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 Procedure is an ordered sequence of
 A procedure is a sequence which can be
described in terms such as first you do this, then
you do that… Smaller than a method and bigger
than technique.
 There are various procedures in language
teaching such as SRR,
 A variation on Audio-lingualism in British-based
teaching and elsewhere is the procedure most
often referred to as PPP, which stands for
Presentation, Practice, and Production.
 In this procedure the teacher introduces a
situation which contextualizes the language to
be taught. The language is presented by using
different techniques.
 The students practice the language using
accurate reproduction techniques such as choral
repetition, individual repetition, and cue-
response drills.
alternatives to PPP
 The PPP procedure came under a sustained attack in the 1990s.

 Michael Lewis suggested that PPP was inadequate because it reflected

neither the nature of language nor the nature of learning.

 Jim Scrivener advanced what is perhaps the most worrying aspect of

PPP,the fact that it only describes one kind of lesson;it is inadequate as a
general proposal concerning approaches to language in the classroom.

 In response to these criticism many people have offered variations on PPP

and alternative to it: ARC, OHE/III, ESA.
 ARC put forward by Jim Scrivener.
 ARC stands for Authentic use, Restricted use
and Clarification and focus.
 According to ARC, most language in the
classroom can be described as either Authentic
use (e.g.a communicative activity),Restricted
use (e.g. Drills, guided writing, elicited
dialogue)or Clarification and focus (e.g.
Explaining grammar, giving examples,analyzing
 In other words, communicative activity will
demonstrate authentic use; elicted dialogue or
guided writing will provoke restricted use of
language by students; finally clarification language
is that which the teacher and students use to
explain grammar,give examples,analyse
errors,elict or repeat things.
 McCarthy and Carter (1995) argue the need for a step
away from the three Ps to what they term the three Is;
Illustration-Interaction-Induction, where illustration
means examining real data in specific contexts,
interaction means using consciousness raising
activities designed to focus on the interpersonal use of
language and the negotiation of meaning, and
induction encouraging students to notice the different
functions of the lexio-grammatical features (1995:217).
 OHE procedure of lexical approach
resembles the III. OHE was developed by
Michael Lewis.
 Michael Lewis claims that students should
be allowed to Observe (read or listen to
language) which will then provoke them to
Hypothesise about how the language
works before going on to the Experiment
on the basis of that hypothesis.
 Another nice alternative to ‘PPP’ is
Harmer’s ‘ESA’ (Engage/Study/Activate).
In the ESA model three components will
usually be present in any teaching
 E stands for Engage
 S stands for Study
 A stands for Activate
 Engage: this is the point in a teaching
sequence where teachers try to arouse the
students' interest.
 Study: refer to activities where student are
asked to focus on language and how it
 Activate: this element describes exercise
and activities designed to get students to
use language as freely and as
communicatively as they can.
 How do the three elements of ESA fit
together in lesson sequences?
 ESA straight arrow sequence:
 Such a sequence may work at lower levels for
straightforward language, but may not
appropriate for more advanced learners with
more complex language.
 ESA (A) Boomerang sequence :
 Such a procedure is more appropriate for
intermediate and advanced level students since
they have plenty of language available to them at
the Activate stage.
 Patchwork Lesson
 Many lessons are mixture of a variety of short
episodes building up to a whole-e EAASASEA.
Deep-end Strategy
 Keith Johnson suggested the “deep-end strategy” as an
alternative where by encouraging the students into
immediate production, you turn the procedure on its
head.The extreme of the Deep-end strategy is to set a
task and ask students to perform.
 In practice the deep-end strategy involves providing
preparation time before performance.
 In the PPP tradition a prior decision is made by the
materials writer as to what language and skills (a)
should/will be needed and (b) will be lacking.
Deep-end Strategy
 The strenght of the Deep-end Strategy that
the approach to the task is the sts’ and is
likely to reflect their personal and
professional world.
 The Deep-end Strategy is particularly
effective on short intensive courses and
where learners are proficient in the
communacitive events in their L1.
Deep-end Strategy
The main input stage may come after the
performance based on comments from the
teacher and from the learner and peers
 As the preparation phase is controlled by
the learners another effective approach is
to develop materials that support each
learning stage but to supply them only on
request as an option.
Pre-task Task cycle Language focus

 This procedure was developed by Prabhu, Jane Willis. Task-

based learning is a language learning method popularised by
N. Prabhu while working in Bangalore, India.

 Prabhu figured out that his students could learn language just
as easily with a non-linguistic problems as when they are
concentrating on linguistic questions. Task-based learning is
used widely for language learning.
 Jane Willis broke it into three sections.

1 Pre-task
2 Task Cycle
3 Language Focus
 Pre-task
The pre-task consists of an introduction to the topic and to
the task. For example; the topic is ordering food.
 As the teacher writes down some possible answers, she
underlines the key words like cheeseburger and fries. They
now may see a video of some people at a restaurant ordering
Task Cycle
This consists of the task itself, planning, and a report. For
example; the students now get into groups and pretend order
or role-play with each other as the teacher monitors. (Task)
 The students now have to plan on what they will tell the rest
of the class about what they just did. (Plan) Finally, they have
to tell the report to the class about what they did. (Report)
 Language Focus
This consists of an analysis and practice. For
example; the students may examine and discuss
any accompanying text, audio, or visuals.
 The teacher may also conduct some sort of
practice, like a game.
 This type of method steers teachers away from
traditional roles, such as a controller.
 The Task Language Learning method proposes
that teachers take a different attitude toward
accuracy, unlike attitudes from Audio-lingualism or
PPP methodologies.

 Teachers and students can decide at which stage to enter the