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& Measurements

Section I

Single Correct Option

1, K =

1

mv2

2

p2 =

m

v

K

=

+2

K max

m

v

In the estimate of,

kinetic energy ( K ) = 8%

Option (c) is correct.

m m

2. d =

= 3

V

l

m

l

d 100

=

100 + 3 100

d

max m

l

= 4% + 3(3%)

= 13%

Option (d) is correct.

F

F

3. p =

=

A L2

Permissible error in pressure ( p)

= 4% + 2 (2%)

= 8%

Option (a) is correct.

4.

p1V1 = p2 V2

V

p2 = p1 1

V2

= p1

=

V1

V1 10% of V1

p1

90%

p1

9

100

9

= 111

.

Option (a) is correct.

p2

5. K =

2m

Error in the measurement of kinetic

energy (K)

= 2 100%

= 200%

Option (d) is correct.

6. 3400 = 3.400 103

Number of significant figures = 2

Option (d) is correct.

7. A = 3.124 m 3.002 m

= 9.378 / 248 m 2

= 9.378 m 2

Option (a) is correct.

GM

8.

g= 2

R

constant

=

R2

1 2

K = I

2

1 2

= MR2

2 5

= constant R2

Decrease in R (radius) by 2% world

increase g by 4% and decrease K

(rotational kinetic energy) by 4%.

16. Q = I e

= 12 6 2.45

= 176.4

= 1764

.

102 cm 3

2

= 2 10 cm 2

Option (b) is correct.

P

11. I =

4 r2

i.e., Ir2 = constant

i.e., if r is increased by 2% the intensity

will decrease by 4%.

Option (d) is correct.

12. Option (b) is correct.

4

13.

V = r 3

3

V

r

=3

V

r

= 3(1%)

= 3%

Option (c) is correct.

14. a 3 = 6a2 (given)

a=6

V = 63 = 216 m 3

Option (b) is correct.

l

15. g = 4 2 2

T

l

T

g

100

=

100 + 2

100

T

l

g

max

1 mm

015

.

=

100 + 2

10

2003

100 m

= 01

. % + 01

. % = 0.2 %

Option (a) is correct.

(given)

Q = It

9. Heat (H) = 22 Rt

10. V = lbt

| 3

We know that

Maximum error in measuring heat (H)

= 2 (2%) + 1% + 1%

= 6%

Option (b) is correct.

tI

( V ) 0

t= e

tI

(V ) 0

[ ] = [ t ]

tI

and [ ] =

( V ) 0

or

= tI = I 1

( V ) 0 t ( V ) 0

1

1

=

[Resistance] 0

1

1

=

[ML2 T 3A 2 ] [M1L3T 4 A 2 ]

1

= 1 = [velocity]

[L T]

1

=

[ 0 0 ]1/ 2

pq

17. a = 2 3

r s

1 p

1 q

a 100

=

100 +

100

a

max 2 p

2 q

r

s

+2

100 + 3

100

r

1

1

= (1%) + (3%) +2 (0.5%) + 3(0.33%)

2

2

= 0.5% + 1.5% +1% + 1%

= 4%

Option (c) is correct.

18. Least count of main scale

2 mm

=

= 0.5 mm

4

least count of main scale

Least count =

50

= 0.1 mm

Zero error = 30 0.01 mm

= 0.3 mm

(ive sign, zero of circular scale is lying

above observed reading of plate thick)

= 2 MSR + 20 CSR

4 | Mechanics-1

= (2 05

. mm) + (20 0.01 mm)

= 1 mm + 0.2 mm

= 1.2 mm.

Plate thickness (corrected reading)

= 1.2 mm + 0.3 mm

= 1.5 mm

Option (d) is correct.

= (% error in a) + 2 (% error in b) +3 (% error in c)

= 15%

Assertion and Reason

Pitch

=

Number of divisions of circular scale

Less the value of pitch, less will be least

count of screw gauge leading to len

uncertainty that is more accuracy in the

measurement.

From the above relation we conclude that

least count of screw gauge is inversely

proportional to the number of divisions of

circular scale.

Thus reason is false.

Option (c) is correct.

1. (a) F =

GM1M2

r2

GM1M2 = Fr2

i. e., [GM1M2 ] = [MLT 2 ][L2 ]

= [ML3T 2 ]

(a) (q)

3 RT 3 pV 3 work

(b)

=

=

M

n

nM

3 RT ML2 T 2

=

= [L2 T 2 ]

M M

qvB sin

=

qB

= v2 sin2

F2

1 2

2 2

q2 B2 = [LT ] = [L T ]

(c) ( r)

(d)

g=

GM e

R2e

GM e

= gRe

Re

(b) (r)

F2

F

(c) 2 2 =

qB

qB

GM e

2

R = [LT ][L]

e

= [L2 T 2 ]

(d) ( r)

Vectors

Section I

Force

Area

[MLT 2 ]

[ p] =

[L2 ]

1. Pressure ( p) =

= [ML1T 2 ]

Option (d) is correct.

2.

W = I 2 Rt

[ML2 T 2 ] [ML2 T 2 A 2 ]

[R] =

(i)

=

[T ]

[A 2 T]

dI

and W = Vq

V =L

dt

W dt

L=

q dI

[L] =

[ML2 T 2 ][T]

= [ML2 T 2 A 2 ]

2

[A T]

[ L]

[T ]

L

[T ] =

R

[R] =

i.e.,

3.

F = 6 av

[F ]

[ ] =

[ av ]

[ML T 2 ]

=

[L L T 1 ]

= [ML1 T 1 ]

Option (d) is correct.

4.

= Li

[ ] = [ L ][ i]

= [ML2 T 2 A 2 ] [ A ]

= [ML2 T 2 A 1 ]

Option (a) is correct.

5. Linear impulse ( I ) = F t

= [ML T 1 ]

Option (c) is correct.

mm

6. F = G 1 2 2

d

[ F ][ d2 ] [ML T 2 ] [L2 ]

[G] =

=

[ m1 m2 ]

[M2 ]

= [M1 L3 T 2 ]

Option (c) is correct.

i i

7.

F= 0 1 2

4 d

[ML T 2 ][L]

[ 0] =

= [ML2 T 2 A 2 ]

[A 2 ]

Option (c) is correct.

[L]

8. [ k] =

= [T]

[L T 1 ]

Option (c) is correct.

[ML T 2 ]

9. [ a ] =

= [ML T 3 ]

[T]

[ b] =

[ML T 2 ]

= [ML T 4 ]

[ T2]

6 | Mechanics-1

10. E = h

q = CV

and

V = iR

q = iCR

i t = iCR

[CR] = [ t ] = [M0 L0 T A 0 ]

Option (a) is correct.

1 q1 q2

18. F =

4 0 r2

= [M][L T 1 ] 2

[Mass] = [ Ev 2 ]

Option (c) is correct.

1

Energy

12. 0 E2 = Energy density =

2

Volume

2

[ML

T 2 ]

1

2

E =

0

3

2

[L ]

Option (b) is correct.

nh

19. Angular momentum ( J ) =

2

I = mr2

h 2 J / n

mvr

=

=

2

I

mr

mr2

17.

[ML2 T 2 ]

[ h] =

= [ML2 T 1 ]

[T 1 ]

nh

Angular momentum ( J ) =

2

[ J ] = [ h] = [ML2 T 1 ]

Option (b) is correct.

1

h = [L T ] = [T 1 ]

I L

= [ML1 T 2 ]

Option (b) is correct.

[ a ] = [T 2 ]

13.

[T 2 ]

[ b] =

[L ][ML1 T 2 ]

a = [M T 2 ]

b

dv

14. Velocity gradient =

dx

[L T 1 ]

[Velocity gradient] =

[L]

= [T 1 ]

= [M0 L0 T 1 ]

Option (a) is correct.

[Force] = [ML T 2 ]

[F]

[Mass] =

[L T 2 ]

15.

= [F L1 T 2 ]

Option (a) is correct.

16. Coefficient of friction ()

Normal force

[] = [M0 L0 T 0 ]

= Frequency

Option (a) is correct.

b

20.

v = at +

t+c

b

t +

[ c] = [ T ]

= [v ]

c

[ b] = [L T 1 ] [T] = [L]

[ at ] = [v ] = [L T 1 ]

[a] = [L T 2 ]

2

21.

y = A sin ( c t x)

x

2

= A sin c t

2x

= (angle)

[ x ] = [ ] = [L ]

Further, y = A sin

[ A ] = [ y ] = [L ]

Option (a) is correct.

or

22.

[ X ] = [M1 L3 T 3 A 2 ]

[T A 2 ]

=

[ML2 T 2 ]

2

[ t] [ i ]

[ Work ]

[QW = i2 Rt]

X is resistance.

F = 2 ^i 3 ^j + 4 k

23.

or

24.

0.25 + 0.64 + c2 = 1

c2 = 1 0.89

c = 0.11

Option (b) is correct.

or

or

A2 + 2 A B + B2 = C2

A B = 0

or

cos = 0

=

2

122 + 52 + 2 P Q = 132

P Q = 0

or

or

or

A B = |A ||B|cos 60

34. P + Q + R = 0

is 60.

|A |= |B|

A2 B2 = 0

A=B

A A + B A B B A B = 0

(P + Q) (P + Q) = R R

26. ( A + B) ( A B) = 0

P2 + Q2 + 2 P Q = R2

|A ||B|cos = 0

32. P + Q = R

A B = 0

A A + 2 A B + B B = C C

or

A2 + B2 + 2 A B = A2 + B2 2 A B

( A + B) ( A + B) = ( A B) ( A B)

i.e.,

or

25. |A + B|= |A B|

or

or

( A + B) ( A + B) = C C

or

= 17 ^i 6 ^j 13 k

^ ^ ^

i

j k

= r F = 3 2 3

2 3 4

= 7.5

Option (b) is correct.

30. A + B = C

r =3i+2j+3k

1

= (3) (5)

2

P+Q= R

(P + Q) (P + Q) = ( R) ( R)

P P + Q Q + 2 P Q = R R

P2 + Q2 + 2 P Q = R2

Let Q2 = P2 and R = P 2

Thus, Eq. (i) takes the form

P2 + P2 + 2 PQ cos = 2 P2

or

2 PQcos = 0

(i)

8 | Mechanics-1

or

or

( Q sin )

Q sin

P + Q cos P Q cos

=

( Q sin )

Q sin

1

( P + Q cos ) ( P Q cos )

2 PQ sin

= 2

P + Q2 cos 2

cos = 0

= 90

P+Q+R=0

P+R= Q

(P + R) (P + R ) = ( Q) ( Q)

or

or

or

or

or

P2 + R2 + 2 PR cos = Q2

2 PR cos = Q2 P2 R2

2 PR cos = R2

2P cos = R

2 P cos = P 2

1

cos =

2

or

or

Option (b) is correct.

36. R2 = P2 + Q2 + 2 PQ cos

for R = P = Q

P2 = P2 + P2 + 2 PP cos

1

or

cos =

2

or

= 120

Option (b) is correct.

= 135

W = F s

37.

135

= (3 ^i + 4 ^j) (3 ^i + 4 ^j)

P

90

= 25 J

Option (b) is correct.

135

+Q

P

'

P

Q

tan =

Q sin

P + Q cos

Q sin ( + )

tan =

P + Q cos ( + )

Q sin

=

P Q cos

tan tan

tan[ + ( )] =

1 + tan tan

= a2 2a 3

38. P Q = ( a i + a j + 3 k) ( a i 2 j k)

For P Q, P Q = 0

i.e., a2 2a 3 = 0

or ( a 3)( a + 1) = 0

a=3

Other value is ive.

Option (d) is correct.

39. If a vector makes angles , and with

cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1

2

3

9 6

Now, =

, =

7

49 7

9

and

+

49

Option (a) is correct.

40. A = 4 i 3 j

B = 8 ^i + 8 $j

and

36 2

4

, =

49 7

49

36

4

+

=1

49 49

A + B = C = 12 ^i + 5 ^j

C=

B=2N

Option (c) is correct.

12 ^i + 5 ^j

C

=

|C|

122 + 52

C = i + 2$j + 3 k

their scalar triple product is zero i.e.,

(A C ) B = 0

$

i$ $j k

^

2 3 2 (5 ^i + n ^j + k) = 0

1 2 3

or

=a a +ba a bbb

=0a ba b0

= 2(a b) = 2( b a )

Option (a) is correct.

44.

A = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + 5 k

2 + 32 2

43. (a + b) (a b)

2+3

2

(13 ^i 4 ^j + 7 k) (5 ^i + n ^j + k) = 0

Component of A along ^i + ^j

5

C=

(2 ^i + 3 ^j )

26

5

|C|=

2

or

65 4 n + 7 = 0

or

n = 18

Option (a) is correct.

A B

|A ||B|

5

=

13 2

5

=

26

B = ^i + ^j

and

^

^

^

41. A = 2 i + 3 $j 2 k, B = 5 i + n$j + k,

12 ^ 5 ^

=

i+

j

13

13

Option (b) is correct.

or

(i)

R2 = 13 P2 + 12 P2 cos

Further

(2R)2 = (6 P)2 + (2 P)2 + 2 6 P 2 P cos

or 4 R2 = 40 P2 + 24 P2 cos

(ii)

Dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i),

10 P2 + 6 P2 cos = 13 P2 + 12 P2 cos

or

6 cos = P

or

= 120

Option (b) is correct.

Q sin

48.

tan =

P + Q cos

B = 3 ^i + 4 ^j 5 k

cos =

( A B)

=0

= 90

Option (c) is correct.

45.

Q = 2P

|A ||B|

9 + 16 25

= 2

3 + 42 + 52

A + B=7

A B=3

R

= 90

P

As

i.e.,

= 90, tan =

P + Q cos = 0

P

Q

P

=

2P

cos =

10 | Mechanics-1

1

2

= 120

or

P 16 = 96

49. A B = 0

51. |A B|= 3 ( A B)

A

B C

tan = 3

= 60

|A B|= [ A2 + B2 + AB] 1/ 2

A C = 0

(ii)

AC

= A2 + B2 + 2 AB cos 60

= A2 + B2 + AB

(i)

AB

|A ||B|sin = 3 |A | |B|cos

P = + 6N

Q = 10 N

C=AB

B and C.

B C.

Option (c) is correct.

or

or

or

P + Q + 2 PQ cos = 8

( P + Q)2 + 2 PQ (cos 1) = 64

2 PQ(cos 1) = 192

P ( P) PQ = 96

or

P ( P + Q) = 96

8 + 12 + 8 = 0

P+Q+R= 0

54.

P + Q cos = 0

Q cos = P

(A B ) A = 0

53. (2 i + 3 j + 8 k) ( 4 i + 4 j + k) = 0

(16)2 + 2 PQ (cos 1) = 64

PQ cos PQ = 96 (i)

Q sin

(as

tan =

=

P + Q cos

= 90)

or

C A = 0

or

or P2 + Q2 + 2 PQ + 2 PQ cos 2 PQ = 64

or

P2 + Q2 + 2 PQ cos = R2

50.

(ii)

If,

|P|

|Q|

|R|

=

=

sin sin sin

1

2

OA + AB = OB

55.

between A + B and A B is 90

B (2,6,4)

A2 + B2 cos 2 = 0

or

A2 = B2 cos 2

or

A2 = B2 cos 2

2

or

A2 = B2 cos

or

A2 = B2

A=B

Y

A (0, 3, 1)

AB = OB OA

11

= ( 2 i + 6 ^j + 4 k) (0 ^i + 3 ^j k)

Q =

= 2 ^i + 3 ^j + 5 k

Option (c) is correct.

Match the Columns

1. (a) |A B|= |A B|

or

tan = 1

3

= ,

2 4

Thus, (a) (r) (s).

(b) A B = B A

or

4 A B = 0

AB

or

or

or

2 A B = 0 (Q A2 + B2 = C2 )

AB

Section II

Subjective Questions

1. 2 1011 N/m 2 =

(2 1011)(105 dyne)

(104 cm 2 )

= 2 1012 dyne/cm 2

(72)(105 N)

2. 72 dyne/cm =

= 0072

.

N/m

(102 m )

3.

[ a ] = [ y] = [ L]

A2 + 2 A B + B2 = C2

A A + B A + B A + B B = C C

or

|A + B|2 = |A B|2

( A + B) ( A + B) = C C

(d) A + B = C

(c) |A B|= |A B|

or

or

sin = sin

or

2 sin = 0

= 0 rad

Thus, (b) (p).

|A ||B|sin = |A ||B|sin

or

A B = (B A )

or

= A A B A A B + B B

(given)

or

or A A + B A + B A + B B

|A ||B|sin = |A ||B|cos

( A + B) ( A + B) = ( A B) ( A B)

[t ] = [M0L0 T 0 ] [ ] = [ T 1 ]

[ ] = [M0L0 T 0 ]

E

J

4. h =

=

= J-s

per sec

[ h] = [ML2 T 2 ][T] = [ML2 T 1 ]

5. [ b] = [ x2 ] = [ L2 ]

12 | Mechanics-1

b = [ p]

at

14. A + B = R (say) = 3 i$ + $j

L2

b

[a] = =

= [M1T 2 ]

2 3

tp

TML

T

1 2

1

6. St = ut + at u( t 1) + a( t 1)2

2

2

1

1

2

= u.1 a(1) + at(1) = u + at a

2

2

a

= u + (2t 1)

2

Here t in second. Hence the given

equation seems to be dimensionally

incorrect. But it is correct because 1 is

hidden.

7. LHS is dimensionless. While RHS has the

dimensions [L1 ].

8. LHS is dimensionless. Hence n = 0.

9. Just write the dimension of different

physical quantities.

10. E = km x n y a z .

Here k = a dimensionless constant

[ E ] = [ m ]x [ n] y [ a ] z

2 2

x = 1, y = 2 and z = 2

x y z

11. F = km v r

(k = a dimensionless constant)

x

[ F ] = [ m ] [v ] y [ r] z

[MLT 2 ] = [M]x [LT 1 ] y [L] z

Solving we get,

x = 1, y = 2 and z = 1

kmv2

F=

r

A B = S (say) = i$ + 5$j

RS

3+5

8

4

cos =

=

=

=

RS

9 + 1 1 + 25

260

65

4

= cos 1

65

15. Their dot product should be zero.

$ should be

16. Ratio of coefficients of $i, $j and k

same.

17. No solution is required.

2 x

$ =R

R

R

$

20. A B = C (say) = 3 i$ + 8 $j + 2k

Now A C = 6 + 8 2 = 0

AC

BC = 0+8 8 = 0

BC

A B

62+8

13. cos =

=

AB

9 + 1 + 4 4 + 4 + 16

12

3

=

=

336

21

22.

B

B sin

A

B cos

Equating the powers we get,

x = 1, y = 4, z = 2

[ d] = [FL4 T 2 ]

Similarly other parts can be solved.

A B

B

$

19. A + B = R = 5$i $j + k

12. (a) [ d] = [ F ]x [ L ] y [ T ] z

3

B sin = R =

B

2

= 30

23. A + B = ( 4 $i + 6$j ) + B = 10 $i + 9 $j

B = (6$i + 3 $j)

24.

3P

25.

4P

a

b

=

sin (180 A) sin (180 B)

c

=

sin (180 C)

a

b

c

or

=

=

sin A sin B sin C

2P

R = P $i + 2 P $j 3 P $i 4 P $j

= ( 2 P i$ 2 P $j )

26.

R2 = P2 + Q2 + 2 PQ cos

S2 = P2 + Q2 2 PQ cos

R2 + S2 = 2 ( P2 + Q2 )

13

Introductory Exercise 3.1

1. Suppose

constant velocity v (along the axis of x).

Displacement of particle in time t1 = vt1

Displacement of particle in time t2 = vt2

Displacement of the particle in the time

interval t ( = t2 t1)

= vt2 vt1

= v ( t2 t1)

Average velocity in the time interval

v ( t2 t1)

t =

( t2 t1)

=v

Now, as the particle is moving with

constant velocity (i.e., with constant speed

in a given direction) its velocity and speed

at any instant will obviously be v.

Ans. True.

be g.

3. A second hand takes 1 min i.e., 60s to

angle of 2 rad).

Angular speed of second hand

2 rad

=

60 s

=

rad s 1

30

Linear speed of its tip = radius angular

speed

= 2.0 cm

rad s 1

30

cms 1

15

As the tip would be moving with constant

speed.

Average speed =

cms 1

15

In 15 s the second hand would rotate

through 90 i.e., the displacement of its tip

will be r 2.

Modulus of average velocity of the tip of

second hand in 15 s.

r 2

=

15

2 2

=

cms 1

15

=

acceleration.

(b) (i) No. In curved path there will always

be acceleration. (As explained in the

previous answer no. 3)

(ii) Yes. In projectile motion the path of

the particle is a curved one while

acceleration of the particle remains

constant.

(iii) Yes. In curved path the acceleration

will always be there. Even if the path

is circular with constant speed the

direction of the acceleration of the

particle would every time be changing.

Circumference

Speed

2 4 cm

=

= 8 = 25.13 s

1 cm / s

4v 2

2r

v

2 2 v2

=

r

2 2 (1)2

=

4

speed of 1 cm/s, its average speed in

any time interval will be 1 cm/s.

r 2

|Average velocity|=

T/4

=

4r 2

2 2

speed

=

2r

speed

| 15

= 0.23 cm s 2

6. Distance = Speed time

D1 = v1t1

D2 = v2 t2

2 2

cms 1

= 0.9 cms 1

v 2

|Average acceleration|=

T/4

Average speed =

D1 + D2 v1t1 + v2 t2

=

t1 + t2

t1 + t2

( 4 2) + (6 3)

2+3

= 5.2 ms 1

(where v = speed)

1. Acceleration (due to gravity).

1

1

= ut + at2 u ( t 1) + a( t 1)2

2

2

st = u + at

1

a

2

Displacement

Velocity

dimensionally incorrect.

Acceleration

equation

v = t 3/ 4

ds

= t 3/ 4

dt

4.

1

2. st = u + at a is physically correct as it

2

gives the displacement of the particle in tth

second (or any time unit).

st = Displacement in t seconds

displacement in ( t 1) seconds

s=

(given)

(i)

3/ 4

dt =

3

+1

t4

3

+1

4

+c

4 7 /4

t

+c

7

i.e.,

s t7 /4

Differentiating Eq. (i) w.r.t. time t,

3

d2 s 3 4 1

=

t

dt2 4

a t 1/ 4

or

s=

is

amplitude position to its mean position

the value of its acceleration decreases

while speed increases.

s = ( 40 6) +

1

( 10) 62

2

= 240 180

= 60 m (in the upward direction)

Distance covered ( D) by the particle

Time to attain maximum height

16 | Mechanics-1

40

= 4s < 6 s

10

It implies that particle has come back

after attaining maximum height (h) given

by

u2

h=

2g

=

( 40)2

= 80 m

2 10

D = 80 + (80 60)

= 100 m

v = 40 10t

dx

= 40 10t

dt

or

dx = ( 40 10t) dt

or

x = ( 40 10t) dt

or

x = 40t 5t2 + c

As at t = 0 the value of x is zero.

c=0

x = 40t 5t2

For x to be 60 m.

60 = 40t 5t2

or

t2 8 t + 12 = 0

t = 2 s or 6 s

Displacement in time t

7. Average velocity =

t

1 2

ut + at

2

=

t

1

= u + at

2

6.

8.

v2 = v1 + at

at = v2 v1

Displacement in time t

t

1 2

v1t + at

2

=

t

1

= v1 + at

2

v2 v1

= v1 +

2

v1 + v2

=

2

Ans. True.

125 = 0 t +

9.

1 2

gt

2

t = 25 s

125 m

Average velocity =

5s

(downwards)

= 25 m/s

(downwards)

(i

v = 10 + 5t t

10.

)

dv

= 5 2t

dt

At

t =2s

a=522

= 1 m/s2

From Eq. (i),

dx

= 10 + 5t t2

dt

x = (10 + 5t t2 ) dt

5t2 t 3

or

x = 10t +

+c

2

3

As, at

t = 0 the value of x is zero

c=0

5

t3

x = 10t + t2

2

3

Thus, at t = 3 s

5

33

x = (10 3) + (3)2

2

3

= 30 + 22.5 9

= 43.5 m

a=

11. u = 2 i m/s

= (1 ^i + 3 ^j) m/s2

y

Average velocity =

a = 2 m/s2

60

u = 2 m/s

v=u+at

= 2 ^i + (1 ^i + 3 ^j) 2

= 4 ^i + 2 3 ^j

|v|= 42 + 12 = 2 7 m/s

1

s = u t + a t2

2

1

^

= (2 i) 2 + (1 ^i + 3 ^j) 22

2

is 2$j m/s2

s (at t = 1 s) = (2 ^i 1) + (2 ^j) 12

2

= 4 ^i + 2 ^i + 2 3 ^j

= (2 ^i + ^j) m

= 6 ^i + 2 3 ^j

13. x = 2t and y = t2

|s |= 36 + 12

v = (2 ^i + 2t ^j)m/s

(i)

dv

= 2 ^j

dt

a = 2 ^j m/s2

ds

= (2 ^i + 2t ^j )

dt

s = (2 ^i + 2t ^j ) dt

or,

x2 = 4 y

(The above is the equation to trajectory)

x = 2t

dx

= 2 i.e., v x = 2 ^i

dt

y = t2

dy

= 2t i.e., v y + 2t ^j

dt

Thus,

x

y =

2

=4 3m

12. Part I

| 17

v = vx + v y

= (2 ^i + 2t ^j) m/s

s = 2t ^i + t2 ^j + c

s (at t = 1 s) = (2 ^i + ^j) m

a=

dv

= 2 ^j m/s2

dt

1. At t = t1

v

t2

t1

0

t1

t2

v = tan

As < 90, vt1 is + ive.

At t = t2

vt 2 = tan

As > 90, vt 2 is ive.

Corresponding v-t graph will be

Acceleration at t = t1 :

at1 = tan

As < 90, a t1 is + ive constant.

Acceleration at t = t2

at 2 = tan

As < 90, at 2 is + ive constant.

2. Let the particle strike ground at time t

18 | Mechanics-1

1

mg2 t2

2

i.e., KE t2 . While going up the velocity

will get ive but the KE will remain. KE

will reduce to zero at time 2 t when the

particle reaches its initial position.

Velocity (m/s)

4

KE

4.

t =

KE =

2t

2h

g

time

t (s)

h

2

= tan =

( t 2)

(2 1)

h = 2 ( t 2)

a (m/s )

1

1

2h

mg2 t2 = mg2

2

2

g

= mgh

(t2)

= 2gh = 2 10 80

= 40 m/s

Time taken to reach ground

2 80

2h

=

=

=4s

g

10

Speed of ball (just after first collision with

floor)

40

=

= 20 m/s

2

Time to attain maximum height

20

t=

= 2s

10

Time for the return journey to floor = 2 s.

Speed (m/s)

t

h

net increase in velocity of the particle will

be zero when,

area under a-t graph = 0

(1 + 2) 2 ( h) ( t 2)

+

=0

2

2

or

3 ( t 2)2 = 0

or

( t 2)2 = 3

or

t2= 3

or

t=2 3

Ans . At time t = 2 + 3 s

(t = 2 3 not possible).

t (s)

1. Relative acceleration of A w.r.t. B

a AB = ( + g) ( + g) = 0

2. Velocity of A w.r.t. B = v A vB

between A and B) would be

1

s = (v A vB ) t + a AB t2

2

or

=

=

150 t

20t

500 103

1

sin

=

300

20

1

= sin 1

15

15

sin (30 + )

1

Now

=

3

300 t

500 10

224

5000

or

= sin 30 cos + cos 30 sin

3t

s = (v A vB ) t

tan = (vAvB)

B

C

Actual

path of boat

Boat sailing

direction

or

u

d = 400 m

A v

AB BC

AC

=

=

=

2

u

v

u + v2

400 m

=

10 m/s

= 40 s

v

BC = AB

u

2 m/s

=

( 400 m )

10 m/s

= 80 m

4. Let C be the point along which pilot

B

30

5 00

km

North

Drifting due

to wind

A

Wind/speed = 20 m/s

| 19

East

5000 1 224

3 1

=

+

3t

2 15

2 15

5000

= 0.5577

3t

5000

t=

3 0.5577

= 2989 s

= 50 min

5.

10 m

A

a A = 1 m/s2 ,

aB = 2 m/s2

v A = 3 m/s,

vB = 1 m/s

Acceleration of A w.r.t. B = 1 2 = 1 m/s2

Velocity of A w.r.t. B = 3 1 = 2 m/s

Initial displacement of A w.r.t. B = 10 m

At time relative displacement of A w.r.t. B

1

s = 10 + 2 t + ( 1) t2

2

or

s = 10 + 2t 0.5t2

For s to be minimum

ds

=0

dt

or

2 (0.5 2t) = 0

i.e.,

t = 2s

= 10 + 4 2

= 8m

Minimum distance between A and

B = 8 m.

20 | Mechanics-1

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1. (a) D = v1t1 + v2 t2

km

km 1

= 60

1 h + 80

h

h

h

2

= 100 km

(b) Average speed

100 km

=

= 66.67 km/h.

1.5 h

2. (a) Displacement in first two seconds

= ( 4) (2) +

1

(6) 22

2

= 20 m

20 m

Average velocity =

= 10 m/s

2s

(b) Displacement in first four seconds

1

= ( 4) ( 4) + (6) 42 = 64 m

2

Displacement in the time interval

t = 2 s to t = 4 s

= 64 20

= 44 m

44 m

Average velocity =

= 22 m/s.

2s

=

Net displacement

Time taken

60 m

6.1 s

= 9.8 m/s

(downwards)

= 9.8 m/s

vt

4. Average velocity =

t

vt0 + 2 vt0 + 3vT

2.5v =

t0 + t0 + T

or

5t0 + 2.5T = 3 t0 + 3 T

T = 4 t0

( 4 + 8) s

00

=

12

= 0 m/s2

v

(c) a = tan = max

4

=

v

vmax

ground.

+20 m/s

4s

60 m

64 = 20 t +

5t2 20t 64 = 0

t = 6.1 s

If the particle goes h meter above tower

before coming down

0 = (20)2 + 2 ( 10) h

h = 20 m

Total distance moved

(a) Average speed =

Time taken

(20 + 20 + 60)

=

= 16.4 m/s

6.1

i.e.,

12s time

vmax

(Q a = 4 m/s2 )

4

i.e.,

vmax = 16 m/s

Displacement of particle in 12 seconds

= Area under v-t graph

v

= 12 max

2

12 16

=

2

= 96 m

Average velocity

Displacement (96 m) at 12 s

=

Time (12 s)

1

( 10) t2

2

8s

4=

= + 8 m/s

(b) As the particle did not return back

distance travelled in 12 s

= Displacement at 12 s

Average speed = 8 m/s.

21

6. (a) Radius ( R) of circle =

m

22

Circumference of circle = 2R

22 21

m

=2

7

22

= 6m

Speed (v) of particle = 1 m/s

Distance moved by particle in 2 s = 2 m

Thus, angle through which the particle

moved

2

2

= 2 =

= 120

6

3

Magnitude of Average velocity

Magnitude of displacement

=

Time ( = 2 s)

7. Position vector at t = 0 s

r1 = (1 ^i + 2 ^j) m

Position vector at t = 4 s

r2 = (6 ^i + 4 ^j) m

(a) Displacement from t = 0 s to t = 4 s

= (6 ^i + 4 ^j) (1 ^i + 2 ^j)

= (5 ^i + 2 ^j) m

Average velocity =

Final velocity Initial velocity

=

4s

120

O

AB 2R sin 60

=

2

2

3

=R

2

21 3 21 3

m/s

=

=

22 2

44

(b) Magnitude of average acceleration

vB v A

=

2s

120

2 v sin

2

=

2

=

[Q

|v A |= |v B |= v = 1 m/s)

= v sin 60

3

m/s2

=

2

(5 ^i + 2 ^j) m

4s

= (125

. ^i + 05

. ^j) m/s

(2 ^i + 10 ^j) ( 4 ^i + 6 ^j)

4

2 ^i + 4 ^j

4

A(t = 0 s)

(t = 2s)

vB

= ( r 2 r1 )

vA

| 21

= ( 05

. ^i + ^j) m/s2

(c) We cannot find the average speed as

the actual path followed by the particle

is not known.

Uniform acceleration

(a) One dimensional motion

8. If at time t the vertical displacement

between A and B is 10 m

1 2 1

gt g( t 1)2 = 10

2

2

or

or

or

t2 ( t 1)2 = 2

t2 ( t2 2t + 1) = 2

2t = 3

t = 1.5 s

Displacement of

Displacement of

first after attaining = second before

attaining highest

highest point

point

22 | Mechanics-1

v0 t

or

or

or

10.

T

O

1 2

1

gt = v0 ( t t0 ) g( t t0 )2

2

2

1

2

0 = v0 t0 g( t0 2t0 t)

2

1 2

gt0 t = gt0 + v0 t0

2

1

gt0 + v0

t= 2

g

t0 v0

=

+

2

g

1

5 = gt2

2

t = 1s

5m

A

25 m

H W

or

or

t=

2

2t0 2t0 2

=

2

= t0 + t0 2 (

absurd)

= (1 + 2) t0

= 2141

.

t0

Time interval

1s

ive

t second for A

12.

(t1) second for B

v=0

A

5 m/s

H

For A

H = 0. t +

H=

1 2

gt

2

1 2

gt

2

15m

(i)

1

(ii)

g( t 1)2

2

1 2 1

or

gt g( t 1)2 = 25

2

2

[Substituting value of H from Eq. (i)]

1

g[ t2 ( t 1)2 ] = 25

2

t2 ( t2 2t + 1) = 5

2t 1 = 5

t=3s

Substituting t = 3 s in Eq. (i)

1

H = 10 32 = 45 m

2

1 2

11. s = at0 Forward motion

2

H 25 =

Backward motion

(a) For H

02 = u2 + 2( 10) H

i.e.,

20H = 325

or

H = 1625

. m

For B

v = at0

being

52 = u2 + 2 ( 10)15

u2 = 325

or

sign

mass will return to the initial position

after time 3.141t0 .

B u=0

1

( a) t2

2

1

1

at20 = ( at0 ) t at2

2

2

2

2

t0 = 2t0 t t

2

t 2t0 t t20 = 0

s = ( at0 ) t +

(b) For t

0 = 325 + ( 10) t

325

t=

10

= 1. 8 s

13.

At rest

a

x

15 m/s

60 m

6.0 s

(a)

(i)

152 = u2 + 2a 60

and

(ii)

15 = u + a 6

Substituting the value of 6a from Eq. (ii)

in Eq. (i)

225 = u2 + 20 (15 u)

2

i.e.,

u 20 u + 75 = 0

(u 15)(u 5) = 0

u = 5 m/s

(15 m/s being not possible)

(b) Using Eq. (ii)

5

a = m / s2

3

(c)

u2 = 02 + 2ax

u2

(5)2

i.e.,

x=

=

2a 2 5

3

= 7.5 m

1

(d) s = at2

2

1 5

= t2

2 3

5

= t2

6

t(s )

v (m/s)

5/6

7.5

Starts

A

(iii)

9

12

30

15

t (s)

12

5

v= t

3

t(s )

12

v (m/s)

10

15

20

v (m/s)

20

15

10

5

6

12

Stops

B

B

s2

Journey A to P

vmax = 0 + xt1

and

v2max = 2xs1

v

t1 = max

x

60

t2

4 min

30 67.5 120

t1

4 km

90

a = y

s1

120 s (m)

a=+x

14.

| 23

t (s)

(i)

(ii)

Journey P to B

0 = vmax + ( y) t2

2

and

vmax = 2 ys2

v

t2 = max

y

vmax vmax

+

= t1 + t2 = 4

x

y

1 1

vmax + = 4

x y

From Eq. (ii) and Eq. (iv)

v2

v2

s1 + s2 = max + max

2x

2y

v2max 1 1

or

4=

+

2 x y

or

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

vmax = 2

Substituting the value of vmax in Eq. (v)

1 1

(Proved)

+ =2

x y

15. Let acceleration of the particle be a using

2m

4

0

t = 10 s t = 6 s

v=0

t=0s

+ive

x-axis

v = u + at

0 = u + a6

u

a=

6

(a) At t = 10 s, s = 2 m

1

2 = u 10 + a 102

2

or

2 = ( 6a) 10 + 50a

or

10a = 2

or

a = 0.2 m/s 2

24 | Mechanics-1

(b) v(at t = 10 s) = u + a 10

= 6a + 10a

= 4a

= 08

. m/s

u = 0 m/s

a 2 = 4 ^j m/s2 (t = 2 s to t = 4 s) t2 = 2 s

(a) Velocity

a=

16.

= 0 + (2 ^i) 2

F 10 N north

=

m

2 kg

= 4 ^i

= 5 m/s , north

^

= 5 j m/s

v2 = (8 ^i 8 ^j ) m/s

or

= 10 i m/s

1

s 1 = s 0 + u t1 +

a 1 t12

2

using v = u + a t

v = 10 ^i + (5 ^j 2)

^

= 4 ^i + (2 ^i 4 ^j ) 2

u = 10 m/s, east

v2 = v1 + (a 1 + a 2 )t2

v1 = u + a 1 t1

= (2 ^i + 4 ^j) + (0)(2) +

= 10 i + 10 j

1 ^ 2

(2 i) 2

2

= 2 ^i + 4 ^j + 4 ^i

|v|= 10 2 m/s

= 6 ^i + 4 ^j

v = 10 2, north-east

1

using s = u t + a t2

2

1

^

= (10 i 2) + (5 ^j)22

2

1

( a1 + a2 ) t22

2

1

= 6 ^i + 4 ^j + ( 4 ^i) 2 + (2 ^i 4 ^j) 22

2

s 2 = s 1 + v1 t2 +

= 6 ^i + 4 ^j + 8 ^i + 4 ^i 8 ^j

= (20 ^i + 10 ^j) m

= 18 ^i 4 ^j

[18 m , 4 m ]

= 10 5 m

20

cot =

=2

10

= cot1 2

18. u = (2 i 4 j) m/s, s 0 = 0 m

a = ( 4 ^i + ^j) m/s2

North

(a) Velocity

East

17. s 0 = (2 i + 4 j) m

= (2 ^i 4 ^j) + ( 4 ^i + ^j)2

^j

O ^

i

v=u+at

a 1 = 2 ^i m/s2 (t = 0 s to t = 2 s) t1 = 2 s

= (10 ^i 2 ^j ) m/s

(b) Co-ordinates of the particle

1

s = s 0 + u t + a t2

2

1

^

= 0 + (2 i 4 ^j) + ( 4 ^i + $j )22

2

= 10 ^i 2 ^j

[10 m , 2 m ]

u = 8 ^j m/s

|a av|= 52 + 202

a = ( 4 ^i + 2 ^j) m/s2

= 206

. m/s

20

tan =

5

i.e., = tan1( 4)

Non uniform acceleration.

s0 = 0

s = 29 ^i + n ^j

(a) s = s 0 + u t +

1 2

at

2

21. x = 2 + t2 + 2t 3

1 ^

( 4 i + 2 ^j) t2

2

29 ^i + n ^j = 0 + (8 ^j) t +

(a) At t = 0, x = 2 m

(b)

29 ^i + n ^j = 8 ^j t + 2 ^i t2 + ^j t2

Comparing the coefficients of ^i and ^j

29 = 2t2

n = 8 t + t2

29

t=

= 3.807 s

2

and

n = 8 3.807 + (3.807)2

= 44.95

29

(b) Speed at t =

s

2

(i)

(ii)

d2 x

= 2 + 12t

dt2

( a) t = 2 s = 2 + (12 2) = 26 m/s2

dv

22.

a= v

dx

= (10) 3

= 30 m/s2

23. s = t 3 9 t2 15t

ds

= 3 t2 18 t 15

dt

dv

ie,

a=

= 6t 18

dt

Acceleration (a) in the interval 0 t 10 s

will be maximum at t = 10 s

a(at t = 10 s) = (6 10) 18

= 42 m/s2

= 8 ^j + ( 4 ^i + 2 ^j)(3.807)

= (2 3.807) ^i + {( 4 3.807) + 8 } ^j

= (7.614 ^i + 23.228 ^j) m/s

= 24.44 m / s

20. s 0 = 5 i m

Average velocity v av

^

s s0

=

002

.

^

(51

. i + 0.4 j) (5 i)

002

.

v=

a = 3 2t

dv

= 3 2t

dt

24.

at t = 002

. s, s = (51

. ^i + 0.4 ^j) m

dx

= 2t + 6t2

dt

dx

= 0 m/s

dt t = 0 s

(c)

v=u+at

01

. ^i + 0.4 ^j

002

.

= 5 ^i + 20 ^j m/s

19.

| 25

or

dv = (3 2t) dt

or

v = 3 t t2 + c

or

v = 3 t t2 + v0 [as at t = 0, v = v0 ]

or

or

(3 t t2 + v0 ) dt

3 t2 t 3

s=

+ v0 t

2

3

ds =

26 | Mechanics-1

(a) Displacement at = Displacement at

t = 0s

t = 5s

3.52 53

0=

+ v0 5

2

3

s

v0 = 5/6 = 0833

.

(b) v = 3 t t2 + v0

Velocity at t ( = 500

. s)

= 3.5 52 + 0833

.

= 15 25 + 833

= 9.167 m/s

25. v = 3 t2 6t

2

ds = 3(3 t

6t) dt

s = t 3 t2 + c

s = t 3 3 t2 = t2 ( t 3)

(3.5)2 (3.5 3)

(a) Average velocity =

3.5

= 3.5 05

.

= 175

. m/s

(b) Distance covered

or

or

Now, at t = 2 s, v = 6 m/s

62

= ( 4 2) + C

2

Thus, C = 10.

v2

i.e.,

(ii)

= 4 t + 10

2

at

t = 3 s,

v2

= ( 4 3) + 10

2

v2 = 44

v = 44 = 2 11 m/s

Substituting above found value of v in Eq.

(i),

2 11 a = 4

2

i.e.,

a=

11

= 0.603 m/s 2

27. According to question, the velocity of the

v

20 m/s

1

2

3 3.5

3.5

0 (6t 3 t ) dt + 2

(3 t2 6r) dt

= [3 t2 t 3 ]20 + [ t 3 3 t2 ] 23.5

= 3(2)2 (2) 3 + (3.5) 3 3(3.5)2 (2) 3 + 3(2)2

= 12 8 + 42875

.

3675

. 8 + 12

= 14.125 m

14.125

(c) Average speed =

3.5

= 4.036 m/s

4

26.

v=

a

i.e.,

(i)

va = 4

or

v dv2 = 4 dt

v

or

= 4t + C

2

30 m/s s

v

s

+

=1

20 30

or

3v + 2s = 60

or

(i)

3v = 60 2s

Differentiating above equation w.r.t. time t

dv

ds

3

= 2

dt

dt

or

3a = 2v

60 2 s

or

3 a = 2

[using Eq. (i)]

3

2

or

a = (60 2 s)

9

2

[at s = 15 m]

= (60 2 15)

9

20

m/s2

=

3

1

S1 = gt 2

2

1 h

= g

2 g

h

=

2

Assertion is true.

Reason is also true as assertion is based on

this.

| 39

objective questions (level 1).

um

T2 =

( mg + f )( mg f )

Now, if masses of the bodies are different,

the value of T2 (time to reach earth) will be

different if f (air resistance) is same.

Thus, Assertion is false further Reason is

correct as explained above.

Single Correct Option

1. Applying sine formula in AOB

B AO = 180 (90 + ) ( 37 )

= 90 + 37

= 127 ( + Q )

v

Nm

vr

sin ( 37 ) sin [127 ( + )]

=

cos 37

sin ( 37 )

sin cos 37 cos sin 37

cos 37

sin 127 cos ( + ) + cos 127 sin ( + )

=

sin cos 37 cos sin 37

37

B

D

vm

37

AO

OB

=

sin (96 + 37 ) sin ( 37 )

vr

vm

=

cos 37 sin ( 37 )

(i)

A'

vr

vm

37

B'

37

AOB

AO

OB

=

sin ( 37 ) sin [( + )]

vr

vm

(ii)

=

sin ( 37 ) sin [127 ( + )]

4

3

cos ( + ) + sin ( + )

5

5

=

4

3

sin cos

5

5

4 cos ( + ) + 3 sin ( + )

3

or sin cos =

4 sin 3 cos

4

3

or sin cos

4

4 [cos cos sin sin ] + 3 [sin cos + cos sin ]

=

4 sin 3 cos

3

or sin cos

4

4 [cos sin tan ] + 3 [sin + cos tan ]

=

4 tan 3

3

or sin cos

4

7

7

4 [cos sin ] + 3 [sin + cos ]

8

8

=

7

4 3

8

3

or sin cos

4

4 [ 8 cos 7 sin ] + 3 [ 8 sin + 7 cos ]

=

4

40 | Mechanics-1

or 4 sin 3 cos

= 32 cos 28 sin + 24 sin + 21 cos

50

7

= 28 sin 24 sin + 4 sin

or

56 cos = 8 sin

7

tan =

1

From Eq. (i)

vr

vm

=

cos 37 sin ( 37 )

vm cos 37

vr =

vm cos 37

=

cos cos 37 [tan tan 37 ]

vm

=

3

cos 7

4

4 vm

=

25 cos

4 5

=

50

25 1

= 32

Option (b) is correct.

dv

2.

= 4v + 8

dt

a = 4v + 8

At the time the body acquires terminal speed

its acceleration (a) must be zero.

Thus

4v + 8 = 0

v = 2 m/s

Terminal speed = 2 m/s.

Option (b) is correct.

3. Particles will collide if

v1

|v1

v2

r

= 2

v 2| |r2

^

r1

r1|

^

v1 v 2

|v1

v 2|

^

r2 r1 = r2 = 30 i

|r2 r1| = 30

r2 r1

^

=i

|r2 r1|

|v1 v 2| = 5 2

v1 v 2

|v1 v 2|

4. Displacement along y-axis at time t

Y

v0

P

a = 2t

u=0

a =2t

dvy

=2t

dt

or

dvy =2 2t dt

or

vy = t + C1

At t = 0, vy = 0 (given)

C1 = 0

vy = t 2

dy

= t2

dt

2

or

dy = t + C2

t3

+ C2

2

At t = 0, Y = 0 (given)

t3

Y=

3

Displacement along x-axis at time t :

or

or

y=

x = v0t

x

t=

v0

^

Y=

v1 v 2 = (5 i + 10 j + 5 k ) (10 i + 5 j + 5 k )

= 5i + 5 j

1 ^

1 ^

i+

j

2

2

1 x

3 v0

5. t = x 2 + x

Differentiating w.r.t. time t

(i)

or

or

dx

dx

1 = 2x

+

dt

dt

v ( + 2 x ) = 1

v = ( + 2 x )1

dv

1

dx

=

2

dt

dt

( + 2 x )2

2

a=

v

( + 2 x )2

2

=

v

( + 2 x )2

7. Force = kx

Acceleration =

or

Thus

6. f = a bx

dv

= a bx

dx

or

v dv2 = (a bx )2dx

v

bx

or

= ax

+C

2

2

As at x = 0 car is at rest C = 0

v2

bx 2

= ax

2

2

For v to be maximum.

d

bx 2

ax

=0

dx

2

(i)

a

in Eq. (i),

b

2

vmax

a b a 2

= a

2

b 2 b

2

a

=

2b

a

vmax =

b

bx 2

ax

=0

2

2a

x=

b

Distance between two stations =

Option (a) is correct.

k a3

m 3

v2

kx 2

ka 3

=

+

2

m 3 m 3

2 ka 3

3m

8. vx = 4 + 4t

Substituting x =

C=

v=

a bx = 0

a

x=

b

or

v2

k x3

=

+C

2

m 3

Velocity at x = 0

i.e.,

kx 2

dx

m

Now at x = a, v = 0

= (2 v2 ) v

= 2 v3

Retardation = 2 v3

Option (a) is correct.

k2 2

x

2m

dv

kx 2

=

dx

m

v dv =

or

| 41

2a

b

and

vy = 4 t

dx

dy

= 4 + 4t and

= 4t

dt

dt

or

dx = (4 + 4t ) dt

and

dy = 4t dt 2

or

x = 4t + 2t + C1

C1 = 1

Thus

(i)

x = 4t + 2t 2 + 1

and

y = 2t 2 + C2

At

t =0x =1

and at t = 0, y = 2

C2 = 0

Thus

(ii)

y = 2t 2 + 2

Substituting value of t in Eq. (i) in terms of y

using Eq. (ii) we wont get relationship as

mentioned in option (a), (b) or (c).

Option (d) is correct.

1

9.

a = gt 2

2

= 4 tan 120

= 4 [ tan 60 ]

= 4 3 m/s 2

Magnitude of acceleration = 4 3 ms 2.

Option (a) is correct.

42 | Mechanics-1

10.

1 2

gt

2

1

x1 + x2 = g (2t )2

2

1

1

x2 = g 4t 2 gt 2

2

2

3 2

x2 = gt

2

x2 x1 = gt 2

x2 x1

t=

g

or

14. Distance =

1 2

t

2 +

0=

1 1 4 2

t

2 1 + 4

t = 500 s

= 22.36 s

Option (a) is correct.

15. Let BC = t

y2 + x 2 = l2

dy

dx

2y

+ 2x

=0

dt

dt

dy

x dx

=

dt

y dt

v (m/s)

24

x

dx

x tan 30 dt

= 2 3 m/s

=

police and the thief will be at time t (shown

in figure)

Police

108 km/h

90 km/h

v

Thief

t

7s

time (t)

Let OA = t

AB = 56 t

1

1032 = [56 + (56 t )] 24

2

t = 20 s

24 m / s

maximum acceleration =

20 s

= 1.2 m/s 2

P

(4

)m

2t

0.

2v

sin = u sin 30

3

3

i.e.,

sin =

4

2t

0.

v 90 kmh

=

a

5 ms 2

90 1000

s

=

5 3600

i.e.,

t =7s

1

1

xmax = [90 kmh 7 s ] 5 s 90 kmh 1

2

90 1000 9

=

m

3600

2

= 112.5 m

Option (a) is correct.

t 2 =

C t (s)

24

=4

t

t = 6 s

OB = 50 s

2s

3

4

11.

= sin 1

or

x1 =

0.2t

Q

cos AOB =

60

B

(3 0.2t) m

OA 2 + OB2 AB2

2 OA OB

2

OA + OB AB = OA OB

AB2 = OA 2 + OB2 OA OB

= (4 0.2t )2 + (3 0.2t )2

+ (4 0.2t )(3 0.2t )

2

2

or

AB = 16 + 0.04t 1.6t + 9 + 0.04t 2

1.2t + 12 1.4t + 0.04t 2

2

2

or

AB = 0.12t 4.2t + 37

For AB to be minimum

0.24t 4.2 = 0

or

t = 17.5 s

2

( AB)min = 0.12(17.5)2 4.2 (17.5) + 37

= 36.75 73.5 + 37

( AB)2min = 0.75 m 2

= 7500 cm 2

= 50 3 cm

Option (d) is correct.

i.e.,

Acceleration of ball w.r.t. elevator

Max. height attained by ball

H

15 m/s = vBE

5 m/s2

2m

10 m/s

Now

v = u + 2as

02 = (25)2 + 2( 10) H

or

H = 31.25 m

Maximum height by ball as measured from

ground = 31.25 + 2 + 50

= 83.25 m

Option (c) is correct.

19. Displacement of ball w.r.t. ground during its

flight = H = 31.25 m

20. Displacement of ball w.r.t. floor of elevator

at time t

1

s = 15 t + ( 15) t 2 + 2

2

s will be maximum, when

ds

=0

dt

i.e.,

15 15t = 0

i.e.,

t = 1s

1

smax = (15 1) + ( 10)(1)2 + 2

2

= 12 m

Option (a) is correct.

21. Let the particles meet at time t

i.e., displacement of the particles are equal

and which is possible when

vB

B'

v

50 m

A uA

C

P

P'

B uB

= ( 10) ( + 5) = 15 m/s 2

Final displacement of ball w.r.t. elevator

= 2m

1

2 = 15 t + ( 15) t 2

2

i.e.,

15t 2 30t 4 = 0

30 + 900 + 4 4 15

t=

2 15

= 2.13 s

Option (a) is correct.

18. Velocity of ball w.r.t. ground (vBE )

= (15 + 10) m/s

= 25 m/s

| 43

vA

O

A'

R

Q

time (s)

[Area OBCA O being common]

or Area of APC = Area A P C

1

1

AP PC = A P P C

2

2

or

AP PC = A P P C

or

( PC tan ) PC = ( P C tan ) P C

or

PC = P C

44 | Mechanics-1

23. u A = 6 ms 1, u B = 12 ms 1

and at t = 4 s common velocity = 8 ms 1

To find velocity of A at t = 10 s

vA 8 u A 8

=

10 4

4

vA 8 6 8

or

=

6

4

vA = 5 ms 1

OR = PC + P C = 2 PC = 8 s.

22. Area of A B O = Area of ABO

1

1

(vB vA ) 4 = (u A u B ) 4

2

2

i.e.,

vB vA = u A u B

= 5 15 = 10

vA vB = 10 ms 1

a = v1/ 2

dv

i.e.,

= v1/ 2

dt

or v1/ 2 dv = dt

2 v1/ 2 = t + C1

Now, at t = 0, v = v0

C1 = 2 v10/ 2

2 v1/ 2 = t + 2 v10/ 2

2 v1/ 2

t= 0

Option (b) is incorrect.

From Eq. (i),

dv

v

= v1/ 2

dt

1. Q

or

1/ 2

dv = dx

2 3/ 2

v = + C2

3

2

As at x = 0, v = v0, C2 = v03/ 2

3

2 3/ 2

2

v = x + v03/ 2

3

3

or

2 3/ 2

x=

v0

3

Option (d) is correct.

Option (c) is incorrect.

2. a = 0.5 t (m/s 2)

or

dv

t

=

dt

2

1

dv

=

t dt

(i)

v=

t2

+ C1

4

At t = 0, v = 16 m/s

t2

+ 16

4

From above relation v is zero at

t = 8s

Options (a) is correct.

From relation (i),

ds

t2

=

+ 16

dt

4

t2

ds

=

4 + 16 dt

v=

i.e.,

s=

s=

(i)

t3

+ 16t + C2

12

t3

+ 16t

12

[As at t = 0, s = 0]

At t = 4 s

s = 58.67 m

Option (b) is correct.

The particle returns back at t = 8 s

From relation (ii)

83

s8 =

+ (16 8) = 85.33 m

12

103

s10 =

+ (16 10) = 76.66 m

12

Distance travelled in 10 s

= s8 + ( s8 s10 )

= (2 85.33 ) 76.66

= 94 m

Option (c) is correct.

Velocity of particle at t = 10 s

2

(10)

+ 16

4

= 25 + 16

= 9 m/s

Speed of particle at t = 10 s is 9 m/s.

Option (d) is correct.

v10 =

3. |v|is scalar.

Option (a) is incorrect.

Position of A relative to B :

S AB = S A S B

^

v = (Let)

Rest

t1

Rest

East

X (km)

South

vA

= 20 j kmh 1

vB

= (32 i + 24 j) kmh 1

vAB = vA vB

^

= ( 20 j) (32 i + 24 j)

^

= 32 i 44 j

Option (a) is correct.

Option (c) is incorrect.

At any time

SA = 3 i + 4 j + ( 20 j) t

v' = 2v

2a1

t3

a2

Average

velocity = v2

S2

20 km/h

Rest

Average

velocity = v1

Case II.

A (3, 4)

a2

v = a1t1

v = a 2t2

1

1

s1 = a1t12 + a 2t22

2

2

d v^ ^

=aa

dt

Option (d) is incorrect.

37

t2

a1

S1

t1

|v|

h

m/

0k

Option (d) is incorrect.

is v^ (unit vector)

4. North

Y (km)

= (3 32t ) i + (4 44t ) j

(by definition).

=a

dt

Option (b) is correct.

v2 is scalar.

Option (c) is incorrect.

v

5. Case I.

dv

| 45

S B = (32 i + 24 j) t

v = 2a1t1

= 2v

2v = a 2t3

2 ( a 2t2 ) = a 2t3

t3 = 2t2

1

1

s2 = (2a1 ) t12 + a 2t32

2

2

1

2

= a1t1 + a 2(2 t2 )2

2

= a1t12 + 2 a 2t22

2s2 = a1t12 + a 2t22

s1 > 2s1

s2 < 4s1

2s1 < s2 < 4s1

Option (d) is correct.

s1

In Case I. vav =

t1 + t2

1

1

a1t12 + a 2t22

2

2

i.e.,

v1 =

t1 + t2

(i)

(ii)

46 | Mechanics-1

( a1t1 ) t1 + ( a 2t2 ) t2

2 ( t1 + t2 )

vt1 + vt2 v

=

=

2 ( t1 + t2 ) 2

=

a=

8.

5a = s + 30

dv

5 v

= s + 30

ds

In Case II.

vav =

i.e.,

s2

t1 + t3

a1t12 + 2a 2t22

t1 + t3

( a1t1 ) t1 + a 2t2 (2 t2 )

=

t1 + 2 t2

vt + v (2 t2 )

= 1

t1 + 2t2

v2 =

= v = 2v1

Option (a) is correct.

Option (b) is incorrect.

6. If the particles initial velocity is + ive and

has some constant ive acceleration the

particle will stop somewhere and then

return back to have zero displacement at

same time t ( > 0).

Also if particles initial velocity is ive and

has some constant + ive acceleration the

particle will stop somewhere and then

return back to have zero displacement at

same time t ( > 0).

Options (b) and (c) are correct.

and options (a) and (d) are incorrect.

7. F = t

ma = t

or

(i)

a=

t

m

Graph between a (acceleration) and time ( t )

will be as curve 1.

Option (a) is correct.

From equation

dv

= t

dt m

dv = m t dt

t2

i.e.,

v= + c

m 2

Graph between velocity (v) and time ( t ) will

be as curve 2.

Option (b) is correct.

6

s+6

30

or

or

or

5v dv = ( s + 30) ds

5v2

s2

=

+ 30s + c1

2

2

5 2

S2

v =

+ 30s

2

2

(i)

Substituting s = 10 m in Eq. (i),

5 2

(10)2

v =

+ 300

2

2

i.e.,

v = 10 m/s

From Eq. (i) v to be maximum

s + 30 = 0

s = 30

2

or

5 2

(30)

vmax =

+ (30 30)

2

2

5 2

vmax = 450

2

or

vmax = 180 m/s

Option (c) is correct.

9. If particles path is

(i) straight with backward motion

(ii) not straight somewhere.

Distance moved will be greater than the

modulus of displacement

|v av | < vav

If particle returns to its initial position, the

speed (vav ) will not be zero.

Option (c) is correct.

1

10. If u = 0, v = at and s = at 2

2

v-t graph will be as shown in (a).

s-t graph will be as shown in (d).

t = t1 + t2 + t3

2l

l

2l

= 1 + 2 + 3

v

v

v

l1 l2 l3 l1 l3

= +

+

+ +

v

v

v

v

v

l 1

= + [ l1 + l2 ]

v v

l 1 1

1

= + t12 + t22

v v 2

2

B

b

v cos

v sin

if

v sin = u

i.e.,

v>u

Option (c) is correct.

Time to cross the river

b

b

t=

=

2

v cos

v u2

1 t12 1 t22

l

+ v

+

2

v

2 v2

2 v

1 t12 1 t22

l

= + v

+

2 2

v

2 2t22

2 t1

l v 1 1

= + +

v 2

=

[as v sin = u]

b

v (cos )max

b

=

v

Option (a) is correct.

tmin =

ive to + ive.

Option (a) is correct.

As slope v-t is same throughout, particles

acceleration is constant.

Option (b) is correct.

As net area under the curve is zero.

vT vT

Anet = 2 + 2 , displacement of

Option (c) is correct.

Option (d) is correct.

13.

t1

Velocity O

Accel :

()

l1

t2

l2

v

( )

t3

For t to be minimum.

d l v 1 1

+ + =0

dv v 2

or

or

v = t3

1 2

1

t1 , l2 = vt2, l3 = t32

2

2

1

1

= vt1 = vt3

2

2

l1 =

l

1 1 1

+ + =0

v2 2

l +

=

2

v2

2 l

v=

+

14. x = t 2 and y = t 3 2 t

dx

dy

and

= 2t

= 3 t2 2

dt

dt

dx

dy

At t = 0,

= 0 but

= 2

dt

dt

at t = 0 particle is moving parallel to y-axis.

Option (a) is correct.

Option (d) is incorrect.

At t = 0,

l3

v = t1

| 47

and

At t = 0,

i.e.,

v = 2 j

d 2x

=2

dt 2

d2 y

= 6t

dt 2

a =2i

va

48 | Mechanics-1

At t =

2

:

3

dy

2

dx

2

but

= 3 2

=2

3

dt

dt

3

Speed (v) at

= a ( S1 + S1 )

= a (25a t12 )

v = 5a t1

or

v = 10 m/s

Option (a) is correct.

t2

10 = 2 + at

8

t=

Option (c) is correct.

15.

Speed 2 m/s

X

Starting

point

S1

14 m/s

P

(Mid point)

of X and Y

t1

S2

S1 + S2

2

S1 + S2

:

2

S + S2

v2 = 2a 1

(i)

14 = 10 + at

4

t =

a

Comparing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii),

t = 2t

Option (c) is correct.

t2 = 7t1

1

1

S1 + S2 = at12 + at22

2

2

1

2

= a ( t1 + t22 )

2

1

= a [ t12 + ( 7t1 )2 ]

2

= 25a t12

(ii)

1. (a)

(b)

a (acceleration)

a (acceleration)

+

v (velocity)

+

t

Speed increasing

v (velocity)

v (velocity)

t

v (velocity)

+

Speed decreasing

t

Speed decreasing

Speed increasing

(c) s = kt 2

v=

ds

= 2kt

dt

v must be increasing with time.

speed must also be increasing with time.

(c) (p).

(d) Slope is + ive and decreasing.

Velocity must be decreasing with time.

speed must also be decreasing with time.

(d) (q).

2. (a) v = 2 i

a = 4 j

Velocity ( ) at time t

=v + at

^

= 2 i 4t j

Speed at time t = || = ( 2)2 + ( 4 t )2

At t > 0

|| > |v|

Speed increasing.

(a) (p).

(b) v = 2 i

|v| = 2

=2i + 2ti + 2t j

|| = (2 + 2 t ) + (2 t )

As t > 0,

|| > |v|

(a) (p).

(c) v = 2 i and a = + 2 i

Using = v + a t

= 2i + 2ti

or

= (2 t 2) i

||= |2 t 2|

At t = 0 s

Speed = || = 2 m/s

t =1s

|| = 0 m/s

t =2s

|| = 2 m/s

t =3 s

|| = 4 m/s

a = 2i + 2 j

=v + at

^

=2i 2ti + 2t j

= (2 2 t ) i + 2 t j

|| = (2 2 t )2 + (2 t )2

At t = 0

1

t=

2

|| = 2

t =1

|| = 2

t =2

|| = 20

|| = 2

+ ive.

(a) (p).

+ ive.

(b) (p).

+ ive.

(c) (q).

increasing, area is ive.

(d) (r).

Using = v + a t

(d) v = 2 i and

a =2i + 2 j

(c) (s).

(d) (s).

| 49

10 4

=

= 20 unit

2

20

= + 5 unit

Average velocity = +

4

i.e.,

(a) (r).

1 5

(b) Displacement = + 20

= + 17.5 unit

2

+ 17.5 unit

Average velocity =

3

= 5.83 unit

(b) (s).

2 ( 10)

(c) Displacement = + 20 +

2

= + 10 unit

+ 10

Average velocity =

6

i.e.,

(c) (s).

50 | Mechanics-1

(d) Rate of change of velocity at t = 4 s

0 10

a=

= 5

4 2

i.e.,

t = 4 s would be 5.

i.e.,

(d) (r).

5. (a) x = 20 + 5t 2

0 = 20 + 5t 2

t =2s

i.e.,

(a) (r).

(b) x = 20 + 5t

dx

= 10 t

dt

d 2x

= 10

dt 2

Velocity will be numerically

acceleration at t = 1 s.

Thus

equal

to

(b) (q).

t =1s

Y = 4 4t + t 2

dy

= 4 + 2t

dt

= 4 + (2 1)

= 2 unit

(a) (q).

(b) Y = 4 4t + t 2

0 = 4 4t + t 2 [For particle to cross x-axis]

i.e.,

t =2s

x = 1 2t + t 2

dy

= 2 + 2t

dt

[at t = 2 s]

= 2 + (2 2)

= + 2 unit

(b) (p).

dx

(c)

= 2 unit

dt t = 0 s

(c) At t = 0 s

x = 20 m

dy

and

= 4 unit

dt t = 0 s

t =1s

x = 15 m

t =2s

x =0m

t =3 s

x = + 25 m

(c) (s).

dx

(d) v =

= 10 t is zero at t = 0 s.

dt

(d) (p).

6. (a) x = 1 2t + t 2

0 = 1 2t + t 2 [for particle to cross y-axis]

[at t = 1 s]

= ( 2 )2 + ( 4 )2

i.e.,

d 2x

(d) 2 = 2

dt

= 2 5 unit

(c) (s).

d2 y

=2

dt 2

Initial acceleration of particle = 2 2 unit

i.e.,

(d) (s).

and

| 27

Graphy

28. OA : slope is + ive and increasing.

30. Case I

s

C

B

m = tan

s0

t

v0

a

AB : slope is + ive and constant

velocity is +ive and acceleration is zero.

BC : sope is + ive and decreases.

velocity is + ive and increasing.

CD : slope is ive and increasing

velocity is ive and acceleration is ive.

29.

v

v

M2

M1

v = mt v0 (st-line)

ds = (mt2 v0 ) dt

t

v0 t + s0

2

1

or

s = s0 v0 t + at2

2

dv

Further, a =

= tan

dt

i.e.,

(Parabola)

s= m

(Q m = a)

As for 0 < 90

v

M4

a = tan

Case II

M3

v

t

s0

t

In M1 and M 3 : 0 < 90

slope is + ive i.e., acceleration is + ive.

In M2 and M4 : 90 < 180

slope is ive i.e., acceleration is ive.

(a) M1 : Magnitude of velocity is increasing.

M2 : Magnitude of velocity is decreasing.

M 3 : Magnitude of velocity is increasing.

M4 : Magnitude of velocity is decreasing.

Ans : M1 and M 3.

(b) P M1

Q M2

R M3

S M4

time-axis)

ds = k dt

s = kt + s0

dv

Further,

a=

=0

dt

parallel

to

28 | Mechanics-1

Case III.

Time-acceleration graph

s

v

v0

time

s0

0-2s

2-4s

4-6s

6-8s

8 - 10 s

slope

acceleration

5 m/s 2

0 m/s 2

5 m/s 2

5 m/s 2

+ 5 m/s 2

5

zero

5

5

+5

a

a

a = tan

v = v0 + mt

ds = (v0 + mt2) dt

t

i.e.,

s = v0 t + m + s0

2

1

or

s = s0 + v0 t at2

2

dv

Further, a =

= tan

dt

As for 90 < 180

tan is ive, a is ive.

(Q m = a)

Time-displacement graph

Time

at 0 s

2s

4s

6s

8s

10 s

Area

Initial

Net

under the Displacement displacement

graph

0m

10 m

30 m

40 m

30 m

20 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

0m

+ 20 m

+ 30 m

+ 20 m

+ 10 m

S = area under v t graph.

Corresponding graphs are drawn in the

answer sheet.

s Net area A1 A2

32. Average velocity = =

=

t

Time

t

d A1 + A2

Average speed = =

t

t

33. Average acceleration

v f vi 10 20

=

=

= 5 m / s2

time

6

v f vi = Area under a- t graph.

34. (a) Acceleration = slope of v- t graph.

35. (b) rf ri = s = area under v- t graph.

(c) Equations are written in answer sheet.

Relative Motion

+ 30 m

+ 20 m

+ 10 m

2

10 m

10 t

10 t

= ( g) ( g)

= 0 m/s2

(b) Initial velocity of 2 w.r.t. 1

= ( +20) ( 5)

= 25 m/s

(c) Initial velocity of 1 w.r.t. 2

= ( 5) ( + 20)

= 25 m/s

= 25 m/s

(d) Initial relative displacement of 2 w.r.t. 1

S 0 = 20 m

1

Using S = S 0 + u rel t + a rel t2 ,

2

as at time t (= time of collision of the

particles) the relative displacement of 2

1

O = ( 20) + ( 25)

2

t = 0.85 s

L

90

L

Speed of escalator =

60

Time taken by man walking on a moving

L

escalator =

L

L

+

90 60

= 36 s

Required time has been found without

using the actual length of the escalator.

ball = + 10 m.

Relative velocity of elevator w.r.t. ball

= (2) (18) = 16 m/s

Accelerator of elevator w.r.t. ball

= (0) ( 10)

= 10 m/s2

38.

3.5 m/s2

time = 0

2.2 m/s2

time =ts

A

A

x

60 m

1

(a) (2.2) t2 = 60

2

(i)

t = 7.39 s

1

2

(b) (3.5) t = 60 + x

2

x = 35.5 m

(c) At the time of overtaking

Speed of automobile = (3.5) (7.39)

= 25.85 m/s

Speed of truck = (2.2) (7.39)

= 16.25 m/s

39. Let, acceleration of lift = a (upward)

= ( g) ( + a)

If time of flight is t, using

vrel = urel + arel t

10 m

12 m

2 m/s

Elevator

5m

Using S = S 0 + urel t +

1

a t2

2 rel

(ii)

60 + x 3.5

=

60

2.2

x 1.3

or

=

60 2.2

= ( g + a)

18 m/s

| 29

1

0 = ( + 10) + ( 16) t + ( +10) t2

2

or

5t2 16t 10 = 0

t = 3.65 s

Position of elevator when it meets ball

= 5 + (2 3.65)

= 12.30 m level

1

Velocity of 1 w.r.t. 2 at time t = s

2

1

= ( 25) + (0)

2

( v) = ( + u) + { ( a + g)} t

( a + g) t = 2 u

2u

or

a=

g

t

30 | Mechanics-1

A

40.

20 m

2

4

=

sin ( 45 ) sin 45

B

OAB = OA = 20 m

= sin 1

45

2 2

22 m/s

45

O

2

OB = (OA) + ( AB)

= (20)2 + (20)2

= 20 2 m

Speed along OB is 2 2 m/s

Time taken to reach B =

200 km/h

RQ

PR

200 t

=

500 t

sin =

41. In OPQ,

B

River flow

P

Q

45

O

or

OP = |v br |

East

P

South

= 10 s

A

1000 km

Wind

20 2 m

2 2 ms 1

North

Q

or

OP = |v r |

PQ

OP

=

sin POQ sin OPQ

= sin 1 (0.4)

( PR)2 = ( RQ)2 + ( PQ)2

(500 t)2 (200 t)2 = (1000)2

1000

t=

(500)2 (200)2

10

10

h

=

=

25 4

21

Single Correct Option

mg + f

0=u

T1

m

um

T1 =

mg + f

downward direction.

Option (b) is correct.

2. While going up :

Stops

Using v2 = u2 + 2as

mg + f

02 = u2 2

s

m

i.e.,

S=

1 mg f 2

T2

2 m

mu2

1 mg f 2

=

T2

2 ( mg + f ) 2 m

s=

f (Air resistance)

mg

mu2

2( mg + f )

or

(i)

T2 =

um

( mg + f ) ( mg f )

(ii)

2=

T2

=

T1

mg + f

mg f

2

rad s 1

60

Speed of the tip of seconds hand

[Q v = r

and

v=

1 cm/s

30

r = 1 cm]

As in 15s the seconds hand rotates

through 90, the change in velocity of its

tip in 15 s will be

2

=v 2=

cm s 1

30

Option (d) is correct.

5+5

4. Average speed =

= 40 ms 1

5

5

+

30 60

=

5. Relative velocity of boat w.r.t. water

= (3 ^i + 4 ^j) ( 3 ^i 4 ^j) = 6 ^i + 8 ^j

Option (b) is correct.

(18 11) + ( 42 v)

6. 21 =

18 + 42

v = 25.29 m/s

8 t3

7.

x = 32t

3

dx

(i)

v=

= 32 8 t2

dt

Particle is at rest when

32 8 t2 = 0

i.e.,

t = 2s

Differentiating Eq. (i) w.r.t. time t

dv

a=

= 16 t

dt

a at time t = 2 s (when particle is at rest)

= (16) (2) = 32 m/s2

Option (b) is correct.

1

a 12

2

a = 4 m/s 2

v = ( 4) (2)

T2 > T1

Option (c) is correct.

3. Angular speed () of seconds hand

| 31

= 8 m/s

Option (b) is correct.

9. x = 3 t + t 3

displacement at time t (= 1 s)

= 3(1) + (1) 3 = 2 m

and displacement at time t (= 3 s)

= 3(3) + (3) 3 = 18 m

And as such displacement in the time

interval (t = 1 s to t = 3 s)

= (18 m ) ( 2 m )

= + 20 m

Option (c) is correct.

10. Acceleration a = bt

dv

= bt

dt

or

dv = bt dt

1 2

bt + C

2

Now, at t = 0, v = v0

C = v0

1

i.e.,

v = bt2 + v0

2

ds

1

or

= v0 + bt2

dt

2

1 2

or

ds = v0 + 2 bt dt

1

or

s = v0 t + bt 3 + k

6

At t = 0, s = 0,

k=0

1

s = v0 t + bt 3

6

or

v=

32 | Mechanics-1

11.

1

g (2t2 + 6) m (given)

2

v2 = 2 ^i + 4 ^j

Option (b) is correct.

3rd drop

1 gt2

2

time = t

2nd drop

u2

=3

v20

or

u = v0 3

Option (a) is correct.

1 g (2t)2

2

time = t

14. vx = 8 t 2

dx

= 8t 2

dt

or

dx = (82 t 2) dt

or

x = 4 t 2t + k1

Now at t = 2, x = 14

14 = 4 22 (2) 2 + k1

i.e.,

k1 = 2

Thus,

x = 4 t2 2t + 2

Further,

vy = 2

dy

i.e.,

=2

dt

or

dy = 2 dt

or

y = 2t + k2

Now, at t = 2, y = 4

k2 = 0

Thus,

y = 2t

y

Substituting t = in Eq. (i),

2

2

y

y

x = 4 2 + 2

2

2

1st drop

Ground

1 2 5

gt = m

2

4

Height of 2nd drop from ground

5

= 5m m

4

= 3.75 m

Option (c) is correct.

12.

[at time = 1] 0 m/s

20 m/s

[At time = t 1]

1

s = 10t2

2

1

10 ( t 1)2

2

t2 = 4 ( t 1) + ( t2 2t + 1)

2t 3 = 0

3

t= s

2

2

1

3

s = 10

2

2

= 20 ( t 1) +

or

or

or

= 11.25 m

Option (c) is correct.

t3 ^

v = t ^i +

j

2

Thus, velocity of particle at time t (= 2 s)

will be

or

x = y2 y + 2

Option (a) is correct.

15. x = 5t and y = 2t2 + t

dx

dy

= 5 and

= 4t + 1

dt

dt

dy dy / dt

Now,

=

dx dx / dt

4t + 1

tan 45 =

5

t =1s

Option (b) is correct.

dy

dx

= 8 10t and

=6

dt

dt

(i)

(ii)

At t = 0

20.

dy

dx

= 8 and

=6

dt

dt

Velocity of projection

2

vmax

dx

dy

= + = 62 + 82

dt

dt

2

g

Acceleration =

In time interval t2

t =T

3

H W

H/9

vmax

= 2a

t2

v

= 2 max

t1

i.e.,

Now

R

Ground

t=T

vmax

t2

H H = 8H

9

9

vmax

=a

t1

Retardation =

H

9

Top of tower

t2

In time interval t1

= 10 ms 1

Option (c) is correct.

2H

17.

T=

g

T

=

3

t1

18. Distance of farthest corner from one

corner

= a + a + a = 3a

3a

Time taken =

u

Option (a) is correct.

19. Time-velocity

graph of the

time-acceleration graph will be

given

t1 = 2t2

t1 + t2 = t

2t2 + t2 = t

t

or

t2 =

3

Depth of shaft = Displacement of lift

1

= vmax ( t1 + t2 )

2

1

= vmax (2t2 + t2 )

2

3

= vmax t2

2

3

= (2at2 ) t2

2

= 3 at22

2

t

= 3 a

3

at2

3

Option (b) is correct.

1

1

21. s = 2ut + at2 = ut + 2at2

2

2

=

v 8

(m/s)

12 t (s)

when it comes to rest

= Area under t-v graph

4 + 12

=

8 = 64 m

2

Option (b) is correct.

a

2u

time = 0

Q

time = t

u

2a

Q

s

ut

1 2

at = 0

2

| 33

34 | Mechanics-1

1

at = 0

2

2u

t=

a

2

2u 1 2u

s = 2u + a

a 2 a

or

or

4u2 2u2

+

a

a

6u2

=

a

Option (a) is correct.

v (m/s)

10

A1

O

A2 2

10

particle.

Actual path followed

by the particle

= ( + 5 m ) + ( 5 m )

= 0 m.

i.e., the particle crosses its initial position

at t = 2 s.

Option (b) is correct.

24. As downward direction is considered to be

t=T

u = Vertical speed

(w.r.t. cart of

the particle)

t=0

30 m/s

80 m

80 m

8

= s

30 m / s 3

1

For particle 0 = uT + ( g) T2

2

1

2

i.e.,

gT = uT

2

2u 8

T=

=

g 3

2u 8

i.e.,

=

10 3

40

or

u=

ms 1

3

Option (c) is correct.

1

23. A1 = ( +10) ( +1) = + 5 m

2

1

A2 = ( 10)( +1) = 5 m

2

For cart T =

f (Air resistance)

u=0

Thus, option (a) and (c) are incorrect.

Now, as the ball will have +ive

acceleration throughout its motion option

(b) is also incorrect.

Correct option is (d).

25. Let acceleration of lift = a (upwards)

= Displacement of lift in time t

1

1

v0 t gt2 = at2

2

2

gt at

or

v0

=

2

2

2 v0 gt

a=

t

Option (a) is correct.

26. a = 0.2 v2

or

dv

= 0.2 v2

dt

2

v dv = 0.2 dt

v 2 + 1

= 0.2t + C

2+1

1

or

= 0.2t + C

v

Now, at t = 0, v = 10 m/s (given)

1

=0+C

10

1

i.e.,

C=

10

or

1

1

Thus, = 0.2t

v

10

Q For velocity v at time t (= 2 s)

1

1

= (0.2 2)

v

10

1

4

1

=

v

10 10

1 1

=

v 2

v = + 2 m/s.

Option (a) is correct.

27. For displacement ( S1) of train 1 before

coming to rest

02 = (10)2 + 2 ( 2) S1

i.e.,

S1 = 25 m

For displacement ( S2 ) of train 2 before

coming to rest

02 = (20)2 + 2 ( 1) S2

i.e.,

S2 = 200 m

Smin = S1 + S2

= 225 m

Option (b) is correct.

28. Let the balls collide after time t the first

ball is shot.

displacement (S) of ball 1 at time t

= displacement ( S) of ball 2 at time ( t 2)

1

1

40t + ( g) t2 = 40 ( t 2) + ( g) ( t 2)2

2

2

1

2

2

or

g[ t ( t 2) ] = 80

2

or

( t + t 2) ( t t + 2) = 16

or

2t 2 = 8

or

t = 5s

1

S = 40 5 + ( 10) 52

2

= 200 125

= 75 m

Option (b) is correct.

29.

i.e.,

and

0 = u gT

u = gT

1

H = uT gT2

2

1 2

h = ut gt

2

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

| 35

1

h H = u ( t T) + g ( T2 t2 )

2

1

= gT ( t T) g ( t T) ( t + T)

2

1

= ( t T) g T ( t + T)

2

2

T

= ( t T) g

1

= g ( t T)2

2

1

i.e., h = H g ( t T)2

2

Option (d) is correct.

t2

30.

x=

2

dx

vx =

=t

dt

x2 ( t2 / 2)2 t4

y=

=

=

2

2

8

dy t 3

vy =

=

dt

2

31.

x = t+3

i.e.,

x = t2 + 6t + 3

dx

= 2t + 6

dt

i.e.,

vt

Option (b) is correct.

32. Aeroplanes velocity at time t (= 20 s)

1

= (20 5) 10 2

2

= 90 m/s

Option (c) is correct.

33. v = 5 1 + 5

At s = 0 (i.e., initially),

velocity of particle = 5 m/s

Option (b) is correct.

Differentiating equation (i) w.r.t. s

1

dv

1

= 5 (1 + 5) 2

ds

2

1

1

dv 5

v

= (1 + 5) 2 5 (1 + 5) 2

ds 2

= 12.5 m/s 2

(i)

36 | Mechanics-1

Option (b) is correct.

= 12.5 16.0 + 10

= 6.5 m/s

Option (b) is correct.

mg f

mg + f

Time of ascent

=

Time of descent

37. u2 = 2 gH

mg ma

mg + ma

=

=

ga

g+a

10 2

10 + 2

=

H=

H

2

2

u = 100 + gH

102 = u2 2 g

Stops

2

3

H

2

10 m/s

35.

10 t

u2

2g

River flow

E

S

Thus,

5t

sin =

5t

10 t

1

2

H=

100 + gH

2g

or

gH = 100

H = 10 m

Option (b) is correct.

= 30

Option (b) is correct.

36. Fnet = 3 t2 32

manet = 3 t2 32

3 t2 32

or

anet =

10

2

or

anet = 0.3 t 3.2

dv

or

= 0.3 t2 3.2

dt

2

or

dv = (30.3 t 3.2) dt

0.3 t

or

v=

(3.2) t + k

3

or

v = 0.1t 3 (3.2) t + k

Now, at t = 0, v = 10 m/s

10 = k

Thus,

v = 0.1 t 3 (3.2) t + 10

at t = 5 s

v = 0.1 (5) 3 (3.2) (5) + 10

i.e.,

38.

10 m/s

15 m

u

t=0

2

10 = u2 2 g 15

100 = v2 2 10 15

i.e., u = 20 m/s

Now, v = u gt = 20 10 3

= 20 10 (3)

= 10 m/s, downward

Option (d) is correct.

| 37

JEE Corner

Assertion and Reason

Displacement

t0

1

v0 t0

v

=2

= 0

t0

2

straight line.

a

Assertion is true.

Reason is also true as proved.

4. Acceleration (a) will be zero only when

v

dimensional).

upon time.

Option (d) is correct.

2. Displacement-time graph is parabolic only

velocity-time graph is not zero i.e.,

acceleration is not zero.

If acceleration is zero.

s = ut

i.e., the displacement-time graph will be a

straight line.

Assertion is wrong.

Reason : v = u + at

ds

i.e.,

= u + at

dt

or

ds = (u1 + at) dt

s = ut + at2 + k

2

If at t = 0, s = 0

The value of k will be zero.

1

s = ut + at2

2

Thus, reason is true.

3. Displacement in time t0

1

= v0 t0

2

average velocity in time interval t0

dv

a =v

ds

ds dv

=

dt ds

dv

=

dt

dv

a = 0 if

=0

dt

or v is constant with time.

Thus, Assertion is wrong.

dv

Reason is correct as a is equal to

which

dt

is instantaneous acceleration.

5. If acceleration is in the opposite direction

will decrease.

u = 10 m/s

a = 2t m/s 2

dv

= 2t

dt

dv = 22 t dt

t

v = 2 + k

2

At t = 0 s, velocity = + 10 m/s

k = + 10 m/s

v = t2 + 10

Time (t)

v m/s

speed (m/s)

15

25

35

9

6

1

9

6

1

Assertion is true.

38 | Mechanics-1

Reason is false as when acceleration is

positive the speed will increase.

da

6.

(given)

= 2 (ms 3)

dt

[This implies that reason is true]

da = 2 dt

a = 2t + C

If at t = 0, a = 0

we have

C=0

a = 2t

dv

or

= 2t

dt

Assertion is false.

Option (d) is correct.

7. If initially particle velocity is ive and

particle will return to its initial position

after a certain time interval. In this time

interval the average velocity will be zero

as net displacement will be zero.

Assertion is false.

For average velocity to zero, the particle

must return to its initial position (as

discussed above) and for this velocity cant

remain constant.

Reason is true.

Option (d) is correct.

8. From O to A velocity of the particle is

decreasing without change in direction as

for the velocity to change its direction the

slope of s-t graph must be negative.

Assertion is false.

If the slope of s-t graph is + ive the velocity

of the particle will be + ive while if it is

ive the velocity of the particle will also

be ive.

Reason is true.

2

9. S1 = 2t 4 t

and S2 = 2t + 4 t2

displacement of particle 2 w.r.t. 1.

S21 = S2 S1

= ( 2t + 4 t2 ) (2t 4 t2 )

= 4 t + 8 t2

0s

1s

2s

3s

0m

4m

24 m

60 m

relative velocity would also be increasing.

Assertion is false.

Reason is true.

10. If v = u + ( a) t [acceleration being made

ive]

Velocity (v) of the particle will be zero

u

at

t= .

a

u

Thus, for t < , v is + ive

a

i.e., the acceleration can change its

direction without change in direction of

velocity.

Assertion is true.

If V changes sign say from + ive to ive,

V

the acceleration which equals

will also

t

change sign from + ive to ive.

Reason is true but it is not the correct

explanation of the assertion.

11. At time t when the two are at the same

height.

A

S1

u=0

a=+g

time t

S2

u = gh

B

S1 + S2 = h

1 gt2 + ut 1 gt2 = h

2

2

ut = h

gh t = h

t=

h

g

Projectile Motion

Introductory Exercise 4.1

and thus projectile motion is a

2-dimensional motion. The statement is

thus false.

= 80

= 402 + 202

has some different value and as such the

motion may not be uniform accelerated.

The statement is thus true.

i.e.,

= 802 + 602

vy

u

sx

vx

sy

= 20 5 m/s

v y 20

tan =

=

vx 40

1

= tan 1

2

s = s2x + s2y

4. u = 40 2 m/s, = 45

uy

1

10 22 = 60 m

2

v = v2x + v2y

ux

vx = ux = u cos = 40 m/s

sx = ux t = (u cos ) t = 80 m

A : position of particle at time = 0.

B : position of particle at time = t.

As vertical acceleration would be g

v y = u y gt

= u sin = gt

= 40 20

= 20 m/s

1

s y = u y t gt2

2

i.e.,

5. s y = u y t +

= 100 m

sy

tan =

sx

60

=

80

3

= tan 1

4

1

( g) t2

2

or

s y = (u sin ) t

or

15 = 20t

or

i.e.,

1 2

gt

2

1 2

gt

2

t2 = 4 t + 3 = 0

t = 1 s and 3 s

u = 40 m/s, = 60

ux = 40 cos 60 = 20 m/s

52 | Mechanics-1

Thus, vx = ux = 20 m/s

As = 45

tan =

vy

vx

v = v2x + v2y = vx 2

Thus,

= 20 2 m/s

r = 2.4 ^i m

i.e.,

x = 2.4 m

11. vx = ux = 10 m/s

v

u = 20 m/s

vx

60

ux = 20 cos 60

u2 sin 2 / g

2 u sin / g

2 u2 sin cos

g

g

2 u sin

8. Change in velocity

t=T

u sin

u cos

x = 0m

= ucos

+ u sin u

r = 0 ^i m

i.e.,

At t = 0.8 s,

20 = 40 3 10t

i.e.,

2=2 3 t

or

t = 2 ( 3 + 1) s

Range

7. Average velocity =

Time of flight

v y = u y + ( g) t

20 = 40 sin 60 10 t

or

2=2 3 t

t = 2 ( 3 1) s

4 t 5t2 = 0

4

i.e.,

t = 0 s, s

5

t = 0 belongs to the initial point of

projection of the particle.

=1

y y = vx = 20 m/s

10. r = [3 t i + ( 4 t 5t2 ) j] m

u sin u

= ( u sin ) ( + u sin )

= 2usin

= 2usin (downward)

9. Formulae for R, T and H max will be same

the particle lands are same and lie on a

horizontal line.

= 10 m/s

vx = ux = 10 m/s

vx = v cos

v

cos = x

v

10

=

v

10

20

[as, v =

(given)]

=

10

2

=1

i.e.,

= 0

Speed will be half of its initial value at

the highest point where = 0.

Thus,

u sin

g

20 sin 60

=

= 3s

10

t=

Projectile Motion

53

1. Time of flight

10

3

3

2

=

vx

vy

= 5 m/s

vnet

v

u

= 60

= 30

u = 10 m/s2

g = 10 m/s2

T=

10 m

2u sin ( )

g cos

x1

(2 10 sin(60 30 )

=

10 cos 30

2

s

=

3

Using,

x1 = (u cos ) t

x2 = v t

d = x2 x1

= (v + u cos ) t

= [10 + 10 2 cos 45 ] t = 20 t

1

Using equation, s = ut + at2

2

For vertical motion of particle 1 :

1

h 10 = (u sin ) t + ( g) t2

2

1

i.e.,

(i)

h = 10 + (u sin ) t gt2

2

1

or

h 10 + 10 t gt2

2

For the vertical motion of particle 2 :

1

20 h = gt2

2

1

i.e.,

(ii)

h = 20 gt2

2

Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii),

1

1

10 + 10 t g t2 = 20 g t2

2

2

t = 1s

d = 20 m

and

v = u + at

vx = ux = u cos 60

1

= 10 = 5 m/s

2

v y = u y + ( g) T

= u sin 60 gT

3

2

= 10

10

2

3

3 4

= 10

2 3

5

m/s

=

3

vnet = v2x + v2y

5

= 52 +

3

=5 1+

=

1

3

10

m/s

3

u = 10 m/s

v = 5 2 m/s

4.

plane

= vnet cos

=

10

cos 30

3

x2

d

v

u

B

d

54 | Mechanics-1

= 30

= 45

d = 15 m

Let the particles meet (or are in the same

vertical time t).

d = (u cos ) t + (v cos ) t

or

15 = (5 3 + 5) t

3

or

s

t=

3 +1

u = 40 m/s

= 60

= 30

g = 10 m/s 2

=

vx = ux = u cos

vx = v cos = v cos

u cos = v cos

u cos 40 cos 60

v=

=

cos

cos 30

1

40

2

=

3

2

40

m/s

=

3

or

= 1.009 s

Now, let us find time of flight of A and B

2 u sin

TA =

g

= 1s

As TA < t, particle A will touch ground

before the expected time t of collision.

Ans : NO.

= Vertical displacement of B

vA

20

/s

m

time t

a = 10 m/s2

= 30 =

6

= +

4 2

/6

=

+

4

2

=

3

= 60

1 2

1

gt = vB t gt2

2

2

v A sin = vB

(v A sin ) t

v

A

u

(b) x = (v A cos ) t

= (20 cos 30 )

=5 3 m

vB

vA

10 1

=

=

20 2

= 30

sin =

i.e.,

vB = 10 m/s

1

2

Projectile Motion

55

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1. (a) R =

=

g

10

or

= 80 m

2

H=

=

2g

10

= 40 m

2 u sin 2 (20 2) sin 45

T=

=

g

10

=4s

T=

T2 4 T 8 = 0

( 4) + ( 4)2 4(1)( 8)

2 (1)

4 + 48 4 + 4 3

=

=

2

2

= (2 + 2 3 ) s

= 5.46 s

R = 20 5.46 = 109.2 m

1

(b) s = ut + at2

2

v=u+at

20 m/s

40 m

a = 10 m/s2

2 u sin

T=

g

1

2 20 2

2

=

10

=4s

(c) Velocity of particle at the time of

collision with ground.

= (20 ^i + 20 ^j) + ( 10 ^j ) 4

1

( 10) T2

2

T =2 2s

= 2.83 s

R = 2.83 20

= 56.6 m

( 40) = 0 T +

(c) s = ut +

1 2

at

2

= (20 ^i 20 ^j ) m/s

2. (a) s = ut +

1 2

at

2

20 2 m/s

40 m

20 m/s

202 m/s

+

40 m

45

1

( 10) T2

2

5T2 + 20T 40 = 0

T2 + 4 T 8 = 0

( 40) = ( 20) T +

or

or

a = 10 m/s2

T

R

or

1

( 10) T2

2

5T2 20T 40 = 0

( 40) = ( + 20) T +

T=

=

4 + ( 4)2 4 (1) ( 8)

2 (1)

4+ 4 3

= 2 + 2 3 = 1.46 s

2

56 | Mechanics-1

R = 20 1.46

= 29.2 m

100

1

40

2

5

m/s

=

2

v=

(as horizontal velocity does not change).

= (u sin gt) (u sin )

= gt

= (10 3) m/s

= 30 m/s

= 30 m/s (downward)

v sin

P

60 m/s

a = 10 ^j m/s 2

= 60 ^i + 15 ^j

v av =

60 ^i + 15 ^j

3

= 20 ^i + 5 ^j

|v av |= (20)2 + (5)2

= 425

= 20.6 m/s

u

Player

t=0

R

t=T

50 m

60 cos 60

vT = 50

t=0

dy

dx

dx

(i)

=b

2cx

dt

dt

dt

dy

dx

(at x = 0)

=b

dt

dt

2

60

6. Y = bx cx2

4. R + vT = 50

Coach

v cos = 60 cos 60

v cos 45 = 60 cos 60

60 cos 60

v=

cos 45

= 30 2 m/s

For point P :

v sin 45 = 60 sin 60 + ( 10) t1

3

or

30 = 60

10 t1

2

t1 = 3 ( 3 1)

= 2.20 s

For point Q :

v sin 45 = 60 sin 60 + ( 10) t2

t2 = 3 ( 3 + 1)

= 8.20 s

= 60 ^i + 60 ^j 45 ^j

t = t1 v cos

v

a = 10m/s2 v sin

Displacement at time t (= 3 s)

1

= u t + a t2

2

1

^

= (20 i + 20 ^j) 3 + ( 10 ^j) 32

2

u sin

g

2 u sin

(20)2

v

= 50

g

10

2

20

sin

45

v

= 10

10

dx

dy

v= +

dt

dt

2

dx

dx

= + b2

dt

dt

= 1 + b2

dx

dt

(ii)

Projectile Motion

Differentiating Eq. (i) w.r.t. time t

2

d2 y

d2 x

d2 x

dx

=

b

2

c

2cx 2 (iii)

2

2

dt

dt

dt

dt

Acceleration of particle

2

d2 x

d2 x

a = 2 + 2

dt

dt

d2 x

=0

dt2

d2 x

d2 y

Substituting

and

=

0

= a in

dt2

dt2

Eq. (iii)

2

dx

a = 2c

dt

(6.1) =

+ 2 ( 10) (9.1)

u y = 37.21 + 182

= 14.8

Angle of projection

uy

= tan 1

ux

uy

= tan 1

ux

14.8

= tan 1

7.6

= 62.82

u2 sin 2

Range =

g

dx

a

=

dt

2c

i.e.,

dx

Substituting above value of

in Eq. (ii)

dt

a

v=

(1 + b2 )

2c

^

uy

B

+h

g

(v2x

u2y )

sin 2

=

10

= 22.5 m

(c) Magnitude of velocity just before the

ball hits ground

vy

57

u2y

= [( u y )2 + (ux )2 ]2

9.1 m

a = 10 m/s2

= [( 14.8)2 + (6.1)2 ]2

Final vertical velocity at B (highest point)

= 0 m/s

2

2

Using v = u + 2as

(Between A and B)

02 = (6.1)2 + 2 ( 10) ( + h)

(6.1)2

h=

20

= 1.86 m

Maximum height attained by ball

= 9.1 + 1. 86

= 10.96 m

(b) Let magnitude of vertical velocity at O

(point of projection) = u y

Using v2 = u2 + 2as

(Between O and A)

= 16 ms

[ux = vx ]

1 u y

(d) = = tan

ux

14.8

= tan 1

7.6

= tan 1 (1.95)

8. As

particles will be zero and both fall under

same acceleration (g), at anytime t, the

vertical displacement of both will be same

u1

time = t

12

u2

+h

a=+g

time = t

B

(90 )

58 | Mechanics-1

i.e., both will always remain in the same

horizontal line as shown in figure.

At time t :

Vertical velocity of A

= Vertical velocity of B

= 0 + ( + g) t

= gt

At A :

Vertical velocity of particle 1

tan =

Horizontal velocity of particle 1

gt

or

(i)

tan =

u1

Y

y

+

= tan

x Rx

or

or

(Students to remember this formula)

3 3

tan = +

6 12

9

=

12

3

= tan 1

4

10. On the trajectory there be two points P

P

At B :

Horizontal velocity of particle 2

tan (90 ) =

or

cos =

gt

u2

(ii)

gt gt

1=

u1 u2

t=

u1u2

g

= R1 + R2

= u1t + u2 t

= (u1 + u2 ) t

uu

= (u1 + u2 ) 1 2

g

(i.e., vertical displacement of + h)

1

( + h) = (u sin ) t + ( g) t2

2

2

or

(i)

gt 2 (u sin ) t + 2h = 0

The above equation is quadratic in t. Two

values of t will satisfy Eq. (i). One having

lower value will be time ( = t1) to reach

point P while the higher value will be the

time ( = t2 ) to reach point Q.

Time to reach point Q from point P

= t2 t1

= ( t2 + t1)2 4 t1t2

2

2u sin

2h

=

4

g

g

[Using Eq. (i)]

4u2 sin2 2 gh

=

g

x

= tan

R

(y, x)

or

u

Y = 3m

x

=6m

a=g

7 2

9.8

= 2.47 m

9. Y = x 1

(R x)

YR

= tan

x( R x)

( t2 t1) =

16 gh sin2 8 gh

g

(Qu = 2 gh)

2h = (u cos ) ( t2 t1)

4 h2 = u2 cos2 ( t2 t1)2

16 gh sin2 8 gh

or 4 h2 = ( 4 gh) cos2

g2

Projectile Motion

2

or

or

or

or

1 = cos2 [16 (1 cos2 ) 8 ]

1 = cos2 [8 16 cos2 ]

16 cos4 8 cos2 + 1 = 0

( 4 cos2 1)2 = 0

1

4 cos2 =

4

1

cos =

2

cos = 60

1

(cos = being not possible).

2

16 gh sin2 60 2 gh

( t2 t1) =

g2

=2

h

g

R+ b=

i.e.,

aR + ab =

13. R1 = v1

2h

g

v1

gt cos

or

u=

sin ( )

R1 = 10 m

v2

R2

i.e.,

u sin 2

g

(i)

1 R1 g

2 v1

1 10 9.8

2

5

= 19.6 m

2h

T=

g

=

bu2 sin 2

bR ab =

g

h=

=

i.e.,

b sin 2 + a sin 2

1

sin 1

2

a+b

a=g

(i)

v sin = u sin = ( g) t

Now, as horizontal acceleration will be

zero.

v cos = u cos

Thus, Eq. (i) becomes

u cos

sin = u sin gt

cos

12. R a =

(ii)

(Proved.)

a=0

au2 sin 2

g

( b sin 2 + a sin 2)

u2 sin 2

= u2

g

( a + b) g

u sin 2

g

b sin 2 + a sin 2

bR + aR = u2

(

b

sin

2

+

a

sin

2

)

or

R = u2

( a + b) g

v

v

R

2

(Proved)

59

2 19.6

9.8

=2s

R2 = v2 T = 7.5 2

= 15 m

60 | Mechanics-1

= 1.69 s

2u2 sin ( ) cos

R=

g cos2

O

12 km/h

10 cos2 30

= 39 m

2 u sin ( + )

T=

g cos

50 m

vw = 20 km/h

= 12

5

m/s

18

10

m/s

3

Horizontal velocity of balloon (+ bag)

5

m/s

= Wind velocity = 20 km / h = 20

18

50

m/s

=

9

= 5.55 m/s

12

tan = . i.e., sin = 0.51

20

Bag is released at point A.

Let t be time, the bag takes from A to

reach ground.

1

Using, s = ut + at2

2

10

1

( 50) = sin t + ( g) t2

3

16.

i.e.,

t=

5t2 1.7 t 50 = 0

1.7 + ( 1.7)2 4 5 ( 50)

25

= 3.37 s

Vertical velocity of bag when it strikes

ground

10

vB =

+ (10) (3.37)

3

= 37.03 m/s

v = 5.55 m/s

Velocity of bag with which it strikes

ground

vnet = v2B + v2

= 6.31 s

u2

R=

[sin (2 + ) + sin ]

g cos2

(20 2)2

[sin (90 + 30 ) + sin 30 ]

10 cos2 30

= 145.71 m

2 u sin ( + )

17.

T=

g cos

2u sin

(Q = 0)

=

g cos

2u

=

tan

g

2 20

=

tan 30

10

= 2.31 s

u2

R=

[sin (2 + ) + sin ]

g cos2

=

u2 ( 2 sin )

g cos2

20 2.31

uT

=

=

cos 30

cos

2 20 2 sin ( 45 30 )

10 cos 30

[as = 0]

= 53.33 m

u2

18. R =

[sin (2 + ) + sin ]

g cos2

= 37.44 m/s

2 u sin ( )

15. T =

g cos

=

2 20 2 sin ( 45 + 30 )

10 cos 30

u2

[sin {2 ( + ) } + sin ]

g cos2

u2

[sin ( ) + sin ]

g cos2

[Q( + ) =

or

R=

2 u2

tan sec

g

]

2

Projectile Motion

19. (a) Acceleration of particle 1 w.r.t. that of

particle 2

= ( g) ( g)

=0

61

Horizontal velocity of stone = v

Path of the stone will be parabolic.

21. (a) g eff = g ( a)

a m/s2

w m/s

= (20 2 cos 45 ^i + 20 2 sin 45 ^j) m/s

of 2nd particle

=g+a

= 10 + 1

= 20 ^i m/s

= 11 m/s 2

2 u sin

T=

g eff

= 20 m/s (downward)

(c) Horizontal velocity of 1st particle

= 0 m/s

Horizontal velocity of 2nd particle

= 20 ^i m/s

Horizontal velocity of 1st particle w.r.t.

that of 2nd particle

= 0 (20 ^i)

= 0.18 s

(b) Dotted path [(in lift) acceleration

upwards]

u

= 20 ^i m/s

Relative displacement of 1st particle w.r.t.

2nd particle at t = 2 s

= 20 ^i 2

= 40 ^i m/s

Distance between the particles at t = 2 s

= 40 m

with constant velocity upwards or

downwards].

(c) If lift is moving downward with

acceleration g.

Path of particle

u

= g 0= g

Horizontal velocity of stone

=vv=0

Path of the stone will be a straight line

(downwards).

(b) As observed by man standing on

ground

2 2 sin 30

11

g eff = g g = 0

22. Horizontal motion :

u1 cos 1 + u2 cos 2 = 20

(i)

62 | Mechanics-1

Vertical motion :

20 + (u1 sin 1) t +

u2

2

or

20

1

( g) t2

2

(ii)

(u1 sin 1 u2 sin 2 ) t = 10

+ (u2 sin 2 ) t +

u1

x1

1

( g) t2 = 30

2

x2

d = 20 m

1. v = 3 i + 4 j and F = 4 i 3 j

v F = (3 ^i + 4 ^j) ( 4 ^i 3 ^j)

= 14.14 m/s

= 14 m/s (approx)

Option (b) is correct.

u2 sin2

4. H (maximum height) =

2g

= 12 12 = 0

Fv

Y

H1 =

u2 sin2 (90 )

u2 sin2

and H2 =

g

2g

=

5. Equation to trajectory is

1

gx2

2

2 u cos sin

x2

Y = x tan

R

Y = x tan

2. Projectile motion is uniformly accelerated

Option (a) correct.

Option (b) incorrect.

At the highest point acceleration is

perpendicular to velocity.

Option (c) incorrect.

3. For range to be maximum

i.e.,

or

= 45

ux

1

= cos 45 =

u

2

u

vx =

2

u2 cos2

g

H1 sin2

=

H2 cos2

Thus,

j

i

20

2

(Qvx = ux )

Area =

=

0 Y dx

x2

x tan dx

R

x2

x3

A = tan

3 R 0

2

R2

R3

=

tan

2

3

1

2 tan

=R

3

2

Projectile Motion

=

4v40

2

3

g2

2

3

g2

2 v40

=

[3 sin2 cos 2 sin2 cos2 ]

3 g2

9. Rmax = 1.6 m

u2

= 1.6

g

or

u cos 60

cos 30

u

v=

3

v=

4 2

10

10 2

10 2

Number of jumps =

=

T

4 2 / 10

1

mv2

2

=

=

1

u2

m

2

3

K

=

3

1

2

or

2 = 30

= 15

Option (a) is correct.

2 u sin

8. T1 =

g

2 u sin (90 )

T2 =

g

2u cos

=

g

2

2 u2 sin cos

Thus,

T1T2 =

g

g

2R

or

T1T2 =

g

1

R = g T1T2

2

Option (d) is correct.

sin 2 =

Q 1 mu2 = K

u2 sin 2 1 u2

7.

=

g

2 g

or

= 25

Grass hopper would go

= 25 1.6 m i.e., 40 m.

Option (d) is correct.

|Displacement|

10. |Av. velocity|=

time

or

KE at B =

u = 4 m/s

2u sin 45

T=

g

6. v cos = u cos

63

1

R

2

+H

T / 2 2

1

u sin

g

u2 sin cos

u2 sin2

2g

= u cos2 +

sin2

4

u

1 + 3 cos2

2

Option (b) is correct.

=

11. d2 = R2 + u2 T2

T

u

2 /g

Ball

=u

45

90

uT

T

2 2

u

2 u sin 45

= + u2

g

=

u4 2 u4

+ 2

g2

g

3u4

g2

64 | Mechanics-1

d=

u2

g

3=

302

10

3 = 90 3 m

12. At maximum height

dy

=0

dt

d

(10t t2 ) = 0

dt

or

10 2t = 0

or

t = 5s

Maximum height attained = 10 (5) 52

= 25 m

Option (d) is correct.

u2

13. R =

[sin (2 + ) + sin ]

g cos2

i.e.,

a = g

1

( 10) t2

2

or

5t2 25t 70 = 0

or

t2 5t 14 = 0

( t 7) ( t + 2) = 0

t=7s

( 2 s not possible)

Option (c) is correct.

As = 0 (according to question)

u2

R=

[2 sin ]

g cos2

1000

m

3

sin 2 = sin 3

2 = 2

or

=

2

= = = 30

2 3 6

Maximum height attained by second

particle

u2 sin2

=

2g

102 2 g sin2 30

=

2g

sin2 60

102 1 / 4

=

= 34 m

3/4

(50)2 2 sin 30

10 cos2 30

u2 sin 2 u2 sin 2

=

g

g

1

15. s = ut + at2

2

if,

53

x

R

H max = 102 m

u2 sin2

= 102

2g

102 2 g

u2 =

sin2 60

[As =

= 60]

3

Second particle :

Range of the second particle will be equal

to that of particle

5T

x = R + 5T

= (u cos ) T + 5T

= T [(u cos ) + 5]

2u sin

=

[(u cos ) + 5]

g

4

2 80

5 80 3 + 5 = 256 m

=

10

5

Option (d) is correct.

Projectile Motion

65

JEE Corner

Assertion and Reason

1. Assertion is wrong while the explanation

and

Option (d) is correct.

Thus,

2. Assertion and

both carry the same meaning.

Option (a) is correct.

u2 sin2

3. H =

[H = maximum height]

2g

2

g 2 u sin

g 2

= T

8

g

8

i.e.,

H T2 (Reason)

H will become four times if T is made

two times.

Thus, assertion is correct and also reason

is the correct explanation of the assertion.

Option (a) is correct.

y=

2y 1 2y

+ ax

ay 2

ay

x = ux

or

x = k1 y + k2 y

or

( x k2 y)2 = k12 y

or

or

x2 + k22 y2 (2 k2 + k12 ) y = 0

6.

1

a y t2

2

v2 v1

t2 t1

( u + a t2 ) ( u + a t1)

t2 t1

projectile motion).

Assertion is correct and the reason for

this also correct, as explained.

Thus, option (a) is correct.

7. Let initial velocity of A = u A

Initial velocity of B = uB

B is projected at an angle with

horizontal.

For time (TA ) taken by A to return to the

point of projection :

u

45

45

Option (b) is correct.

if angle of projection is less than 45.]

1

5. x = ux t + ax t2

2

y

ay

( u A ) = ( + u A ) + ( g) TA

2u

TA = A = 4 (s)

g

2 uB sin

TB =

= 4 (s)

g

(Q TB = TA given)

uB sin = 2 g

ux

Height attained by B

ax

x

H=

u2B sin2

2g

66 | Mechanics-1

=

(2 g)2

2g

under heading reason leads to

2v

Range = vH V

g

= 2g

= 20 m

Assertion is correct.

Reason for this incomplete as then TA will

not be equal to TB .

Thus, option (c) is correct.

u2

8.

H= V

2g

H1 : H2 = 4 H : H

u12V u22 V

:

= 4 :1

2g 2g

i.e.,

or

energy

(i)

1

1

mv2 + mgh = mu2

2

2

2

v = u 2 gh

For R1 = R2

u1V u1H = u2 V u2 H

or

downward direction.

Acceleration is nothing but rate of change

of velocity written against reason is

correct.

Option (d) is correct.

10. Using law of conservation of mechanical

u1V : v2 V = 2 : 1

2 uV uH

R=

g

u1H u2 V

=

u2 H u1H

u1H 1

=

u2 H 2

9. Assertion is incorrect as it is the velocity

component of velocity as u y the vertical

component of velocity of the particle at

height h would be u2y 2 gh is correct as

[Using relation (i)]

Assertion is correct.

correct explanation of the assertion as

nothing is given regarding the change in

the horizontal component of velocity.

Single Correct Option

1. s = ut +

1 2

at

2

u sin

=

g

u P

16.8 m

Q

4.8 m

1

= (u sin ) t + ( gt)2

2

= 24 sin 7 2

For = 30 :

s = 4.8 m

= 1s

Above displacement is for point Q.

For = 90 :

s = 16.8 m

For = 30 : OD = (u cos ) t

= (20 cos 30 ) 1 2

= 20.8

2

QR = (20.8) + (16.8 4.8)2

= 24 m

Option (c) is correct.

Projectile Motion

2. t =

d

1

also h = gt2

u

2

u

h

time = t

5.

1

d2

g 2

2

u

2 u2 h

2

d =

g

h=

u2

3. R =

[sin (2 + ) + sin ]

g cos2

Substituting v = 10 m/s

g = 10 m/s2

+ = 90

and

= 30

(10)2

R=

[sin (90 + 60 ) + sin 30 ]

10 cos2 30

10 1 1 40

m

=

+

=

3 2 2 3

4

y = x2

dy

dx

= 2x

dt

dt

d2 x dx 2

d2 y

and

= 2 x 2 +

dt

dt2

dt

d2 x dx 2

or

= 2 x 2 +

dt

dt

2

d x

Now, as 2 = 0

dt

(acceleration being along y-axis only)

dx

=

dt

2

Option (d) is correct.

horizontally

P

1

x2

4. y = x tan g 2

2 u sin cos

R'

Slope

PQ = H max =

x

dy

1

2x

= tan

dx

2 u2 sin cos

Slope

OQ =

u2 sin cos

g

u2 sin2

u2 sin cos

=

+

g

2g

tan

and

u2 sin2

2g

R = ( PQ)2 + (OQ)2

T = Time of flight

T/2

67

x

Slope of trajectory = tan 2

u sin cos

Substituting x = (u cos ) t

(u cos ) t

dy

= tan 2

dx

u sin cos

t

= tan

u sin

Option (a) is correct.

T

t

u2

g

sin4

+ sin2 cos2

4

u2

g

3 1 2

1 3

+

4 4

2 2

68 | Mechanics-1

=

u2

g

u2 21

8g

9

3

+

64 16

d2 x

= 2

dt

= 50 m/s2

7. Let the projectile hits the inclined plane at

[as

dy

= constant]

dt

P at time t

u = 10 3 m/s

i.e., v = u

v = 10 3 m/s

v

R/2

R/2

P (time = t)

(u cos ) t

vt

Further,

and

i.e.,

or

or

or

or

or

or

dy

dy dx

+2

=

dt

dt dt

dy dx

(2 y + 2)

=

dt dt

dx

= 10 ( y + 1)

dt

d2 x

dy

= 10

dt

dt2

2y

= 50 m/s 2

20 m/s

60

30

203m

OQ tan = PQ

1

t [v cos ] tan = u sin gt t

2

10 [1 cos 60 ] tan 30

1

= 10 sin 60 10

2

5

= 5 3 5t

3

1

t= 3

3

2

s

=

3

203 m/s

1

PQ = (u sin ) gt2

2

QR = vt (u cos ) t

PQ

tan =

QR

8. y2 + 2 y + 2 = x

tan

= tan 1

x = 20 3 (10 3 + 10 3 ) t

= 20 3 (1 t)

Vertical distance between particles at

time t

y = (30 10) t = 20 t

Distance between particles at time t

D = x2 + y2

D2 = [20 3 (1 t)]2 + [20 t ]2

= 400 [3 (1 t)2 ] + 400 t2

For D to minimum

dD

=0

dt

3 2 (1 t)( 1) + 2 t = 0

or

6t 6 + 2t = 0

3

i.e.,

t= s

4

2

2

3

3

D2min = 400 3 1 + 400

4

4

or

= 75 + 75 3

Dmin = 10 3 m

Option (b) is correct.

Projectile Motion

(ii)

u cos 30 + u cos 30

T=

g

2 u cos 30

=

g

u

69

the particle will not change

u cos (90 ) = v cos (90 )

or

(i)

u sin = v sin

Using v = u + at for the horizontal

component of velocity

( v cos ) = ( + u cos ) + ( g) T

gT = u cos + v cos

u cos + v cos

or

(ii)

T=

g

Now, as = ( = 30 ), u = v from Eq. (i)

u 3

g

2 u2 sin cos

12. PQ =

g

or2a cos =

g

or

a=

u2 sin

g

or

(as = 30)

u2 = 2ag

or

u2 = 2 4.9 9.8

or

u = 9.8 m/s

Option (a) is correct.

1. Two particles projected at angles and

range if

+ = 90

Option (a) is correct.

2 u2 sin cos

R=

g

h1 (maximum height attained by first)

u2 sin2

=

2g

h2 (maximum height attained by second)

u2 sin2

=

2g

Wind

a=g

a = constant

u2 sin cos R

=

2g

4

flight)

l

tic

ar

fp

2. Horizontal displacement in time t (Time of

o

th

u2 sin sin

2g

u2 sin sin (90 )

=

2g

h1h2 =

h1 sin

Also,

=

= tan

h2 sin

Pa

2u sin

g

2u sin

t2 (time of flight of second) =

g

t1 sin

sin

=

=

= tan

t2 sin sin (90 )

t1 (time of flight of first) =

x=

1 2

at

2

(i)

70 | Mechanics-1

Vertical displacement in time t

1

y = gt2

2

y g

=

x a

or y = constant x [as a is constant]

Option (a) is correct.

Substituting y = 49 m in Eqs. (ii)

1

49 = 9.8 t2

2

t = 10 = 3.16 s

PQ > PR ( = 40 m )

Option (d) is correct.

(ii)

particle

v

P

v cos

+ = 90

w cos

w

w cos = v cos

or

w cos (90 ) = v cos

or

w sin = v cos

or

w = v cos

Option (b) is correct.

Option (a) is incorrect.

Vertical velocity of particle at Q

= wsin

= wsin (90 )

= wcos

Using, v = u + at

( w cos ) = ( + v sin ) + ( g) T

[where T = time from P to Q]

gT = v sin + w cos

= v sin + v cot cos

cos2

= v sin + v

sin

= v cosec

v cosec

t=

g

Option (d) is incorrect.

4. v = 10 i + 10 j

v

H

O

a = 10 m/s2

15m

v y 10

tan =

=

=1

vx 10

i.e.,

= 45

Option (a) correct.

1 2

at

2

1

( 15) = 10 t + ( 10) t2

2

2

i.e.,

t 2t 3 = 0

or

( t 3) ( t + 1) = 0

t=3s

Option (b) is incorrect.

Horizontal range of particle

= vx t

= 10 3 = 30 m

Option (c) is incorrect.

Maximum height of projectile from ground

= H + 15

u2 sin2

=

+ 15

2g

Using relation, s = ut +

=

=

v2y

2g

+ 15

(10)2

+ 15

2 10

= 20 m

Option (d) is correct.

5. Average velocity between any two points

motion

velocity

changes

both

in

magnitude and direction.

Option (a) is incorrect.

Similarly option (b) is also incorrect.

Projectile Motion

In projectile motion

a = constant

dv

= constant

dt

Option (c) is correct.

d2 v

=0

dt2

Option (d) is correct.

1

6. ( + h) = ( + u sin ) t + ( g) t2

2

t = t1

A

gt2 (2 u sin ) t + 2h = 0

2 u sin

2h

, t1t2 =

t1 + t2 =

g

g

4u2 sin2

2h

=

= 4

g

g

t AB =

40

2

= 20 m/s

ucos =

40 m

20 m

u sin = 40 g

= 20 m/s

Option (c) is correct.

(u cos ) tAB = 40

Bt=t

15 m

8 ( H 15)

2=

10

H = 20 m

Option (b) is correct.

u2 sin2

i.e.,

= 20

2g

also

71

8 ( H h)

g

(i)

Substituting values of g, usin and h in

Eq. (i)

10t2 40t + 30 = 0

i.e.,

t2 4 t + 3 = 0

t = 1 or 3

t = 1 s for A and t = 3 s for B.

Option (a) is correct.

1. (a) At t = 2 s

S1

S2

2 (t = 1 s)

10 m

1 (at t = 1s)

10 m/s

30 m

1 (at t = 2 s)

S3

2

at t = 2 s

S1 : S2 : S3

=1:3:5

at t = 2 s = 30 m

(b) (s)

(c) Relative

velocity

horizontal

component

of

= 10 0 = 10 m/s

(c) (p)

(d) Relative vertical component of velocity

(at t = 2 s)

= Velocity of 1 at t = 2 s

50 m

= horizontal displacement of 2

= 10 1 = 10 m

(a) (p)

Vertical velocity of 2 at t = 2 s

= Velocity of 1 at t = 2 s

Velocity of 1 at t = 1 s

= (2 g) (1 g) = g

= 10 m/s

(d) (p).

72 | Mechanics-1

2. Given, H = 20 m

u2 sin2

= 20

2g

usin = 20

(d) (s)

Time of flight =

2u sin

=4s

g

(a) (s)

R

(given)

2

u2 sin2 1 2 u2 sin cos

=

2g

2

g

u sin

=2

u cos

(b) (q)

u sin

u cos =

= 10 m/s

2

(c) (r)

u2 sin (2 15 )

3.

= 10

2g

H=

(a) (q)

u

= 20 m

2g

Rmax = 20 m

u2

= 10 m

4g

(b) (p)

(c) Range at ( 45 + ) = Range at ( 45 )

Range at 75 = Range at 15

= 10 m (given)

(c) (p)

u2 sin2 30

(d) Height at 30 =

2g

=

1 u2

4 2g

= 5m

(d) (s)

2 u sin

4. (a) T =

g

2u

=

g

(time) of flight will also become two times

i.e., (a) (q).

(b) H =

u2 sin2 u

=

2g

2g

(b) (r)

2(u ) (u||)

(c) R =

g

R will become two times

(c) (q)

(d) Angle of projection with horizontal

u

tan new = (new)

u||

2u

=

u||

= 2 tan

new = tan 1 (2 tan ) 2

(d) (s)

v (at A) = (u cos ) ^i

= usin

(a)

(q)

|OA|

=

T /2

R

H2 +

2

T /2

u2 sin2 2 1 2 u sin cos 2

+

4

g

2 g

u sin

g

u

1 + 3 cos2

2

(b) (s)

=

Projectile Motion

(c) Velocity at B

vB

73

^

= (90 ^i 40 ^j) m

= (u cos ) i (u sin ) j

= 50 ^j m

|v B u| = 2 u sin

Thus, (c) (s).

(d) |Average velocity between 0 and B|

Range

=

Time of flight

(u cos ) T

=

= ucos

T

(d) (p).

6. (a) Horizontal displacement of (1) at t = 2 s

Y

(b) (r)

(c) Horizontal velocity of (1) at t = 2 s

v1H = 30 ^i

v2 H = 20 ^i

velocity of (2) w.r.t. 1

v RH = v2 H v1H

20 j

= ( 20 ^i) ( + 30 ^i)

(2)

20 i

= 50 ^i m/s

30 j

|v RH|= 50 m/s

X

(1)

30 i

(d) Vertical velocity of (1) at t = 2 s

S1H = 30 ^i m/s 2 s

v 1 V = 30 ^j + ( 10 ^j) (2)

= + 60 ^i m

= 10 ^j

v 1 V = 20 ^j + ( 10 ^j) (1)

S2 H = 130 i m + ( 20 i m / s) (1 s)

= 110 ^i m

= 10 ^j

^

= (110 i 60 i) m = 50 i m

(a) (r)

(b) Vertical displacement of (1) at t = 2 s

1

S1V = 30 ^j m/s 2 s + ( 10 ^j m / s2 ) (2 s)2

2

= 60 ^j m 20 ^j m

= 40 ^j m

Vertical displacement of (2) at t = 2 s

S2 V = 75 ^j m + (20 ^j m / s) (1 s)

1

+ ( 10 ^j m / s2 ) (16)2

2

= 90 ^j m

of (2) w.r.t. 1

|v RV|= 0 m/s

Thus (d) (s)

2 uy

7. T =

T uy

g

H=

u2y

2g

H u2y

H A = HB = HC

TA = TB = TC

Further, R = ux T

T is same. But

R A < RB < RC

u XA < u XB < u XC

Laws of Motion

Introductory Exercise 5.1

R

N sin + w A = N

f

f = Force of friction by ground by cylinder,

w = Weight of cylinder.

N cos = f

w + N sin = R,

N ( R) = Reaction to N,

N (R)

B

R'

Force of sphere B

wB

wall,

O

(Force acting on

plank)

R'

w

f'

Ground

R = Normal force on plank by ground,

w = Weight of plank,

f = frictional force on plank by ground.

Resultant of f and R, N ( R) and w pass

through point O.

sphere B by sphere A,

wB = Weight of sphere B,

R, N ( R) and wB pass through point O, the

centre sphere B.

3. N = Normal force on sphere by wall,

C

2.

B

A

R Force on sphere A

w

N'

N(R)

N = Normal force on sphere A by ground,

N = Normal force on sphere A by sphere B,

w A = Weight of sphere A.

N cos = R

Laws of Motion

w = Weight of sphere,

T = Tension in string.

4. Component

7. R cos 30 + 3 = f cos 60

R

of F1

60

30

3N

along y-axis : 4 sin 30 = 2 N

Component

i.e.,

or

and

of F3

i.e.,

or

Component

10 N

60

of F2

Component

of F4

along y-axis : 4 sin 0 = 0 N

5. Taking moment about point A

T

O

A

T sin 30

30

AB = l

R 3

f

+3=

2

2

R 3 +6= f

R sin 30 + f sin 60 = 10

1

3

R +f

= 10

2

2

R + f 3 = 20

( T sin 30 ) l = w

(i)

(ii)

Eq. (ii)

R + ( R 3 + 6) 3 = 20

4 R + 6 3 = 20

20 6 3

R=

= 2.4 N

4

f = (2.4) 3 + 6

= 10.16 N

8. At

point B (instantaneous

acceleration only)

vertical

AB = l

l

2

T

T

T=w

75

45

OA

OB + BC

a

1

=

=

a+a 2

sin =

or

or

T cos 30 = w

3

T

=w

2

2

T=

w

3

mg

mg T sin 45 = ma

(i)

acceleration only)

(ii)

T cos 45 = ma

Combining Eqs. (i) and (ii)

mg ma = ma

g

a=

2

76 | Mechanics-1

Introductory Exercise 5.2

1. Acceleration of system

a=

( + 120) + ( 50)

1+ 4 +2

n

co

v(

sta

nt)

= 10 m/s2

Let normal force between 1 kg block and

4 kg block = F1

Net force on 1 kg block = 120 N

120 F1

a=

1

or

10 = 120 F1

i.e.,

F1 = 110 N

Net force on 2 kg block = 2 a

= 2 10

= 20 N

2. As, 4 g sin 30 > 2 g sin 30

will be zero.

mg

3. N ( R) =

4

T

mg

=30

Tension in spring = mg

= 1 10

= 10 N

5. Pseudo force ( = ma) on plumb-bob will be

as shown in figure

a

T

ma

90 mg

N

a

= 30

ma

A

mg

N (R) = N

N=

mg

4

acceleration a, the pseudo force on A will

be ma acting in the upward direction.

For the block to be at rest w.r.t. lift.

N + ma = mg

mg

or

+ ma = mg

4

3

a= g

4

4. Angle made by the string with the normal

to the ceiling = = 30

As the train is moving with constant

velocity no pseudo force will act on the

plumb-bob.

i.e.,

(i)

T cos = mg + ma sin

and

T sin = ma cos

Squaring and adding Eqs. (i) and (ii),

T2 = m2 g2 + m2 a2 sin2 + 2m2 ag sin

(iii)

+ m2 a2 cos2

2

2 2

(Q = 30)

T = m g + m2 a2 + m2 ag

g

g2

g

= m2 g2 + m2

+ m2 g (Q a = )

4

2

2

7 m2 g2

=

4

mg 7

or

T=

2

=5 7 N

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii),

ma cos

tan =

mg + ma sin

Laws of Motion

a cos

=

g + a sin

cos

=

2 + sin

cos 30

=

2 + sin 30

6.

2kg

1kg

F=8N

8

= 2 m/s 2

2+1+1

B

T1 T1

1kg

T2 T2

8 T2 = 1 2

T2 = 6 N

Net force on 1 kg block = T1

T1 = 2a = 2 2 = 4 N

3

= tan 1

5

i.e.,

a=

3

5

2kg

1. F = 2 g sin 30 = g

T1

T2

T1

T1

T2 F

T1

T1

T1

mg

T1

T2

T2

4g

T2

2g

1g

or

3g

T2

T2 = 2 g

(i)

T2 + F = T1

(ii)

T2 + g = T1

[ii (a)]

T1 = mg

(iii)

Eqs. (iii) and (i) in Eq. [ii(a)]

and

T1 = 4 g

T2 = 1 g

T1

=4

T2

3. 2 g T = 2a

2g + g = mg

i.e.,

77

m = 3 kg

a

1g

2g

8N

78 | Mechanics-1

T 1 g = 1a

Adding above two equations

1g = 3a

g

a=

3

u2 ( g / 3)2

g

=

=

2a

2g

18

2

1

1

g

g

= at2 = g =

3

2

2

18

system is set in motion

v = 0 + at

g

= 1

3

g

(upward)

=

3

1

again become taut after time s.

3

(i)

F + 1 g T = 1a

4.

upwards with retardation g. Time ( t )

taken by the 1 kg block to attain zero

velocity will be given by the equation.

g

0 = + ( g) t

3

1

t = s

3

T

T

1g

2g

moment (time being much-much less than

1

s), it will also start falling down when

3

the stopping time ends.

1

In t = s time upward displacement of

3

1 kg block

and

(ii)

T 2 g = 2a

F 1g = 3a

20 10 10

ms 2

a=

=

3

3

(i)

2T = 2 a

1.

a

2 kg

Acceleration of 1 kg block

2 g 20

2a =

=

ms 2

3

3

Tension in the string

g 10

N

T= =

3

3

2T 2T

T

T

2a

1g

and

1 g T = 2a

g

a=

3

(ii)

(i)

Mg T = Ma

2.

T

T

M

a

T

T

a

mg

Laws of Motion

(ii)

T = Ma

Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii)

g

a=

2

and

T = Mg

T

T

M

or

Eq. (i),

24

M=

5

= 4.8 kg

T

4.

= m1 2a

2

T/2

Mg

T/2

T

2a

T/2 T/2

T/2

T/2

i.e.,

T/2

T/2

79

g

T = 4 g +

5

24 g

=

5

(ii)

F T = m2 a

or

3g

or

2g

T = Mg

(i)

T = 4 m1a

(i)

T

(ii)

3g

= 3a

2

For the motion of block of mass 2 kg

T

(iii)

2 g = 2a

2

Adding Eqs. (ii) and (iii),

g = 5a

g

i.e.,

a=

5

Substituting above value of a in Eq. (iii),

T

= 2 ( g + a)

2

F 4 m1a = m2 a

F

a=

4 m1 + m2

=

0.40

( 4 0.3) + 0.2

0.40

1.4

2

= ms 2

7

=

T = 4 m1a

= 4 0.3

2.4

7

12

N

=

35

2

7

80 | Mechanics-1

Introductory Exercise 5.5

1 2

at

2

Displacement of block at time t relative to

car would be

m1a cos

2. (a) Using s = s0 + ut +

m1a

N sin

m1 g

m1g sin

cos

m1a sin

a = 5i ms2

a = 5i ms2

u = 10i ms1

v=0

(at t = 0)

T

N

Car

x0

1

( 5) t2

2

x = x0 + 10 t 2.5 t2

x = x0 + 10 t +

M

Mg

i.e.,

(i)

a = g tan

N = m1 g cos + m1a sin (ii)

For the movement of triangular block

(iii)

T N sin = m2 a

For the movement of the block of mass M

(iv)

Mg T = Ma

Adding Eqs. (iii) and (iv),

Mg N sin = ( m2 + M ) a

Substituting the value of N from Eq. (ii) in

the above equation

Mg ( m1 g cos + m1a sin ) sin

= ( m2 a + Ma)

i.e., M ( g a) = m1 g cos sin

+ ( m2 + m1 sin2 ) a

Substituting value of a from Eq. (i) in the

above equation,

M (1 tan ) = m1 cos sin

+ ( m2 + m1 sin2 ) tan

m cos sin + ( m2 + m1 sin2 ) tan

M = 1

(1 tan )

Substituting = 30 , m1 = 1 kg and

m2 = 4 kg

(cos 30 sin 30+4 + sin2 30 ) tan 30

M=

(1 tan 30 )

0.443 + ( 4.25) (0.577)

=

0.423

= 6.82 kg

or

will be

dx

v=

= 10 5t

dt

(b) Time ( t) for the block to arrive at the

original position (i.e., x = x0 ) relative to

car

x0 = x0 + 10 t 2.5 t2

t=4s

3. (a) In cars frame position of object at time

t would be given by

In cars frame

(at t = 0 s)

O x0

z0

a = 5 ms2

a = 5i ms2

v=0

u = 10k ms1

1

( 5) t2

2

i.e.,

(i)

x = x0 2.5 t2

and

(ii)

z = z + 10 t

Velocity of the object at time t would be

dx

(iii)

vx =

= 5t

dt

dz

and

(iv)

vz =

= 10

dt

(b) In ground frame the position of the

object at time t would be given by

x = x0 + 0 t +

Laws of Motion

= 8 m/s 2

Displacement of object at any time t

(relative to car)

1

x = x0 + 10t + ( 8) t2

2

or

x = x0 + 10t 4 t2

In ground frame

O x0

At t = 0

a = 5i ms2

v=0

z0

u = 10k ms1

(relative to car)

dx

vx =

= 10 8 t

dt

x = x0

z = z0 + 10 t

and

dx

vx =

=0

dt

dz

and

vz =

= 10 ms 1

dt

when

10 8 t = 0 i.e., t = 1.25 s

4. m = 2 kg

O

( f ) would be given by

u = 10i ms1

x0

a = 5i ms2

v=0

a = 3 ms2

ma

mg sin

= 37

Maximum sliding friction = s mg

= 0.3 2 10 = 6 N

6

Deceleration due to friction = = 3 m/s2

2

Deceleration due to pseudo force = 5 m/s2

f + ma cos = mg sin

f = mg sin ma cos

3

4

= m 10 m 3

5

5

18 m 9

=

=

mg

5

25

or

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

T1

and T2 =

2

T

At point Q, F2 = 1 and W =

2

At point P, F1 =

3. FBD is given in the answer.

4.

5.

T2

F1

81

NB

45

T1

30

T1

45

NA

F2

N A sin 30 = N B

and N A cos 30 = W

T1

2

T1

2

82 | Mechanics-1

3T

=W

2

T

H=

2

Net moment about O = zero

l

3T

.

W =

l

2

2

100 40

10. (a) a =

= 3 m/s2

6 + 4 + 10

6. T2

V +

45

T1

T2

= W and

2

T2

= T1

2

(c) N 40 = F10 = 30

N = 70 N.

F

60

11. a =

=

= 1 m/s2

m1 + m2 + m3 60

(a)

40 N

x

N

10 cm

N = 40

f = 20

f 10 = N x

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

T1 = m1a = 10 N

T2 T1 = m2 a

T2 10 = 20

T2 = 30 N

(b) T1 = 0 . New acceleration

60

a =

= 1.2 m /s2

50

T2 = m2 a = 24 N

12. (a)

8.

T1

30

0.1 kg

1.9 kg

2g

T1 2 g = 2a

30

(b)

T2

9.

T + f cos 30 = N sin 30

(i)

T R = fR

(ii)

(iii)

3T

2

H

T/2

W

(iii)

F6 = 18 N, F4 = 12 N and F10 = 30 N

and

(ii)

7.

W = 20 N

(i)

2.9 kg

a

0.2 kg

1.9 kg

T2 5 g = 5a

5g

Laws of Motion

200 16 g

13. (a) a =

16

(b) T1 11 g = 11a

(c) T2 9 g = 9 a

20.

83

a

T2 = T1

1

T1

upwards, then same force F transfers to

bananas also. If monkey releases her hold

on rope both monkey and bananas fall

freely under gravity.

T1

a

2

2T1

15. Tension on B = T

Tension on A = 3 T

1

Now in these situations a

T

T1

ar

T1

2

acceleration relation.

aA

2T

a

2

aA

= sin

aB

g

M

a A = aB sin

21.

aB

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

T1 = 1a

T1 20 = 2 ( ar a / 2)

30 T1 = 3( ar + a / 2)

17.

18. x + y = 6

30

2M

2 Mg

(i)

T Mg sin 30 = Ma

a

2Mg 2T = 2M

2

(i)

yx=4

Solving, we get

x = 1 m/s2

n

si

(ii)

(ii)

22. T = 1a

10 T = 1a

23.

ar

(i)

(ii)

2T

2T

50

40

1

x

2a

a

y

2

y

3

19.

7g 3g

= 4 m/s2

10

40 T1 = 4 a

30 + T1 T2 = 3 a

T3 10 = 1a

a=

50 2T = 5a

T 40 = 4(2a)

24. (a) N = 40 N, s N = 24 N

F < sN

f = 20 N and a = 0

(b) N = 20 N, s N = 12 N

and k N = 8 N

(i)

(ii)

84 | Mechanics-1

F > sN

f = kN = 8 N

20 8

a=

= 6 m/s 2

2

and

27. f = (06

. )(2)(10) = 12 N

a2

2 kg

1 kg

s N = 8 N and

Since, F cos 45 > s N

and

f = kN = 4 N

20 4

a=

6

8

= m/s2

3

25. a = g = 3 m/s2

(a) v = at

6 = 3 t or t = 2 s

1

(b) s = at2

2

1

s = 3 4 = 6 m.

2

26. f = 0.4 1 10 = 4 N

a1

1 kg

f

a2

2 kg

f

a1 =

f

= 4 m/s2

1

a2 =

f

= 2 m/s2

2

v1 = v2

or

2 + 4 t = 8 2t

t = 1s

(b) v1 = v2 = 2 + 4 1 = 6 m/s

1

(c) s1 = u1t + a1t2

2

1

s2 = u2 t a2 t2

2

+ve

a1

(c) N = 60 20 = 40 N

kN = 4 N

ve

f

f

12

= 6 m/s2

2

12

and a1 =

= 12 m/s2

1

(a) Relative motion will stop when

v1 = v2

or

u1 + a1t = u2 + a2 t

or

3 6t = 18 + 12t

7

t= s

6

(b) Common velocity at this instant is

v1 or v2 .

1

(c) s1 = u1t + a1t2 and

2

1

s2 = u2 t + a2 t2

2

a2 =

28. N = 20 N

s N = 16 N

and k N = 12 N

Since, W = 20 N > s N, friction k N will

act.

20 12

a=

= 4 m/s2

2

29. N = 20 N

N = 16 N

Block will start moving when

F = N

or

2t = 16

or

t = 8 s.

After 8 s

2t 16

a=

= t8

2

i.e., a-t graph is a straight line with

positive slope and negative intercept.

30. N = 60 N, s N = 36 N, k N = 24 N

Block will start moving when

F = sN

Laws of Motion

or

(b)

4 t = 36

t=9s

85

12 N

After 9 s

a=

4 t 24 2

= t4

6

3

52 N

F + 12 = 52

F = 40 N

31. N = mg cos = 30 N

mg sin 30 = 30 3 N 52 N.

s N = 18 N and

k N = 12 N

F

(a)

(c)

52 N

18 N

12 N

F 52 12 = 6 4

F = 88 N

52 N

F = 52 18 = 34 N.

Objective Questions (Level-1)

Single Correct Option

mg F

F

=g

m

m

m A > mB

a A > aB

or ball A reaches earlier.

4 g 2g g

2. a =

=

6

3

g

Now, 2 g T = 2

3

4g

T=

= 13 N

3

mg T = ma

1. a =

Tmax

m

2

mg

g

=g3

=

m

3

10 g 5 g g

5. a =

=

15

3

g

10 g T = 10

3

20 g

T=

= Reading of spring

3

balance.

2mg sin 30 mg

6. a =

=0

3m

T = mg

T1

3.

amin = g

30

T2

100 N

3 T1

= 100

2

T1

= T2

2

4.

T

a

mg

(i)

(ii)

a2 = g sin = g sin 45

2s

1

Now t =

or t

a

a

t1

a2

=

t2

a1

g sin 45

g sin 45 g cos 45

3

Solving, we get =

4

or

2=

86 | Mechanics-1

8. F1 = mg sin + mg cos

14. f = mg sin

F2 = mg sin mg cos

Given that F1 = 2F2

15. 2T cos 30 = F

60

plane should be equal and opposite of

weight.

T

30

11. Angle of repose = tan 1( ) = 30

F

3

T cos 60

a=

m

F

=

2 3m

T=

16.

h = R R cos = 1

R

2

Net retarding force = (0.2)(5g) = g = f

Ff

9

a=

=

g

25

25

9

T1 5 g = 5a = g

5

34

T1 =

g

5

27

15 g T2 = 15a =

g

5

48

g

T2 =

5

T1 17

=

T2 24

13.

N = mg F sin

N = (tan ) N = (tan )( mg F sin )

F cos = N

17. mg = 0.2 4 10 = 8 N

At t = 2 s, F = 4 N

Since F < mg

Force of friction f = F = 4 N

18. a1 = g sin

a2 = g sin g cos

t=

t1

=

t2

1

=

2

plane.

2s

Now, t =

ar

2L

=

( g + a) sin

25

1

or t

a

a

a2

a1

g sin g cos

g sin

= a + a = 2a

T mg = m (2a)

T = m( g + 2a)

20.

a=0

3 F = (50 + 25) g = 75 g

F = 25 g = 250 N

Laws of Motion

21.

N1

1 + 2

3m

N2

or

22.

tan =

1 + 2

mg

f = 30 N

30 N > mg

Normal reaction N = mg = 40 N

N2 = W = 250

fmax = N2 = 75 N

1

Mg

g

2

=

M

2

Mg

(always)

= 50 N

26.

2 kg

0.2

8 kg

25 N

F

f

1 + 2

Since

25. mg = 32 N

N2

1 + 2

1

= mg

2

N1

mg

Fmin =

N1 = N2

N2 = W

Net moment about B should be zero.

3

W = N1 4

2

23. a =

N2

4m

87

1 M

M

Mg

g=

a=

2 2

2

4

Mg

T=

2

F

24.

N = mg F sin

F cos = N = ( mg F sin )

mg

F=

cos + sin

dF

For F to be minimum,

=0

d

0.5

Blocks will not move and therefore force

of friction between two blocks = 0.

3

27. mg sin = 10 10 = 60 N

5

This 60 N > 30 N

Force of friction is upwards.

Net contact force is resultant of friction

and normal reaction.

28. In first figure T = F

and in second figure, T = 2F .

mg

29. F = 4

upwards

2

W = 2mg downwards

F =W

a=0

88 | Mechanics-1

30.

t=

m

m

2 m g

a

F = at

a2 = g sin 60 =

to friction

mg

amax =

= g

m

F

at

=

= g

2m 2m

3

g

2

ar = |a 1 a 2|=

( 3 g/2) cos 30

= g/2

JEE Corner

Assertion and Reason

take place.

2. No solution is required.

3. a1 = g sin + g cos

a2 = g sin g cos

a1 1 +

as = 45 and sin = cos

=

a2 1

1

we have,

3

a1 1 + 1 / 3 2

=

=

a2 1 1 / 3 1

Substituting =

T = m1( g a)

2m1m2 g

=

( m1 + m2 )

m2 g < T < m1 g

Similarly if m2 > m1, then we can prove

that,

m1 g < T < m2 g

to the block.

5. If we increase F1, maximum value of

friction will increase. But if we increase F2

friction acting on the block will increase.

6. No solution is required.

( m1 m2 ) g

7. a =

m1 + m2

m1 g T = m1a

(if m1 > m2 )

same then one frame as observed from

other frame will be inertial.

Further, a frame moving with constant

velocity is inertial.

9. No solution is required.

10. No solution is required.

11. Force of friction is in the direction of

motion.

Laws of Motion

89

Single Correct Option

3. N sin will accelerate B towards left.

A

T

T'

T'

T T

2T

N sin

90

ma (pseudo

force)

T' T'

mg

co

T

mg

= ( m A + mB ) g + m A g + 2m A g

= ( 4m A + mB ) g

But,

Tmax = M max g

M max g = ( 4 m A + mB ) g

i.e.,

M max = ( 4 m A + mB )

= 0.3 [( 4 100) + 70] = 81 kg

Option (c) is correct.

4. If a g

v = 8 t ^i 2 t2 ^j

m2

m1

a=

Due to acceleration of B towards left

pseudo force equal to ma will act on block,

toward right.

Thus,

N + ma sin = mg cos

N = mg cos ma sin

2.

dv

dt

m2a

m1a

= 8 i 4t j

y

m1

2i

4j

Fs = 1 ( 8 ^i + 4 ^j )

= 8 ^i + 4 ^j

Gravitational force on sphere

= mg ^j = 10 ^j

Net force on sphere

F = 8 ^i + 4 ^j 10 ^j = 8 ^i 6 ^j

|F |= 10 N

Option (b) is correct.

N=0

f2

f1

N=0

m2

When a is f1

f2

Zero

g

2

Zero

g

m1

2

Zero

Zero

Zero

g

m2

2

m1 g

Zero

m2 g

(Not yet

attained

limiting

value

which is

2 m1 g)

(Attained

limiting

value)

be just greater like to move towards left

than g as a then

(max)

m2 a > f2

While the block of mass m1 will remain at

rest as then f1 has margin to increase.

Thus, m1 will apply normal force ( N ) or m2

and so will do m1 on m2 to stop its motion

(towards left).

Option (d) is correct.

90 | Mechanics-1

Fig. 3

5. N + ma sin = mg cos

N

T

a3

ma sin

ma (pseudo

force)

in

gs

m1

mg sin mg

i.e.,

ma sin = mg cos

a = g cos

and

6. Speed of A w.r.t. C = v1

Speed of C w.r.t.

ground = v0

Speed of A w.r.t.

ground = v1 v0

Now, speed of B w.r.t.

ground = speed of A is

w.r.t. ground

v2 = v1 v0

v1 v2 = v0

Option (a) is correct.

7. Fig. 1

m1

T

T

T

a3

m2g

m2 g T = m2 a3

T m1 g sin = m1a3

m m1 sin

a3 = 2

g

m1 + m2

Substituting m1 = 4 kg, m2 = 3 kg

and

= 30

3

a1 =

g

4+3

3

= g

7

43

a2 =

g

4+3

1

= g

7

1

3 42

2g

a3 =

4+3

1

= g

7

a1 > a2 = 3

Option (b) is correct.

8. F fmax T = ma (For lower block)

m2g

and

T

T

T

mg

2

mg

1

F 2 fmax = 2ma

or

F 2 mg = 2ma

F

or

a=

g

2m

Option (c) is correct.

Fig. 2

and

m2 g T = m2 a1

m2

a1 =

g

m1 + m2

m1 g T = m2 a2

T m2 g = m1a2

m m2

a2 = 1

g

m1 + m2

a2

a1

9. a2 cos(90 ) = a1

Option (b) is correct.

a2

Laws of Motion

10. Had been 90.

v1

v1 90

m

v2

B

w

T = m ( g + a)

Mm

= m g +

g

M + m

M m

= mg 1 +

M + m

ma cos

position will be)

g sin a cos

as explained in figure.

10

20

F (force of friction)

mg sin 10 = 0.174 mg

mg sin 20 = 0.342 mg

30

40

mg cos 30 = 0.500 mg

mg cos 40 = 0.442 mg

60

90

mg cos 60 = 0.287 mg

Zero

a cos

O

a

90

T mg = ma

T

m

= 30

i.e.,

a > g tan

amin = g tan [cylinder will be at the

point of rising up the inclined plane]

13. Mg T = Ma

[ = angle of repose]

For example

1

1

Let =

tan =

3

3

inclined plane if

2T

2T

ma

(Pseudo

furce)

91

mg

= mg [1 + 1]

{as m << M , M m M and

Mg

M + m M}

= 2 mg

Tension in the string suspended from

ceiling = 2T = 4 mg

Option (a) is correct.

vertical fall in mass would have been 2x as

the string passes through pulley B.

i.e.,

v1 = 2 v2

For the situation given the speed of mass

would thus be

v1 = 2 v2 cos (90 )

i.e.,

v1 = 2 v2 sin

Option (c) is correct.

Mm

a=

g

M+m

g cos (90 )

= g sin

90

mg

15.

aB =

2m

g

=

2

Condition

Increase but not

linearly only

Decrease but not

linearly only

92 | Mechanics-1

mg

F F

Am

cos

ma

F

B

mg

2m

F

F

mg

For no slipping

a A = aB

F mg g

=

m

2

3

i.e.,

F = mg

2

2 F

=

3 mg

a

ma

21

3

1

10 3

_ 10

2

2

1

s

=

5

t=

w

w

18. N + sin 30 = w +

2

2

ma cos

mg sin

= m ( g sin + a cos )

g eff = g sin + a cos

along inclined would be

2L

T=

g eff

2L

( g sin + a cos )

17. Fnet on block along incline in the upward

direction

Substituting s = 1 m,

= 30,

a = 10 3 m/s 2 and g = 10 m/s 2

For no slipping.

Option (c) is correct.

sin

given by

1

s = g eff t2

2

2s

2s

i.e., t =

=

g eff

( a cos g sin )

greater than above mentioned value

2 F

min =

3 mg

= ma cos mg sin

= m ( a cos g sin )

g eff = a cos g sin

w/2

w sin 30

w/2

2

30

w cos 30

2

f

w

f = frictional force

5w

4

5w

fmax = N =

4

The block will remain stationary if

5w

w

cos 30

2

4

w 3

5w

or

2 2

4

or

3 5

3

or

5

3

Block will move if <

5

Option (d) is correct.

N=

Laws of Motion |

T

19. F1 = 2t

f1

F = 15N

y

f2 2 = 0.5

1 = 0.6

60

At t = 2 s

F1 = 4 N

4N

P

T

2m

T

T

15N

= 30

and

= 6N

= 10 N

At t = 2 s

would be

= 15 N 4 N

= 11 N

As Fnet > ( f1) max + ( f2 ) max , the system will

remain at rest and the values frictional

forces on the blocks will be given

T = 4 + f1 and T = 15 f2

4 + f1 = 15 f2

(i)

f1 + f2 = 11 N

|T1|= |T2|= T

mg

mg

T1 =

(cos 30 ) ^i +

(sin 30 ) ^j

3

3

mg 3 ^ mg ^

=

i+

j

6

6

mg ^

|T2|=

j

3

Force by clamp on pulley P

y

T2

T1

Option (a) f1 = 4 N, f2 = = 5 N

f1 + f2 = 1 N

wrong

60

x

Option (b) f1 = 2 N, f2 = + 5 N

f1 + f2 = 3 N

wrong

f1 + f2 = 10 N

wrong

Option (d) f1 = + 1 N, f2 = + 10 N

f1 + f2 = 11 N correct.

OR

As the likely movement would be towards

right f2 will be at its maximum.

f2 = 10 N

f1 = 1 N

T = ma

2 mg sin = 3 ma

2 g sin 30 g

a=

=

3

3

mg

T=

3

( f2 ) max = 0.5 2 10

T

T

93

T1

T2

mg 3 ^ mg ^ mg ^

i+

j+

j

6

6

3

mg 3 $ 3 mg $ mg

=

i+

j =

( 3 ^i + 3 ^j)

6

6

6

=

21. f1(max) = 0.3 4 10 = 12 N

4 kg

2 kg

f2

1 = 0.6

f1

2 = 0.3

f2 (max) = 0.6 2 10 = 12 N

As, f1(max) + f2 (max) < 16 N ( Fext )

16N

94 | Mechanics-1

T

2 kg

f2

4 kg

16N

x=

f1

For the equilibrium of 4 kg mass :

(i)

16 = T + f1

As f1 will be at its maximum value

f1 = 12 N

T = 16 12

= 4 N [from Eq. (i)]

Further, for the equilibrium of 2 kg mass.

T = f1

f1 = 4 N

Option (c) is correct.

22. For the rotational equilibrium of rod

A

ma

mg

(i)

N

ma sin

ma

a

mg sin

mg cos

ma cos = mg sin

i.e.,

a = g tan

Substituting the found value of a in Eq. (i)

N = m ( g tan ) sin + mg cos

sin2

= mg

+ cos = mg sec

cos

l

l

R cos = s sin

2

2

s (= ma)

R (= mg)

O

1

m

2

normal force will be

N = mg cos

N mg cos

=

N

mg sec

or

mg cos = ma sin

a = g cot

Option (d) is correct.

26. For the rotational equilibrium of the block

N

23. v = 2 t

dv d

=

(2 t2 ) = 4 t

dt dt

At t = 1 s, a = 4 ms 2

As

a = sg

a

4

s = =

= 0.4

g 10

a=

A

mg

be zero.

P

R2

8m

1m

10 g

x

1m

(10 g) ( 4) = (80 g) ( x)

mg cos

= 45

mg sin

R1

a

Nx = f

2

a

or

( mg cos ) x = ( mg sin )

2

a

or

x = tan

2

x

or

= tan

a/2

or

or

tan = tan

=

Laws of Motion |

Thus, the normal force ( N ) will pass

through point A.

9 ms2

tilting (about point A). The cube will tilt if is

made greater than 45].

N sin

= Moment of couple ( F , f )

mg

F (= 3 )

f=F

mg

aA

aA = | a A |

N1

l/4

l/6

mB a A cos

sin tan

mB a A

=

tan2

10 9

=

= 160 N

2

3

4

5

37

4

= m ( g a)

T

N = ma

f = N

= ma

a = 4 ms2

L = 1m

mg

ma

mg

( T / 2) = ma Box

ma mg

T+

=

Pendulum with

2

2

respect to

box

ma mg

2ma +

=

2

2

a= g/3

a

T

aB

N cos =

mg

l l

l

N1 = N2

2 4

2

l

l

N1 = N2

4

3

N1 : N2 = 4 : 3

Option (c) is correct.

aB = | a B |

N2

29.

(ii)

a A = aB tan

aA

N sin = mB

tan

mB a A

N=

sin tan

Force on rod by wedge

N (= mg)

= 37 B

mgx = Fa

mg

or mgx =

a

3

a

i.e., x =

3

(i)

N sin = mB aB

30.

95

g eff = g a

2L

t=

g eff

=

2L

g a

21

10 (0.5 4)

1

= 0.5 s

2

96 | Mechanics-1

32. The direction of the normal reactions

33. T Mg = Ma

sphere will be along the centres of the two.

The three centres of the hemisphere and

that of sphere will form a tetrehadron of

edge equal to 2R.

In figure, C1, C2 and C3 are the centres of

the hemispheres and C is the centre of the

sphere

C1C2 = C2C3 = C3C1

= C1C = C2C = C3C = 2R

N

C3

C2

COC2 = 90

2R

C2O =

3

C2O

cos =

C2C

2R / 3

=

2R

1

=

3

is the angle which any N makes with

vertical

= 90

3

1

sin = cos =

1

3

2

cos =

2

3

For the vertical equilibrium of the sphere.

3 N cos = mg

2

or

3N

= mg

3

mg

or

N=

2 3

Option (b) is correct.

( 500 + 80n )g

i.e.,

N

N

C1

T = M ( g + a)

2 104 M ( g + a)

or

or

14.58 n

or

n = 14

[Note : Tension in lift cable will increase

when the lift is accelerated upwards].

34. Normal reaction between the surface and

motion if the path of the particle is that of

a projectile motion (particle is free from

surface).

v sin

u sin u

v cos

a=g

+ u cos

v2 = u2 + 2as

(v sin )2 = (u sin )2 + 2 ( g) h

v sin = u2 sin2 2 gh

= (20)2 (sin2 60 )2 2 10 5

3

= 400 100

4

= 10 2

v cos = u cos = 20 cos 60 = 10

v sin 10 2

=

v cos

10

Laws of Motion |

tan = 2

= tan 1 2

Option (c) is correct.

35. Acceleration

of block B will be g

throughout its motion while that of block

A will increase from 0 to g and as such

t A < tB

Option (b) is correct.

vertical

38. String is winding on the motor shaft the

100 N

= 0.5f1

Velocity along PO = 20sin

3

= 20 = 12 m/s

5

Velocity of sphere (along

direction)

12

12

=

=

= 15 m/s

cos 4 / 5

97

= 0.25f2

also moving down, B will further.

f1

2 m/s

f2

As, f1 (max.) < Fext . (100 N), block A will

move.

f2 (max.) = 0.25 (10 + 20) 10 = 75 N

As, f1 (max.), [driving force for block B]

< f2 (max.), the block will not slop over

block C.

As, there is no friction between block C

and surface below it, both the blocks B and

block C will move together with

acceleration

f1 (max.)

a=

(mass of B + C)

50

=

(20 + 30)

= 1 ms 2

a A = 1 ms 2

2 m/s

Thus,

Velocity of block B

= Velocity of lift + Velocity of winding of

string on shaft + Velocity of moving down

of shaft

q= 2 m/s + 2 m/s + 2

m/s

= 6 m/s.

Option (d) is correct.

39. F = F cos

2

F = 2F cos

2

R

R

5 =4

37. cos =

R

5

F'

20 m/s

N

O

R/5

F''

F''

= 2F cos

= 2F cos (90 )

= 2F sin

F

= 2

sin

cos

5

4

98 | Mechanics-1

= 2F tan

= 2( ma ) tan

5 4

= 2 03. = 2 N

2 3

accelerate in the ive x-direction.

aA (new)

15 j

bi

15 i

Let acceleration of B = b ^i

2v

the + ive direction.

15

tan =

15 + b

3

15

or

=

4 15 + b

37

A

v

= 2 10

4

5

= 16 m/s

Option (d) is correct.

41. As

possible force without moving, the blocks

would at the point of slipping,

fA

T' T'

T T

fC

fB

= 45

B.

aA

B

2F

A

N sin

N sin

F N sin = N sin 2F

2 N sin = 3 F

3F

N=

2 sin

(as = 30)

= 3F

Option (d) is correct.

a A = |5 ^i + 15 ^j|

15 j

[Note : The value fB will be 300 N and the

values of T and f A will be zero]

Acceleration of B = 5 ^i

fB (max) = 0.3 (60 + 60) 10

= 360 N

As, T < fB (max) the value of T will be

zero.

42.

45 + 3 b = 60

3 b = 15

b= 5

fAT T

or

or

or

Y

(x, y) B

15 i

x

B

= 37

A

3

tan = tan 37=

4

Laws of Motion |

2

x + y = r (where r = OB)

dx

dy

2

+2

=0

dt

dt

dx

dy

=

dt

dt

(i)

l1

99

l2

2T

2T

M1

= ( u) = + u

=u

Speed of bead B

2

dx

dy

= +

dt

dt

2

M3g

M2 g

M1 gl1 = 2Tl2

2M1M 3

M1 gl1 = 2

g l2

M2 + M 3

= (u) + ( u)

or

=u 2

M2

M2

3 3l

M1l1 = 4

1

M2 + M2

3

M1

=3

M2

45. At maximum acceleration value of a, the

or

upwards.

ma cos

47. fmax = k N 2

ma

ma sin

N2

mg sin

fm

mg cos

ax

Trongh

= 45

f = frictional force

N = ma sin + mg cos

ma cos = fmax + mg sin

or

ma cos = N + mg sin

or

+ mg sin (Q = 45 )

or

a = ( a + g) + g

or

a (1 ) = (1 + ) g

1+

a=

g

1

i.e.,

Block

N = mg cos

NN

46. For the beam to have no tendency to

= k 2 mg cos

ma = mg sin 2 k mg cos

i.e., a = g (sin 2 k cos )

Option (c) is correct.

48. f1 (max) = 0.5 3 10

= 15 N

f2 (max) = 0.3 (3 + 2) 10

= 15 N

F

3kg

f1

f1

2kg

f2

f2

1 kg

B

f3

rotate

f3 (max) = 0.1 (3 + 2 + 1) 10

=6N

100 | Mechanics-1

Value of maximum frictional force is

between block 1 kg and the ground.

Increasing from zero when F attains 6 N,

the block of mass 1 kg will be at the point

of slipping over ground below it.

Option (c) is correct.

49. f2 (max) = ( m1 + m2 ) g

m1

1

f1

m2

f2

f1

F (= 30N)

50. F = s mg cos mg sin

4

3 1

= mg

2

3 3 2

mg

=

6

Option (b) is correct.

51. s = 2 k

F

2

s

mg

= 0.5 (1 + 2) 10

= 15 N

aS = Acceleration of both as one

a A = Acceleration of A

f1 (max) = 1m1 g = 0.2 1 10

= 2N

F f2 (max) 30 15

aS =

=

= 5 m/s2

m1 + m2

3

m g

a A = 1 1 = 1 g = 0.2 10 = 2 m/s2

m1

As,

F > f2 (max.)

both will move.

Further, as aS > a A both will

accelerate as one unit.

F 2 ( m1 + m2 ) g 1m1 g

aB =

m2

2s

2.1

2

=

= s

a AB

9/2 3

Required time t =

in

SN

= 30

Force required

downwards

a=

to

0

in

gs

m

2

just

slide

F

KN

= 30

not

Acceleration of A w.r.t. B

a AB = a A AB

f _ 2 ( m1 + m2 ) g 1m1 g

= 1 g

m2

1m2 g F + 2 ( m1 + m2 ) g + 1m1 g

=

m2

F ( 1 + 2 ) ( m1 + m2 ) g

=

m2

30 (0.2 + 0.5) (1 + 2) 10

=

2

9

2

= m/s

2

Negative sign indicates that the direction

of a AB will be opposite to that of a A .

F = s N mg sin

= s mg cos mg sin

F = mg sin k N

= mg sin kmg cos

Thus, s mg cos mg sin

= mg sin kmg cos

( s + k) mg cos = 2mg sin

+ s = 2 tan

s

2

3

2

4

s =

s =

2

3

3 3

Option (a) is correct.

F + mg sin k mg cos

52. a =

m

mg mg

2

3

+

mg

2

3 3

2

= 6

m

g

=

3

Option (d) is correct.

block

Laws of Motion |

53. Minimum force required to start the

motion upward

= mg sin + k mg cos

1

4

3

= mg +

2 3 3 2

7

= mg

6

02 = v2max 2a s2

v2

s2 = max

2a

v2max 1 1

s1 + s2 =

+

2 a a

v2 8 6

25 = max +

2 g g

= mg sin + k mg cos

1

2

3

= mg +

2

3

3

2

5

= mg

6

(5.22)2

55. S1 =

= 14.3 m

9.8

2

vmax =

50 9.8

= 5.92 ms 1

14

57. mg sin = 170 10

8

= 906.67 N

15

= 0.4

T

= 0.2

mg

1200 g 1000 g

56.

a =

1200

g

=

6

101

sin

si

mg

f2

f1

15

= 300 N

17

15

f2 (max) = 0.4 170 10

17

= 600 N

f1 (max) = 0.2 170 10

17

T' = 1000g

a'

Speed

= vmax

T = 1350g

15

25 m

1200 g

1200 g

1350 g 1200 g

1200

g

=

8

a=

Stops

v2max = 02 + 2as1

v2

s1 = max

2a

mg sin is greater than both f1 (max) and

f2 (max).

Total force of friction

= f1 (max) + f2 (max)

= 900 N

Option (a) is correct.

58. mg sin 300 T = ma

and mg sin + T = ma

(i)

(ii)

2T + 300 = 0

T = 150 N

= 150 N, compressive.

Option (a) is correct.

102 | Mechanics-1

More than One Correct Options

1. (a) Normal force between A and B = m2 g

F

2N

T

2N

i.e.,

T =3N

Option (d) is correct.

2. At point A

T T

= 1 10 = 10 N

Force of limiting friction by B on A (or by

A on B)

= 10 = 2 N

T1

T1

A

T2

F = 2N + T

= 2N + 2N

= 4N

Thus, if F 4 N

The block A will remain stationary and so

block B also. The system will be in

equilibrium.

Option (a) is correct.

(b) If F > 4 N

F T 2=1a

and

T 2 = 1a

Adding above equation

F 4 = 2a

i.e.,

F = 4 + 2a

(i)

T2

B F

mg

(i)

T1 cos = T2 cos + mg

and T1 sin = T2 sin

(ii)

At point B

T2 cos = mg

(iii)

T2 sin = F mg

(iv)

T1 cos = 2T2 cos

(ii)

=

mg

(v)

(vi)

2 tan = tan

Option (a) is correct.

For F > 4 N

2a + 4 > 4

or

a>0

T 2> 0

i.e.,

T > 2N

Option (b) is incorrect.

(c) Block A will move over B only when

F > 4 N and then the frictional force

between the blocks will be 2 N if a is just 0

[as explained in (b)].

Option (c) is correct.

(d) If F = 6 N using Eq. (ii)

2a = 6 4

a = 1 m/s 2

T 2=1

Dividing Eq. (iii) by Eq. (iv)

(vii)

2

1

tan = 1

1

cos =

= sin

2

in Eq. (vii)

1

1

T12 = 4 T22 + T22

2

2

5

= T22

2

Laws of Motion |

2T1 = 5T2

Option (c) is correct.

3. Displacement of block in 4 s

v (ms1)

t (s)

= 16 m.

K =Workdone by frictional force

1

1 42 = 1 10 16

2

= 0.1

Option (a) is correct.

Option (b) is incorrect.

Acceleration, a = tan

= tan ( )

= tan

= 1 m/s 2

If half rough retardation = 0.5 m/s2

1

16 = 4 t + ( 0.5) t2

2

2

i.e.,

t 16t + 64 = 0

or

t=8s

Option (d) is correct.

Option (c) is incorrect.

4. Let acceleration of wedge ( A) = a

ma sin N F = mg cos

ma (Pseudo

force)

N sin F

103

mg

N + ma sin = mg cos

N = mg cos ma sin

Acceleration of

N sin

a=

M

or Ma = ( mg cos ma sin ) sin

mg cos sin

i.e., a =

M + m sin2

0.6 g cos 45 sin 45

=

1.7 + (0.6 sin2 45 )

3g

=

17 + 3

3g

=

20

Let aB = Acceleration of block B

Net force on B (along inclined plane)

maB = ma cos + mg sin

aB = a cos + g sin

Thus, ( aB ) V = ( a cos + g sin ) cos

= a cos2 + g sin cos

1

= ( a + g)

2

3g

1

=

+ g

20

2

23 g

=

40

( aB ) H = ( a cos + g sin ) sin a

23 g 3 g

=

40

20

17 g

=

40

5. f1 (max.) = 1m A g

T(pull) = 125 N

f1

f1

B

f2

= 0.3 60 10

= 180 N

Fnet on B = f1 (max.) + T

= 180 + 125

= 305 N

A will remain stationary as

T < f1 (max.)

f1 = 125 N

Force of friction acting between A and

B = 125 N

Options (c) and (d) are incorrect.

104 | Mechanics-1

(a)

f2 (max) = 2 ( m A + mB ) g

7.5 N

17.5 N

F

= 200 N

T

17.5 N

As, f1 + T > f2 (max. block B /along the A

as A is stationary) will move towards right

with acceleration.

Option (a) is correct.

( f + T) f2 (max.)

aB = 1

mB + m A

=

250 200

40 + 60

9. N sin = ma = 1 5 = 5

N cos = mg = 1 10 = 10

A

T = 17.5 + 7.5 = 25 N

F = T + 37.5 + 17.5 = 80 N

(c) T 7.5 17.5 = 4 a

F T 37.5 17.5 = 8 a

F = 200 N

Solving these equations we get,

a = 10 m/s 2

m

a

N = mg cos ma sin

Option (c) is correct and option (d) is

incorrect.

As angle between the directions of a and

g sin will be less than 90, acceleration of

block A will be more than g sin .

A

incorrect.

(i)

(ii)

1

tan = and N = 5 5 N.

2

10. Let f1 = friction between 2 kg and 4 kg

f2 = friction between 4 kg and ground

( fs1) max = 0.4 2 10 = 8 N

( f k1) = 0.2 2 10 = 4 N

( fs2 ) max = 06

. 6 10 = 36 N

Fk2 = 0.4 6 10 = 24 N

(b) At t = 1 s, F = 2 N < ( fs2 ) max

Both the blocks are at rest.

f1 = 0

f1 = between A and B

= 0.25 3 10 = 7.5 N

f2 = between B and C

= 0.25 7 10 = 17.5 N

f3 = between C and ground

= 0.25 15 10 = 37.5 N

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

block is less than the maximum value of

friction available to man.

= 0.5 m/s 2

ma

37.5 N

Both the blocks are at rest.

f2 = F = 8 N,

11. a = 0, T1 = 10 N,

T2 = 20 + T1 = 30 N,

T3 = 20 N.

12. fmax = 0.3 2 10 = 6 N

(a) At t = 2 s, F = 2 N

f = 2N

(b) At t = 8 s, F = 8 N > 6 N

f =6N

Laws of Motion |

(c) At t = 10 s, F = 10 N and f = 6 N

10 6

a=

= 2 m/s2

2

(d) Block will start at 6 s. After that,

net impulse

1

= 4 (6 + 10) + 2 10 6 6

2

= 16 N-s = mv

16

v=

= 8 m/s.

2

13. fmax = 0.4 2 10 = 8 N

(b) At t = 3 s, F = 6 N

Common acceleration

6

a = = 1 m/s 2

6

Pseudo force on 2 kg

=21=2 N

105

(backward)

14. N = Mg F sin

F cos = N = ( Mg F sin )

Mg

F=

cos + sin

For F to be minimum,

dF

=0

d

1. Acceleration after t = 4 s

At t = 4 s, F = 8 N

Fmax = 8

i.e.,

s mg = 8

8

8

s =

=

= 0.4

mg 2 10

(a) (r)

At t = 4 s,

a = 1 ms 2

t = 4 s,

F =8N

F k N = ma

F ma F ma

i.e., k =

=

N

mg

8 (2 1)

=

= 0.3

2 10

(b) = (q)

At t = 01

. s, F = 0 . 2 N

Force of friction (at t = 01

. s) = 0.2 N

(c) (p)

At t = 8 s,

F = 16 N

F kmg

a=

m

16 (0.3 2 10)

=

=5

2

a

i.e.,

= 0.5

10

(d) (s).

2. At = 0, dragging force = 0

Force of force = 0

(a) (s)

At = 90

Normal force on block by plane will be

zero.

Force of friction = 0

(b) (s)

At = 30

Angle of repose = tan 1

= tan 1(1) = 45

As < angle of repose, the block will not

slip and thus,

force of friction = mg sin

= 2 10 sin 30 = 10 N

(c) (p)

At = 60

As > angle of repose

Block will accelerate and thus force of

friction = N

= 1 2 10 cos 60

= 10 N

(d) (p).

3. All contact forces (e.g., force of friction and

nature.

(a) (q), (r)

(b) (q), (r).

106 | Mechanics-1

Nuclear force is the force between

nucleons (neutrons and protons). Between

two protons field force also acts.

T

4. (a) N R 10 = 2 ( + 5)

T

T=F

C

A

5 m/s2

F = 10N

+ ive

(a) (p)

10 N

between C and ground will be zero.

(b) (s)

(c) Normal force ( N C ) on C from ground

N C = N B + mC g

= mB g + mC g

= ( mB + mc ) g

= (1 + 1) 10 = 20 N

NR

N R = 20 N

(a) (f)

(b) mg ( = 20 N) > F ( = 15 N)

(c) (q).

(d) As block A is stationary

T = F (as shown in figure)

= 10 N

f

NR

20 N

(a) (p).

6. If friction force ( f ) is less than the applied

F (= 15 N)

force ( F ).

direction.

Force of friction will be in the upward

direction.

Frictional force = 20 15

=5N

(b) (p)

(c) If F = 0, the block will slip downwards

due to mg ( = 20N)

Limiting friction = s N R

= 0.4 20

=8N

Minimum value of F for stopping the block

moving down = 20 8

= 12 N

(c) (s).

(d) F = mg + 8

= (2 10) + 8

= 28 N

(d) (s)

mg

F

fmax = 8 N

The body will be in motion and thus the

friction will be kinetic.

(a) (q)

(b) If friction force ( f ) is equal to the force

applied, the body will be at rest. If the

body is at the point of slipping the

force of force will be limiting too.

Emphasis is being given to the word

may be as when a body is moving and

the external force is made just equal to

the frictional force, the body would still

be moving with friction force at its

limiting (kinetic) value.

(b) (p), (r)

(c) If object is moving the friction would

be kinetic as explained in (a).

(c) (q).

may be static and limiting as

explained in (b).

(d) (p), (r)

Laws of Motion |

7. (a) Normal force between A and B = m A g

f1

f1( R)

B

3 kg

f2

C

block = f2 (max)

= 5 N, towards left.

(d) (q), (s).

8. (a) and (b)

F

2

5 kg

f2(R)

= 0.2 2 10

=4N

Normal force between B and C

= ( m A + mB ) g

f2 (max) = 2 ( m A + mB ) g

= 0.1 (2 + 3) 10

=5N

Total friction force on 3 kg block

= f1 (max) + f2 (max) = 4 + 5

= 9 N towards left

(a) (q), (s)

(b) Friction force on 5 kg block

= f2 ( R) = f2 (max)

= 5 N, towards right

(b) (p), (s)

(c) Friction force on 2 kg block due to 3 kg

block = f1( R)

= f1 (max)

= 4 N, towards right

(c) (p), (s)

107

2 kg

s

mg

in

30

T

=

3

2

30

T

T T

B

3kg

3

2

3

= 40.89

2

Now as, angle of incline (30 ) < angle

repose (= 40.89 )

The block A and so also B will remain

stationary.

(a) (r),

(b) (r)

(c) Tension ( T) in the string connecting

2 kg mass = mg sin 30

1

= 2 10

2

= 10 N

(c) ( s)

(d) Friction force on 2 kg mass = zero.

(d) (r).

Angle of repose = tan 1

1. Work done by F = F x

2. Work done by F = F l

|F|= F ,|N|= N, |W |= W

|F| = F, |N| = N

|W| = W, |T| = T

|l| = l

=Fl

=Fx

= |N||x| cos

=0

Work done by T = T x

= |T||x|cos 0

=Tx

= |W || l | cos +

2

Work done by W = W x

=0

2

Work done by |W |= W l

= |W ||

x| cos

= |N||

l | cos

=0

Work done by N = N l

= |F||

l | cos

= |F ||x| cos

= W l sin

= |T|| l |cos

= T l cos

Eq. (i).

(W F sin 45 ) = F cos 45

1

1

1

or

W F

=F

4

2

2

F

F

or

W

=4

2

2

5F

or

=W

2

2

2

or

F=

W =

mg

5

5

g

4

3. W T = m

g

a=4

W = mg

2

1

mgs

=

mg s

=

2

5

5

1.8 10 2

=

5

= 7.2 J

|g|= g and | l |= l

|T|= m g

mg

4

3

mg

4

= |N||s|cos

= Ns

= F cos 45 s

= 7.2 J

= |T|| l |cos

3

= m g l cos

4

3

= mgl

4

F sin 45

N

= |g||

s | cos

2

=0

(i)

N = F cos 45

4.

= |F||s |cos 45 = F s

5.

F = mg sin 45

2ms1

45

F cos 45

mg sin 45

mg cos 45

45

N = |N|, W = |W |

= 1 10

s = |s |, F = |F|, g = |g|

N + F sin 45 = W

109

(ii)

1

2

=5 2N

Displacement of lift in 1s = 2 m

1

2

110 | Mechanics-1

F(N)

= |F||s |cos 45

= F s cos 45 = 5 2 2

m

10

1

= 10 Nm

2

4

A2

A3

A4

2

A1

x (m)

m

10

x0

m

= A1 + A2 + A3 + A4

1

= k (2x0 )2

2

= 2 k x20

2 10 2 10

=

+

+ [10 2]

2

2

2 10

+

2

2 k x20

=

= k x20

2

= 30 Nm

1. a =

20 ms

2s

= 10 ms 2

fP

F = ma = 2 kg 10 ms = 20 N

s = Area under curve

1

= 25 20 ms 1

2

= 20 m

Work done = F s = ( 20 N) (20 m )

= 400 Nm

work done

= Work done by F + Work done by f p

(pseudo force)

= ( mas) + ( mas) = 0

As P is at rest , K = 0

K = W (Work -Energy theorem)

P

A

Q

m

a

Acceleration of P = a

Force on P = ma

Now,

v2 = u2 + 2as

(Qu = 0)

= 2as

1

1

2

Gain in KE = mv = m 2 as = mas

2

2

K = W (Work -Energy theorem)

work-done due to pseudo forces, while applying

Work-energy theorem.

3.

v= x

dv

1 dx

a=

=

dt

2 x dt

1

2

=

x=

2 x

2

2

F = ma = m

2

m2

W =

b

2

111

4. K = Work done by F

or

F = 80 N

1

x

mv20 = A

2

2

m

x = v0

A

must be greater that Mg.

4m

5g

= 80 4 cos 0 + 5 g 4 cos

= 320 + ( 200)

K f K i = 120 J

(as K i = 0)

K f = 120 J

or

or

R(1 cos)

ma = mg

mg

R sin

mg

R

mg

O

Hand

Mg

Ans. False

(b) As some negative work will be done by

Mg, the work done by T will be more

that 40 J.

Ans. False

1

mv2 = mgR (1 cos ) + mgR sin

2

v = 2 gR (1 cos + sin )

6. K = W

or

1

mv20 =

2

0 Ax dx

T, as T is there only because of pulling.

Ans. True

(d) Work done by gravity will be negative

Ans. False

Spring is having its natural length.

1. In Fig. 1

T

A

mAg

B m

Ground

T

T

B m

Ground

mg

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Spring get extended by x. Decrease in PE

of A is stored in spring as its PE.

1

mAg x = k x2

2

Now, for the block B to just leave contact

with ground

kx = mg

i.e.,

2m A g = mg

m

mA =

2

112 | Mechanics-1

1

1

mv2C = 500 00924

.

2

2

500

or

vc =

0.0924 = 2.15 m s 1

100

m

4. Work done by man =

gh + Mgh

2

m

= + M gh

2

l

2

1

l

mv2 = mg

2

2

v= gl

or

2. Decrease in PE = mg

i.e.,

3. OA = 50 cm

C 20 cm B 40 cm

A

30 cm

of man M is stored in spring as its PE.

= 50 cm 10 cm = 0.4 m

Extension in spring (collar is at B)

= 30 cm 10 cm

= 20 cm = 0.2 m

KE of collar at B

= PE of spring PE of spring

(collar at A)

37

T

KE of collar at C

= PE of spring PE of spring

(Collar at A)

(Collar at C)

1

= 500 [(0.4)2 (026

. )2 ]

2

mg sin 37

= [ (30)2 + (20)2 10] cm = 0.26 m

T

T

(collar at B)

1

K [(0.4)2 (0.2)2 ]

2

1

1

or

mv2B = 500 12

m

2

500 012

.

or

vB =

= 2.45 s 1

10

mg cos 37

37

mg

1 2

kx

2

or

kx = 2Mg

For the block of man m to just slide

k x = mg sin 37 + mg cos 37

3 3

4

or

2Mg = mg + mg

5 4

5

3

or

M= m

5

Mgx =

1. Velocity at time t = 2 s

1

v = g t = 10 2 = 20 ms

Power = Force velocity

= mgv = 1 10 20 = 200 W

2. Velocity at time = a t =

Ft

(acceleration being constant)

2m

F2 t

= F vav =

2m

vav =

Pav

F

t

m

Instantaneous power

= Force instantaneous velocity

Ft F 2 t

=F

=

m

m

Energy

3. Power =

Time

KE

KE = P t

P=

t

1

mv2 = Pt

2

2 Pt

or

v=

m

ds

2 P 1/ 2

or

=

t

dt

m

2P

1/ 2

or

ds = m t dt

2 P t 3/ 2

or

s=

+c

m 3/2

At t = 0, s = 0, c = 0

8 P 3/ 2

Thus,

s=

t

9m

4. P = 2 t

KE = P dt = 2t dt

= t2 + c

113

As at t = 0, KE = 0, c = 0

KE = t2

1

2

i.e., mv2 = t2 or v =

t

m

2

2.0 + 2 t

Pav =

=t

2

5. U = 20 + ( x 2)2

PE( = U) is minimum at x = 2.

Equilibrium position is at x = 2 m

dU

= 2 ( x 2)

dx

d2U

=2

dx2

Equilibrium is stable.

6. F = x 4

For equilibrium, F = 0

i.e.,

x 4=0

i.e.,

x=4m

dU

As, F =

dx

dU

= ( x 4)

dx

d2U

= 1

dx2

Thus, equilibrium is unstable.

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level I)

(a) Work done by a constant force

3. m1 g T = m1a

(i)

T m2 g = m2 a

(ii)

= 40 2 = 80 Nm

Work done by force of gravity = mgs cos

= 2 10 2 1 = 40 Nm

2. r21 = r2 r1

^

= (2 ^i + 3 ^j 4 k) (1 ^i + 4 ^j + 6 k)

^

= i j 10 k

^

= (6 ^i 2 ^j + k) ( ^i ^j 10 k)

= 6 + 2 10 = 2 Nm

m m2

a= 1

g

m1 + m2

41

=

g

4+1

Q m1 = 4 kg

and m2 = 1 kg

T

a

3

= g

T

5

1

s = ut + at2

2

T

a

T

m2g

m1g

114 | Mechanics-1

=

1 3 2

g 2

2 5

= 2 10 2 sin 60

= 20 3 Nm

= 34.6 Nm

Work done by force of friction

= f s cos

= Ns cos

= ( mg cos ) s

1

= (2 10 cos 60 ) 2

2

= 10 Nm

= 12 m

Work done by gravity on 4 kg block

= 4 g 12 cos 0

= 480 Nm

Solving Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii),

2 m1m2

T=

g

m1 + m2

4

=2 g

5

= 16 N

Work done by string on 1 kg block

= 16 12 cos 0

= 192 Nm

W =

F dx

x = 4

=

2x dx

x=2

6.

x= 4

x2

= 2

2 x = 2

N

F = 16 N

= [( 4)2 (2)2 ]

= 12 Nm

45

W =

F dx

x=2 4

=

dx

x = 4 x2

7.

s = 2.2 m

mg

x=2

x =4

4x 2 dx

x=2

x 2 + 1

= 4

2 + 1 x = 4

1

= 16 2 2

2

= 24.9 Nm

Work done by normal force

= N s cos 90 = 0

Work done by force of gravity

= mgs cos 90 = 0

Total work done on the block

= 24.9 + 0 + 0

= 24.9 Nm

x=2

1

= 4

x x = 4

1 1

= 4 = 1 Nm

2 4

(c) Work done by area under F- x graph

8. (a) W = 3 (5 10) = 15 Nm

Fx(N)

N

f=

3

N

x(m)

s

mg

= 60

10

12

(b) W = 3 (1 0 5) = + 15 Nm

14

16

3 (12 10)

(c) W =

= 3 Nm

2

(10 4) + (12 0)

(d) W =

3

2

= + 27 Nm

(3 2) + (3 0)

9. (a) W =

2

2

minimum PE = ( 4 4) 16

= 16J

Now,

(KE) max + (PE) min =

mechanical energy

or

(KE) max + ( 16) = 4

or

(KE) max = 12 J

(c) PE max = KE max = 12 J

Fx(N)

PEmax

2

x(m)

O

115

= 4 Nm

(b) W = 0 Nm

1

(c) W = (6 4) ( 1 0) = 1 Nm

2

(d) W = 4 Nm + 0 Nm + ( 1) Nm

= 3 Nm.

Conservative force field and Potential

Energy.

d

10.

F=

U

dr

d

=

Ar1

dr

A

= ( ) ( A ) r 1 1 = 2

r

11. U = ( x 4)2 16

PE (at x = 6.0 m)

= (6 4)2 16 = 12 J

KE (at x = 6.0 m) = 8 J

(a) Total mechanical energy

= ( 12) + (8) = 4 J

(b) KE will be maximum where, PE, is

minimum.

For U to be minimum,

dU

=0

dx

d

i.e.,

[( x 4)2 16] = 0

dx

or

2 ( x 4) = 0

or

x=4m

PEmax

Total

x=4

KEmax

U = ( x 4)2 16

or

12 = ( x 4)2 16

or

x2 8 x 12 = 0

x= 4+2 3

and

= 42 3

(d) U = ( x 4)2 16

dU

= 2 ( x 4)

dx

dU

Fx =

= 2 ( x 4)

dx

or

Fx = 8 2x

(e) Fx = 0

i.e.,

8 2x = 0

or

x=4m

Kinetic energy and Work-energy theorem

p2

12. K =

2m

2

p + p

K =

2m

(K is the KE when momentum p is

increased by 50%)

9 p2

or

K =

4 2m

9

or

K = K

4

9

5

or

K K = K K = K

4

4

K K 5

=

K

4

5

= 100% = 125 %

4

116 | Mechanics-1

13. p = (2 mK )1/ 2

p = [2m ( K + 1% of K ) ]1/ 2

( p is the momentum when KE i.e., K is

increased by 1%)

1

= [2 mK (1 + 1%) ]2

1

= (2 mK )1/ 2 1 +

100

1/ 2

1/ 2

1

p = p 1 +

100

1

1

= p 1 +

2 100

1

= p 1 + %

2

1

p = p + % of p

2

Increase in momentum = 0.5 %.

i.e.,

102

= 2.5 ms 2

2 20

Now, mg F = ma

F = m ( g a)

= 5 (10 2.5)

= 37.5 N

Work done by push of air

= F s cos

= (37.5 20)

= 750 Nm

F (Push of air)

a

mg

17. (a) W =

F dx

2

= (2.5 x2 ) dx

0

2

x3

= 2.5x

2 0

23

= (2.5 2)

3

= 2.33 Nm

(1 Nm = 1 J)

K = 2.33 J

i.e., KE (at x = 2) KE (at x = 0) = 2.33 J

KE (at x = 2) = 2.33 J

(b) Position of maximum KE

F = 2.5 x2

F decreases as x increases and F is zero

when x = 2.5 m

Thus, work will be +ive from x = 0 to

x = 2.5 m an so KE will be maximum at

x = 2.5 m.

KE (at x = 2.5 m)

ds

= 4t 2

dt

d2 s

= 4 ms 2

dt2

d2 s

F=m 2

dt

= 2 4= 8 N

s (at t = 0 s) = 10 m

s (at t = 2 s) = 2.22 2.2 + 10 = 14 m

s = 14 m 10 m = 4 m

Work = F s

=8N 4m

= 32 Nm

v2 (0.4)2 0.16

15. a =

=

=

= 0.04 m s 2

2s 2 2

4

T

mg T

=a

m

i.e.,

T = m( g a)

= 30 (10 0.04)

= 298.8 N

Work done by chain = T s cos

= (298.8 2) Nm

= 597.6 Nm

16. a =

2.5

(2.5 x2 ) dx

x3

= 2.5x

3 0

2.5

2.5 2.5

= 2.5 2.5

2

= 2.5 2.5

3

= 2.635 J

18. a =

F mg

m

g

F

=

g

10 m

11

F=

mg

10

or

or

T

F

F

mg

11mg

=

15

10

11

=

72 10 15

10

= 11642.4 Nm

(b) Work

done

on

astronaut

by

gravitational force

= mghcos

= 72 9.8 15 = 10584 Nm

(c) Net work done on astronaut

= (11642.4) + ( 10584) = 1058.4 Nm

KE = 1058.4 J

1

(d) mv2 = 1058.4

2

1058.4 2

v=

= 5.42 ms 1

72

19.

and

(i)

(ii)

T = m2 a

m1 g T = m1a

a

m2

m1 g = ( m1 + m2 ) a

m1

a=

g

m1 + m2

1

=

g (Q m1 = 1 kg and m2 = 4 kg)

1+ 4

g

= = 2 ms 2

5

Now,

v2 = u2 + 2as

i.e.,

(Qu = 0 ms 1)

v2 = 2as

or

v = 2as

= 221

= 2 ms 1

50

20. T 50 =

a

10

T

a

50 (N)

T'

A

300 (N)

or

and

i.e.,

T 50 = 5a

T = 2T

T

T=

2

(iii)

300 T = 30a

(iv)

a = 5 ms 2

1m

(ii)

T 100 = 10a

300

300 T =

a

10

m1g

(i)

T

50 = 5a

2

i.e.,

a

T'

Also,

T

T

or

T

117

118 | Mechanics-1

1

mv2s

2

1

( mg cos ) R ( cos ) + mgR = mv2s

2

1

2

2

or

mvs = mgR (1 cos )

2

1 10 1 = k 4 10 2 +

or

1

1 (0.3)2

2

10 = 80 k + 0.045

10 0.045

k =

= 0.124

80

or

s(

say

)

s/2

mg

30

2R

Stops

f'

0.50 m

24 mm.

Now, decrease in PE of 45 kg mass

= Increase in KE of 45 kg mass + Increase

in PE of spring

1

1

45 9.8 12 103 = 45 v2 + 1050

2

2

[(75 + 24)2 752 ] 106

i.e.,

5.292 = 22.5 v2 + 2.192

or

22.5 v2 = 3.0996

or

v2 = 0.13776

or

v = 0.371 ms 1

(b) With friction (when mechanical

energy does not remain conserved)

23. Decrease in PE of 1 kg mass

mass + Increase in KE of 1 kg mass

T

T

T

T

T

2T

2T

or

= 2 gR sin

or

vs = 2 gR sin

(vs is the speed with which sphere hits

ground)

1

1

mv2w = mgR mv2s

2

2

1

= mgR m 2 gR sin2

2

= mgR (1 sin2 ) = mgR cos2

vw = 2 gR cos

(vw is the speed of wedge when the sphere

hits ground)

over plane surface = mg

Now, decreases in PE of disc = Work done

against frictional force

s

mg = fs + f (0.5)

2

s

or mg = ( mg cos 30 ) s + mg (0.5)

2

or mgs (0.5 cos 30 ) = mg (0.5)

0.5

s=

0.5 cos 30

0.15 0.5

=

= 0.2027 m

3

0.5 0.15

2

Work performed by frictional forces over

the whole distance

s

50

0.2027

= mg =

10

2

1000

2

= 0.051 J

co

s

mAg cos

Ag

v2s

B

mBg

or 300

3

4

0.2 300 2 T = 30a

5

5

or

180 48 2T = 30a

or

(i)

132 2T = 30a

Also,

T mB g = mB a

or

T 50 = 5a

or

(ii)

2T 100 = 10a

Adding Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii),

32 = 40a

or

a = 0.8 ms 2

Speed (v) of block A after it moves 1 m

down the plane

v2 = 2as

2

or

v = 2 0.8 1

or

v = 1.12 ms 1

dU

28. (a) F =

dr

block

= mgs

= 0.25 3.5 9.8 7.8

= 66.88 J

Increase in thermal energy of block-floor

system

= 66.88 J

As the block stopped after traversing

7.8 m on rough floor the maximum kinetic

energy of the block would be 66.88 J (just

before entering the rough surface).

Maximum PE of spring

= Maximum KE of block

1 2

kxmax = 66.88

2

2 66 . 88

m

xmax =

640

Maximum compression in the spring

= 0.457 m

27. Decrease in PE of mass m2 = Work done

of mass m1 + Increase in KE of mass m2

10 kg

m1

m2 = 5 kg

119

1

1

m2 g 4 = m1 g 4 + m1v2 + m2v22

2

2

1

5 10 4 = 0.2 10 10 4 + (10 + 5) v2

2

Solving,

v = 4 ms 1

Point

dU

dr

+ ive

ive

+ ive

ive

ive

+ ive

ive

+ ive

zero

zero

(U being + ive)

x = 6 m point is of stable equilibrium

(U being lowest ive)

x3

29. U =

4x + 6

3

For U to be maximum (for unstable

equilibrium) and minimum (for stable

equilibrium)

dU

=0

dx

d x3

i.e.,

4 x + 6 = 0

dx 3

x2 4 = 0

x= 2

d2U

d 4

=

( x 4) = 2x

dx

dx2

At x = + 2 m,

d2U

= 2 ( + 2) = + 4

dx2

U is minium.

At x = 2 m,

d2U

= 2 ( 2) = 4

dx2

U is maximum.

x = + 2 m point of stable equilibrium.

x = 2 m point of unstable equilibrium.

or

or

120 | Mechanics-1

30. F =

dU

dx

is unstable if it is slightly displaced along

x-axis.

(b) If charge q is displaced slightly along

Y axis, the net force on it will be along

origin O and the particle will return to

its original position. And as such the

equilibrium of the q is stable.

i.e.,

U = F dx

= (Area under F - x graph)

The corresponding U Vs x graph will be as

shown in figure

F'

F'

+q

E

+q

Fnet

B

( a, 0, 0)

U

Velocity at t = 2 s is 8 ms 1 (using

v = 0 + at)

vav = 4 m s 1 (as acceleration is constant)

Pav = F vav

= ma vav

= 1 4 4 = 16 W

(b) Velocity at t = 4 s is 16 ms 1 (using

v = u + at)

Instantaneous power of the net force at

t = 4 s will be

P = mav

= 1 4 16

= 64 W

equilibrium and points A and E

correspond to unstable equilibrium.

charge placed at origin is in

equilibrium as is two equal and opposite

forces act on it.

31. q

y

q

+q

B

( a, 0, 0)

+q

F

A

(+ a, 0, 0)

towards +ive x side, the force on it due

to charge to B will decreases while that

due to A will increase.

q

O F2

Fmin = (r)

Fmax

r

Initially

+q

Finally

P = r vmax

F1 > F2

change q will never come back to original

O, its origin position.

vmax

vmax =

P

r

Single Correct Option

1

mv2

2

m is always +ive and v2 is +ive.

(even if v is ive).

KE is always + ive.

1. In KE =

Mechanical energy which is sum of KE

and PE may be ive.

Correct option is (a).

2. Yes, this is work-energy theorem.

3. On a body placed on a rough surface if an

does not move then the work done by

frictional force will be zero.

4. W = F r21

= F ( r2 r1)

^

= ( ^i + 2 ^j + 3 k) [( ^i ^j + 2 k) ( ^i + ^j + k)]

^

= ( ^i + 2 ^j + 3 k) ( 2 ^j + k)

= 4+3

= 1J

Correct option is (b).

5. W =

F dx

=

t =2

t = 0 4 t

dt

t4

= 4

4 0

0 7 2x + 3 x dx

= [7 x x2 + x 3 ] 50 = 135 J

Correct option is (d).

= 16 J

Correct option is (c).

10. Range = 4 height

6. P = F v

= (10 i + 10 j + 20 k) (5 i 3 j + 6 k)

or

u2 sin 2

u2 sin2

= 4

g

2g

= 50 30 + 120

or

sin 2 = 2 sin2

= 140 W

or

or

7. Work done in displacing the body

1 10

= (1 10) + (1 5) + (1 5) +

2

= 15 J

Correct option is (b).

1

mgh + mv2

W

2

8. P =

=

t

t

800 kg 10 ms 2 10 m +

1

800 kg (20 ms 1)2

2

=

1 min

=

121

80000 + 160000

=

60

= 4000 W

Option (c) is correct.

t3

9. x =

3

dx

v=

= t2

dt

dv

and

a=

= 2t

dt

F = ma = 2 2 t = 4 t

W = F v = 4 t t2 = 4 t 3

Work done by force in first two seconds

60

or

or

tan = 1

i.e.,

= 45

1

= m (u cos )2

2

1

= mu2 cos2

2

1

= mu2 cos2 45

2

1

1

= mu2

2

2

1

2

mu = 2 K

2

i.e., Initial KE = 2K

Correct option is (b).

122 | Mechanics-1

11. P = 3 t2 2t + 1

dW

= 3 t2 2t + 1

dt

dW = (3 t2 2 t + 1) dt

i.e.,

W =

2 (3 t

2t + 1) dt

4

t 3 2t2

= 3

+ t

2

3

2

= [ t 3 t2 + t ] 42

= ( 4 3 42 + 4) (23 22 + 2)

= 52 6

= 46

K = 46 J

Correct option is (b).

1

12. K i = 10 102 = 500 J

2

Work done by retarding force,

or

W =

30

20 0.1 x dx

30

x2

= 0.1

2 20

= 25 J

Final kinetic energy = K i + W

= 500 + ( 25)

= 475 J

Correct option is (a).

13. KE of 12 kg mass : KE of 6 kg mass

1

1

m12v2 : m6v2

2

2

[Acceleration being same (equal to g) both

will have same velocities]

= m12 : m6

= 12 : 6

= 2 :1

1

2

14. W = k [ x2 x12 ]

2

10 2 5 2

1

= 5 103

100

2

100

5 103

=

(100 25) = 18.75 Nm

2 104

=

dU

6

=

=4

dx

1.5

F =+4N

x = 3.5 m to 4.5 m

dU 2

= =2

dx 1

F = 2N

x = 4.5 m to 5.0 m

dU

=0

dx

F =0N

Work done = ( 4 1.5) + ( 2 1) + 0

=4J

1

2

mv = 4

2

1

or

1 v2 = 4

2

v = 2 2 ms 1

16. KE at highest point

1

m (u cos 45 )2

2

2

1

1

= mu2

2

2

1 1

= mu2

2 2

E

=

2

Correct option is (a).

=

gravitational pull on bucket]

h

= mg + ( Mgh)

m

= M + gh

2

Correct option is (a).

1

18.

mv2 = Fx

2

1

mv 2 = Fx

2

x v 2 (2 v)2

= 2 = 2 = 4 x = 4 x

x

v

v

Correct option is (b).

(i)

(ii)

19. Vertical velocity (initial) = v0 sin

At an altitude h

(vertical velocity)2 = (v0 sin )2 + 2 ( g) h

(horizontal velocity)2 = (v0 cos )2

(Net velocity)2 = v20 2 gh

Net velocity = v20 2 gh

t02

21.

v = 0 + at

F

= at =

t

m

Instantaneous power,

P = Fv

F

=F

t

m

F3

or

P=

t

m

or

P = constant t.

Correct option is (b).

t0

Fig. 1

F

=

2

m

2F 2F 2

Power (at t = 2 s) = F

=

m

m

Correct option is (d).

123

collision with the surface it strikes

a = + g

H

u = gt

0

Using,

i.e.,

v = u + at

v = ( gt0 ) + ( + g) ( t t0 )

v = g ( t 2t0 )

1

KE = mg2 ( t 2t0 )2

2

K = ( t 2t0 )2

K

t02

u=0

+

a=+g

t0

2t0

Fig. 2

v = gt0

Using

i.e.,

where,

v = u + at

v = 0 + gt

v = gt.

1

1

KE = mv2 = mg2 t2

2

2

K = t2

1

= mg2 = constant.

2

at

t = 2t0 , K = 0

as shown in Fig. 2.

Correct option is (b).

23. (block) = 3000 kgm 3 and (water)

= 1000 kgm 3

vg

vg

( )g

124 | Mechanics-1

1

=

3

i.e.,

3 y + x = 5

y

x

+

=1

5/3 5/

upward with constant velocity).

15 3

=

20 4

Work done will be zero, if

=

i.e., tan = tan

5/ 3

or

=

5/3 4

3 3

or

=

4

=4

Correct option is (d).

Work done = F s

tan =

= v ( ) gs

= v ( ) 10 3

5

= ( ) 10 3

(Qv = 5)

= 5 1 10 3

= 5 1

1

10 3 = 100 J

3

Net work done

24. pav =

Time of flight ( T)

mgH cos + mgH cos 0

=

T

H = Maximum height attained by the

projectile

(0)

= zero

=

T

1

25.

W ( a) = 2 k ( x)2

2

of block

1 2

k x = mgx sin

2

2mg sin

x=

k

Correct option is (a).

s = 2 t2 ^i 5 ^j

ds = 4 t ^i dt

2k'

k'

l/3

(a)

2l/3

(b)

Force Constant

28.

W = F ds

1

k ( x)2

2

W ( a) > W ( b)

W ( b) =

Given

Straight line along which

work is zero.

F = 20i + 15j

5/3

29.

0 12 t

dt

= [ 4 t 3 ] 20

= 32 J

Correct option is (b).

or

0 (3 t i + 5 j) 4 t i dt

t3

= 12

3 0

26.

W = mgh + mgd

= mg ( h + d)

Fav d = mg ( h + d)

h

Fav = mg 1 +

1

30. Energy stored in A = E = kA x2A

2

kA

125

kB

d

2kA = 2kB

F

F

F

A

F

1

kA

2

kA

B

2

i.e.,

F

2kA

or

Energy stored in B =

F2

2kB

F2

4 kA

=

(Q kB = 2 kA )

(i)

(ii)

Work done by string is + mgh while that

due to gravity it is mgh.

Net work done = ( + mgh) + ( mgh)

=0

Correct option is (c).

37. Work done on floor = 0 (as displacement is

n=8

Correct option is (d).

1

1

33. mgh = mv2 + kx2

2

2

k 2

2

i.e.,

v = 2 gh

h

m

or

v = 0.866 m s 1

Correct option is (b).

then the KE gained by the block will

change into the PE of the spring.

Due to inertia the spring will not start

compressing the moment the block just

touches the spring and as such the block

will still be in the process as increasing its

KE. Thus v of the block will be maximum

when it compresses the spring by some

amount.

Correct option is (b).

1 2 1

31.

kx = mv2

2

2

m

x=v

k

0.5

= 1.5

= 0.15 m

50

= 2 10 0.15

100 22

= 4 m.

2 10 10 sin 30

E

1 F2

=

=

2 2kA 2

1

32.

mv2 = F (2x)

2

1

m (2 v)2 = F ( nx)

2

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii),

(2 v)2 n

=

2

v2

= Increase in PE of spring

1

mgd sin = kx2

2

kx2

d=

2mg sin

zero).

38. Acceleration =

10

(0.15)2

0.1

(0 20) ms 1

(10 0) s

= 2 ms 2

Therefore, net force on particle

= 2 kg 2 m s 2

=4N

i.e., the net force on the particle is opposite

to the direction of motion.

Correct option is (a).

126 | Mechanics-1

Net work done = F s

= F (Area under v-t graph)

1

= 4 20 10 = 400 J

2

due to frictional force only.

Further net force 4 N may not be wholly

due to friction only.

39. Height of bounce = (100 20) % of 10 m

=8

1

mv2 = mgh

2

KE just after bounce = 80% of mgh

When the ball attains maxmum height

after bounce

Gain in PE = mgh = Loss of KE

or

mgh = 80% of mgh

or

h = 80% of h = 80 % of 10 m

=8m

KE just before bounce =

JEE Corner

Assertion and Reason

4. In circular motion only the work done by

1. P = Fv

must also be constant. Thus, assertion is

false.

According to 2nd low of motion, net

constant force will always produce a

constant acceleration. Reason is true.

Correct option is (d).

2. As displacement is opposite to force

negative.

Thus, Assertion is true. Further, as reason

is the correct explanation of the Assertion.

Correct option is (a).

3. Conservative force has nothing to do with

acts on a particles, there would be loss of

KE). Thus, assertion is false.

Work done by conservative force decreases

PE (reason is true).

A

false, centripetal force acts towards centre

while the velocity acts tangentially.

Reason is true.

Correct option is (d).

5. As the speed is increasing (slope of graph

in the +ive direction of displacement.

Thus, work done to all forces will be

positive, Assertion is true and also as

explained above reason besides being true

is the correct explanation for the

Assertion.

Correct option is (a).

S'

mg (a conservative force)

h

S'

S

D

mg

W = mgh

If PE at A is zero.

The PE at B would be mgh.

Correct option is (d).

W AB = F s = F s cos

Similarly, W AC = F s

= F s cos (90 + )

= F s sin

WCD = F s = F s cos

WDB = F s cos(90 )

= F s sin

W AC + WCD + WDB = F s cos = W AB

Work done by a constant force is path

independent. thus, Assertion is true.

The Reason is false. Kinetic frictional

force remains constant but is a

non-conservative force.

Correct option is (c).

127

(normal force on wedge) and its

displacement will be less than 90 as given

in reason.

N

A

N

B

explained in the answer to question no. 2

of introductory exercise 6.2.

Earth is non-inertial which is also true is

a separate issue and has nothing to do

with the assertion.

Thus, option (b) would be the answer.

8. When block is depressed the excess of

and will bring the block up. The velocity

gained by block will take the block above

its equilibrium and the block will oscillate

about its equilibrium position (as given in

reason). Thus, the block will be in

equilibrium in the vertical direction.

Thus, assertion is also true and the reason

being correct explanation of the assertion.

Correct option is (a).

9. As displacement ( = s2 s1) is not equal to

be zero. Therefore, assertion is false.

Work done by all the forces is equal to

change in KE is as per work-energy

theorem. Thus, reason is true.

Correct option is (d).

10. When the block comes down the wedge,

actually displacement of normal force will

not be along the wedge (see chapter on

CM). It will along AB as shown in figure.

Thus, the angle between N (normal force

on block) and its displacement AB will be

be negative and that by N (on wedge) will

be positive as given in assertion.

Reason also being the correct explanation

of the assertion.

11. There will be increase in length of the

elastic cord.

elastic

cord

Block

Plank

f2

f1

s

f1

f

f1 (on block) = f1s

Work done by static force

f1 (on plank) = + f1s

Work done by static force f1 on the

system (block + plank + cord) = 0

Thus, reason is true.

The work done by the force F will be used

up in doing work against friction f2 and

also increasing the elastic potential

energy of the cord. Thus, assertion is true.

Further, as the reason is the correct

explanation of the assertion.

128 | Mechanics-1

12. Decrease in KE =

1

mv2 0

2

v

Slope

f

Rough

Case-I

gh

s E=m

p

o

P

St

v'

30

f'

1

mv2

2

Change in mechanical energy

=

1

mv2

2

Decrease in ME is used up in doing work

against friction.

In this case the mechanical energy is

being used up in doing work against

friction and in increasing the PE of the

block.

1

Change ME = mv2 mgh

2

Thus, assertion is true.

As explained above the reason is false.

( does not change with the increase in

angle of inclination)

Correct option is (c).

PE + KE =

Single Correct Option

1. Increase in KE of bead = Work done by

1

mv2 = mgh + FR

2

(Displacement of force F is R)

1

= 10 5 + 5 5 = 50

2

100

u=

m

= 200 = 14.14 ms 1

Correct option is (a).

2. P = Fv

= mav

dv dv ds

dv

dv

= m v v a =

=

=v

dx

dt ds dt

ds

m 2

ds =

v dv

p

m 2v 2

i.e., ds =

v dv

p v

2v

or

m v 3

s=

p 3 v

=

m

7 mv 3

[(2v) 3 (v) 3 ] =

3p

3p

d

k

A

1

k 22

2

1 1

or 10 10 ( d + 2) = 100 22

2 2

d = 2m

Let, v A = velocity of block when it just

touches spring

mg ( d + 2) sin 30 =

d

2m

m

30

1

mv2A = mgd sin 30

2

1

v2A = 10 2 2

2

v A = 20 ms 1

Correct option is (a).

m

4. Mass per unit length of chain =

R/2

m

dm = R d

R/2

yCM =

129

a2 = 0

Correct option is (b).

6. Let x be the expansion in the spring.

kx

A

y dm

dm

kx

B

T T

T

M1g

CM

R 12

R (1 cos )

/2

R (1 cos )

m

R d

R/2

m

2R / 2

=

(1 cos ) d

0

2R

=

1

2

2

= R 1

Now,

or

1

mv2 + mg yCM

2

v2 = 2 g yCOM

2

v = 2 gR 1

5. The moment string is cut

T

T = mg

A

mg

F (= mg)

mg

F

F = kx = mg

F = mg

B

mg (weight)

a1 = 2 g

Net force on B = 0

mg

(downward)

of block C

1 2

kx = M1 gx

2

i.e.,

kx = 2M1 g

For block A to remain at rest

kx = min Mg

or

2M1 g = min Mg

2M1

min =

M

Correct option is (c).

7. Ti = mg

2mg

KX i =

= mg

2

When one spring is cut. It means KX i

becomes zero. Downward acceleration,

KX i mg g

a=

=

=

2m

2m 2

Now drawing FBD of lower mass :

mg

mg Tf = m. a =

2

mg

Tf =

2

mg

or

T = Tf Ti =

2

mg sin mg cos

8. a =

m

= g sin g cos

For v to be maximum

x

a

dv

=0

os

mg sin

dx

gc

m

dv

or

v

=0

dx

130 | Mechanics-1

4 mg

x

Correct option is (c).

dx dv

=0

dt dx

dv

or

=0

dt

or

a=0

i.e., g sin = g cos

or

sin = cos

3 3

4

or

=

x

5 10 5

10

x=

= 2.5 m

4

Correct option is (d).

or

x=

= T v cos

T

v

|T|= T

m

and |v|= T

13. = 3 x + 4 y

y

3N

dU

is ive.

dr

dU

, the force between E and F

dr

will be + ive i.e., repulsive.

(b) At point C the potential energy is

minimum. Thus, C is point of stable

equilibrium.

Correct option is (c).

P (6m, 8m)

4N

Fnet = 5N

Now, F =

10. Power = F v

mg

mg

= m g ( u + g t)

= mg u cos (90 + ) + m g g t

P = mg u sin + mg2 t

i.e.,

[|u|= u,|g|= g]

be as shown in option (c).

11.

x

2x

mg

= | Work done by frictional force when

displaced by 2x|

1 2

i.e.,

kx = mg 2x

2

6m

= 3N

x

and

Fy =

=4N

y

PR 5

=

PQ 4

5

PR = PQ = 10 m

4

Work done by the conservative force on

the particle

= Fnet PR = 5 N 10 m

= 50 Nm = 50 J

Correct option is (c).

Fx =

Now, if the body (when at x = x1) is moved

towards right (i.e., x > x1) the force acting

on it is + ive i.e., the body will not come

back and if the body (when at x = x2 ) is

moved toward rght (i.e., x > x2 ) the force

acting on it is ive i.e., the body will

return back. Then,x = x2 is the position of

stable equilibrium.

Correct option is (b).

i.e.,

6b x

= 12a x

131

12

x

mg sin

i.e.,

mg cos

or

or

2a 6

x =

b

19. For the rotational equilibrium of the rod

mg cos = mg sin

( 0 x) mg cos = mg sin

tan

x=

0

kx

l

l/2

mg

l

= kx l

2

mg

x=

2k

mg

i.e.,

k1x

k2x

1 2

kx

2

F = (k1 + k2)x

AC F = ( k2 x) l

( k x) l

AC = 2

F

( k2 x) l

=

( k1 + k2 ) x

k2

=

l

k1 + k2

17. mgh + work done by the force of friction

1

= mv2

2

Work done by the force of friction

1

= mv2 mgh

2

1

= 1 22 (1 10 1)

2

= 8J

Correct

option

is (c).

a

b

18. U = 12 6

x

x

U = ax 12 bx 6

dU

=0

dx

b ( 6) x 7 = 0

i.e.,

a ( 12) x 13

1 mg

( mg)2

k

=

2 2k

8k

m m2

20. a = 1

g

m1 + m2

Speed (v) with which mass m1 strikes the

floor

m m2

= 02 + 2 gh = 2 1

gh

m1 + m2

Correct option is (a).

21. F = ax + bx2

dU

= ax + bx2

dx

or

dU = ( ax bx2 ) dx

or

U = ( ax bx2 ) dx

ax2 bx 3

or

U=

+c

2

3

At x = 0, F = 0

U = 0

and so, c = 0

ax2 bx 3

Thus,

U=

2

3

ax2 bx 3

U = 0, when

=

2

3

3a

i.e., at x =

2b

132 | Mechanics-1

dU

= 0, when F = 0

dx

i.e.,

ax + bx2 = 0

a

i.e., at

x=

b

Graph between U and x will be

3a

2b

a

b

1 2

(i)

k xmax = mg ( h + xmax )

2

From above Eq. (i),

xmax depends upon h and also xmax

depends upon k.

KE of the block will be maximum when it

is just at the point of touching the plank

and at this moment there would no

compression in the spring.

Maximum KE of block = mgh

Correct option is (c).

chain

W A Fs 1

22.

=

=

WB Fs 1

CM (i)

1

mv2A

WA

2

=

=1

WB 1 4 mv2

B

2

v2A 4

=

v2B 1

vA 2

=

vB 1

WA 1

=

WB 1

KA 1

=

KB 1

2r

r/2

r

CM (f)

23. Ui at (1, 1) = k (1 + 1) = 2k

U f at (2, 3) = k (2 + 3) = 5k

W = U f Ui

= 5k 2k = 3 k

Correct option is (b).

24. Gain in PE of spring = Loss of PE of block

the tube.

1

2 r

or

mv2 = mg

+

2

2

2

v + 2 gr +

2

Correct option is (b).

xmax

PE = 0 level

for block

expands the velocity (v) of block will be

maximum, when

1

1

mv2 = kx2

2

2

At this moment, F = k x

F

i.e.,

x=

k

2

k F

F2

or

v2 =

=

m k

km

F

v=

mk

= 0.2 45 10

30. N = mg cos

N

= 53 20 m

A

kx

kx

10 ms1

1

= 20 N

10

Power of A = 20 4 = 80 W

Power of B = 20 6 = 120 W

Total power = 200 W

i.e., rate of energy transfer = 200 Js 1

Correct option is (c).

28. From O to x compression in the spring

A

m kx

kx

B

3m

+ ive

Average acceleration of A

kx F

aA =

2m

Average acceleration of B

kx

aB =

2 (3 m)

As at maximum compression of the spring

both the blocks would be having same

velocity.

2 a A x = 2 aB x [using v2 = u2 + 2as]

i.e.,

a A = aB

kx F

kx

=

2m

6m

kx

or

kx F =

3

2 kx

or

F=

3

3F

i.e.,

x=

2k

Correct option is (c).

s=|s|

6ms1

= 200

(50 30)

100

= 18 J

Correct option is (b).

4ms1

133

= 37

= 10 10 cos 37

4

= 10 10

5

= 80 N

Work done by N in 2 s

= N cos

= 80 20 cos 53

3

= 80 20

5

= 960 Nm

= 960 J

Correct

option

is

(b).

T + mg

31.

(given)

=5

m

Upper spring

cut

Initially

Lower spring

cut

T = T' + mg

+ ive

T'

mg

T'

mg

T + m 10 = 5 m

i.e., T = 5 m

mg T

a=

m

mg ( T + mg)

=

m

T

=

m

mg

134 | Mechanics-1

( 5 m)

m

= 5 ms 2

Correct option is (b).

33. Total ME = 40 J

PE (max) = 40 J

U (x)

50 J

32. Total ME = 25 J

25

U (x)

10

50 J

PE (max)

10

15

PE (max)

PE (max)

6

PE (max)

x (m)

25

10

x (m)

35

10

15

PE (max) line.

10 < x < 5 and 0 < x < 15

Correct option is (a).

above PE (max) line.

It is not possible. Option (d).

1. (i) Acceleration

U = 7 x + 24 y

U

Fx =

= 7

x

U

Fy =

= 24

y

7

ax =

5

24

ay =

5

7 ^ 24 ^

a= i

j m/s2

5

5

i.e.,

i.e.,

v = 3i + 4j

7i

(ii) Velocity at t = 4 s

24 ^

7

= ( 8.6 ^i + 23.2 ^j ) + ^i

j 4

5

5

= 8.6 ^i + 23.2 ^j 5.6 ^i 10.2 ^j

= 3 ^i + 4 ^j

|v|= 5 ms 1

24j

2. U = 100 5x + 100x2

v=u+at

Options (c) and (d) are incorrect.

|a |= 5 ms 2

i.e.,

cant be a circle.

Fx =

=

(100 5x + 100x2 )

x

x

= [ 5 + 200 x ]

= 5 200 x

Fx 5 200 x

ax =

=

0.1

0.1

= 50 2000 x

(i) At 0.05 m from origin

x = + 0.05 m

ax = 50 2000 (0.05)

= 50 100

(first point)

2

= 50 m/s

= 50 m/s 2 towards ive x

Correct option is (a).

(ii) At 0.05 m from origin

(second point)

x = 0.05 m

ax = 50 2000( 0.05)

= 50 + 100

= 150 m/s 2

Correct option is (c).

Mean Position

50

m = 0.025 m

a = 0 at x =

2000

(iii) For point 0.05 m from mean position

x = (0.05 + 0.025) m

= 0.075 m

ax ( at x = 0.075 m ) = 50 2000 (0.075)

= 50 150 = 100 m/s 2

= 100 m/s 2 towards ve x-axis.

Correct option is (b).

(iv) For second point 0.05 m from mean

position

x = 0.025 m 0.05 m

= 0.025 m

ax = 50 2000 ( 0.025)

= 100 ms 2

Option (d) is incorrect.

3. (i) If the spring is compressed by x, elastic

1 2

kx gets stored

2

in the spring. Now, if the compressed

spring is released the energy stored in the

spring will be lost. When the spring

attains to natural length.

Work done by spring = Energy stored in

the spring

1

= kx2

2

Correct option is (a).

(ii) If the spring is extended by x, energy

1

stored in the spring would be kx2 . If the

2

extended spring is released the energy

stored in the spring will be lost when the

spring attains its natural length.

potential energy equal to

135

the spring

1

= kx2

2

Correct option is (b).

(iii) If spring is initially its natural length

and finally compressed.

1

Work done on (not by) the spring = kx2

2

Option (c) is incorrect.

(iv) If spring is initially at its natural

length and finally extended.

1

Work done on (not by) the spring = kx2

2

Option is (d) is incorrect.

4. (i) Work-Energy theorem states that Wnet

non-conservative, external or internal)

= (KE)

Correct option is (d) is incorrect.

Correct option is (c).

(ii) Work done by non-conservative forces

(i.e., all forces except conservative

forces) lead to decrease in KE and thus

change in mechanical energy takes

place.

Correct option is (b).

(iii) Work done by a conservative force may

be + ve, ve or zero.

s

90

mg

h

mg

mg (a conservative force)

W = m gh

= mghcos

= mgh

(PE increases)

136 | Mechanics-1

W = m gh

= mghcos 0

= + mgh

(PE increases)

W = m g h = mghcos

=0

2

Option (a) is incorrect.

5. F is the force by hand or upper disc

( l)

k (l + )

k ( + l)

F

k ( + l)

N

6. At maximum extension x :

k(l + )

3mg

accelerates upwards and when it attains

the position as in figure 2, its acceleration

reduces to zero and the velocity gained by

it takes it further upwards. Restoring

force on the upper plate now acts

downwards and that on the lower plate

acts in the upward direction and would lift

it (lower plate) if

k ( l) > 3 mg

i.e.,

k > 3 mg + kl

or

k > 3 mg + mg

4mg

or

>

k

Correct option is (d).

Correct option is (a) obviously being

incorrect.

3mg

kl = mg

l

increase in spring energy

1

2

4 mg

or

k=

k

of

B=

mg

reaction pairs, is always zero and if it is

not so the total work done will not zero.

Correct options are (b) and (c).

Artist

to make

it 3/2 times

of l

kl

3mg

Uncomprssed/

Unstretched

spring

N = 3 mg + k ( l + )

2mg

= 3 mg + k l +

k

= 3 mg + kl + 2mg

= 3 mg + mg + 2mg

2mg

= 6mg for =

k

Correct option is (b).

N = kl + 3 mg

= mg + 3 mg = 4mg

Correct option is (c).

answer to question no. 4

Option (a) is incorrect.

Correct option is (b).

Correct option is (c).

(ii) In pure rolling work done by frictional

force (a non-conservative force) is always

zero.

Correct option is (d).

9. In moving from 1 to 2 work done by

conservative force

= U1 U2

= ( 20) ( 10)

= 10 J

Option (a) is incorrect.

Option (b) is correct.

Work done by all forces

= ( K 2 + U2 ) ( K 1 + U1)

= [20 + ( 10)] [10 + ( 20)]

= 20 J

Correct option is (c).

Option (d) is incorrect.

N

10.

137

W = Ns cos

In motion 2 + ve

as < 90

In motion 1 + ve

as < 90

Work done by force of friction (f )

In motion 1 may be ive if f is directed

upwards along the plane as shown in

figure 1. (Motion 1 being retarded)

N

2

mg

mg

downwards along the plane if motion 1 is

accelerated.

In motion 2 ive

[as = ]

In motion 1 zero[as = ]

2

Correct option is (a).

Match the Columns

1. As body is displaced from x = 4 m to

x =2m

2. W = Fs cos

(a) (p)

(b) Work done by mg will be ive as =

s = 2im

(a) F = 4 ^i

W = F s = 4 ^i 2 ^i

= 8 unit

(a) (q)

and |W |= 8 unit

(a) (s)

mg

(b) F = 4 ^i 4 ^j

(b) (q)

(c) Work done by force of friction (f )

will be zero as f will be zero.

(c) (r)

(d) Work done by tension (T) will be + ive

as < 90

(d) (p)

W = F s = ( 4 i 4 j) ( 2 i) = 8 unit

(b) (q, s)

(c) F = 4 ^i

W = F s = 8 i unit

and

(c) (p, s)

|W|= 8 unit

(d) F = 4 ^i 4 ^j

W = F s

and

|W |= 8 unit

3.

+q

A

( a, 0)

FB

FA = FB

+Q

Fnet = 0

+q

B

(+ a, 0)

F A = force on + Q by + q placed at A

FB = force on + Q by + q placed at B

138 | Mechanics-1

As FA = FB

equilibrium.

(a)

charge

+Q

will

be

FA'

FB'

+q

in

+q

B

+Q

A) and+ Q

FA < FA

Due to decrease in distance between + q

(at B ) and + Q

FB > FB

Using FA = FB , we have FB > FA . As there

will net force on + Q which will being + Q to

origin.

Thus, equilibrium will be a stable one.

Y

(b)

Fnet

FB

FA

+Q

+q

+q

direction of Y , the charge + Q will not

return to origin.

Thus, equilibrium will be an unstable one.

(b) (q)

be an unstable on.

(c) (q)

(d)

x = y line

Fnet

4. (a) From A to B :

FA

kx

Mean

position

mg

1 2

kx

2

Decrease in gravitational. PE of block

= mgx

= ( kx) x = kx2

(a) (q)

(b) From A to B

Increase in KE of block

= Decrease in gravitational PE of block

Increase in spring PE

1 2

2

= kx kx

2

1 2

= kx < Decrease in gravitational PE of

2

block.

(b) (p)

(c) From B to C

1

1

Increase in spring PE = k (2x)2 kx2

2

2

3 2

= kx

2

1

Decrease in KE of block = kx2

2

(KE of block at C will be zero)

(c) (p).

(d) From B to C

decrease in gravitational PE = mgx

Increase in spring PE =

= ( kx) x

A

+q

= kx2

+q

Increase in spring PE =

(d) (p)

3 2

kx

2

m m2

21

5. a = 1

g=

g

m1 + m2

2+1

T

a

T

a

T

m2

m1

1g

2g

1

g

3

10

=

m s 2

3

2 m1m2

T=

g

m1 + m2

12

=2

10

1+2

40

N

=

3

Displacement of blocks,

1

s = ut + at2

2

1 2

= at

2

1 10

=

(0.3)2

2 3

= 0.15 m

(a) Work done by gravity on 2 kg block

= mgs cos 0

= 2 10 0.15 (1)

=3J

(a) (r)

(b) Work done by gravity on 1 kg block

= mgs cos

= 1 10 0.15 ( 1)

= 1.5 J

(b) (p).

139

= Ts cos

40

=

0.15 ( 1)

3

= 20 J

(c) (s).

(d) Work done by string on 1 kg block

= Ts cos 0

40

=

0.15 1

3

=2J

(d) (q).

6. (a) Work done by friction force ( f )

(w.r.t. ground)

f

f' (= f )

= f s cos

=fs

(a) (q).

(b) Work done by friction force on incline

(w.r.t. ground)

= f 0 cos 0

=0

[There being no displacement of incline

w.r.t. ground]

(b) (r).

(c) Work done by a man in lifting a bucket

(T = Tension in rope)

= Ts cos 0

= a + ive quantity

= 0 as T and s both would be in upward

direction.

(c) (p).

(d) Total work done by friction force in (a)

w.r.t. ground

= f s+0= f s

(d) (q).

Circular Motion

Introductory Exercise 7.1

v2

of acceleration = does not change

r

= ( ac )2 + ( aT )2

= ( 4 cms 2 )2 + (2 cms 2 )2

the centre of the circular path) changes.

2. If 0 and are in rad s 1 the value of

2

degree s 1 the value of must also be in

degree s 2 . Thus, it is not necessary to

express all angles in radian. One way

change rad into degree using rad = 180.

3. During motion of an object along a curved

acceleration may remain constant. Due to

change in direction of motion the velocity

of the object will change even if its speed

is constant. Further, the acceleration will

also change even if the speed is constant.

4. (i) Radial acceleration ( ac )

v2 (2 cms 1)2

=

r

1 cm

= 4 cms 2

(ii) Tangential acceleration (aT )

dv d

=

=

(2t)

dt dt

= 2 cms 2

= 2 5 cms 2

2r

T=

v

|PQ|

|v av|=

tPQ

=

r 2

r 2

=

T / 4 r / 2 v

2 2

v

v2

v1

r

O

|v av| 2 2

=

v

6. t = 0 + 4 t

Centripetal acceleration

= tangential acceleration

r 2t = r

2t =

( 4 t)2 = 4

1

t= s

2

Circular Motion |

141

1. In uniform circular motion of a body the

(a) At rest :

force (centripetal) acts on the body which

forces the perform circular motion.

9.8 250 (1.5 / 2)

gra

2. vmax =

=

h

1.5

Required CPF = w N =

= 35 ms

l

l

T sin T

T cos

mg

3. (a) T sin = mg

T cos = mr2

g

tan =

r 2

g

g

=

r tan

( l cos ) tan

or

2

=

T

l sin

g

T = 2

l sin

g

1

2

2

= 2

9.8

1

9.8

rve s 1

f = =

1

2

=

9.8

60 rev min 1

2

mg

(b) T =

= 2 mg

sin

= 2 5 9.8 = 69.3N

4.

N=w

2

w'

w

w

2

mv2 w

=

r

2

(i)

At dip :

Required CPF = N w

mv2

(ii)

= N w

r

Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii),

w

N w =

2

3w 3

N =

= 16 kN

2

2

= 24 kN

(b) At crest on increasing the speed (v), the

value of N will decrease and for

maximum value of v the of N will be just

zero.

mv2max

Thus,

= w0

r

wr

vmax =

m

(as w = mg)

= gr

= 10 250

= 50 ms 1

(c) At dip :

mv2

r

= w + mg

= 2w = 32 kN

N = w +

r

mg

142 | Mechanics-1

m v12

mg

r

[where v1 = maximum speed of vehicle]

v1 gr

Case II. If the driver tries to stop the

vehicle by applying breaks.

Maximum retardation = g

v22 = 0 2 + 2 ( g) r

v2 = 2 gr

= 2 v1

As v2 > v1, driver should apply breaks to

stop the vehicle rather than taking turn.

g

l sin

the vertical

+ = 90

i.e.,

= 90

sin = cos

g

=

l cos

g

cos =

l 2

replace by

1. |v1|= u

and |v2|=

v (say)

v = v2 + ( v1)

v1

v2

2R

C

v

L

g

v1

= v2 v1

v u = ( u 2 v 1 ) ( v 2 u 1 )

= u2 v2 + u1 v1 2 v2 v1

|v2 |2

0 2 = u2min + 2 ( g) (2R)

= 4 gR

Ball motion from C to A :

v2 = u2min + 2 ( g) h

= 4 gR 2 gh

v = 2 g (2R h)

u2min

+ |v1| = v + u

2

3. Decrease in KE of bob

= Increase in PE of bob

2

2

= u 2 gL + u

2

v0

KE of bob

= 1/2 mv02

PE of bob

= K (say)

Circular Motion |

143

v20

= 2 gh

v0 = 2 gl (1 cos )

= 2 9.8 5 (1 cos 60 )

= 7 ms 1

PE of bob = K + mgh

1

mv20 = mgh

2

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1. v = 4 t2

dv

= 8t

dt

i.e.,

aT = 8 3 = 24 ms 2

v = 4 32 = 36 ms 1 (at t = 3 s)

v2 (36)2

= 24 ms 2

ac =

=

4

54

1 |a c|

tan

=

|a T|

tan 1 1 = 45

2. v = 16 ms 1 and r = 50 m

v2 (16)2

=

= 5.12 ms 2

r

50

= a2c + a2T = (5.12)2 + 82

ac =

anet

(given aT = 8 ms )

= 9.5 ms 2

3. Speed (v) at the highest point ( P)

v = u cos

u cos

v2

= 21.65

R

i.e.,

v = 21.65 2.5 (Q R = 2.5 m)

= 7.36 ms 1

1

(b) aT = a sin 30 = 25 = 12.5 ms 2

2

= 2.0 cms 1

v2 (2.0)2

ac =

=

= 4 cms 2

R

1

(b) v = 2.0t

dv

= 2.0

dt

i.e.,

aT = 2.0 cms 2

(c) anet = a2C + a2T

= 4.47 cms 2

2h

6. R = uT = u

g

ac = g

r

P

Centre of curvature

Now,

i.e.,

v = u cos

ac = g

v2

=g

R

v2 u2 cos2

R=

=

g

g

3

2

= 21.65 ms 2

4. (a) ac = a cos 30 = 25

u

h = 2.9 m

h

Range (R) = 10 m

i.e.,

u=R

u2 =

g

2h

R2 g

2h

144 | Mechanics-1

Thus, centripetal acceleration of the stone

(at point P) while in circular motion

u2 R2 g 1

=

=

r

2h r

2

10 9.8

=

2 2.9 1.5

= 112.6 ms 2

18.5

7. v = 18 km / h =

ms 1 = 5 ms 1

18

v2

Angle of banking () = tan 1

rg

mv2

= mg

r

i.e.,

9.

2 T1 cos mg cos

mr

mg

sin

4 100

= 200

4

5

T2 = T1

v

(5)

1

=

= = 0.25

gr 10 10 4

v = r g tan

= 150 N

= 50 10 tan 30

= 17 ms 1

10.

or =

= 8.37 rad s 1

1

8.37

rev

2

=

1

min

60

= 39.94 rev min 1.

(b) From Eq. (ii),

(5)2

10 10

1

= tan 1

40

3

3

2 200 4 10

5

4

=

43

= tan 1

8.

mr 2min = N (i)

and mg = N

(ii)

Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii),

g

min =

r

=

N

L

N

N

mg

= 4.7 rads 1

11. (a) ( T1 + T2 ) cos = mr2

(i)

T1

T1 sin

4m

4m

mg

10

0.15 3

T1 cos

mr2 T1 cos

T1 sin mg

cos =

T2 cos

T2 sin

T2

mg

mL 2max = N = mg

g

max =

L

increased, the block will also have

translational

acceleration

( = L)

besides

centripetal

acceleration

(= L 2 ).

L

anet

2

At

the t) time

of

just

slipping

At t

and ( T1 T2 ) sin = mg

i.e.,

T2 cos = mr2 T1 cos

and

T2 sin = T1 sin mg

(ii)

Circular Motion |

The block will be at he point of slipping,

when

manet = mg

2 2

L24 + 2 L2 = 2 g2

2 g2

4 + 2 = 2

L

or

if

i.e., ( L ) + ( L) = g

or

2 g 2

4

= 2 2

L

or

i.e.,

Ff

= 4 ( 4)2

= 64 N

2r

T

a/ 3

2r

a3

T=

= 2

= 2

1

v

3 Gm

GM 2

a

Now, v =

T Ff = 1 1 2

64 Ff = ( 4)2

Ff = 48 N

(b)

T = 2 2 2max

T Ff max = 1 1 2max

i.e.,

32max = mg

mg

max =

3

0.8 1 10

=

3

O'P = r

N cos

O

N

O'

P

N sin

mg

and

N cos = mg

2

sin ( R sin ) 2

sin r

or

=

=

cos

g

cos

g

g

i.e.,

cos =

R 2

For > 0 : cos < 1

and

= 1.63 rad s 1

2 2 2max

2m

Gm 2 GM 2

v=

= a

r 3

or

= 60

15. (a) T = 2 2 2

60

=F 3

2

PQ = QR = RP = a = 2 PO cos 30

a=r 3

For the circular motion of P, Q or R

mv2

= F = F 3

r

mv2 G mm

or

=

3

r

( r 3 )2

1

g

R

position.

2g

g

1

For

: cos =

=

=

2

g

R

R 2

R

13. F = 2F cos

g

< 1 or >

R2

g

: = 0

i.e.,

145

(c) 100 =

max = 5 rad s 1

Therefore, if the string can sustain a

tension of 1100 N, the angular speed of

the block system will be 5 rad s 1.

In this case the frictional force ( Ff ) on the

block of mass 1 kg will be given by the

relation

100 Ff = 1 1 52

Ff = 75 N

gr l

16.

vmax =

h

10 200 0.75

(2 r = 1.5 m)

=

1.5

= 31.6 ms 1

146 | Mechanics-1

17. If the block just leaves the surface of

19. At point P

sphere at point C

mv2

(i)

= mg cos

r

[v = velocity of block at point C]

2

v = gr cos

v0

P

mg sin

mg

v0

Tmax = 2W

= 2 mg

mv2

l

m 2

=

[v0 + 2 gh]

l

m 2

or 2mg mg sin =

[v0 + 2 gl sin ]

l

52 + 2 g 2 sin

or

2 g g sin =

2

1

Solving, sin =

4

1

i.e,.

= sin 1

4

T mg sin =

vel = v

r

Further, v2 = v20 + 2 gh

(ii)

= v20 + 2 gr (1 cos )

Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii),

v20 + 2 gr (1 cos ) = gr cos

or (0.5 gr )2 + 2 gr (1 cos ) = gr cos

1

+ 2 (1 cos ) = cos

4

3

i.e.,

= cos 1

4

2

mv

18. T mg cos =

r

h = l sin

20. 8 = 5 + 5 cos

v

T=0

5 cos

8m

= 30

5

4

5m

mg cos

mg

2.5 mg mg cos =

ac =

Thus,

mv2

r

v2

= 25 5 3 ms 2

r

at = g sin = 5 ms 2

anet = ( ac )2 + ( at )2

= (25 5 3 )2 + (5)2

= 625 + 75 + 25 10 3

= 26.60 m/s2

3

5

mv2

T + mg cos =

r

cos =

t = cos 1

3

5

T is just zero.

mv2

r

2

i.e,.

v = 5 g cos

= 30

v = 5.42 ms 1

The height (H) to which the particle will

rise further.

mg cos =

Circular Motion |

2

v sin

30

16

=

2g

2 10 25

24

=

= 0.96 m

25

mv2

8 gR

21. (a) N =

=m

= 8 mg

R

R

v2 = 02 + 2. g.4 R

= 8 gR

F=

H=

147

N + ( mg)

= 64 m2 g2 + m2 g2

= 65 mg

mv 2

(b) N + mg =

R

m

mg + mg =

2 g ( h 2R)

R

or

2R = 2 ( h 2R)

i.e.,

h = 3 R

4R

h = 5R

N

mg

F

Single Correct Option

1. (a) As the speed (v) is increasing uniformly

v2

= will also keep on increasing besides

r

its direction as usual.

(b) v = kt

(k = constant)

dv

=k

dt

i.e.,

at = k

Although the magnitude of the tangential

acceleration will remain constant but its

direction will keep on changing as the

direction of velocity would be changing.

(c)

v = kt

R = kt

= k t

k

(k =

= constant)

R

d

= k

dt

= constant.

As the direction of (angular acceleration)

is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of

the body, it will remain constant both in

magnitude and direction.

Option (c) is correct.

2. |p1|= |p2 |= mv

p1

p2

p1

p

p2

p1

= 45

p2

p1

p2

p1

1

2

= 0.765 mv

= 1.414 mv

= 2 mv

= 1.414 mv

(max)

148 | Mechanics-1

= 0 (min)

Option (c) is correct.

3.

KE = 0

6. Normal acceleration

= Tangential acceleration

v2

= 5 (cms 2 )

R

(Q R = 20 cm)

v = 10 cms 1

Using,

v = 0 + 5t

10 = 5t

t =2s

Option (b) is correct.

7. Mass = 2 kg

KE max = mgl (1 cos )

Option (c) is correct.

[as here PE = 0]

2 kg

2 (0.25) m

T

4.

B

OB

OA

l=

v2 = u2 + 2( g) (2l)

= 4gl 4gl

=0

T

Light O

rigid

rod

1

r =

0.25

1

=

kgm 1

0.25

rev

= 300

min

2 rad

= 300

60 s

m =

u = 4gl

= 4 gl 4 gl

=0

If the mass m is given velocity u ( = 4 gl ) at

point A it will complete circle to reach point

B (the highest point) with zero velocity.

[If in place of light rod these is light string

the minimum value of u at A for the mass

to reach point B will be 5gl and the

minimum velocity at B will be g l.]

5. As explained in question 4 speed at lowest

point

u = 5 gl

At the lowest point

mu2

T mg =

l

m 5 gl

=

l

= 5 mg

T = 6 mg

Option (d) is correct.

(Q r = 0.25)

= 10 rad s 1

From figure

180

2

2T cos

= ( m) r

or

2T sin

= ( m) r2

2

or

2T

= ( m) r2

2

or

T = ( ) r2

or

T = r 2

= 0.25 (10)2

(Q 2 10)

250 N

Option (d) is correct.

8. Maximum speed of car = gr

= 0.3 10 300

= 30 m/s

Circular Motion |

18

km/h

= 30

5

= 108 km/h

Option (c) is correct.

149

= 0.36 103 kg

725

102 ms 2

3

= 32.4 N

Option (a) is correct.

12. At the lowermost point

T cos

T sin

u=0

h

v2 = 2gh

and

i.e.,

T cos = mg

g

cos =

l 2

2

l = revs 1

2

= (2 rad) s 1

= 4 rads 1

10

5

cos =

=

1 ( 4)2 8

5

= cos 1

8

mg

mv2

l

m 2 gh

T=

+ mg

l

2h

= mg 1 +

T mg =

or

2

13. A =

rad min 1

3

A

t = ml

100

8

=

1 42 = N

1000

5

Option (b) is correct.

1

11. = rads 1 and R = 25 cm

3

25

at = R =

cms 2

3

Thus,

t = 0 + t

1

[Q t = 2 s]

= 2

3

2

2

aN = R 2t = 25 cms 2

3

725

Thus, anet = a2N + a2t =

cms 2

3

B = 2 rad min 1

BA = B A

2

1

= 2

rad min

3

4

rad min 1

=

3

Time required for B to complete one

revolution w.r.t. A

2

3

=

= min

4 / 3 2

and

= 1.5 min

Option (c) is correct.

150 | Mechanics-1

14. Let all the particles meet at time t

(seconds)

B 2.5 ms1

A

1 ms1

Distance travelled by C in t second

= 2.5t : 2t

= 5:4

Option (c) is correct.

C

2 ms1

JEE Corner

Assertion and Reason

1. For stopping car :

Maximum retardation

Maximum frictional force

=

m

N mg

=

=

= g

m

m

v2 = u2 + 2as

02 = v2 + (2)( g) d [Q Initial velocity = v]

v2

d=

2 g

For circular turn of car :

Centripetal force

= Maximum frictional force = mg

mv2

= mg

d

v2

i.e., safe radius = d =

d = 2d

g

Thus, Assertion and Reason are both

correct and Reason is the correct

explanation of the Assertion.

Option (a) is correct.

2. a av =

vB v A

t AB

|BD| v 2

=

t AB

t AB

|AB| R 2

=

t AB

t AB

i.e.,

|a av |=

Now,

|v av|=

|a av|

|v av|

v 2

= (angular velocity)

R 2

In circular motion, when speed is

constant, the angular velocity will

obviously be constant; but this reason does

not lead to the result as explained.

Option (b) is correct.

3. A frame moving in a circle with constant

the frame is not moving with constant

velocity (due to change in direction).

Reason that the frame is having constant

acceleration is false.

Option (c) is correct.

will always be 90

vB

vA

BD

=

t AB

a = ac

vA

va = 0

Circular Motion |

(2)2

=2m

2

a T = ^i ms 2

ac

rate of 1 ms 1 per second i.e., 1 ms 2 .

Both Assertion and the Reason are correct

but reason has nothing to do with the

assertion.

Option (b) is correct.

v a will be positive.

v

ac

R=

aT

aT

6. a = a T + a c (Reason)

ac

ac

Assertion is correct.

Reason

as

both

are

v =0

perpendicular to each other.

Reason is also true but not the correct

explanation of the assertion.

Option (b) is correct.

v2

+ g2

r

|a |=

|a |> g (Assertion)

Reason are correct and the reason is the

correct explanation of assertion.

Option (a) is correct.

7. At

points A and C :

momentarily at rest.

5. v = 2 i ms 1

aT = g

v a will be negative.

151

The

bob

is

anet

x

2j

v = 2z

a = ^i + 2 ^j ms 2

ac

= |a c |=

a c = 2 j ms

2 ms

v2

R

i.e.,

v = |v|= 2 ms 1

ac =

A

B

v = 0 (Reason)

v2

=0

R

but net acceleration is not zero (see figure)

i.e., Assertion is false.

Option (d) is correct.

|a c |=

152 | Mechanics-1

8. v (speed) = 4 t 12

which cant describe a motion. Thus,

assertion is correct.

As speed can be changed linearly with

time, the reason is false.

Option (c) is correct.

9. In

changes regularly where as in projectile

motion it is constant. Thus, in circular

whereas in projectile motion we can say

reason that in circular motion gravity has

no role is wrong.

Option (c) is correct.

10. N = mg cos

N

O

N sin

mg cos

mg

Particle performs circular motion due to

N sin

mv2

= N sin

r

particle).

Acceleration is not along the surface of the

funnel. It is along the centre O of the

circle. Thus, reason is true.

Option (d) is correct.

mv2

11. Centripetal force

= N + mg

r

N

mg

water

for

N = 0, v = gr

If at the top of the circular path v gr

i.e., if bucket moved fast, the water will

not fall (Assertion).

As assertion and reason both are true and

reason is the correct explanation of the

assertion of the option would be (a).

Single Correct Option

1

2

1

2

Length of spring (Collar at A)

= (7 + 5)2 + 52 m 7m = 6 m

1

1

Thus,

2 v2 = 200 62

2

2

2

i.e.,

v = 3600

mv2

Normal reaction =

r

2 3600

=

= 1440 N

5

Option (a) is correct.

will displace the particle up (if increase)

and down (if decreases). Thus, the

equilibrium is unstable.

Option (b) is correct.

3. Centripetal force = mg

or

or

or

mr2 = mg

5a 2

= g

4

4g

2 =

15a

as =

Circular Motion |

4. Acceleration at B = Acceleration at A

v2

= g sin

r

2 gr (1 cos )

or

= g sin

r

or

2 (1 cos ) = sin

or

[2 (1 cos )]2 = 1 cos2

or

(5 cos 3) (cos 1) = 0

As cos = 1, i.e., = 0 is not possible.

3

cos =

5

1 3

i.e.,

= cos

5

Option (c) is correct.

mv2

R

If at point P skier leaves the hemisphere.

N =0

mv2

mg cos =

R

m

R

or

mg cos =

2g h +

R

4

m

R

or

mg cos =

2 g R (1 cos ) +

R

4

cos = 2 (1 cos ) +

4

1 5

i.e.,

= cos

6

Option (c) is correct.

mg cos N =

6. Velocity at B

v = 2 gh

= 2 gR (cos 2 cos 1)

= 2 gR (cos 37 cos 53 )

4 3

= 2 gR

3 5

=

2 gR

5

just leaves the track

v2

= g cos 2

R1

v

2R

=

g cos 2 5 cos 2

2R

=

5 cos 37

2R

=

4

5

5

R

=

2

Option (c) is correct.

mv2

7.

mg cos =

a

a

42 + 2 g

4

or

g cos =

a

a

a

g

u2 + 2 g

4

4

or g

=

a

a

3

a

or

g a = u2 + 2 g

4

4

ag

u=

2

Option (c) is correct.

v2

4

8.

= 2

r

r

2

v=

r

or

R1 =

Momentum = mv

2m

=

r

9.

N cos = mr2

and N sin = mg

N = m g2 + r24

2

= m g2 + r2

T

= 10 10 + (0.5)

1.5

a

= 128 N

Option (b) is correct.

1

10.

= 0 t + t2

2

1

= 0 + t t

2

153

154 | Mechanics-1

v 1 1 v2 4 R

= +

t

R 2 R 4 R v

v

v 4R

=

R 2R v

2H

g

2

g

= 2

T

2H

2g

=

H

2

12. (minute hand) =

rad s 1

3600

2

rads 1

(second hand) =

60

For second hand to meet minute hand for

the first time.

2 + Angle moved by minute hand in t

second

= Angle moved by second hand in t second

2

2

or

2 +

t=

t

3600

60

t

t

1=

60 3600

t

59

1=

60 60

3600

s

t=

59

Option (d) is correct.

=

13.

(v A 2)2 + (vB 2)2 = 302

v2A + v2B = 225

60

30

B'

PR

= cos 30

PQ

vA 2

3

=

30

2

v A = 7.5 3 ms 1

Substituting value of v A in Eq. (i),

vB = 7.5 ms 1

mv2

14. mg cos N =

r

When breaks off N = 0

mv2

mg cos =

r

Further,

T=

vB

30 m

t=2s

vB

= AD

= 4

= 2 rev.

1

H = gT2

2

11.

(i)

sin

mg

or

g cos =

Acceleration

= g sin

mg

2 gr (1 cos )

r

3

or

cos = 2 (1 cos )

2

or

cos =

3

Acceleration of particle when it leaves

sphere

= g sin

g 5

=

3

Option (b) is correct.

Circular Motion |

15. For minimum velocity (v) :

tan = tan 45 = 1

=1

As

= tan

is the angle of repose.

N

(given)

N cos

N cos

N

N sin

point of slipping when its velocity is zero

For maximum velocity (v )

mv 2

N sin + N cos =

r

Also

N cos = mg + N sin

i.e.,

(ii)

N (cos sin ) = mg

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii),

sin + cos v 2

=

cos sin gr

aT = g

anet = a2c + a2T

= (3 g)2 + g2 = g 10

17.

and

N sin

N = mr2

N = mg

g

=

r2

10

= 0.2

=

0.2(5)2

At point B : Velocity is completely

horizontal and as such its vertical

component will again be zero.

T

u = 5 gR

Particle's velocity (v) when it is at B i.e.,

when its velocity is vertical would be given

by the relation

v

R

u = 5gR

ac =

v2

= 3g

R

mg

= 31.62 m/s

the value of

At B :

v2 = u2 + 2 ( g) R

= 5 gR 2 gR

= 3 gR

gra

18. vmax =

h

10 200 075

.

=

1.5

Now, as = 45 and = 1

v =

Option (d) is correct.

155

v

v1

In figure, TP = R cos

At point P :

v2 = 2 g ( R cos )

v = 2 gR cos1/ 2

For v to be maximum

d

v = 0

d

d

i.e.,

2 gR cos1/ 2 sin = 0

d

1

or cos1/ 2 cos + cos 1/ 2 ( sin ) sin = 0

2

sin2

or

cos cos

=0

2 cos

156 | Mechanics-1

2 cos2 sin2 = 0

3 cos2 = 1

or

or

= cos 1

or

B

1

3

T

mg

20. At any time

at = ac

dv v2

i.e.,

=

dt R

dt

2

v dv = R + k

v 2 + 1

t

i.e.,

=

+k

2 + 1 R

1 1

or

=

+k

v R

At t = 0, v = v0

(given)

1

0

=

+k

v0 R

1

i.e.,

k=

v0

1 t

1

Thus,

=

v R v0

1 tv R

or

= 0

v

Rv0

Rv0

or

u=

R tv0

v0

or

=

R tv0

d

v0

i.e.,

=

dt R tv0

v0

or

d =

dt

R tv0

2

T

v

0 d = 0 R 0tv0 dt

or

or

or

or

= log e R log e ( R Tv0 )

R Tv0

log e =

= 2

R

T

1 v0 = e2

r

R

T=

(1 e2 )

v0

R

u

mv2

l

(where v = velocity at point B)

Thus,

T =0

mv2

if

mg =

l

2

i.e.,

v = gl

If u = velocity at the lowest point A

T + mg =

v2 = u2 + 2 ( g) (2l)

or

gl = u2 4 gh

u2 = 5 gl

i.e.,

u = 5 gl

(If T = 0, T a = 0)

Option (b) is correct.

22. For any value of u at the lowest point both

circle and thus

T a will be positive.

Option (d) is correct.

23. Change in PE of the system

m

M

l

l/2

l

+ mgl

2

M

=

+ m gl

2

= Mg

Circular Motion |

2

1

M

mu2 =

+ m gl

2

i.e.,

M + 2m

u=

gl

m

25. Maximum and minimum velocities will be

points.

v

or

i.e.,

= (2 v) 4 gL

3v2 = 4 gL

4

gL

v = gL = 2

3

3

157

(Qu = 2 v)

gL

26. u = 2 v = 4

3

KE at the lowermost position =

(Min. velocity)

1

mu2

2

8 mgL

3

u

(Max. velocity)

v2 = u2 + 2 ( g) 2L

= u2 4 gl

moving downwards.

2 = v2 + 2 gL

4 gl

=

+ 2 gl

3

10 gl

or

=

3

Option (a) is correct.

1. At point C :

vmin

v'

A aT = 0

g

ac(min)

B

T

mg

B

aT = g sin

C

aT = g

ac(max)

g

2

vmax

or

D aT = 0

or

aT is maximum and ac is somewhere

between maximum value (at D) and

minimum value (at A).

Option (b) is correct.

At point D :

ac is maximum while be aT is minimum.

Option (d) is correct.

2. At point B :

T + mg =

mv 2

l

i.e.,

2mg + mg =

mv

l

v 2 = 3 gl

v = 3 gl

Now,

v2 = v 2 + 2 g (2l)

v2 = 3 gl + 4 gl

= 7 gl

i.e.,

v = 7 gl

Option (b) is correct.

158 | Mechanics-1

4. Particle

because of change in direction of motion

i.e., its velocity value. [Option (a)]

Particle cant have uniformly accelerated

motion as acceleration changes direction

even if speed is constant. [Option (b)]

Particle cant have not force equal to zero

as centripetal force would be required for

the circular motion. [Option (c)]

3. N sin = mg

N

r

N sin

N cos

mg

h

N cos = mr2

g

g

=

tan =

r tan

r2

2

g

=

T

r tan

r tan

T = 2

g

i.e.,

or

Thus, N will increase (as is constant)

[Option (b)]

And as such net force

= N 2 + m2 g2 + 2 N cos (90 + )

such T will increase.

Option (c) is correct.

h tan2

T = 2

g

Option (a) is correct.

As N increases, the value of N sin

(acting opposite to mg) will increase and

the block will upwards i.e., h will increase.

Option (a) is correct.

Match the Columns

1. At point B :

2

v = u 2 gl

= 12 gl 2 gl

i.e.,

v = 10 gl

= 10 10 1

= 10 ms 1

b

(a) (p).

A

Acceleration of bob :

v2 10 g

ac =

=

= 100 ms 2

l

1

aT = g = 10 ms 2

anet = a2c + a2T

= 1002 + 102 ms 2

(b) (s).

Tension in string :

mv2 1 100

T=

=

= 100 N

l

1

(c) (r).

Tangential acceleration of bob :

aT = g = 10 ms 2

(d) (p).

2. v = 2 t

dv

=2

dt

i.e., a = 2 ms 2

At t = 1 s : v = 2 ms 1

v2 22

ac =

=

= 2 ms 2

r

2

aT = 2 ms 2

anet = 22 + 22 = 2 2 ms 2

[As ac = aT ]

Circular Motion |

F=f

F

=1

f

(a) a v = |a ||v|cos 45

1

2

1

= 2 2 2

2

= a net v

= 4 unit.

Thus, (a) (r).

(b) |a |= |v|||sin 90

circle]

= anet

v

= anet

r

2

=2 2

r

= 2 2 unit

Thus, (b) (p)

(c)

v = |v|||sin 90

v

= v = v

r

2

(2)

=

2

= 2 unit

Thus, (c) (q)

i.e.,

(c) (r).

If v is increased F will increase which will

automatically increase the value of f .

(d) (p).

4. Speed of particle is constant

= 4 unit

Thus, (d) (r)

M

v2 h

3. N1 =

g

2

ra

On increase v, the value of N1 will

decrease.

Thus, (a) (q).

M

v2 h

N2 =

g +

2

ra

On increasing v, the value of N2 will

increase.

(b) (q).

As the centripetal force ( F ) would be

provided by the frictional force (f )

|a |=

|v|2

|r |

( 4)2 + ( a)2

( 6)2 + ( b)2 =

(3)2 + ( 4)2

36 + b2 =

16 + a2

5

(i)

(A) r v = |r ||v|cos 90 = 0

(3 ^i 4 ^j) ( 4 ^i a ^j) = 0

i.e.,

12 + 4 a = 0

a= 3

(a) (s).

(B) Substituting value of a ( = 3) in Eq. (i)

36 + b2 = 5

36 + b2 = 25

1

= v anet

2

159

b = 25 36

(b) (s).

(C) r = 3 ^i 4 ^j

r = |r |= 5

(c) (r).

^

= |v||a | k

Thus, r ( v a )

= r|

v||a |k

= (3 ^i 4 ^j) |v||a|k = 0

^

[as ^i k = 0, ^j k = 0]

(d) (s).

160 | Mechanics-1

5. (A) As speed is constant

Average speed = 1 ms

v2

v1

v mg

R 2

R 2

2 2

=

1 =

AB arc

R

2

speed

(b) (q)

(C) Modulus of average acceleration

v1

A

|v v1| |v| v 2

= 2

=

=

R

t AB

t AB

2

= 2 [ Q v = 1 ms 1 and R =

(a) (s)

(B) Modulus of average velocity =

AB

t AB

(c) (r)

2

]

of Linear Momentum, Impulse

and Collision

1. If

gravitational field, the CG of the body

coincides with the CM of the body.

n

rCM

mi ri

i =1

n

mi

i =1

n

while

mi g i ri

r CM =

i =1

n

mi g i

i =1

upward direction the CG of the body will

be higher level than the CM. And, if the

body is placed in a uniformly decreasing

gravitational field in the upward direction

the CG will be at a lower level the CM.

body. The CM of a solid uniform sphere is

at its centre. The CM of a solid ring is at

the centre of the ring which lies outside

the mass of the body thus, the statement

is false. (For further details see answer to

1 Assertion and Reason JEE corner).

3. Centre of mass always lies on the axis of

symmetry of the body, if it exists. The

statement is thus true.

4. Statement is true.

5. As more mass is towards base.

r

Distance < .

4

6. If

co-ordinates (R, 0) and ( R, 0), then their

centre of mass will lie at origin.

7.

3 kg (1/2, 3/2)

CG

CM

g

increasing

g

decreasing

CM

CG

magnitude

and

direction

of

the

gravitational field (by some other agency

eg, earth) in which the body is placed.

In zero gravitational field CG has no

meaning while CM still exists, as usual.

1 kg

(0, 0)

2 kg

(1, 0)

m1 X1 + m2 X2

m1 + m2

m1 y1 + m2 y2

=

m1 + m2

X CM =

YCM

2

r = X 2CM + YCM

162 | Mechanics-1

y

8.

YCM =

A1 y1 A2 y2

A1 A2

9. A1 = 4 a2 , x1 = a, y1 = a

3a

3a

A2 = a2 , x2 =

, y2 =

2

2

x

1. Method 1

t=0s

(10 x)

CM (i)

1 kg

2 kg

y

2m

t=1s

7y

CM (f)

1x = 2 (10 x)

20

x=

cm

3

60

2.

in

At t = 0s

2 kg

+v

e

mg

s

1 kg

A

t=0s

60

mg

s

in

30

30

1m

t=1s

1 y = 2 (7 y)

14

cm

y=

3

Displacement of CM

= Position of CM ( f ) Position of CM ( i)

= ( y + 2) ( x)

14

20

=

+ 2

3

3

=0

Method 2

M vCM = m1v1 + m2v2

= 1 ( 2 ms 1) + 2 ( 1 ms 1)

=0

As velocity of CM is zero, there will not be

any change in the position of the CM.

mg sin 60 T = ma

T mg sin 30 = ma

Adding above equations,

mg (sin 60 sin 30 ) = 2 ma

3 1

a= g

a1 and a2

a CM =

or

m a1 + m a2 1

= ( a1 + a2 )

2m

2

a

g( 3 1)

|a CM|=

=

2

4 2

(i)

(ii)

163

1. vCM

20 v + 60 ( + 3)

=

=0

20 + 60

vCM =

60 kg + ve

$

20 20 $i + 30 20 $i + 40 20 k

20 + 30 + 40

y

(10i + 20k) cms1

20 kg

30 g

v

3 m/s

20 kg

60 kg

direction].

Velocity of trolley (v) = 9 ms 1

Total energy produced by man

= KE of man + KE of trolley

1

1

= 60 32 + 20 ( 9)2 = 1.08 kJ

2

2

2. On streching and then releasing the

instant will be same (according to

Newtons 3rd law of motion). Now, as force

is same momentum p of each block will

also be same (t being same) [As according

to Newtons second law of motion rate of

change of momentum of a body is directly

proportional to the net force applied on

the body.]

p2

Now, as KE =

,

2m

KE of blocks at any instant will be

inversely proportional to their respective

masses.

3. As no external force acts on the system of

change. Thus,

y

20 cms1

30 g

20 cms1

j

x

20 cms1

20 g

20 g

vCM =

20 0 + 30 (10 ^i + 20 k) + 40 v

20 + 30 + 40

^

v = ( 2.5 ^i + 15 ^j + 5 k ) cms 1

i.e.,

before explosion = 10 2 ^i ms 1

^

v = 10 2 i

20

45

20 cos 45

= 102 ms1

R/2

during explosion, the velocity of CM will

not change

m m

0+

v

2

2 = 10 2 ^i

m

v = 20 2 ^i

R

Range of rest half part =

2

2

(as the velocity of the projectile has

doubled at the highest point)

u2

(as = 45)

= R=

g

=

z

Rest

(20)2

= 40 m

10

164 | Mechanics-1

Therefore, the rest half part will land at a

40

distance of 40 +

m i.e., 60 m from the

height attained

by second half part

point of projection.

1

( 2000)2 sin2

= 20 1 g 12 +

2

2g

2000 1

= 15 +

2 10 5

20 2 i

u

= 15 + 20

= 35 m

5. At point P

throwing stone

1

u = (40)2 + (20)2

P

20 ms1

t=0s

202 ms

1

= 2000 ms

t = 15

15 m

45

v=

5 2

ms 1

100

60 kg

velocity

1

= 20 2 cos 45 ms

= 20 ms 1

Vertical velocity

= 20 2 sin 45 g 1 (as t = 1s)

= 70 ms 1

40 kg

10 cm

1 kg

X

u = 2 v = 40 ^i + 20 ^j ms 1

after explosion at point P.

20

= tan 1

5

40

= tan

1 1

10 ms1

t = 15 just before explosion)

Now, as the projectile breaks up into two

equal parts and one part comes to rest, the

velocity of other half part after explosion

will be

45

1 kg

= 20 ^i + 10 ^j

10 ms1

T = 2 s

2 10 sin 45

= 2s

g

(+ boy)

=vT

5 2

1

m = 10 cm

=

2=

100

10

7. Thrust due to the upward component of

the velocity of the bullet will rotate the

movable end of the barrel and thus the

bullet leaving the barrel will travelling at

an angle greater than 45 when it comes

out of the barrel.

1

sin =

5

Maximum height attained by second half

part

Bullet

Bullet

= 45

' >

165

1. To just lift rocket off the launching pad

dm

v

= mg

dt

dm mg

=

dt

v

(20 + 180) 9.8

=

1.6 103

or

or

i.e.,

180 kg

=9s

20 kgs 1

200

20

= 3.6 kms 1

2. Mass at time t, m = m0 t

dm

=

dt

ma = thrust force mg

= 1.225 kgs 1

(i) Rate of consumption of fuel = 2 kgs 1

Time required for the consumption of fuel

180 kg

t=

= 90 s

2 kgs 1

Ultimate speed gained by rocket

m

v = u gt + v log e 0

m

t=

(i)

m0 = (20 + 180) kg and m = 20 kg in Eq. (i).

200

v = 9.8 90 + 1.6 103 ln

20

1

= 2.8 kms

(iii) Rate of consumption of fuel = 20 kgs 1

dm

ma = v

mg

dt

or

or

ma = v mg

d2 x

or ( m0 t) 2 = u ( m0 t) g (Qv = u)

dt

m

3. v = u gt + v ln 0

m

m0

= 0 gt + u ln

t

m0 1

3

3

(at t = 1 s)

= g 1 + u ln

2

3

= u ln g

2

1. u (at t = 0 s) = ( 10 3 i + 10 j ) ms 1

20 m/s

60

At t = 1 s

Horizontal velocity = 10 3 ^i ms 1

Vertical velocity = (10 g 1) ^j ms 1

= 0 ^j ms 1

Change in velocity, v = v u

= ( 10 3 ) ^i (10 3 ^i + 10 ^j)

= 10 ^j ms 1

i.e.,

interval

t = 0 s to t = 2 s

= m [(Velocity at t = 2 s)

(Velocity at t = 0 s)]

^

^

1

= 2 kg [( 4 i + 4 j) ms ( 4 ^j ) ms 1 ]

= 8 ^i Ns

(Q 1 kg ms 1 = 1 Ns)

would go down by 2 m.

v = 10 3 i ms

2. Impulse ( J ) imparted

v = 10 ms 1, downwards.

v2 = u2 + 2 g 2

or

v = 2 10 ms 1

p = m v

= 1(2 10 0) kg ms 1

= 2 10 kg ms 1

Impulse imparted = 2 10 Ns.

2m

166 | Mechanics-1

Introductory Exercise 8.6

1. At maximum extension of the spring both

+ ive

1.0 ms1

2.0 ms1

3 kg

of

Rest

m m

or

or

1 2 K

K = m

+ EPE max

4 m

K

EPE max =

2

v1'

m2

m1

m2

m1

m2 )

1

1

= m2 v22 m2 v 22

2

2

2

maximum when

m1 m2 = 0

m2

i.e.,

=1

m1

would be at its maximum value when both

the particles move with same velocity V

given by the relation

mv + m 0 = ( m + m) V

(Law of conservation of momentum)

v

V =

2

1 2K

=

2 m

Applying

law

of

conservation

mechanical energy

1

K + 0 = ( m + m) V 2 + EPE max

2

or

K = mV 2 + EPE max

v2'

m m2

1

1

m2 v22 m2 1

v2

2

2

m1 + m2

2

m m2

1

= m2 v22 1 1

2

m1 + m2

1

mv2 = K

2

2K

v=

m

v1 = 0

m m2

2 m2

v2 = 1

v2 +

v1

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

m m2

(as v1 = 0)

= 1

v2

m1 + m2

6 kg

( 1.0) 3 + ( + 2.0) 6 = (3 + 6) v

v = + 1 m/s

Applying

law

of

conservation

mechanical energy

1

1

1

1

3 ( 1)2 + 6 (2)2 = 9 12 + x2

2

2

2

k

1

Substituting k = 200 Nm

x = 0.3 m = 30 cm

of

K

=1

K

=

m1 m2

m1 + m2

( m1 + m2 )2 ( m1 m2 )2

( m1 + m2 )2

4 m1m2

=

( m1 + m2 )2

u

Rest

2m

K 4 (2m) ( m)

=

K

(2m + m)2

8

=

9

balls = 2.

m m1

2m1

7. v 2 = 2

v2 +

v1

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

u

Rest

v1

v2

m1

m2

m1

m2

v1 =

and

m1 m2

u

m1 + m2

v2

m2

v2 = v1 + u

m m2

= 1

u+u

m1 + m2

2 m1

=

u

( m1 + m2 )

B

4m

4m

4m

Rest

Before collision of A with B

velocity of A = + v

velocity of B = zero

Therefore, after collision of A with B

velocity of A = zero

velocity of B = + v

After collision of B with wall

2v

5

velocity of B = v

Before collision of B with A

velocity of A = zero

m 4m 3

v

m + 4m 5

9

=

v

25

9

3

6

=

v + v =

v

5

25

25

vB =

velocity of B = v

vA

velocity of A = v

velocity of B = zero

A

6v

25

4m

m1

Ans. No.

4m

4m

After

v2 = v1 and v 1 = v2

3v

5

m2

However, if m1 = m2

m 4m

vB =

v

1

m + 4m

3

= v

5

3

2

and

vC = v + v = v

1

5

5

Before second collision of B with A

B

m1

v1'

C

v

v2'

Elastic collision

Rest

Before

v1

m m2

2m2

v 1 = 1

v1 +

v2

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

A

167

B

4m

C

9v

25

4m

2v

5

no further collision will take place.

will move towards left with speed v

leaving B at rest to its right side.

Thus, we see that speeds of the balls

remains unchanged after all the possible

collisions have taken place.

168 | Mechanics-1

Introductory Exercise 8.7

1. Applying

law

of

conservation

of

momentum

v

Rest

v'

2v

3

vmin = 2 m / s

vmax = 2 2 m / s

3. A ( m) hitting B (2m)

B

2v

mv = mv + m

3

v

v =

3

velocity of separation

e=

velocity of approach

2v

2v v

v

3

3 =1

=

= 3

v0

v

3

i.e.,

1 + e

1 e

v and v 2 =

v

2

2

2. v 1 =

v

Rest

v2'

v1'

A

B

Before collision

A

B

After collision

(given)

1

1

2

2

mv2 + mv 1 = 0.2

2

2

or

(Q m = 0.1 kg)

v 22 + v 21 = 4

2

2

1 e 2 1 + e 2

or

v +

v =4

2

2

or

v2

(2 + 2e2 ) = 4

4

Extreme cases

If collision is perfectly in elastic i.e., e = 0

v2

(2) = 4

4

i.e.,

v = 2 2 m/s

If collision is perfectly elastic i.e., e = 1

v2

(2 + 2) = 4

4

i.e.,

v = 2 m/s

2m

m

v

A

A collision is elastic

2 ( m)

2

vB =

v= v

2m + m

3

m 2m

v

and

vA =

v=

2m + m

3

Velocity of B w.r.t. A = vB v A

2

v

= v = v

3

3

Next collision between the balls will

take place after time

2 r

t=

v

4. As collision is elastic

v2'

v'1

A

B

Before collision

p

m

Rest

After collision

1 e p

v 2 =

2 m

Now, Momentum of A before impact

Impulse given by B on A

= Momentum of A after impact.

p J = m v 2

1 e p

or

p J = m

2 m

2J

or

e=

1

p

169

V 0

v0

V

=

v

m

=

M

1. v0 sin = v cos ( + )

v0

v0

co

sin

v0 s

in (

+

s v0

v co

4.

s (

+ )

Rest

PRX = 30

QRX = 30

P

R

tan = cot( + )

or

cot = cot( + )

2

or

= +

2

or

= 2

2

2. Speed after n impacts

Speed before one impact = e u

Speed after 2 impacts = e ( eu) = e2u

........ ......... ........ ........ ........ .........

Speed after n impacts = enu

Height ( H ) upto which the ball rebounds

after nth rebound

( enu)2

H=

2g

2n

Rest

30

X Angle OA

30

C

B

Applying

law

momentum

conservation

of

balls along the axis of X.

or

A

B

Before collision

B

After collision

m

v

M

Velocity of separation

e=

Velocity of approach

of

Rest

V =

of the balls P, Q and R will be at vertices

of an equilateral triangle when ball C just

strikes balls A and B symmetrically and

as such the balls A and B will follow the

path as shown below

Rest

u

2g

3. mv + 0 = 0 + MV

m

Rest

Q

= e2 n h

or

or

mu = 2 mv cos 30

3

u = 2v

2

u=v 3

as ball B) with velocity ucos 30

170 | Mechanics-1

Velocity of approach of ball C towards ball A

= ucos 30 0

= ucos 30

=u 3

6.

Velocity of separation of ball A away from

ball C = v

u sin

v

e=

3

u

A

2

v

=

3

(v 3 )

2

2

=

3

after impact = 2 ^j

Velocity after impact = ^i + 2 ^j

At A, u|| = u cos

u = u sin

v

e u sin

H1

T1 B

u cos

u sin

R1

T2

H2

R2

At B

u|| = u cos

u = e u sin

2u sin

T1

1

g

=

=

T2 2 e u sin e

g

5. x-component of velocity

45

45

2u

Using T = g

2 ^j

45 v = 2i^ + 2j^

X

2 ^i

before impact = 2 ^i

after impact = e 2 ^i

1

= 2 ^i

2

= ^i

y-component of velocity

before impact = 2 ^j

2 (u sin ) (u cos )

2 u u||

R1

2

=

Using R =

R2 2 ( eu sin ) u cos

g

g

1

=

e

(u sin )2

H1

u2

2g

=

Using H =

2

H2 ( e u sin )

2g

2g

1

= 2

e

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1.

D 4kg

1m

C

3kg

P

(CM)

1m

yCM

1m

B 2kg

A 1kg

10 + 21 + 3 1 + 4 0

1+2+3 + 4

5

m

=

10

10 + 20 + 3 1 + 4 1

=

1+2+3 + 4

7

m

=

10

xCM =

1m

2

5

7

AP2 = x2CM + y2CM = +

10

10

2. xCM

4

V 0 + a 3 b

3

xCM =

4

3

V a

3

4

a 3b

3

=

4

4

R 3 a 3

3

3

a3

= 3

b

3

R a

4.

= 0.74 m 2

A x + A2 x2

= 1 1

A1 + A2

A1 = a2

A2 =

171

a2

4

a

2

By symmetry yCM = 0

a

5. In Fig. 1, C is CM.

a2

( a)

4

=

2

a

a2 +

4

=

a

4+

a2 0 +

Fig. 2

m1

m2

(a4 , b4 )

X

m2

C'

(i)

m1a = m2 ( l a)

In Fig. 2, C is CM.

m1( a + b l1) = m2 ( l a + l2 b) (ii)

Substituting Eq. (i) in Eq. (ii),

m1( b l1) = m2 ( l2 b)

or

m1b m1l1 = m2 l2 m2 b

or

( m1 + m2 ) b = m1l1 + m2 l2

or

b=

A a

A 0 +

4 4

xCM =

A

A +

4

A 4 a

=

4 3A 4

a

=

12

A b

A 0 +

4 4

yCM =

A

A +

4

b

=

12

b

a

Centre of mass

,

12

12

l2

b

m1

l1

Fig. 1

6. xCM =

m1l1 + m2 l2

m1 + m2

x dm

dm

dx

x dx A

=

dx A

x2

x 0 2 dx

l

=

l

x2

0 0 l2 ax

l

x 3dx

x2 dx

(Q = 0

x2

)

l2

172 | Mechanics-1

l

7. xCM

3 x4

= 3

4 0

x

3

= l

4

1 10 + 2 12

=

1+2

New position of CM

10 m 10 m

6ms1 1 kg 2 kg 4ms1

+ ive

34

m

3

1 ( 6) + 2 ( + 4)

2

=

= + ms 1

1+2

3

=

vCM

1 kg

2 ms

1 ms

70 ^i + 105 ^j

m

3

0.10 kg

m = 0.3 kg

(b) Momentum of system = Momentum of CM

= ( m + 0. 1) kg 6 ^j ms 1

= 2.4 ^j kg ms 1

v=u+at

(1)(0) + (2)(10$i + 10 $j)

=

10 $j

3

20

10 $

= $i

j m/s

3

3

1

( r1) = s 0 + u t + a t2

2

1

= (10 ^i + 20 ^j) + 0 + ( 10 ^j) 12

2

= 10 ^i + 15 ^j m

New position vector ( r2 ) of particle B

1

r2 = (20 ^i + 40 ^j) + (10 ^i + 10 ^j) 1 + ( 10 ^j) 12

2

^

^

= 30 i + 45 j

v (0.3) + 0 (0.10)

(c) v CM = m

0.3 + 0.1

4

v m = v CM

4

4

= 6 j^ ms 1

3

+ ive

m 0 + 0 1 12

m + 0. 1

(a) 3 =

9. Acceleration ( a ) = 10 j ms 2

10 ^i + 15 ^j + 60 ^i + 90 ^j

3

12 m

= 0 ms 2

Displacement of CM in 1 s = 0 m.

6 ^j ms1

m kg

3 m CM

O

2 kg

1

r1 (1) + r2 (2)

1+2

10.

34

2

=

m + 2 s ms 1

3

3

38

m = 12.67 m

=

3

1 2 ( + 2) + 2 ( 1)

8. vCM =

1+2

1

R=

= 8 ^j m s 1

m

11.

A t = 0s

2m

B ( t = 100 ms)

Position of 1st particle ( A) at t = 300 ms

1

s1 = 10 (300 103)2

2

= 0.45 m

Position of 2nd particle ( B) at t = 300 ms

(B is at the position of A at t = 100 ms)

1

s2 = 100 (200 103)2

2

= 0.20 m

2 m 0.2 + m 0.45

Position of CM =

2m + m

= 28.3 cm

Velocity of 1st particle ( A) at t = 300 ms

v1 = 10 300 103

= 3 ms 1

Velocity of 2nd particle at t = 300 ms

v2 = 10 200 103 ms 1

= 2 ms 1

2m 2 + m 3

vCM =

2m + m

7

= = 2.33 ms 1

3

m A 0 + mB 80

12. 24 =

m A + mB

or

24 ( m A + 0.6) = 80 0.6

or

m A = 1.4 kg

Total mass of system = 1.4 kg + 0.6 kg

= 2.0 kg

towards right.

Displacement of block A towards right

(along x-axis) when it arrives at the

bottom of the wedge

A

30

5 kg

B (50 kg)

R

= QR x

= 0.5 x

Now, as net force on the system (wedge +

block) along x-axis is zero, the position of

CM of the system, along x-axis, will not

change

vCM = 6.0 t2 ^j

aCM = 12 t ^j ms 2

= Total mass of system (aCOM at t = 3 s)

= 2.0 kg 36 ^j ms 2

5 (0.5 x) = 30x

0.5

m

x=

7

= 71.4 mm

i.e.,

= 72 N j

13.

L

O

173

dx

xCM =

x dm

dm

L

0 x ( Ax dx)

L

o

L

x2 dx

x dx

B

FA

i.e.,

Ax dx

L3 / 3

L2 / 2

2

= L

3

i.e.,

FB

B

m Av A + mBvB

=0

m A + mB

vA

m

2

= B =

vB

mA

1

p

m v

m m

(b) A = A A = A B = 1

pB

mBvB

mB m A

(c)

p2 / 2 m A

KA

p2

m

2

= 2A

= 2A B =

KB

pB / 2 mB

pB m A 1

174 | Mechanics-1

16. While man travels from P to Q

or

move downwards.

CM

P

vCM

m

v

( M + m)

V =

3 v

m

v + mv

3v

2

=

=

m+m

4

L

.

2

Time taken by man to reach point Q

starting from point P

L /2 2L

tPQ =

=

3v/ 4 3v

+ ive

3v

m

v + mv

2

vCM =

m+m

3v

=

4

1

Displacement of CM =

2

Time taken by man to reach point P

starting from point Q

L / 2 2 L

t QP =

=

3v / 4 3 v

Total time = tPQ + t QP

2L 2L

+

3v 3v

4L

=

3v

=

4L

v

3v

4L

=

3

(balloon along with rope + man). Force

applied by man to gain velocity to climb

up is an internal force and as such the

velocity of the CM of the system will

remain stationary.

mv + ( M + m) V = 0

then according to the above relation

the value of v will also be zero. Thus,

the balloon will also slop.

18.

m

vi

v2

v3

(i)

m = 4 103 kg

M = 1 kg

v3 = 100 m/s

v1 = 500 m/s

Find v2

2

(a) 0 = v2 2as = v22 2(g) s

v2

= 2

2 gs

Here

s = 0.30 m

(b) Decrease in kinetic energy of bullet

1

= m(v12 v23 )

2

1

(c) KE of block = mv22

2

19. m

v1

m1

v2

= 0.5

m2

v3

( m + m1)v2 = mv1

mv1

v2 =

m + m1

mv1

Common velocity v3 =

m + m1 + m2

(i)

(ii)

V2 =

or

2 m2 g l (1 cos )

M ( M + m)

2 m2 g l 2 sin2

2

2

V =

M ( M + m)

or

or

pendulum is vertical

PE = mgh

h

KE = 1 mv

2

v

V = 2 m sin

gl

M ( M + m)

the cylinder reaches the bottom of the

track.

x + x = R r

or

x = ( R r) x

(x = horizontal displacement of cylinder

w.r.t. ground)

As no force would be acting along

horizontal direction, for no shift in CM

along horizontal. We would have

mx Mx = 0

or

m [( R r) x ] Mx = 0

or

( M + m) x = m ( R r)

m ( R r)

x=

M+m

Now, as the PE of the cylinder would

change into the kinetic energies of the

KE = 1

2

(R r)

m

vertical

mv = MV

M

or

v=

V

m

KE of wagon + KE of bob = PE of bob

1

1

MV 2 + mv2 = mgh

2

2

2

1

1 M

or

MV 2 + m

V = mgh

2

2 m

1

M

or

MV 2 1 +

= mgh

2

m

1

or

MV 2 ( M + m) = m2 gh

2

2 m gh

M ( M + m)

V2 =

or

For m2 : v23 = 2a2 s2 and Find s2

m1 g

Here : a1 =

= g

m1

m1 g

and

a2 =

m2

175

x'

1

1

(i)

mg ( R r) = mv2 + MV 2

2

2

where, v = velocity of cylinder

and V = velocity of track.

(when cylinder just reaches bottom of the

track)

176 | Mechanics-1

Applying

law

of

conservation

of

momentum

mv + MV = 0

M

or

v=

V

m

Thus, Eq. (i) becomes

2

1 M

1

mg ( R r) = m

V + MV 2

2 m

2

1

M

or

mg( R r) = MV 2

+ 1

2

m

2

2

m

g

(

R

r

)

or

V2 =

M ( M + m)

or

V =m

2 g ( R r)

M ( M + m)

2 m/s

2 m/s

2 m/s

45

+ ive

2 m/s

2 m/s

50 g

45 45

2 m/s

Wall

Momentum of ball after reflection

p f = 50 103 2 kg ms 1

|p f |= 50 103 2 kg ms 1

=0

23. m0 = 40 kg

m = ( 40 + 160) kg

= 200 kg

vi = 2 km/s = 2 103 kg 1

Rate of consumption of fuel = 4 kgs 1

Time (t) required to completely brunt out

160 kg

of the fuel =

= 40 s.

4 kgs 1

Ultimate vertical speed gained by the

rocket

m

= g t + vi ln

m0

200

= 10 40 + 2 103 ln

40

= 400 + 3218 = 2818 m/s

= 2.82 kms 1

24. When y length of rope has fallen on table

top

A

y

( p f ) = 50 103 2 kg ms 1

Momentum of ball before reflection

A v = 2gy

( p i ) = + 50 103 2 kg ms 1

p = p f p i

= 100 103 2 kg ms 1

= 0.14 kg ms 1

i.e.,

|p|= 0.14 kg ms 1

wall)

p i = 50 103 2 kg ms 1

|p i|= 50 103 2 kg ms 1

from the wall)

dm

dt

dm dy

=v

dy dt

dm

M

= v2

= v2

dy

L

M

W =

g

L

Fnet = W + Fth

Fth = vrel

M

M

Fnet =

yg + v2

L

L

M

M

=

yg + 2 gy

L

L

M

=3

yg

L

= Weight due to 3 y length of the rope.

25. Horizontal velocity of incoming sand

y

Fth

v = 2 ms1

v=0

= ( v) (say) = v i

u rel = v1 v2

= 0 (v i)

= v ^i

dm

dt

dm ^

= v

i

dt

Fth = v rel

dm

> 0, the falling sand particles exert

dt

thrust force which decelerates the

conveyer belt.

As

F = F th

dm ^

=v

i

dt

= (2 ms 1 5 kgs 1) ^i

= 10N ^i

Power delivered by motor to drive belt at

2 m/s

= |F||v|= 10 N 2 ms 1

= 20 W

26.

177

ma = Fth mg

or

ma = Fth

(neglecting mg as compare to Fth )

dm

or

ma = u

dt

dm

a

or

= dt

m

u

dm

a

or

m = u dt

a

or

log e m = t + K

u

Now, as t = 0, m = m0

(given)

log e m0 = K

a

Thus,

log e m = t + log e m0

u

m

a

or

log e

= t

m0

u

or

m = m0 e

a

t

u

27. u = 100 ms 1, v = 0 ms 1, s = 6 cm

v2 = u2 + 2as

u2

a=

2s

(a) Now, v = u + at

u

u

2s

t= = 2 =

a

u

u

2s

2 6 102

=

= 1.2 ms

100

(b) Impulse on log = Change in

momentum of bullet

= m (0 u)

= mu

= 5 103 100

= 0.5 Ns

(c) Average force experienced by the log

Impulse

0.5

=

=

time

1.2 103

= 416.67 N

28. Let us consider right direction as positive.

= Change in momentum of block

= m (v u)

178 | Mechanics-1

32. m1 = 1 kg and m2 = 1 kg

= 3 [( + 40) ( 50)]

= + 270 Ns

v2 = + 4ms1 v1 = 6ms1

Impulse

Average force on block =

t

270

=

0.02

= 270 Ns

m2 1 kg

A

B

Before collision

= 13.5 kN

dp

= 4 ^i

dt

or dI = 4 ^i dt

or

(where, I = Impulse)

dI =

4 ^i dt

I = 4 ^i (2 0)

or

30. m v = F t

or

or

16 + 8

m v =

20000

2

m v = 240000

240000

v =

= 200 m/s

1200

33. v1 =

v u = 200

v2

v = 200 ms 1 as u = 0

31. v1 = v2 = 2 ms 1

v2 = v1 = + 3 ms

v2

v1

m2

m1

+ ive

B

After collision

1 2

2 2

=

( +4) +

( 6)

2 + 1

2 + 1

4

= 8

3

28

28

=

ms 1 =

ms 1

3

3

(in ive x direction).

= 8 ^i kg-ms 1

or

v1'

2 1

2 1

=

( 6) +

( 4)

2

+

1

2 + 1

8

= 2+

3

2

= + ms 1

3

2

= ms 1 (in + ive x direction)

3

m m1

2m1

v2 = 2

v2 +

v1

m

+

m

1

m1 + m2

2

p = m v = 2 (2t i 4 j)

29.

v2'

m m2

2m2

v1 = 1

v1 +

v2

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

= 13500 N

m1 2 kg

(given)

1+ e

1 e

v2 and v2 =

v2

2

2

v2'

v1 = 0

m 2

v1' = 2v2'

m

Rest

+ ive

elastically

they

interchange

their

velocities)

or

or

or

v1 1 + e

=

v2 1 e

1+ e

2=

1 e

2 2e = 1 + e

1

e=

3

(Qv1 = 2 v2 )

34. mv = mv1 + mv2

v

m

Rest

Before collision

Also,

or

or

or

or

or

or

or

or

v1

v2

v2

(v + v2 )2 4 v1v2

e2 = 1

v2

v2

v2

2

e2 =

v2

e2 =

1

2

1

or

e=

2

2m2

35. v1 =

v2

m1 + m2

or

After collision

v = v1 + v2

1

1

mv12 + mv22

3

2

2

=

1

2

4

mv

2

3

(v12 + v22 ) = v2

4

3

2

(v1 + v2 ) 2v1v2 = v2

4

3 2

2

v 2 v1v2 = v

4

1 2

2 v1v2 = v

4

Velocity of separation

e=

Velocity of approach

v2 v1

e=

v0

v2 v1

e=

v

2

v v1

e2 = 2

179

v2 = 2 ms1

e2 =

v1 = 0 ms1

v2'

v1'

A

m2 = 3 kg

m1 = 2 kg

(i)

23

2

2+3

12

= 2.4 ms 1

5

m m1

v2 = 2

v2

m1 + m2

=

and

32

2

2+3

2

= 0.4 ms 1

5

sliding

v 21

v 22

=

2 k g 2 k g

=

1

(v 21 v 22 )

2 k g

1

[(2.4)2 (0.4)2 ]

2 0.3 10

2.8

= 0.933 m

3

180 | Mechanics-1

Objective Questions (Level 1)

Single Correct Option

1. Momentum remains conserved. Decrease

sand while KE does not remain conserved

as it gets used up in doing work against

friction.

net

2. Fext

= M aCM

net

If Fext

= 0,

aCM = 0

d

i.e.,

v

=0

dt CM

or

vCM = constant

Option (a) is correct.

3. The forces acting on the blocks would be

equal and opposite as per Newton's 3rd

law of motion. Acceleration of the blocks

will depend upon their masses as per

Newtons 2nd law of motion. Accelerations

being different velocities will be unequal.

M1

M2

4. While colliding the balls will apply equal

other. Impulsive forces will change the

momentum of the balls but the total

momentum of the system of 2 balls will

remain conserved impulsive forces being

internal ones. Change in momentum of

the system will definitely be due to

external gravitational forces on the balls

but as the time of impact shall be very less

the impulsive force will over shadow the

weak gravitational force.

5. External force acting on the cannon shell

Now, as no extra net external force would

be act on the shell during collision the

momentum of the system shall remain

conserved and the CM of the system (now

broken in pieces) will also keep on

following the path which the shell would

have followed had the explosion not taken

place. Further, as the explosion would

never be super-elastic, the KE of the

system cant increase after explosion.

Option (d) is correct.

6.

Velocity of separation

=e

Velocity of approach

Velocity of separation < velocity of

approach

(when e = 0, the velocity of separation in

zero and the colliding bodies do not

separate from each other.)

Further, whether the collision in elastic or

inelastic the law of conservation of

momentum always hold gord.

Option (d) is correct.

p = p1 + p2 + p3 + ....,

Further, we define momentum for every

type of motion.

Option (d) is correct.

8. Let us consider a system of two masses as

shown in figure.

v1

vCM

m1

CM

v2

m2

= m1 ( v1 v CM ) + m2 ( v2 v CM )

= m1 v1 + m2 v2 ( m1 + m2 ) v CM

= ( m1 + m2 ) v CM ( m1 + m2 ) v CM

=0

9. Option (a) If collision is inelastic.

A

v

m

B

v

C

Option (c) If the dimensions of the

particles 0

Option (d) would be the answer.

10.

F t = m v

m v

F=

t

5 (65 15)

=

2

= 125 N

system

v1 = + v ^i

d

C

mo

O

CM

d1

v2

mo

d

mo + mc

8

=

d

8+6

4

= d

7

4

= (1.2 1010 m)

7

= 0.64 1010 m

d1 =

Rest

Mm

9 kg

3 kg

6 kg

second

n [change in momentum per second] F

40

n

(1200 0) 144

100

144

or

or n 3

n

48

Option (a) is correct.

i.e.,

m

v

( m m)

3

=

16

93

v

v sin

P

+

= 8 ms 1

1

KE of 6 kg mass = 6 ( 8)2

2

= 192 J

2 m2

13. v1 =

v2

m1 + m2

v1 = 0

v2'

v1'

m2

m1

m2

m1

After collision

v cos

y

v2

= 2 v2

Option (b) is correct.

V =

Before collision

= + v ^i

U rel = v1 v2 = 01

dm

Fth = U rel

=0

dt

As, the leaving coal does not exert any

thrust force on the wagon, the speed of the

wagon wont change.

Option (a) is correct.

12. M 0 = mv + ( M m) V

^i

11. mc d1 = mo ( d d1)

mc

181

v cos

x

v cos

= m (v cos v cos ) = 0

Net change in momentum

= Change in momentum along y-axis

= m[( + v sin ) ( v sin )]

= 2 mv sin

(as = 45)

= mv 2

Option (a) is correct.

17. Velocity of ball before first impact i.e.,

plane

182 | Mechanics-1

50 kg

P u=0

450 kg

O

50 kg

+ eg

Q

1st

450 kg

2nd

v = 0 + ( g) 1 = g

Velocity of ball after 1st impact

= ev = eg

time elapsed between 1st and 2nd impact

with the horizontal plane

( + e g) = ( + e g) + ( g) t

t = 2e

4

2

(as, e = L)

= s

3

3

Option (c) is correct.

x dm = x m dx

dm m dx

CM (boat)

50 10 + 450 5 50 ( x) + 450 ( x + 5)

=

50 + 450

50 + 450

(Initially)

x = 1m

Option (b) is correct.

20. As discussed in the answer to previous

M

M/3

Smooth

Smooth

Ax2

x L dx

Ax2

=

Q m =

2

L

Ax

L dx

L

x 3dx

x2 dx

M

3

(Initially)

(Finally)

x M +

= ML

3

3

x= L

4

L4

3

3

4

L

3

= L

4

Option (a) is correct.

3

=L L

4

L

=

4

Option (b) is correct.

CM of the system shall not shift along

x-axis.

L

M L

x + ML +

2

3 2

=

M

M

M+

M+

3

3

Mx +

M/3

L

(Finally)

dx

0

eg

18. xCM =

CM (boat)

10 m

21.

v

Rest

Rest

3m

Before collision

3m

After collision

mv + 3 m 0 = m 0 + 3 mu

3

L

4

v

u=

3

Velocity of separation

e=

Velocity of approach

u0 u

=

=

v0 v

1

=

3

Option (d) is correct.

Impulse on ball

= Change in momentum of ball

9

4

=

mv0 + mv0

20

5

5

= mv0

4

25. If a ball dropped from height h rebounds

before 1st impact, u = 2 gh

Just after 1st impact u = 2 gh

u

m

Rest

Rest

Before collision

F'

F'

m

B

h = e2 h

= e2 n h

= (0.8)2 n 1

(as h = 1 m)

2n

= (0.8)

or

475 v = 500 ( ^i k)

20 ^ ^

( i k)

19

Option (c) is correct.

or

v=

or

X

53

Y

i.e.,

v0 cos 37 = v0 4

5

v0

3 v cos 53

4 0

= 9 v0

20

3v

4 0

= 0.8

before

throwing block

= Momentum of car after throwing block

+ Momentum of block

F

m

F = ma0

Acceleration of block B :

F F

aB =

m

F ma0 F

=

=

a0

m

m

37

h

64

=

h

100

a0 =

24.

u

=

u

A

e=

After collision

Impulse = Change in momentum

Ft0

= mu

2

2 mu

F=

t0

183

37

4

53

or

or

ma = kt

dv k

=

t

dt m

k t2

v=

+C

m 2

k t2

v=

m 2

(If at

t = 0, v = 0)

184 | Mechanics-1

Thus, graph between v and t would be

+ block). The CM of the system shall not

change along horizontal when the block

moves over the wedge but would change

along vertical as net force (= gravitational

force) is acting on the block.

Further, as no non-conservative force is

acting on the system, its total energy will

not change.

Option (d) is correct.

v0

Graph would be

parabolic in

nature

t0

F = kt (where k is + ive constant)

k t2

v=

+ C

m 2

At t = 0, v = v0

k t20

C = v0 +

m 2

k 2

Thus,

v = v0 +

( t0 t2 )

2m

Thus, graph between v and t would be

Parabola

v

v0

31.

v'

m

M

v

Rest

Before collision

Just after

collision

or 8 R2 x1 = 2R2 R or 8 x1 = 2 R

R

or

x1 =

4

Option (c) is correct.

A x + A2 x2 + A3x3

29. xCM = 1 1

A1 + A2 + A3

0 = [ ( 4 R)2 R2 R2 ] x1

+ [ R2 ] 3 R + [ R2 ] 0

or

14 x1 = 3 R

3

or

x1 =

R

14

Option (d) is correct.

Final position

mv = ( M + m) v

From final position, v = 2 gh

From Eq. (i),

m

or

v = 2 gh

M+m

(i)

v = 1 +

2 gh

A x + A2 x2

28. xCM = 1 1

A1 + A2

[ (3 R)2 R2 ] x1 + [ R2 ] 2R

0=

(3 R)2 R2

Rest

h

or

t0

32. As no net extra external force is acting on

bullet system remains at rest. The force

exerted by the trigger of the gun on the

bullet is an interval one.

33. m1 g T = m1a

T

T

a

m2g

m1g

T m2 g = m2 a

( m1 m2 ) g = ( m1 + m2 ) a

m m2

or

a= 1

g

m1 + m2

m a + m2 ( a)

aCM = 1

m1 + m2

m1 m2

=

a

m1 + m2

2

m m2

= 1

g

m1 + m2

Option (b) is correct.

m

34. v = u gt + vi ln 0

m

m0

m

(neglecting gravity as given)

m

or

v = v2 ln 0 (Taking u = 0)

m

m0

or

(as vi = v)

v = v ln

m

m

log e 0 = 1

m

m0

1

= e = 2.718

m

Option (a) is correct.

or

v = u + v2 ln

A

v cos

2

v

v sin

2

v sin

2

/2

2m

/2

v

v cos

2

B or velocity of B w.r.t. A

= + v sin v sin

2

2

= 2 v sin

2

Common velocity ( V ) after collision

mv cos + mv cos = 2 mV

2

2

V = v cos

2

Option (d) is correct.

37. v sin 53 = u sin 37

parallel to the plate.

185

u sin 37

u cos 37

v cos 53

v

v sin 53

53

37

Floor

Jet of water

Water flow

= [Rate of change of momentum of

water]

m 0 mu

=

mu m

=

=

u

t

t

kg

= 0.5

1ms 1

s

= 0.5 N

Option (c) is correct.

4

3

=u

5

5

3

i.e.,

v= u

4

Impulse exerted on floor

= [Change in momentum of ball]

= [( mv cos 53 ) ( + mu cos 37 )]

= m [v cos 53 + u cos 37 ]

v

3

3

4

= m u +u

5

5

4

5

= mu

4

5

= 1 5 = 6.25 Ns

4

186 | Mechanics-1

x = Displacement of boat

x 40 + (1 + x) 15 = 2 40 + 1 15

i.e.,

x = 1.46 m

(The frictional forces on the boat by the

boy and that by the boy on the boat are

internal forces).

block) along x-axis.

m

M

x'

a = cot

h

41.

Mg

M

m

X

Mg

a

mx + M ( x + x ) = Ma + Mx

m

mx + Mx = ma or x =

a

M+m

m h cot

=

M+m

2 cm

D

M

2 cm

2 cm

2 cm

M

A

M

falls very close to

5

mortar, its velocity after explosion must

be u.

As piece of mass

Shell A

u (say)

M

or

ta

r

Y

M

v=

2(4M ) + 3 ( M ) + 3 (+ M )

39. xCM =

= 2 cm

4M + ( M ) + (+ M )

Y

m v1 + m v2 + m v 3

m+m+m

1

= [ v1 + v2 + v 3 ]

3

1

^

= [v0 ^i + ( 3v0 ^j ) + (5v0 k)]

3

v

^

= 0 [ ^i 3 ^j + 5 k ]

3

Option (d) is correct.

R/2

After explosion

path of M/5 part

2M

D+C

R/2

Shell

4M

5

of shell after explosion)

3/2 u

After explosion path of

4M/5 part

B

R/2

2 cm

2 cm

2 cm

2 cm

3R/4

yCM

2(4M ) + 1( M ) + 3 (+ M )

=

= 2.5 cms

4M + ( M ) + (+ M )

40. As explained in the answer to question no.

20 and 19.

Thus, Mu =

i.e.,

M

4M

( u) +

(v)

5

5

3

v= u

2

40 kg

15 kg

2m

15 kg

2m

3

R

3R

of i.e.,

2

2

4

R 3 R 5R

D=

+

=

2

4

4

Option (c) is correct.

3

times the

2

m m1

43. v2 = 2

v2

m2 + m1

v2

v1 = 0

A m

1

1

mv22 m v2

2

3

2

=

1

2

mv2

2

1 1

= 2 18

1

2

8

=

9

v2'

m

B 2m

m2 = m

187

2m

m1 = 2m

m 2m

v2

m + 2m

1

v2

3

KE lost

=

Initial KE

JEE Corner

Assertion and Reason

1. To answer this question, let us find the

(as shown in figure) of uniform thickness.

at its centre. The CM of a uniform sphere

is at its centre.

Y

L

4L A2

xCM

L

P

A1

2L

O

2L

4L

A x + A2 x2

= 1 1

A1 + A2

=

(6L 2L) + ( 4 L 2L)

36L3 + 8 L3

12L2 + 8 L2

44 L3

20L2

false.

It is correct that centre of mass and centre

of gravity of a body coincide if the body is

placed in a uniform gravitational field.

Option (d) is correct.

F F1

F

2. a1 = 1 , a2 =

2m

m

Centre of mass of the rigid body of

uniform thickness as shown in figure

would be at point P which is neither

outside nor inside.

a1

a2

2m

F1

= 2.2 L

Similarly yCM = 2.2 L

ma1 + 2ma2

m + 2m

F1 + ( F F1)

=

3m

F

=

3m

aCM =

188 | Mechanics-1

As F is constant, the value of aCM will

remain constant (Reason).

As CM is accelerated the velocity of CM

will obviously increase (Assertion).

Option (a) is correct.

3. As per assertion if force is applied on a

system must not remain conserved. But, it

will not be true if we apply two equal and

opposite external forces on the system as

then net external force on the system will

be zero and the linear momentum will

remain conserved as given under Reason

which is correct.

Option (d) is correct.

4. A rocket moves forward due to the thrust

law of motion (as given under Reason)

when gas inside (not the surrounding air

as given under assertion) it is pushed

backwards.

Option (d) is correct.

5. Linear momentum of a system remains

on the system i.e., only a net external force

on a system can change its linear

momentum. Inside a system internal

forces are always in pairs and as such

can't change linear momentum.

If two blocks connected by a spring placed

on a smooth surface are stretched apart

the internal restoring forces acting on

blocks will definitely increase the KE of

the system but this argument under

Reason has nothing to do with the nothing

under Assertion that internal forces can't

change linear momentum.

Option (b) is correct.

p2

6. KE =

2m

1

i.e., KE

(if momentum p is constant).

m

Nothing under reason is correct.

When bullet is fired and comes out of the

gun.

Linear momentum of gun

= Linear momentum of bullet = p

(In magnitude)

(KE) gun

Mass of bullet

=

(KE) bullet

Mass of gun

(as given under Reason)

This is what is given in Assertion.

Thus, both Assertion and Reason are true

and also reason is the correct explanation

of the assertion.

Option (a) is correct.

7. As no net external force is acting there on

momentum of the system remains

conserved along horizontal direction but

as gravitational force (a net external force)

acts on block in the vertical direction

(downwards) the momentum of the system

does not remain constant along vertical

direction. As overall momentum of the

system does not remain constant,

Assertion is true.

As wedge is at rest, Reason is false.

Option (c) is correct.

8. In any collision, there is not change in the

reason, which is true.

i.e.,

p1 + p2 = 0

p1 = p2

(i)

Assertion is false.

Option (d) is correct.

9. Reason is true as explained in the answer

answer to question no. 8.

As KE is inversely proportional to mass,

K

the KE of the block of man 2m will be

2

when the KE of the block of mass m is K .

Assertion is true.

Further, as Reason is the correct

explanation of the Assertion. Option

would be (a).

10. Assertion is false as for example heat

energy can be given to a system without

any increase in momentum of the system

while KE given to a system increases its

momentum.

2

p

KE =

as given is Reason which is

2m

true.

Option (d) is correct.

11. As no external force would be acting on

the line joining electron and proton the

CM of electron and proton will remain at

rest. Therefore, Assertion is false.

Further, as proton is heavier than

electron the reason is true.

Option (d) is correct.

m m2

2m2

12. v1 = 1

v1 +

v2

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

v2

m2

v1

m1

A

B

Before collision

and v2 =

v2'

v1'

m2

m1

A

B

After collision

m2 m1

2m1

v2 +

v1

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

v2 v1

m m1 2m2

2m1 m1 + m2

= 2

v2 +

v1

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

= v2 + v1

= (v2 v1)

i.e., v 21 = v21

i.e., relative velocity of A w.r.t. B after

collision

= (relative velocity of A w.r.t. B before

collision)

Reason is true and Assertion is false.

Option (d) is correct.

13. As explained in the answer to question no.

rest. Therefore, assertion is false.

x1

189

x2

m1

CM

m2

m1x1 = m2 x2

x2 m1

=

x1 m2

x2 > x1 as m2 > m1

Reason is true.

Option (d) is correct.

14. F =

dp

dt

a=

F

m

Reason is true.

applied on different masses the rate of

p

change of momentum i.e., d of each mass

dt

will be same. Second equation tells that if

different.

Assertion is true.

Further, as Reason is the correct

explanation of the Assertion.

Option (a) is correct.

15. Assertion is false as explained in the

In every type of collision the linear

momentum of the system remains

conserved. Therefore, Reason is true.

Option (d) is correct.

190 | Mechanics-1

Objective Questions (Level 2)

Single Correct Option

1. m1v1 + m 0 = m 5 g l + m1

v1

3

= cos 1

or

3

4

dp

v2

v1

dm

m1

m

Rest

v1

u = 5gl

v1/3

2 v1

= m 5g l

3

3 m

v1 =

5g l

2 m1

2m

H

m

v

u

2

2

0 = v2 + 2 ( g) H

v2

H=

2g

v=

or

or

or

= 2v dm sin

M

= 2v

( R d) sin

R

2M v

=

sin d

/2 2Mv

p=

sin d

0

2M v

=

[cos ] 0 / 2

2M v

2Mv

=

[0 1] =

1

1

4. (2 m) v2 = kx20

2

2

(u / 2)2

2g

u2

8g

2g l

H=

8g

=

l

l (1 cos ) =

4

1

1 cos =

4

v1

dl

2. mu = 2mv

u = 2gl Rest

m1

dm

kx0

kx0

or

or

or

or

v=

k

x0

2m

2mv = 2 mk x0

Fav t = 2 mk x0

Fav =

2 mk

t

x0

4 p = 1(1 p)

1

p= m

5

Displacement ( x) of bar when pendulum

becomes vertical

x

= sin

p

striker will follow the path OPQROP ...

Q

45

x = p sin

1

1

m = 0.1 m

= sin 30=

5

10

When the ball reaches the other extreme

end the bar will further shift to the left by

distance x and as such the net

displacement of the bar will be 2x i.e.,

0.2 m.

Option (b) is correct.

45

A

1

mv2 0 = mgs

2

(m = mass of striker, s = displacement of

the striker)

v2

s=

2 g

(2)2

= 1m

=

2 0.2 10

1

1

PQ = OP = OA 2 =

2= m

2 2

2

1 1

OP + PQ = + = 1 m

2 2

Striker will stop at point Q where

1

1

co-ordinates are

,

.

2 2 2

Option (a) is correct.

6. As no force is acting on the system along

shift horizontally.

4 kg

p

7.

p

ep

Floor During

first

collision

ep

e2p

During

Second

collision

e 2p

e 3p

During

third

collision

Floor

1st collision = p ( ep) = p (1 + e)

2nd collision = ep ( e2 p) = ep (1 + e)

3rd collision = e2 p ( e3 p) = e2 p (1 + e)

As theoretically there will be infinite

collision, total momentum imparted to

floor

= p (1 + e) + ep (1 + e) + e2 p (1 + e) +....

= p (1 + e) [1 + e + e2 + K ]

1 + e

1

= p

= p (1 + e)

1 e

1 e

Option (d) is correct.

8. Let F be the frictional force applied by

CM

191

1 kg

x

x

4 kg

CM

1

(i)

mu2 = Fh

2

If plate was free to move

mu + 0 = ( M + m) u

m

u =

u

M+m

1

1

New KE of bullet = mu2 ( M + m) u2

2

2

(entering plate)

192 | Mechanics-1

2

1

1

mu2 ( M + m)

u

2

2

M + m

1

m 1

M

2

= mu2 1

= mu

2

M

+

m

2

M

+ m

(ii)

= Fh

Dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i),

h

M

=

h M+m

M

i.e.,

h =

h

M + m

3 m1 = m2

m1 1

=

m2 3

or

the 4th particle will travel in the line in

which 3rd is travelling.

v

2nd

9. v2 = 16 ms1

45

v1 = 2gs = 10 ms1

v2'

Rest

Now, v1 =

1+ e

v2

2

shown in figure.

u cos 45 + v cos 45 = v

i.e.,

u = v ( 2 1)

Total energy released

1

1

1

1

= mv2 + mv2 + mv2 + m [v( 2 1)] 2

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

= mv [3 + ( 2 1) ] = mv2 [3 2 ]

2

Option (a) is correct.

(entering plase)

10 =

13.

b l2 bL l L2 b

yCM = l

+

+

2

2

6

according

l=

bL

bl +

to question

2

mg

L l2 L l L2

or

l l + =

+

+

2 2

2

6

l2 L2

mg

or

=

2

6

A

L

or

l=

3

11.

m1 v m1

1

A

B v2

3rd

1+ e

16

2

1

i.e.,

e=

4

Option (b) is correct.

l

1

L

( l b) + L b l +

2

2

3

10. yCM =

1

( l b) + L b

2

1st

4th

mg

v2

e=1

2 v2 = v1

m1(2 v2 ) = m2v2 m1v2

(i)

mg

2mg

2mg

2mg

2mg

C

mg

B

C

A

mg

C

mg

u the tension in

i.e., v1 =

2 the string.

mu = 2mv 2

u

i.e., v 2 =

2

2 mg

mg

2 mg

weight of B when collision

takes

place.

Thus,

mu = (2m + m ) v 3

u

i.e., v 3 =

3

v1 : v2 : v3

193

m A

u u u

= : : = 3 :3 :2

2 2 3

Option (b) is correct.

14.

Place of

collision

time = t (say)

CM

3m

w

h/2

h/2

2m

30

v cos 30

Motion of B :

h

h 1 h

=v

g

2

g

2 g

vCM = v cos 30

3

=v

2

Option (a) is correct.

15. r CM = i

i.e.,

h=v

v=

vB =

^

= 3 ^i + 2 ^j 4 k

r CM =

m1 r1

r2 =

+

m1 + m2

( m1 + m2 ) r CM

m2

m1 r1

= ^j + 2 k

The heavier part will be at (0, 1, 2).

Option (d) is correct.

16. Motion of A :

i.e.,

t=

h

g

h

=0

g

gh g

gh

Rest

2m

m + 2m

m gh = 3 m

gh

=

3

Velocity of the combined mass when it

reach ground

v 2 = 2 + 2 gh

gh

=

+ 2 gh

g

19 gh

i.e.,

v =

3

Option (d) is correct.

2

^

2 i (3 ^i + 2 ^j 4 k)

3

=

4

3

1 ^

^

= [6 i 2 (3 ^i + 2 ^j 4 k)]

4

1

^

= [ 4 ^j + 8 k ]

4

^

h 1 2

= gt , v A (at time t) = g t =

2 2

gh

m2 r2

h

g

gh

Velocity of man w.r.t. ground = u + v

m (u + v) + 2 mv = 3 m 0

u

v=

3

Work done = KE gained by man and cart

1

1

= m (u + v)2 + 2 mv2

2

2

194 | Mechanics-1

2

1

u

1

u

m u + 2 m

3

2

3

2

1

4u2 1

u2

= m

+ 2m

2

3

2

9

2mu2 mu2

=

+

3

9

7

= mu2

9

Option (d) is correct.

30 m + 50 m

18. vCM =

m+m

1

mv2

2

= 2 mv2

3

mv2

2

3 p2

=

2m

Option (c) is correct.

=

4m

4m

CM

= 40 m/s upwards.

30 m/s

4m

CM

x

a

a

2 = ( 4 m) x + ( m) a

4m + 4m

4m + m

( 4 m) x + ( 4 m)

Initial position of CM

40 m

20 m

x a 4x + a

+ =

2 4

5

a

i.e.,

x=

6

Option (b) is correct.

or

50 m/s

displacements

02 = 402 + 2 ( 10) s

s = 80 m

Maximum height attained by CM

= 20 m + 80 m

= 100 m

Option (c) is correct.

y

a

40

20

10

a

a

Fig. 1

velocities as shown in figure.

p

50

O

A

B

Before collision

2v

2v

A

B

After collision

1

1

= m ( 2 v)2 mu2

2

2

a

x

a

Fig. 2

a

3a

+ 50

2

2

=

40 + 50

20a + 75a

=

90

95a 19 a

=

=

90

18

40

xCM

In terms of velocity

A

B

Before collision

40

2p

In terms of momentum

y

a

20

m

R

yCM

3a

a

40

+ 50

2

2

=

40 + 50

There is no

need to find

17 a

18

Option (a) is correct.

195

v

m0 0 sin 45 = 2 m0 v sin

2

v

i.e.,

(i)

2 v sin = 0

2

Conservation of momentum along x-axis.

v0/2

Rest

m/22

m/2n 1

1st

2nd

3rd

nth

2m0

2m0

v

v

m0 0 cos 45 + 2 m0 v cos = m0v0

2

v

i.e.,

(ii)

2 v cos = 0

2

Squaring and adding Eqs. (i) and (ii),

v

2v = 0 2

2

v

v= 0

2 2

Option (b) is correct.

1

1

23. kx20 = m2v22

2

2

k

i.e.,

v2 = x0

m2

m 0 + m2v2

vCM = 1

m1 + m2

v2 = v

Rest

v2'

v1'

m2 = m

m1 = m/2

45

x

m0

m/2

v1 =

m0

v0

2m2

2m

4

v2 =

v= v

m

m1 + m2

3

+m

2

4

v strikes 3rd at rest

3

v2 = 4 v

3

2

m2 = m

2

Rest

v2'

3

m1 = m

4

m

2

2m2

2 4v

v1 =

v2 =

m m 3

m1 + m2

+

4

2

4 4

= v

3 3

2

4

= v

3

31

4

Velocity of 3rd ball =

v

3

m2

4

As in every collision

=

m1 + m2 3

n1

4

The velocity of nth ball =

v

3

mass m1 would be zero)

m2

=

v2

m1 + m2

m2

k

=

x0

m1 + m2

m2

x0

=

k m2

m1 + m2

for it to complete the circle

n1

4

v = 5 gr

3

n1

3

i.e.,

v =

5 gr

4

v1'

3

196 | Mechanics-1

25. Impulse given to the block will also

and then imparting the restoring force on

it due to velocity to it 5cm of the spring

expansion will accelerate it.

Impulse = 4 kg ms 1

4 kg ms 1

Initial velocity (u) =

= 2 ms 1

2 kg

5cm

6.7 cm

F

F

6.7 cm

3 m/s

6.7 cm

Average Acceleration ( a)

kx

=

=

2m

5

4000

100

22

the spring stretches by 6.7 cm but the

block does not return due to same region.

Block is now at rest for the second time.

Distance travelled by block when it

comes to rest for the second time

= (5 + 6.7 + 6.7 + 6.7) cm

= 25 cm approx.

Option (b) is correct.

= 50 m/s2

5

m

100

v2 = u2 + 2as

Displacement ( s) = x =

= 22 + 2 50

5

100

= 4+5

=9

v = 3 ms 1

Option (b) is correct.

26. Compression in spring Velocity gained

length will compress the spring.

1 2 1

kx = mv2

2

2

m

x=v

k

2

=3

4000

29 5

=

4000 5

45

10000

6.7

m

=

100

= 6.7 cm

Block at rest first time due to some

reason.

Restoring force brings the spring to its

natural length and block attains a velocity

of 3 ms 1.

M1= 8 m

2v

27.

(M + s)

48 m

M2= 16 m

2v

B

6L

12 L

AP = 24 L 2 AP

3 AP = 24 L

AP = 8 L

As the CM of M and S does not change,

the CM of the bar shall also not change

i.e., the displacement of bar will be zero.

Let x be the displacement of rod.

x 8 m + ( x + 6 L) 48 m + ( x + 12 L) 16m

= (6L 48 m) + (8 L 24 m)

i.e., x = 0 m

i.e., no displacement of bar.

Option (d) is correct.

8 m (2 v) + 16 m ( v)

28. vCM of M and S =

=0

8 m + 16 m

There CM of M and S will not change

while they move i.e.,the point P (where

they meet) is at the edge of the table

supporting the end B.

Option (b) is correct.

29. When the spider eats up the moth and

v

relative

2

to rod.

197

20L 20L

=

=

= 20T

v

L/ T

= 20 4 = 80 s

31. Form CM not to shift

v

24 m + vR + 48 m vR = 0

2

8L

x'

v

vR =

6

Option (c) is correct.

30. Time taken by spider to reach point A

4L 8L

=

+

v

v/2

M+S

48 m

48 m

( x + 8 L) 24 m + ( x + 6L) 48 m

= 64 48 m

8L

i.e., x =

3

Option (a) is correct.

v

2

i.e.,

2 V sin =

v

2 2

m

v

m

Rest

2m

(i)

v/2

45

2m

L

Along horizontal :

v

mv = m cos 45 + 2mV cos

2

1

i.e.,

(ii)

2 V cos = v 1

2 2

Squaring and adding Eq. (i)and (ii),

2

2

v

v

8 V 2 =

+ v

2 2

2 2

2

v2

v

v

=

+ v2 +

2v

8

7

2 2

5v2 v2

=

4

2

Dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i)

1

2

2

tan =

2 21

2 2

1

< 1

2 21

< 45

Thus, the divergence angle between the

.

2

Option (b) is correct.

1

Initial KE = mv2

2

2

1 v

1

Final KE = m + 2 mV 2

2 2

2

1

1

5

1

= mv2 + 2

2

2

32

8 2

4

As Final KE < Initial KE

Collision is inelastic.

Option (d) is correct.

m m1

2. v2 = 2

v2

m1 + m2

v2

v1 = 0

m2 = m

m1 = 5m

v2'

m 5m

v2

5m + m

2

= v2

3

2

=

2g l

3

=

v1'

198 | Mechanics-1

mv 22

= mg

l

mv 2

or

T=

+ mg

l

m8g

=

+ mg

9

17 mg

=

9

Option (a) is correct.

Velocity of block

2m2

v1 =

v2

m1 + m2

2m

=

2g l

5m + m

1

=

2g l

3

Option (c) is correct.

Maximum height attained by pendulum

bob

v 2 8 g l / 9 4 l

= 2 =

=

2g

2g

g

u

= mv sin e +

v

= mu sin (1 + e)

Option (d) is correct.

u 1 (1 e2 ) sin2

= u 1 sin2 + e2 sin2

= u cos2 + e2 sin2

= u cos2 +

= v2 cos2 + v2 sin2

=v

Option (c) is correct.

cos2 + e2 sin2

tan2

= cos2 +

sin2

tan2

= cos2 (1 + tan2 )

= cos2 sec2

cos2

=

cos2

v sin

v

v cos

4. u = (3 i + 2 j) ms 1

u sin

v sin

u sin

cos sin

=

cos sin

tan

=

tan

Option (b) is correct.

Change in momentum of particle

= ( mv sin ) ( + mu sin )

Impulse delivered by floor to the particle

= mv sin + mu sin

sin u

= mv sin

+

sin v

and

Final KE

v2

=

2

Initial KE

u

v2

sin2

u2

= u2 cos2 + v2 sin2

v cos

3. v cos = u cos =

u cos

u cos

u

v

e=

u

mM

v = (2 ^i + ^j) m/s

m

= mu + mv

= m (3 ^i + 2 ^j) + m( 2 ^i + ^j)

= m (5 ^i + ^j) unit

Option (b) is correct.

Impulse received by particle of mass M

= (impulse received by particle of

mass m)

= m (5 ^i + ^j)

Option (d) is correct.

5. T = m1a

and

m2 g T = m2 a

m2

Solving,

a=

g

m1 + m2

a

m1

T

T

m2

y

m2g

m1a + m2 0

m1 + m2

m1

=

a

m1 + m2

m1m2

=

g

( m1 + m2 )2

( aCM ) x =

m 0 + m2 a

( aCM ) y = 1

( m1 + m2 )

m2

=

a

m1 + m2

3

mv2

16

Option (c) is correct.

=

m

=

g

m1 + m2

6. As the block comes down, the CM of the

remain stationary.

mg

aCM =

g

m+M

aCM is downwards and also aCM < g.

Option (d) is correct.

As no force acts along horizontal direction,

the momentum of the system will remain

conserved along horizontal direction.

Option (c) is correct.

7. Velocity of B after collision :

v2

v1 = 0

v2'

v1'

m2

m1

m1

m2

A

B

Before collision

199

1 + e

v1 =

v

2 2

3

1

= v [as e = and v2 = v (given)]

4

2

v

2

Impulse given by A to B

= change in momentum of B

3

= m v m 0

4

3

= mv

4

Option (b) is correct.

Velocity of A after collision

1 e

v2 =

v

2 2

v

=

4

Loss of KE during collision

1

1

= mv22 m(v 21 + v 22 )

2

2

2

2

1

v

3v

= m v2

4

4

2

A

B

After collision

not remain constant.

Thrust force is developed on the rocket

due to Newtons 3rd law of motion.

Option (b) is correct.

dv vi dm

As,

a=

=

g

dt m dt

The value of a will remain constant if vi

dm

and

are constant.

dt

Option (c) is correct.

Fnet = Ft (Thrust force due to gas ejection)

W (weight of rocket)

F

a = net

m

Thus, Newtons 2nd law is applied.

Option (d) is correct.

200 | Mechanics-1

Match the Columns

1. If x0 is the compression made in the

decrease from kx0 to zero as the spring

regains its original length. Thus, the

acceleration of B will also decrease from

kx0

to zero.

mB

2. Initial aCM =

m ( + g) + m ( + g)

m+m

u=0

2nd particle

180 m

+

mA

mB

20 ms1

1st particle

B

m

x0

kx0

kx0

kx0

to zero.

m A + mB

(a) (r)

When spring is released after compressing

it, the restoring on B will accelerate it

towards right while the reaction force on

A will apply a force on the wall which in

turn will apply equal and opposite force on

A and consequently A will travel towards

right. As both travel towards right the

velocity of CM will be maximum in the

beginning.

After this A will start compressing the

spring and at a certain instant when the

spring is compressed to maximum value

both the blocks will travel towards right

with a constant velocity and then the

velocity of CM will become constant.

(b) (q)

As the blocks will never move along

y-axis, the y-component of the CM of the

two blocks will not change.

(d) (p)

As the two blocks will keep on moving

towards right (surface below being

smooth) the x-coordinate of the CM of the

blocks will keep on increasing.

(c) (s)

=+g

= + 10 SI unit

(a) (q)

Initial vCM =

m ( 20) + m 0

m+m

= 10

|vCM|= 10 SI unit

(b) (q)

For the time taken by the first particle to

return to ground

1

s = ut + at2

2

0 = ( 20) t + 5t2

t=4s

Now, as the collision of the first particle

with the ground is perfectly inelastic, the

first particle will remain on ground at

rest.

Now, let us find the position of 2nd

particle at t = 5 s

1

s = (0) 5 + (10) 52

2

= 125 m

The particle (2nd) will still be in space

moving downwards.

m 0 + m g

aCM =

m+m

g

(SI unit)

= =5

2

(c) (p)

Velocity of 2nd particle at t = 5 s

v = 0 + 10 5

= 50 ms 1

At t = 5 s

vCM

m 0 + m 50

=

m+m

(SI unit)

= 25

(d) (s)

3. Initial KE of block B = 4 J

A

m = 0.5 kg

0.5 u2 = 4

2

u = 4 ms 1

Initial momentum of B = 0.5 4

= 2 kg ms 1

(a) (r)

Initial momentum

pCM = pA + pB

=0+2

= 2 kg ms 1

(b) (r)

Velocity given to block B will compress the

spring and this will gradually increase the

velocity of A. When the spring gets

compressed to its maximum both the

blocks will have the same velocities i.e.,

same momentum as both have same mass.

pA = pB

(at maximum compression of the spring)

But, pA + pB = initial momentum of B.

pA + pA = 2

i.e.,

pA = 1 kgms 1

(c) (q)

After the maximum compression in the

spring, the spring will gradually expand

but now the velocity of block A will

increase and that of B will decrease and

when the spring attains maximum

expansion the velocity of B will be zero

and so will be its momentum.

(d) (p)

4. If collision is elastic, the two blocks will

balls being equal).

Thus, velocity of A after collision = v

201

(a) (r)

If collision is perfectly inelastic, the two

balls will move together (with velocities V).

mv = ( m + m) V

v

V =

2

(b) (s)

1

If collision is inelastic with e = ,

2

1+ e

v1 =

v2

2

1

1+

2 v [Qv = v (given)]

=

2

2

3

= v

4

(c) (p)

1

If collision is inelastic with e = ,

4

1

1 +

4 v = 5 v

v1 =

2

8

(d) (q).

5. If A moves x towards right

A

B

50 kg

C 30 kg

60 kg

Smooth

right.

x 30 + x (60 + 30)

=0

30 + (60 + 30)

x

i.e.,

x =

3

x

= , towards left.

3

(a) (r)

If B moves x towards left

Let plank (along with A) move x to the

left

x 60 + x (30 + 30)

=0

60 + (30 + 30)

i.e.,

x = x

= x, towards right

202 | Mechanics-1

(b) (p)

If A moves x towards right and B moves x

towards left.

Let plank moves x towards right

30 x + 60 ( x) + 30 ( x )

=0

30 + (60) + (30)

i.e., x = x

= x, towards right

(c) (p)

If A and B both move x towards right.

Let plank moves x towards right

(30 + 60) x + 30x

=0

(30 + 60) + 30

i.e.,

x = 3 x

= 3x, towards right

(d) (s)

6. For man to be in equilibrium

1

T1

T1

T1

N

T1

T2

T2

m1

N

T2

T2

m2g

m1g

(i)

N + T1 = W

For the block of mass m1 to be in

quilibrium

(ii)

T2 = N + m1 g

For the block of mass m2 to be in

quilibrium

(iii)

T2 = m2 g

For the equilibrium of pulley 2

(iv)

T1 = 2T2

Solving Eqs. (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)

W = 3 m2 g m1 g

= (3 m2 m1) g

= (60 10) 10

= 500 N

(a) (r)

For the equilibrium of man

N = W T1

= W 2T2

= W 2 ( N + m1 g)

i.e.,

3 N = W 2m1 g

N = 100 N

(d) (s)

Force exerted by man on string to

accelerate the centre of mass of the system

upwards

Centre of mass of the system will move

upwards if man move upward.

i.e., when

T1 > W N

> 500 10

> 400 N

Options are 500 N and 600 N.

(b) (r) and (s).

accelerate the centre of mass of the

system.

Centre of mass of the system will move

downward if man moves downward.

i.e., when

T1 < W N

< 400 N

Options are 100 N and 150 N.

(c) (q).

23 +06

7. vCM =

3+6

2ms1

3 kg

6 kg

2

ms 1

3

When both the blocks move with same

velocity (say v) deformation in the spring

will be maximum

2 3 = 3v + 6 v

2

i.e.,

v = ms 1

3

= velocity of A

= velocity of B

=

vCM

2

2

3 +6

3

3

=

3+6

2

= ms 1

3

velocities, each will be at rest w.r.t. the

other

(a) (p), (r), (s)

(b) (p), (r), (s)

Minimum speed of 3 kg block will be

2

ms 1 and at that moment velocity of CM

3

2

will be

ms 1.

3

(c) (p)

Initial velocity of 6 kg block is zero.

When the spring is compressed to

maximum value the velocity of 6 kg will

be maximum and the velocity of CM will

2

be ms 1 (as explained above).

3

(c) (p).

8. vCM =

203

2 5 + 1 ( 10)

2+1

= 0 ms 1

+ ive

Rough

1 kg

5 ms1

10 ms1

2 kg

Smooth

(a) (r)

Momentum of CM = 2 ( + 5) + 1 ( 10)

= 0 kg ms 1

(b) (r)

block will decrease to zero as the surface

below is rough.

(c) (q)

Velocity and so the KE of 2 kg block will

decrease to zero when the velocity of 1 kg

block becomes zero (according to law of

conservation of momentum).

(d) (q).

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