LABEL
HV CB PANEL RTRA, LV CB PANEL RTRD
8. MAIN
AUXCBRELAYS
FORTIE CB9.PANEL
CIRCUIT
PROTECTION PANEL RLB, HV PROTECTION PANEL RTRB, LV PROTECTION PANEL
T/FLINE
TROBLES
RTRC, LINE REACTOR PROTECTION PANEL RLRC, BUS REACTOR PROTECTION PANEL
9. RBRA,
FLAGBUS
RELAYS
BAR PANEL RBBA, CONTROL PANEL CP, KP, KT, KBC, KTBC,KL,CCP

MV CB RELAY PANEL

MV PROTECTION PANEL

HV PROTECTION PANEL

HV CB RELAY PANEL

TIE CB RELAY PANEL

LINE REACTOR PROT PANEL

LINE PROTECTION PANEL

DIA WITH LINE & REACTORS


MV CB RELAY PANEL

MV PROTECTION PANEL

HV PROTECTION PANEL

HV CB RELAY PANEL

TIE CB RELAY PANEL

LINE PROTECTION PANEL

MAIN CB RELAY PANEL

MAIN CB RELAY PANEL

LINE-2 PROTECTION PANEL

TIE CB RELAY PANEL

LINE-1 PROTECTION PANEL

MAIN CB RELAY PANEL

DIA WITH TWO LINES

MAIN CB RELAY PANEL

MAIN CB RELAY PANEL

BUS REACTOR PROT PANEL

TIE CB RELAY PANEL

LINE REACTOR PROT PANEL

LINE PROTECTION PANEL

MAIN CB RELAY PANEL

ARRANGEMENT OF C & R PANELS


DIA WITH LINE & TRANSFORMER

DIA WITH LINE, REACTOR & T/F

TRIP LOGICS
OF
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

GROUP-A & GROUP-B TRIPPINGS


FOR 400KV STATIONS THERE SHALL BE TWO SEPARATE BATTERY SYSTEMS AVAILABLE FOR
PROTECTION, CONTROL & TRIPPING/CLOSING OPERATIONS. TO OBTAIN REDUNDENCY AND TO BE
ABLE TO TAKE PROTECTION OUT FOR MAINTANENCE, WHILE EQUIPMENT IS IN SERVICE, THE
RELAYS ARE ELECTRICALLY AND PHYSICALLY SEGREGATED IN TO TWO GROUPS. GROUPING IS
DONE TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE IN SUCH A WAY THAT EACH GROUP CAN INDEPENDENTLY
CARRYOUT PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS WITH NEAR EQUAL REDUNDENCY. INTER CONNECTION OF
THESE TWO GROUPS SHALL NOT BE GENERALLY BE ATTEMPTED.
DISTRIBUTION OF DC SUPPLY SHALL BE DONE BAY WISE TO FEED THE FOLLOWING
1. PROTECTION
2. CB CONTROL
3. ISOLATOR / EARTH SWITCH CONTROL
4. ANNUNCIATION / INDICATION

LINE PROTECTION
GROUP-A

MAIN-1 PROTECTION
M1 BUILT IN FUNCTIONS
TEED-1 PROTECTION
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1 PROT
DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-1 RECEIVED

GROUP-B

MAIN-2 PROTCTION
M2 BUILT IN FUNCTIONS
TEED-2 PROTECTION
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2 PROT
LBB/BFR RELAY
DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-2 RECEIVED

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
GROUP-A

T/F DIFFERENTIAL RELAY


T/F HV BACKUP RELAY
T/F IMP / 21T RELAY
T/F HV OVERFLUX RELAY
OIL TEMP HIGH TRIP
PRESURE RELIEF TRIP
TERITIARY DELTA WNDG NDR PROT

GROUP-B

T/F REF / HIGH Z DIFF RELAY


BUCHHOLZ TRIP
T/F LV BACKUP RELAY
T/F NEUTRAL CURRENT / 51 O/C RLY
T/F LV OVERFLUX RELAY
OVER LOAD PROT (ALARM ONLY)
OLTC BUCHHOLZ TRIP
WINDING TEMP HIGH TRIP
LOW/ HIGH OIL LEVEL TRIP

REACTOR PROTECTION
GROUP-A

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY


REACTOR BACKUP / 21R RELAY
OIL TEMP HIGH TRIP
PRESURE RELIEF TRIP

GROUP-B

REACTOR REF RELAY


BUCHHOLZ TRIP
WINDING TEMP HIGH TRIP
LOW/ HIGH OIL LEVEL TRIP
FIRE PROTECTION TRIP

SOTF, PSB

DIRECT TRIP CARRIER S

MAIN-1/MAIN-2 CARRIE

BLOCK M_CB A/R RELA

INITIATE SCADA (DR &

INITIATE ALARM

INITIATE 400KV B/B PR

BLOCK T_CB A/R RELA

START T_CB A/R RELAY

1-PH

START M_CB A/R RELAY

INITIATE T_CB 1PH TRIP


INITIATE T_CB 3PH TRIP

21 M2

INITIATE T_CB 3PH TRIP

MAIN-2 PROTECTION

INITIATE T_CB 1PH TRIP

1-PH

INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRI

OUTPUT

INITIATE M_CB 1PH TRI

GROUP

21 M1

INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRI

SYMBOL

MAIN-1 PROTECTION

PROTECTION
RELAY

INITIATE M_CB 1PH TRI

MAIN CB FOR LINE (1-52CB)TRIPPING LOGICS

IN BUILT FUNCTIONS OF DISTANCE SCHEME

OVER VOLTAGE
STAGE-1 & STAGE-2
(BUILT IN 21 M1)

59 L1 & L2

3-PH

OVER VOLTAGE
STAGE-1 & STAGE-2
(BUILT IN 21 M2)

59 L1 & L2

3-PH

STUB, TOC, BOC,


TEF, DEF,
(BUILT- IN 21M1)

3-PH

STUB, TOC, BOC,


TEF, DEF,
(BUILT- IN 21M2)

3-PH

TEED PROT-1

87T HZ

3-PH

TEED PROT-2

87T LZ

3-PH

DIRECT TRIP CH-1 RECD

3-PH

DIRECT TRIP CH-2 RECD

3-PH

M_CB BFR / LBB PROT

3-PH

T_CB BFR / LBB PROT

3-PH

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

INITIATE ALARM

TO SCADA (DR & SOE)

1-PH & 3PH

SYNC CHECK RELAY


(BUILT IN 21M1 & 21M2)

25 SYNC

A&B

3-PH

1-PH TRIP UNIT GR-A

186

1-PH

3-PH TRIP UNIT GR-A

86 GR A

3-PH

1-PH TRIP UNIT GR-B

286

1-PH

3-PH TRIP UNIT GR-B

86 GR B

3-PH

TRIP SIGNAL FROM 400KV


BUSBAR PROTECTION

96 BB

3-PH

LINE UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY

27 UV

89LE C LOSE PERMISSION

INITIATE T_CB A/R PRIORITY

A&B

START LBB/BFR M_C B

OUTPUT

79 A/R

INITIATE M_C B TRIP COIL-2

GROUP

AUTO RECLOSURE RELAY


(BUILT IN 21M1 & 21M2)

PROTECTION
RELAY

INITIATE M_C B TRIP COIL-1

SYMBOL

CLOSE MAIN CB

MAIN CB FOR LINE (1-52 CB) TRIPPING LOGICS

SYMBOL
GROUP
OUTPUT

PROTECTION
RELAY

T_CB BFR / LBB PROT


50 ZT
B
3-PH

M_CB BFR / LBB PROT


(152 CB & 352 CB)
50 Z
B
3-PH

AUTO RECLOSURE RELAY


79
A/R
A
&
B
1-PH
&
3-PH

SYNC CHECK RELAY


25
3-PH

1-PH TRIP UNIT GR-A


186
A
1-PH
X
X

3-PH TRIP UNIT GR-A


86A
A
3-PH
X
X

1-PH TRIP UNIT GR-B


286
B
1-PH
X
X

3-PH TRIP UNIT GR-B


86B
B
3-PH
X
X

DIRECT TRIP CH-1 RECD


A
3-PH

DIRECT TRIP CH-2 RECD


B
3-PH
X

X
X

INITIATE SCADA (DR & SOE)

INITIATE ALARM

DIRECT TRIP CARRIER SEND

252START LBB/BFR OF T_CB


252CLOSE T_CB

252INITIATE T_CB TRIPCOIL-1 &

352INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRIP UNI

352INITIATE M_CB 1PH TRIP UNI


352INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRIP UNI
352INITIATE M_CB 1PH TRIP UNI

252INITIATE T_CB 1PH TRIP UNIT


252INITIATE T_CB 3PH TRIP UNIT

252INITIATE T_CB 3PH TRIP UNIT

252INITIATE T_CB 1PH TRIP UNIT

152INITIATE M_CB 1PH TRIP UNI


152INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRIP UNI

152INITIATE M_CB 1PH TRIP UNI


152INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRIP UNI

TIE CB TRIPPING LOGICS

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

INITIATE SCADA ( SOE)

3-PH

HV BACKUP PROTECTION

67 ABCN

3-PH

HV OVER FLUX PROT

99T HV

3-PH

OVER LOAD RELAY

51 O/L

3-PH

HV PROT TRIP UNIT GR-A & B

86 GR-A/B

A/B

3-PH

REF PROTECTION

64T(HZ)

3-PH

TEED PROT-1 / 2

87T HZ/LZ

A/B

3-PH

STUB PROT

50 STUB

3-PH

AT/F TROUBLE TRIP HV & LV

86 GR-A/B

A/B

3-PH

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

START M_CB LBB/BFR

87T(LZ)

INITIATE 220KV B/B PR

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

PROTECTION
RELAY

INITIATE 400KV B/B PR

INITIATE ALARM

INITIATE LV_CBTRIP COI

INITIATE LV_CB TRIP CO

START LV_CB LBB/BFR

INTER TRIP CIRCUIT HV

INITIATE M_CBTRIP COI

INITIATE M_CB TRIP COI

INITIATE LV_CB 3PH TRI

INITIATE LV_CB 3PH TRI

INITIATE T_CB 3PH TRIP

OUTPUT

INITIATE T_CB 3PH TRIP

GROUP

INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRI

SYMBOL

INITIATE M_CB 3PH TRIP

MAIN CB FOR AT/F (3-52CB)TRIPPING LOGICS

AT/F TROUBLE ALRM


M_CB BFR / LBB PROT

50Z

3-PH

T_CB BFR / LBB PROT

50ZT

3-PH

LV_CB BFR / LBB PROT

50Z

3-PH

400KV B/B PROT

87 BB

96

3-PH

220KV B/B PROT

87 BB

96

3-PH

LV BACKUP PROTECTION

67 ABCN

3-PH

LV OVER FLUX PROT

99T LV

3-PH

TERI NEUTRAL DISP PROT

151N

3-PH

LV PROT TRIP UNIT GR-A & B

86 GR-A/B

A/B

3-PH

X
X

PROTECTION TRIP SCHEME


86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
REL521
MAIN-1

TRIP COIL-1
1-52CB
TRIP COIL-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RET521
MAIN-1

TRIP COIL-1
2-52CB

TRIP COIL-1
3-52CB

TRIP COIL-2

TRIP COIL-2
BUS-2

BUS-1
86-B
ABB
REL521
MTR/
MAIN-1
HSTR

ABB
REL316
MAIN-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RET316
MAIN-2

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

86-A : GROUP-A MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY


86-B : GROUP-B MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY

MAIN-1/ MAIN-2
ZONE-1 & SINGLE PHASE FAULT
INITIATE MAIN CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 1-POLE )

REL 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE TIE CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 1-POLE )
START MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
START TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

REL 316
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

CARRIER SEND
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )
TO LBB/BFR INITIATION

INITIATE MAIN CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 1-POLE )
INITIATE TIE CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 1-POLE )
START MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
START TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CARRIER SEND
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO LBB/BFR INITIATION

AUTO RECLOSURE

CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR A/R OPERATION

1.
2.
3.

7.
8.
9.

CB CLOSE CONDITION.
TIME LAPSED MORE THAN RECLAIM TIME.
OPERATING PRESSURE OF CB SUITABLE FOR AUTORECLOSURE
OPERATION.
DC SUPPLY TO AUTORECLOSURE SHOULD BE AVAILABLE.
PREPARE 3-PH TRIP RELAY SHOULD BE RELEASED CONDITION.
NO BLOCKING SIGNAL TO AUTORECLOSURE RELAY.
POLE DISTURBANCE RELAY TIME SHOULD BE MORE THAN
TWICE OF DEAD TIME OF AUTO RECLOSURE.
CARRIER FAIL SIGNAL SHOULD NOT COME AT BOTH ENDS.
CARRIER SWITCH SHOULD BE IN SERVICE CONDITION.
SINGLE PHASE & ZONE-1 FAULT ONLY.

AUTO RECLOSURE OPERATION

1.
2.
3.
4.

TRIP MAIN CB SINGLE POLE.


TRIP TIE CB SINGLE POLE.
CLOSE MAIN CB AFTER DEAD TIME.
IF A/R SUCCESS FOR MAIN CB THEN AFTER SUPPLEMENTARY TIME
DELAY CLOSE TIE CB.(NORMALLY SUPPLEMENTARY TIME DELAY IS DEAD
TIME)
IF A/R UNSUCCESS THEN TRIP MAIN & TIE CBs.
IF MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION, THEN NO SUPPLEMENTARY DELAY TIME
FOR TIE A/R. IT WILL OPERATE ITs OWN DEAD TIME.

4.
5.
6.
7.

5.
6.

MAIN-1/ MAIN-2
ZONE-1 & TWO / THREE PHASE FAULT
INITIATE MAIN CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

REL 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE TIE CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

REL 316
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

CARRIER SEND
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )
TO LBB/BFR INITIATION

INITIATE MAIN CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CARRIER SEND
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO LBB/BFR INITIATION

MAIN-1/ MAIN-2
ZONE-2 & 1 / 2 / 3 PHASE FAULT
INITIATE MAIN CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
CARRIER SIGNAL
RECEIVED
& ZONE-2 STARTER
IS PICKUP CONDITION

REL 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE


BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CARRIER SIGNAL
RECEIVED
& ZONE-2 STARTER
IS PICKUP CONDITION

INITIATE TIE CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

REL 316
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

TO LBB/BFR INITIATION
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION CAME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CARRIER SEND ( IF PUTT OR2 SCHEME SELECTED )


INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO LBB/BFR INITIATION

MAIN-1/ MAIN-2
ZONE- 3/4/5 & 1 / 2 / 3 PHASE FAULT
INITIATE MAIN CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

REL 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE TIE CB GR-A 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

REL 316
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

TO LBB/BFR INITIATION
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION CAME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB GR-B 1-PH TRIP UNITS ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

TO LBB/BFR INITIATION
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER

DISTANCE SCHEME TRIPPING OUTPUTS


TIE CB

MAIN CB
186 R

CO

CO

REL 521

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

ACTIVE

START

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

TRIP

186 Y

186 Y

DISPLAY

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

186 B

186 B

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
286 R

CO

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
CO

286 R

REL 316

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

ACTIVE

START

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

TRIP

286 Y

286 Y

DISPLAY

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
286 B
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

186 R

TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
286 B
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2

MAIN LBB

INITIATION
1-PH TRIP RELAYS OF
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

INITIATE BUSBAR PROTECTION ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP CONNECTED BUS CBs)

RAICA
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-2 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END

DISPLAY
86-GR-A
MASTER TRIP RELAY

96 BB
BUSBAR RELAY

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT (TRIP BAY1 CB 3-POLES )

RAICA
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( TRIP BAY3 CB 3-POLES )


BLOCK MAIN CB OF BAY1 & BAY3 AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE
CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB OF BAY1 & BAY 3
CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB

DISPLAY

86-GR-B
MASTER TRIP RELAY

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TIE LBB

INITIATION

86-GR-A
MASTER TRIP RELAY

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB & TIE CB


INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

86-GR-B
MASTER TRIP RELAY

1-PH TRIP RELAYS OF


MAIN-2 PROTECTION
OF LINE-1 (BAY1) &
LINE-2 (BAY 3)

BLOCK MAIN CB & TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE


DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-1 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END

1-PH TRIP RELAYS OF


MAIN-2 PROTECTION

1-PH TRIP RELAYS OF


MAIN-1 PROTECTION
OF LINE-1(BAY1) &
LINE-2 (BAY3)

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-1 CARRIER SEND TO BAY1 & BAY3 LINES


DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-2 CARRIER SEND TO BAY1 & BAY3 LINES

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER (BAY1 & BAY3)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

BUS BAR PROTECTION


INITIATE ALL CBs TRIP UNITS CONNECTED TO THIS BUS AND OPERATE.

REB 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

TO TRIP COIL-1 CONCERNED BAY CB


TO TRIP COIL-2 CONCERNED BAY CB
TO CLOSE CIRCUIT INTERLOCK OF CONCERN CB
DIRECT TRIP SEND CHANNEL-1 TO OTHER END
DIRECT TRIP SEND CHANNEL-2 TO OTHER END

DISPLAY

TO LBB/BFR INITIATION
FROM LBB/BFR TO BUS BAR TRIPPING

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER OF MAIN-1


TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER OF MAIN-2

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

INITIATE ALL CBs TRIP UNITS CONNECTED TO THIS BUS AND OPERATE.

RED 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

TO TRIP COIL-1 CONCERNED BAY CB


TO TRIP COIL-2 CONCERNED BAY CB
TO CLOSE CIRCUIT INTERLOCK OF CONCERN CB
DIRECT TRIP SEND CHANNEL-1 TO OTHER END
DIRECT TRIP SEND CHANNEL-2 TO OTHER END

DISPLAY

TO LBB/BFR INITIATION
FROM LBB/BFR TO BUS BAR TRIPPING

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER OF MAIN-1


TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER OF MAIN-2

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

STUB PROTECTION
INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

REL 521
ACTIVE

LINE /AT/F
ISOLATOR
OPENS

START

TRIP

BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE


BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

REL 316
ACTIVE

LINE /AT/F
ISOLATOR
OPENS

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

START

TRIP

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)


TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TEED PROTECTION
INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

RADHA
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

RADSB
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)


TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

MAIN-1/ MAIN-2
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1
INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
110% OF V
4 SECS FOR
FEEDER-1
5 SECS FOR
FEEDER-2

REL 521
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

BLOCK MAIN CB & TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE


DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-1 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END

DISPLAY

110% OF V
4 SECS FOR
FEEDER-1
5 SECS FOR
FEEDER-2

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

REL 316
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-2 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB & TIE CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-a 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB & TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE
DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-1 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END

DISPLAY

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-2 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB & TIE CB

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)


TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2


INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

RXEG 21
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB & TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE
DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-1 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END

120% OF V
20m SECS

DISPLAY

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-2 CARRIER SEND TO OTHER END


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB & TIE CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER (MAIN-1 & MAIN-2)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY


RXEG 21
ACTIVE

1O% OF V

START

TRIP

DISPLAY

LINE EARTH SWITCH CLOSE PERMISSION ONLY.

CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES(TELEPROTECTION)


DETAI
PERMISSIVE TRIPPING
LS
CHAN
NEL-1
SEND
CHAN
NEL-2
SEND

CHAN
NEL-1
RECEI

DIRECT TRIPPING

MAIN-1 PROTECTION :
IT SENDS SIGNAL PARALLEL VIA
PLCC PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL1 AS A MAIN CHANNEL &
PLCC
PROTECTION
COUPLER
PANEL-2
AS
A
ALTERNATE
CHANNEL..

HERE CHANNEL-1 & CHANNEL-2 SIGNALS


ARE MAIN & ALTERNATE CHANNEL
1. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + MAIN CB
REMOTE HAND TRIP GIVEN.
2. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + TIE CB
REMOTE HAND TRIP GIVEN.
3. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + 87 BUSBAR1 OPERATED.
MAIN-2 PROTECTION :
4. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + 87
IT SENDS SIGNAL PARALLEL VIA
BUSBAR-2 OPERATED
PLCC PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL(FOR HALF DIA ONLY).
2 AS A MAIN CHANNEL &
5. MAIN CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
PLCC PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL- 6. TIE CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
1 AS A ALTERNATE CHANNEL.
7. 59L1 OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1
OPERATED.
8. 59L2 OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2
OPERATED.
9. 87 TEED-1 PROTECTION OPERATED
10. 87 TEED-2 PROTECTION OPERATED
MAIN-1 PROTECTION :
IT RECEIVES SIGNAL PARALLEL VIA
PLCC PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL1 AS A MAIN CHANNEL &

1. TO 86-A MASTER TRIP RELAY (HIGH


SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR MAIN CB.
2. TO 86-A MASTER TRIP RELAY (HIGH
SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR TIE CB.

CARRIER TRIPPING SCHEMES(TELEPROTECTION)

21 M1 REL 521
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

DIRECT TRIP
SEND CH-1
MAIN CB 86-A
TIE CB 86-A

21 M2
REL 316
ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

CARRIER
PROTECTION
PANEL-1

CARRIER
PROTECTION
PANEL-1

PT SEND

PT SEND

PT RECEIVE

PT RECEIVE

PT SEND

PT SEND

PT RECEIVE

PT RECEIVE

DT SEND

DT SEND

DT RECEIVE

DT RECEIVE

ONE END

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

OTHER END

CARRIER
PROTECTION
PANEL-2

CARRIER
PROTECTION
PANEL-2

PT SEND

PT SEND

PT RECEIVE

PT RECEIVE

DIRECT TRIP
SEND CH-1
MAIN CB 86-A
TIE CB 86-A

21 M2
REL 316
ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4
5
6

10
11
12
13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

PT SEND

PT SEND

DIRECT TRIP
SEND CH-2

PT RECEIVE

PT RECEIVE

DT SEND

DT SEND

MAIN CB 86-B

DT RECEIVE

DT RECEIVE

TIE CB 86-B

21 M1 REL 521

PT : PERMISSIVE PROTECTION TRANSFER TRIP


DT : DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP

DIRECT TRIP
SEND CH-2
MAIN CB 86-B
TIE CB 86-B

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP


CHANNEL 1 / 2 RECEIVED
INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

85 LO X1
ACTIVE

DIRECT TRIP
CHANNEL-1
RECEIVED

START

TRIP

BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE


BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

85 LO X2
ACTIVE

DIRECT TRIP
CHANNEL-2
RECEIVED.

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

START

TRIP

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
BLOCK MAIN CB AUTO RECLOSURE
BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE

DISPLAY

CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB


CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)

TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER

INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)


TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

MAIN CB

DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-1


RECEIVED
SOTF PROTECTION
(INBUILT MAIN-1)
DEF,TOC, BOC, STUB
(INBUILT MAIN-1)
TEED-1 PROTECTION

86-GA
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1


( IN BUILT MAIN-2 )

86-GB
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-2


RECEIVED
SOTF PROTECTION
( IN BUILT MAIN-2 )
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2
DEF, TOC, BOC, STUB
( IN BUILT MAIN-2 )
MAIN LBB OPERATED
TIE LBB OPERATED
TEED-2 PROTECTION

86-GB
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

TRIP COIL -2

TRIP COIL-2

OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1


(INBUILT MAIN-1)

TIE CB

86-GA
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

TRIP COIL-1

TRIP COIL -1

86-GA & 86 GB MASTER TRIP / HIGH SPEED


TRIP LOCKOUT RELAY OPERATION

MASTER TRIP RELAYS


HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAYS
LOCKOUT RELAYS
PUSH BUTTON FOR RESETTING.

PUSH BUTTON FOR RESETTING.

TO CLOSING INTERLOCK OF CONCERNED BAY CB

86-GA
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

86-GB
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

TO INITIATE LBB/BFR OF CONCERNED BAY


BLOCK AUTO RECLOSURE OF CONCERNED BAY
TO TRIP COIL-1 CONCERNED BAY CB
TO TRIP COIL-2 CONCERNED BAY CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER (MAIN-1 & MAIN-2)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TO CLOSING INTERLOCK OF CONCERNED BAY CB


TO INITIATE LBB/BFR OF CONCERNED BAY
BLOCK AUTO RECLOSURE OF CONCERNED BAY
TO TRIP COIL-1 CONCERNED BAY CB
TO TRIP COIL-2 CONCERNED BAY CB
INITIATE FLAG RELAY (FLAG RELAY OPERATES)
INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER (MAIN-1 & MAIN-2)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
(DIFFERENCIAL & REF / 3-PH HZ DIFF PROTECTION)

INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

RADSB

87 T
(LZ)

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

64 REF
OR

87 T
(HZ)

RADHD
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

( BACKUP DIRECTIONAL O/L & E/F PROTECTION FOR HV & LV)


INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

RAPDK

67 HV
ABCN

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

RAPDK

67 LV
ABCN

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
( OVER FLUX PROTECTION FOR HV & LV)

INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

RALK

99T HV

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

RATUB

99T LV

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

OVER VOLTAGE (LINE) AND OVER FLUX(TRANSFORMER )


PROTECTION TRIP SCHEME
86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
O/V 1
O/V 2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RALK
O/F- HV
(BAY 2&3 / HV)

(BAY 1&2)

TRIP COIL-1
1-52CB
TRIP COIL-2
BUS-1
86-B
ABB
REL521
MTR/
MAIN-1
HSTR

TRIP COIL-1
2-52CB

TRIP COIL-1

TRIP COIL-2

TRIP COIL-2
BUS-2

3-52CB

(BAY 1&2)

ABB
O/V 1
O/V 2

OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1 & STAGE-2


ARE IN BUILT FUNCTIONS OF MAIN-1
& MAIN-2 NUMERICAL RELAYS. IF
EXTERNAL RELAYS ARE UTILISED
THEN STAGE-1 IS GR-A & STAGE-2 IS
GR-B TRIPPING IS TO UTILISED.

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

TRIP COIL-2

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

LV - CB
(BAY LV)

ABB
RATUB
O/F- LV

TRIP COIL-1

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

RXIG 21

51 O/L

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

RAEDK1

NDR

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE 400KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 400KV TIE CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV MAIN CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INITIATE 220KV TBC CB GR-A 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

MAIN LBB

INITIATION

INITIATE BUSBAR PROTECTION ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP CONNECTED BUS CBs)

86-GR-A
MASTER TRIP RELAY
86-GR-B
MASTER TRIP RELAY
96 BB
BUSBAR RELAY

RAICA
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

INITIATE TIE CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( INTURN IT WILL TRIP 3-POLES )
INTER TRIP TO 220KV LV MAIN CB
INTER TRIP TO 220KV LV TBC CB
CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB & TIE CB

DISPLAY

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)

TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

TIE LBB

INITIATION
1-PH TRIP RELAYS OF
MAIN-1 PROTECTION
OF LINE-1(BAY1)

1-PH TRIP RELAYS OF


MAIN-2 PROTECTION
OF LINE-1 (BAY1)

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT (TRIP BAY1 CB 3-POLES )

RAICA
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

86-GR-B
MASTER TRIP RELAY

BLOCK MAIN CB OF BAY1 AUTO RECLOSURE


BLOCK TIE CB AUTO RECLOSURE
CLOSE INTERLOCK OF MAIN CB OF BAY1 & BAY 3
CLOSE INTERLOCK OF TIE CB

DISPLAY
86-GR-A
MASTER TRIP RELAY

INITIATE MAIN CB 86-GR-B 3-PH TRIP UNIT ( TRIP BAY3 CB 3-POLES )

DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-1 CARRIER SEND TO BAY1 & BAY3 LINES


DIRECT TRANSFER TRIP-2 CARRIER SEND TO BAY1 & BAY3 LINES

INITIATE FLAG RELAY (INTURN FLAG RELAY OPERATES)


INITIATE ALARM (ANNUNCIATION COME)
TO DISTURBANCE RECORDER (BAY1)
TO EVENT RECORDER ( SOE/ SCADA )

MAIN CB

B/U O/C & E/F PROTN RLY


67 ABCN
INTER TRIP FROM LV SIDE
ICT TROUBLES GR-A
PROTECTION TRIP
ICT HV OVER FLUX RELAY

86-GA
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT


RELAY 64 REF/T

86-GB
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

INTER TRIP FROM LV SIDE


ICT TROUBLES GR-B
PROTECTION TRIP
STUB RELAY 50ST
MAIN LBB OPERATED
TIE LBB OPERATED
ICT LV OVER FLUX RELAY
INTER TRIP FROM TBC LBB
& MANUAL TRIP OF 220KV

86-GB
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

TRIP COIL -2

TRIP COIL-2

T/F DIFFERENTIAL RELAY


87 T

TIE CB

86-GA
MASTER
TRIP /
HIGH
SPEED
TRIP
RELAY

TRIP COIL-1

TRIP COIL -1

86-GA & 86 GB MASTER TRIP / HIGH SPEED


TRIP LOCKOUT RELAY OPERATION

AUTO TRANSFORMER INTER TRIP CIRCUITS


HV INTER TRIP CIRCUITS(TO LV)
FOR LV MASTER TRIP RELAY 86 GR-A
1. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + MAIN
CB REMOTE HAND TRIP GIVEN.
2. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + TIE
CB REMOTE HAND TRIP GIVEN.
3. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + 96
BUSBAR-1 OPERATED.
4. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + 96
BUSBAR-2 OPERATED
(FOR HALF DIA ONLY).
5. MAIN CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
6. TIE CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
7.
FOR87
LV TEED-1
MASTERPROTECTION
TRIP RELAY 86 GR-B
OPERATED
1. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + MAIN
8. 87
PROTECTION
CB TEED-2
REMOTE
HAND TRIP GIVEN.
2. OPERATED.
MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + TIE
CB REMOTE HAND TRIP GIVEN.
3. TIE CB OPEN CONDITION + 96
BUSBAR-1 OPERATED.
4. MAIN CB OPEN CONDITION + 96
BUSBAR-2 OPERATED
(FOR HALF DIA ONLY).
5. MAIN CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
6. TIE CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.

LV INTER TRIP CIRCUIT(TO HV)

FOR HV M-CB MASTER TRIP


RELAY 86 GR-A
1. LV CB REMOTE HAND TRIP
GIVEN.
2. LV 87 BB(96) BUSBAR-1/2
(ISO SELECTION) OPERATED.
FOR HV M-CB MASTER TRIP
3. LV CB 50 LBB/BFR OPERATED.
RELAY 86 GR-B
1. LV CB REMOTE HAND TRIP
GIVEN.
2. LV 87 BB(96) BUSBAR-1/2
SELECTION)
FOR(ISO
HV T-CB
MASTEROPERATED.
TRIP RELAY
3. LV
CB
50
LBB/BFR
OPERATED.
86 GR-A
1. LV CB REMOTE HAND TRIP
GIVEN.
2. LV 87 BB(96) BUSBAR-1/2
(ISO SELECTION) OPERATED.
FOR
HV
T-CB
MASTER OPERATED.
TRIP RELAY
3. LV
CB
50 LBB/BFR
86 GR-B
1. LV CB REMOTE HAND TRIP
GIVEN.
2. LV 87 BB(96) BUSBAR-1/2

TRANSFORMER TROUBLES TRIPPING


GR-A
86 AX

OIL TEMP TRIP

TO 3PH GR-A 400KV MAIN CB


TO 3PH GR-A 400KV TIE CB

DIFF RELAY 87T

TO 3PH GR-A 220KV MAIN CB

BUCHHOLZ TRIP

TO 3PH GR-A 220KV TBC CB

OL RELAY 51OL
PRD-1 TRIP

HV O/L+E/F PROT 67
PRD-2 TRIP

NDR RELAY 151N

HV O/F RELAY 99T

86 AY

TRANSFORMER TROUBLES TRIPPING


GR-B
86 BX

OLTC BUCHHOLZ-R TRIP

TO 3PH GR-B 400KV MAIN CB


TO 3PH GR-B 400KV TIE CB

OLTC BUCHHOLZ-Y TRIP

REF RELAY 64REF

TO 3PH GR-B 220KV MAIN CB


TO 3PH GR-B 220KV TBC CB

OLTC BUCHHOLZ B TRIP

WNDG TEMP-HV TRIP

WNDG TEMP-LV TRIP

WNDG TEMP-IV TRIP

STUB RELAY 50ST

LV O/L+E/F PROT 67

LV O/F RELAY 99T

86 BY

TRIP COIL-1 CIRCUITS


TRIP COIL-1
186R1

186Y1

186B1

186R2

186Y2

186B2

286R1

286Y1

286B1

286R2

286Y2

286B2

186R1, 186R2, 186Y1, 186Y2, 186B1, 186B2


ARE CB 1-PH TRIP UNIT OF GR-A. THESE
ARE SELF RESETING.
286R1, 286R2, 286Y1, 286Y2, 286B1, 286B2
ARE CB 1-PH TRIP UNIT OF GR-B. THESE
ARE SELF RESETING.
THE BELOW ARE HAND RESETING.
86GR-A, 86GR-B ARE 3-PH TRIP UNITS.
96 BB IS BUSBAR TRIPPING RELAY

86GR-A

86GR-B

96BB

TRIP COIL 2 CIRCUITS


TRIP COIL-2
186R1

186Y1

186B1

186R2

186Y2

186B2

286R1

286Y1

286B1

286R2

286Y2

286B2

186R1, 186R2, 186Y1, 186Y2, 186B1, 186B2


ARE CB 1-PH TRIP UNIT OF GR-A. THESE
ARE SELF RESETING.
286R1, 286R2, 286Y1, 286Y2, 286B1, 286B2
ARE CB 1-PH TRIP UNIT OF GR-B. THESE
ARE SELF RESETING.
THE BELOW ARE HAND RESETING.
86GR-A, 86GR-B ARE 3-PH TRIP UNITS.
96 BB IS BUSBAR TRIPPING RELAY

86GR-A

86GR-B

96BB

ISOLATOR
INTERLOCK
S

S.N
O

ISOLATOR
OPEN/CLO
SE

EQUIPME
NT-1

EQUIPMENT EQUIPME
-2
NT-3

EQUIPMEN
T-4

INTERLOCKS REQUIRED FOR CONCERNED


ISOLATOR / EARTH SWITCH OPEN OR CLOSE

BAY - 1

NOTE: All Earth Switches


in the Bay are towards
Circuit Breaker side only.
The Line and Transformer
Earth Switches are towards
Line & Transformer.
O: OPEN
C: CLOSE
A: ACTED

BB189E : BUSBAR-1
EARTH SWITCH .
BB289E : BUSBAR2EARTH SWITCH .
UV RELAY: UNDER

189

IS
O

BB189 O
E

1
89 E

ES

189 A

1
89 A

IS
O

189
AE

1
89
AE

ES

189 A

1
89 L

IS
O

189 LE O

1
89 LE

ES

189 L

189 AE

O 189 E

152
CB

189

--

--

189 E

152
CB

--

189

--

--

152 CB

252
CB

--

UV
RELAY

--

--

BAY - 2
7

2
89 A

IS
O

289
BE

289 AE

252
CB

--

2
89
AE

ES

289 B

289 A

--

--

BB189E
1-89AE
1-89E
1-52CB
1-52CB
1-89AE
1-89E
1-52CB
1-89LE
2-52CB
1-89
1-89A
1-89
1-89A
1-89L
U/V RLY

ISOLATOR & CB INTERLOCKS

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN

&

OPERATION

1-89

1-89E

OPEN

1-89AE

OPEN

2-89AE

OPEN
OPEN

&

OPERATION

1-89A

3-89E
3-89AE

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN

2-89BE

&

OPERATION

86GR-A

1-89L

86GR-B
96BB

OPEN
OPEN

&
&

86GR-A

OPERATION

1-89AE

86GR-A
86GR-B

OPEN
ACTED

1-89E

86GR-B

OPEN
OPEN

OPERATION

&

OPERATION

1-89LE

96BB

2-89A
2-52CB
2-89AE
2-89BE

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN

2-89B

&

OPERATION

2-89A

2-89A
2-89B

CLOSE
CLOSE
CLOSE
CLOSE
CLOSE
CLOSE
RESET
RESET
RESET
RESET
RESET
RESET
RESET
RESET

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN

OPEN
OPEN

LOCAL
CLOSE

& 1-52CB

3-89

OPERATION

&

OPEN

LOCAL
CLOSE

& 2-52CB

OPEN
3-89A

OPERATION

LOCAL
CLOSE

&

& 3-52CB
REMOTE
CLOSE

& 1-52CB
REMOTE
CLOSE

& 2-52CB
REMOTE
CLOSE

& 3-52CB

3-89T

OPERATION

& 2-89BE

OPEN

OPEN

&

3-89E

3-89AE

OPERATION

OPERATION

OPERATION

2-52CB
2-89AE
2-89BE

&
&
&

3-89AE
3-89E
3-52CB
3-52CB
3-89AE
3-89E
3-52CB
3-89TE

OPEN
OPEN

OPERATION

OPERATION

OPEN

OPEN

3-89TE

& 2-89AE

OPEN

BB289E

2-52CB
LV89E2

OPEN
OPEN

3-89
3-89A

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN

3-89
3-89A
3-89T
LV89T

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN

&

OPERATION

2-89B

CLOSING INTERLOCK OF MAIN & TIE CB


96 BB

86 GR-A

86 GR-B
+ VE
T N C
CB REMOTE CLOSE
MAIN CB

21M1 AR

21M2 AR

86 GR-A

86 GR-B
+ VE
T N C

TIE

AR

TIE CB

CB REMOTE CLOSE

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

B.
1.
2.
3.
4.

ADVANTAGES:

THREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS IN A FULL DIA ARE ALWAYS IN CLOSED POSITION.


IF MAIN CB PROBLEM / FOR PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE, DURING THAT PERIOD
THE FEEDER IS FEEDING FROM TIE CB & OTHER BUS . NEED NOT REQUIRE
TRANSFER THE FEEDER.
IF TIE CB PROBLEM / FOR PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE, DURING THAT PERIOD
THE FEEDER IS FEEDING FROM MAIN CB & CONNECTED BUS.
EVEN IF BOTH MAIN BREAKERS UNDER TROUBLE, DURING THAT PERIOD ONE
FEEDER WORKS AS INCOMING AND OTHER FEEDER WORKS AS OUTGOING VIA
TIE CB. (WITHOUT INTERUPTION TO FEEDERS)
IF BUSBAR-1 OPERATED / FOR PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE, ONLY THE MAIN
BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUSBAR-1 WILL TRIP. DURING THAT PERIOD THE
FEEDERS CONNECTED TO BUS-1 ARE FEEDING VIA TIE CB FROM BUS-2.
IF BUSBAR-2 OPERATED / FOR PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE, ONLY THE MAIN
BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUSBAR-2 WILL TRIP. DURING THAT PERIOD THE
FEEDERS CONNECTED TO BUS-2 ARE FEEDING VIA TIE CB FROM BUS-1.
IN THIS BUSBAR PROTECTION IS SIMPLE AND NEED NOT REQUIRE SELECTION OF
ISOLATOR.
IT IS MORE RELIABLE SYSTEM FOR OPERATION & MAINTANENCE POINT OF
VIEW.

DISADVANTAGES

CT CONNECTIONS & PROTECTION


TRIP LOGICS ARE SOME WHAT
COMPLICATED. COMPLEX CONTROL & PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY
COST TOWARDS CTs, CIRCUIT BREAKERS & PANELS ARE TO BE INCREASED DUE
TO EXTRA BAY. THE COST COMPARISION TABLE SHOWN IN NEXT PRESENTATION.
THE OPERATIONS FOR OPERATOR POINT OF VIEW IS LITTLE BIT COMPLICATED
WHEN COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM.
SPACE OCUPATION FOR BAY IS MORE i.e COST OF LAND IS INCREASE.

COST COMPARISION BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM


& ONE AND HALF BREAKER SYSTEM FOR FEEDER
ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM
S.
No

EQUIPMENT

CONVEN
TIONAL
SYSTEM

1.

CIRCUIT
BREAKERS

1 No

CURRENT
TRANSFORMERS
2.

3.

4.

3 CT METHOD

%
%
HALF
FULL DIA INCREA
INCREA
DIA
(FOR 2
SE
SE
(FOR 1
FEEDERS)
IN
IN
FEEDER)
COST
COST
3 Nos

50%

2 Nos

100%

INCLUDES THE COST OF CT MARSHELLING BOXES.


3 Sets

50%

2 Sets

100%

4 Sets

100%

2 Sets

100%

5 CT METHOD

5 Sets

125%

3 Sets

200%

6 CT METHOD

6 Sets

200%

3 Sets

200%

3 SETS

30%

2 SETS

30%

4 CT METHOD

CONTROL &
RELAY PANELS
BAY
MARSHALLING

1 Set

I SET

NORMALLY EXTRA PANEL IS TIE BAY PANEL. IT IS ARROUND 30% COST OF MAIN
PANEL. BECAUSE IT IS NOT HAVING PROTECTION RELAYS( M-1 & M-2 AND OTHER
RELAYS) . ONLY TIE CB TRIPPING RELAYS & ASSOCIATED RELAYS(A/R +LBB).

1 No

3 Nos

50%

2 Nos

30%

OTHER
INFORMATION
REGARDING
RELAYS AND
TESTING
EQUIPMENT
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

ABB RELAYS
ABB Network Partner AG

REL 521

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

C
E

EE

ABB Relays
ABB Network Partner AG

REL 512

c
E

ALSTOM RELAYS

P445

P443

P437

E-PAC

P442

GE MULTILIN
RELAYS

SIEMENS
RELAYS

SEL RELAYS
ENABLED
TARGET
RESET

TRIP

IA =250.10 A
IB =250.10 A
IC =250.10 A
VAB =400.0 KV
VBC =400.0 KV
VCA =400.0 KV
ESC

ENT

INST TIME COMM SOTF

INST
PH - A
TIME
PH - B
COMM PH - C
SOTF
GND
ZONE 1 50
ZONE 2 51
ZONE 3 79 RESET
ZONE 4 79 LOCKOUT

2ENABLED
3

ZONE

TRIP
EN

FAULT TYPE

TARGET TARGET FAULT SET


RESET NO /
YES /
CANCELSELECT

51

COMM
ENABLED

RECLOSE
ENABLED

ALT
SETTINGS

CB
CLOSED

RELAY
TEST

CB
OPEN

PROTECTION
AUTOMATION
CONTROL

50
O/C

METER STATUS OTHER GROUP


EXIT

MC
ENABLED

SEL- 321- 5 - 2

TARGET
RESET

TRIP

SPT
ENABLED

SEL

SEL- 421
PROTECTION
AUTOMATION
CONTROL

SEL

VA TECH REYROLLE RELAYS

NXT PHASE RELAYS

RELAY HARDWARE
16 / 32 BIT

PC
MODEM

IRIG-B
RE/CC

NORMALLY
400KV
RELAYS
SUPPLIED
WITH
CONFIGUARATION/HARDWARE
1. MIN 4Nos MAX 8Nos COMMAND/TRIP OUTPUTS
2. MIN 24Nos SIGNAL OUTPUTS
3. MIN 14 LED INDICATIONS
4. MIN 24 BINARY INPUTS

FOLLOWING

RELAY SIGNAL DATA FLOW

FUNCTIONS AVAILABLE NUMERICAL DISTANCE RELAYS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

4 TO 6 SETTING IMPEDENCE ZONES WITH 4 TO 6 SETTING GROUPS (21 + 21N).


DIR / INST / TIME OVERCURRENT & EARTH FAULT FUNCTION( 50 / 51 / 67 P+G).
EIGHT COMMUNICATION SCHEMES.
SWITCH ON TO FAULT PROTECTION(21 SOTF).
PHASE SELECTION(R,Y,B).
POWER SWING BLOCKING(PSB)(68 + 68T).
FUSE FAILURE SUPERVISION(PT FFR).
AUTO RECLOSER WITH CHECK SYNCHRNISATION & VOLTAGE CHECK(79 + 25 +86).
WEEK END INFEED LOGIC(27 WI).
SYSTEM SUPERVISION.
STUB PROTECTION(STUB).
OVER VOLTAGE/ UNDER VOLTAGE FUNCTION(27+ 59).
LBB/BFR FUNCTION(50 BF).
DISTANCE TO FAULT LOCATOR(21 FL).(SHOWS IN 1. %, 2. KM 3. MILES & 4. R+JX )
16 PROGRAMABLE SIGNALLING RELAYS WITH LEDs.
RECORDABLE 10Nos LATEST DISTRUBANCES WITH BASIC EVALUATION DISTURBANCE
RECORDER.
EVENT RECORDER RELATED TO RELAY EVENTS.
PRE-FAULT, FAULT & POST-FAULT VALUES OF ANALOG POINTS WITH IMPEDENCE
DETAILS.
USER CAN BE CONFIGUARED PROGRAMABLE LOGIC FUNCTIONS.
TELE / CARRIER INTER TRIPPING SCHEMES(85 +21)(PUTT, POTT).
TRIP CIRCUIT MONITORING(74 TC).
METERING FUNCTION (INSTANTANEOUS VALUES DISPLAY FUNCTION).
4 QUADRANT ENERGY METER FUNCTION (KWH,KVAH,KVARH)(KYZ PULSE OUTPUT).
MINIMUM 8 COMMOND/ TRIP RELAYS, 24 SIGNAL RELAYS
MINIMUM 20 BINARY INPUTS, 14 LEDs

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( MHO CIRCULAR )

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( QUADRILATERAL-1 )

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( QUADRILATERAL-2 )

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( BULLET )

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( TRIANGLER )

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( LENS / OPTICAL )

DISTANCE RELAYS CHARACTERESTICS


( TOMATO )

TRANSFORMER( M & B ) OF DIFFERENT


TRANSMISSION
LINE PROTECTION
T/F PROTECTION
MANUFACTURERS

MANUFAC
TURERS

MAIN-1

ABB

REL 521
REL 670

MICOM
P443/P44
AREVA
4/
(ALSTOM)
P442/P44
5

CURV
ES

MAIN-2

QUAD

REL 316
REL 512

QUAD/
MHO

MICOM
P437
E-PAC
3000,
OPTIMHO

SIEMENS
SIPROTE
( SIPROTE
C
7SA62/3
C)

QUAD/
MHO

SEL

SEL 421

QUAD/
MHO

GE
MULTILIN

D-60,
ALPS

QUAD/
MHO

SIPROTEC
7SA522
SEL 321
SEL 311C
L-60/L-90
D-30

CURV
ES

DIFFEREN
TIAL

DIR
O/L,E/F

QUAD/

RET 521 /
670
RET 316

REL 505
REX 521

QUAD/
MHO

MICOM
P633
KBCH/
MBCH

MICOM
P141
MICOM
P127

BULLET

QUAD/
MHO

7SJ
7UT 613/
62/3/4/5
2
7UT
7SJ
513/ 2
52/3/4/5

QUAD/
MHO

SEL 387

SEL 351

QUAD/
MHO

T-35 / T-60
SR 7465

F-60
SR
750/60

RELAY TESTING EQUIPMENTS


1. PROGRAMA_GE (MODEL: FREEJA-300)
3. OMICRON (MODEL: CMC 256-6)

2. MANTA TEST SYSTEMS (MODEL: MTS 4000)


4. DOBLE ( MODEL: F 6150)

RELAY TESTING EQUIPMENTS


1. MEEGER_AVO (MODEL: MPRT 8430)
3. KOCOS (MODEL: ARTES 440 II)

2. RES (MODEL: APTS 3)


4. EURO SMC ( MODEL: TRES)

400KV SUBSTATIONS IN APTRANSCO


S.N
o

400KV SUBSTATION

FEEDERS

CAPAC
ITY

1. SRISAILAM 1&2
2. GHANAPUR (PGCIL)

3. KHAMMAM 1&2(PGCIL)
4. YEDDUMAILARAM 1&2**

MAMIDIPALLY (HYDERABAD)

(2 +
1**) X
315
MVA

1. SRISAILAM
2. GHANAPUR (PGCIL)

3. GOOTY (PGCIL)
4. NARASARAOPETA**

NURNOOR (KURNOOL)

(2 +
1**) X
315
MVA

KALAPAKA (VISHAKHAPATNAM)

2 X 315
MVA

1. SIMHADRI 1,2,3&4 (NTPC)


2. GAJUWAKA 1&2 (PGCIL)

3. KHAMMAM 1&2 (PGCIL)


4. VEMAGIRI 1&2

VEMAGIRI (RAJHAMUNDRY)

2 X 315
MVA

1. KALAPAKA 1&2
2. GAJUWAKA 1&2 (PGCIL)*
3. NUNNA 1&2 (PGCIL)*
4. GUNTUR 1&2*

5. GVK EXTN 1&2 (IPP)


6. GOWTHAMI 1&2 (IPP)
7. KONASEEMA 1&2 (IPP)
8. GMR VASAVI 1&2 (IPP)

1. TALLAPALLY

2. RAICHUR

VELTUR (MB NAGAR)

(1 +
2**) X
315
MVA

1. CHENNAI RED HILLS

2. KADAPA

6.

CHITTOR(VEPANJIR)

(1 +
1**) X
315
MVA

7.

NELLORE(MANUBOLU)

1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

2 X 315
MVA

400KV SUBSTATIONS OF PGCIL IN AP


S.N
o

400KV SUBSTATION

FEEDERS

CAPACI
TY

1. GHANAPUR 1&2
2. GAJWEL(GHNP3)
3. MALKARAM(GHNP4)

4. TALLAPALLY 1&2
5. DICHPALLY*
6. KHAMMAM (WRNGL)
7. CHANDRAPUR 1&2

RAMAGUNDAM(NTPC)

2 X 200
MVA 2 X
250
MVA
1 X 315
MVA

GHANAPUR (HYDERABAD)

3 X 315
MVA

1. RAMAGUNDAM 1&2
2. MAMIDIPALLY
3. GAJWEL(RMGNDM3)

4. NAGARJUNA SAGAR
5. KURNOOL
6. MALKARAM(RMGNDM4)

1. NUNNA
2. KALAPAKA1&2

3. VEMAGIRI 1&2
4. JAIPUR(HVDC)

GAJUWAKA (VISHAKHAPATNAM)

(1 +
1*) X
315
MVA

4.

NUNNA (VIJAYAWADA)

(1 +
1*) X
315
MVA

1. GAJUWAKA
2. SRISAILAM 1&2(NRSPT)
3. VEMAGIRI 1&2

4. VEMAGIRI 3&4(VTPS)
5. KHAMMAM
6. NELLORE 1&2

5.

TALLAPALLY
(NAGARJUNA SAGAR)

3 X 315
MVA

1. RAMAGUNDAM 1&2
2. GHANAPUR
3. MAHABOOBNAGAR

4. GOOTY
5. CHINAKAMPALLY 1&2

1. RAMAGUNDAM (WRGL)
2. NUNNA

4. MAMIDIPALLY 1&2
5. KALAPAKA 1&2

1.

2.

3.

6.

BUDIDAMPADU (KHAMMAM)

(1 +
1*) X
315
MVA

400KV NETWORK IN AP

GUNTUR
NELLORE

ALAMETHI
/ CHENNAI

NKRKL

SRISAILAM

KURNOOL

CHITTOR

GOOTY

RAICHUR
MAMIDIPALLY

CHINAKAMPALLY

CHENNAI

KHAMMAM

CHANDRAPUR
(MAHARASTRA)

KOLAR

VTPS

YEDDUMAILARAM

NUNNA

GHANAPUR

BANGALORE

IPP2

VEMAGIRI

MBNGR

IPP1

TALLAPALLY

BANGALORE

IPP4

DICHPALLY

MALKARAM

IPP3

BTPS

GAJWEL

KALAPAKA

WARANGAL

HVDC

JAIPUR

RAMAGUNDAM

SIMHADRI

GAJUWAKA

VEMAGIRI SUBSTATION DISPLAY


NUNN
AI
(PGCIL
)

NUNN GAJUWA GAJUWAK


A II
KA I
A II
(PGCIL (PGCIL) (PGCIL)
)

315MVA,
315MVA,
400/220KV 400/220KV
AUTO
AUTO
TRANSFOR TRANSFOR
MER-II
MER-I

GUNTUR GUNTUR
I
II

KALAPA KALAPAK GOWTH GOWTHA FUTURE FUTURE


KA I
A II
AMI I
MI II
I
II
PHES
PHES

GVK
VPGCL VPGCL KOPCL KOPCL
I
II
EXT I
I
II
GMR
GMR KONASE KONASEE
MA
VASAVI VASAVI EMA

GVK EXT
II

DISPLAY