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CWA

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2012

327.8
66.4(0)
44

Dale Scott

Drugs, Oil, and War: The United States in Afghanistan,


Colombla, and Indochina

..

44

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2012. -

304.

ISBN 978-5-9950-0218-5
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66.4(0)

Rowman & Littlefield Pu!ishers, lnc., 2003


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ISBN 978-5-9950-0218-5

2012

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1.1

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>>: 101961-311971

(3735 )

65,01
283,06
1 066,23
2 516,55
9 601,09
19 398,22
19 268,19
17 260,75
2 873,62
38,01
1064,69
73 435,43

1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
.

TOTAL

2,32
10,08
37,99
89,66
342,07
691,12
686,48
614,96
102,38
1,35
37,93
2 616,34

: William A/Buckingham jr., Operation RANCH HAND: The Air Force and Herblcides
in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971 (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Air Force istorian, 1981}

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The Observer

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65

1.

. 59

(2002)

BCCI
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1977 . , --

. , ,
, -

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,

1982

. 62

BCCI,

--

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[BCCl]. 63


, -

Time

, ". ,

BCCI

. 64
,

1989

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,
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, , ,

. 65 . --

(Drugs in South Asia) ,

, ,

industan

Times,

--

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66

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,

1979 ,

.
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1979

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. 68

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1984

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, ,

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,

1986

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1984

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Global InternationalAirways)

. ,

. 63
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1959
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, . 65
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,

1972

11

2001

2001 . 66

. ,

1979 2001-,
1959

69

1.

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. 87

1959

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1959 :

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1959

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. 92

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1965 ,

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1959 1961-1964 ,

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1959

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1959 ,

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. 98

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1950

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1950


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1948

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, .

1950 ( )

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,

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2002

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Business Week :

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. 14 ,

2001

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92

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. 16

1997 ,

, ,

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2001 ( Newsweek San


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11.

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1991 1999 ,

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11.

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2001

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Occidental Petroleum,

. ,
, ,

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96

4.

1981

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)
, .

1989

, .

Human Rights Watch

1991

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2000

- -

97

11.

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1997

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98

4.
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1994

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RAND Corporation

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11.

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107

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New York Times

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. 51 EAST 1982
.

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550

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1999

2000

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EAST Oliver North Enterprise

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jet Avia
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117

11.

1998

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,

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United Fruit. , Fortune,

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i st, l.

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1951

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11 .

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111.

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1,8 , , , , ,
. 12

1960 United Fruit

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Franco-Americaine d'Assurances,
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,
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.

1959

,
.

131

111.

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1960 Air America

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,
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. 14
,
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,

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.
. , 1950-
, ,

1970 , ltek.

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,

: ,

Standard Oil

Socony Mobll.

, (
) ,

1951

. 15 ,

1957

,
.

Socony Mobll

1950-


. ,
. -

1963 Socony Mobll

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132

7. ".
(

. ). 16
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1944

, , ,

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. 18
,

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. ,

1946

,
,

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. 19

133

111.

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. ,

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,


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,
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. ,

956-960



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:

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1951-1953 ( , ), 1958-

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: ,
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.

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1953

15

1941

. 20
,

,
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1950

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,
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. , . 21


,
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.

1970 .

,
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,

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1968


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173

347 504

17 .

135

111.

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(1959-1975).

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1950-1970

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. 15

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.

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1959-1960

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, 1960
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. 21

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1968


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142

8.

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1950-1970

.

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. 24
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, ,

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- 7 1954 .) -

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143

111.


( i Ameica,

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AIR AMERICA

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, , .
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,

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.)

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,

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111.

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,

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AIR AMERICA:

1941

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,

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146

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m,

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CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950-1970 .

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.
,

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1941

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147

111.


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1944

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.

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1949


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).


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148

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950--1970 .

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, ,
,

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1959

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,

1952

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1951

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200

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1954


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,

12

. 40

1954

1958

. -

150

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

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-.

1955 ,

(),

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.
,

. 41

AIR AMERICA

1954

1958


,
,

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1958


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.

1958

151

111.

.
,

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23

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,

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, , ,

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2002

23 1958 ,

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.

. 44 ,

1954 . 45
,
,

.

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,
. ,
.
. -

152

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950-1970

, ,
,

1958


. . ,

.

Pentagon Papers,
Civil Air Transport [

. 47


.
,

1959

,
, ,

. 48 ,
.
,

-
.
, .

:
, ,

. 49 ,
-

. 50
-

.

-

153

111.

Air America

51

(31 1959 Air


America, Inc.).
,

.

30

.
,

. 52
,

. 53

23

New York imes

. 54

30 ,


.
,

,
,

New York imes,

,
, ,

Washington Post, 30 , ,
3,5 . - (


, )

80

. 55

, ( )
,

30

1959

.
, -

154

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950-1970

, , ,

. 56 ,
,

92 ;
( 50 ) 30 .

16 6 1959 -

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5.

.
,
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. 57
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,

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. 58 , ,
,

. 59
,

1949-1964

. ,
,

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,

1959 . 60
, 26

. -

155

111.

1954

, ,


. ,

1959

( ,
,

). 61 ,

Air America)

1954 ;

. ,

Times,

The

" ". 62
i

. -

26 1959

. -, ,

,

.
,

; ,
. 63

- 4

. 64
:

[ . .

5 ]

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,

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,

, . 65

156

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950-1970

30

,
, , ,
, .

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,

48

. ,
, -
.66

:
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, . 67
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, (

)
, ,

. 68

,

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)
, ,
, .
,

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. 69

. 70

, :

157

111.

22 1959 ,

, , ,

. 71

AIR AMERICA

, .

- -
30 1959

. ,

, . 72
.


, ,
, ,

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,
.
,

1960 ,

,
.
,

,
. ,

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,
, ,

1960

. 75

,

, ,
.

158

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950--1970

,

.


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,
,

[ . ]

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. ,

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.
,
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,
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,
. ,

Air America ,

, .
,

, .


, -46 -47
. .

Air America, Inc.,

. 77
,
,
". .

" " . 78
. -

159

111.


. -

- . . 79
,
:
, ,
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.

Air America

1960

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17 1961 ),

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,

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, ,

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),

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400

500

,
, , ,
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.

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. . ,

. 80

-14,

160

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950--1970

. ,
,

, , .
,
, , ,


.
,
,

. 81

1960 ,


: ,
imes

Le Monde ,

, . 82

:
,

.
,

, ,
.

Air

Ameica ,

,
,

, 83 (

, , , ,

). 84

?

1960

New k Times

, ,

. 85

,

161

111.

15 1960


-47.


,
,

. 86

3 1961 Air
America . 87 ,
, ,
, .

5 .

. 88

( !)

11 89 (, ,

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).
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, 211961

. 90

, ,

13

(. . ,

):
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;
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,

. 91
,

162

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950-1970 .

. , ,
,

. 92
,
,
,
.

, , ,

Air America
-

,
?

Air America
1960 , .
1960

, ,

Bangkok Post 28 1960 . (

, , ; ,
, , .)
, ,
,

. 93
, , ,

? ,

. 94 ,

Air America

. ,

(
) , .

, , ,

, , . 95
,

1959 ,
1960

Air America

163

111.

. ,
, , ,

16

1960

. ,

14 . 96 ,

13 ,
, ,

10 20

15 .

Air America , ,
. 97
,

Air America,

1961

,
,
:
, .
".

,
,
, , .
,
, , ,
.
. -,
,
.
.
, .

,

, -

. 98

16 ,
4 .

, ,
- ,

164

8.

CAT/AIR AMERICA

1950-1970

. ,


. 99
,
,

1960 .


, ,

1964

1968

,
.
, , ,

,
.

Air America,

.
-
.

Air America

. , 1958-

, 1959-

Air America,

1960

-, : ,
. ,

. :
,
. 100
.
- ,
, ,
.

Air America
1961 -

),

165

111.

.

(

i Ameica) .

1962

. ,

( ,

1954
1961 )

.
,

i Ameica .

, ,

,
. ,

Air Ameica

,
,

.
,

1962 ,

-,
, .
, i Ameica

? ,

1962

, ,

. 101
,

. 102

9
,

1959-1970

New York Review

6 1970 ,


. 1 , ,

,
, Air Aerica
- . ,

,
,
(),
,
, .
( ),

1970 ,

, ,

CAT-Air Aerica) .

1959 ) ,

, 'l

1961 , , , . 2
,

PepsiCo

. 3

167

111.

,
.

19

1964

, ,

,
,

(,

). 4 ,
,

1962 5).

. ,

, -

, .
, . ,
( ,

Air

Aerica, ) 11- .
,

. ,
,
.

,
.

, .

6 1970

-
,
- .
,

1969

168

9.

1959-1970

- ,

.


.
,
,

,
. ,

,
,
, ,

.

, .

1961

1959

1959

, ,
-
. ,

RAND Corporation

,
, ,
-, , ,
,
,

-. 6


- , ,

, .

,
, ,


- .

-,
,
.

169

111.

, ,

1957 , -

.
, -


.
- , ,

32%

13

21

1954

. ,

- ,
- , ,
. -
:

[ ]
.

,
,
. ,

, . [

,

, , ... ]
. 7

18

1958

- .

1959

.
-

. ,
, -
, . ,
,

, .

170

9.

1959-1970

1959

11

. (

, ,
,

1954 .)

, >
:
,
,

. 8
, -

1958

( ,

): ,

1954 ,

,
-

1954

1958

, ,

, ,
.

[1]

1961

. ,

)).

: ,

1961

, ,
;


.
,
. ,

i America.

171

111.



-.

-
-, ,

. ,
,
.
, , ,

. 9

1960 ,

,
, ,
. ,

1954

. ,
. . ,

1962

1960 . 10

. ,

1950-1962


335- 316- ,

- . 11
,

1961-1962

. 1961

-6,
,



. ,

Air America

172

9.

1959-1970



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)) . 12

[2] [ 1962
] ,

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,

1962

, .



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.
, .

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1961

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),

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, ,

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, ), -

. 14

173

111.


. ,
, , ,
, :

Times,

,
. , ,

. 15
.

,

.
,
, , . :

.
".
".

. ,
-
.

1962

. 16

,
,

.17

1958

: ,

(),
, .

174

9.

1959-1970


(,

Air America)

. 18
[] []

1962 ,


, ...
,
, ,

666

40

6 .

1962

-
. , , ,

;
, .

6 .

.
, , , .
,

. . . ,

. .

1962

.
-, (

),
, ,


." ,
".

[ ]. 19

175

111.

RF-101

Voodoo. . ,

.2013

1964

, .

1964

, , ,
: .
,
,

300

- ,
Air America
1960-1961 .

-
- ;

Air America 1962 .


.
, , ".
, ".

, 21

Air America

- ,

. . ,

, ,

, ".


.22 ,

1962 , 27 ,
Air America -123,

. ,
-, ,
,

176

Air America

9.

1959-1970

-
, .
;

. ,
( Air America
, . .
, ,

, ). 24
,
,

1964 .

1962

:
, ,


. , , ,
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,
. ,

1962

, (
!)
.

. ,
,

,
,
.
;
,
-.

,
, .
. ,

1962 (

, ), -

177

111.

,
-.
, :

, ,

. 25

. ,

1962

1954-, ,

, , ,

.
,
.

[4)
1963 ,

-, ,

. .

: -
. ,

, ,
, -

,
-112

1963 (

). -,
,
. ,
; , ,

1963

, ,

. ( ,

12


, .)
, ,

178

1963

, ( ) -

9. ,

1959-1970

,
-. ,
,
,

. 26
,

1964

-, ,

1962 -,

, .

[5] 1964 -
-
.

: ,

1964


. -

1962 ;

, , .

1963

1964

- ,

1962-, . 27
,

,

.
,
,
, . ,

19 1964

,
,
, ,

. 28

179

111.

, ,
."
, ,

:
-,

1962 .

-
(, ,

1970

(.

New York Times 10 1970 ).


18 1963 ,

,
-

,
, ,

.
, , ,


.
,

""".

. 29


-,

(
) ,

. 30
, -

.
-,

,

. ,

". [ ]

180

9.

1959-1970

. 31 ,

1962 ,
,

. 32
,

.


. ,

1964

,
<< .
,

.
,

Bangkok Post ,
19 1964 .

[6]
, ,

1964 ,

: , , ,

1964

, ,

Air America.

29

1964 .

-28
, -,

Air America.
11 1964

-, .
.

181

111.

, ,

-28, . 33

21 1964 ,

. ,


,
.

1962

. ,

1964

.

,
, , ,

. 34

RF-8

1964

( ,

Times -

New York

10 1964 ,

).

12

. , ,

19 1964 . 35

,
,
,
-
.

, -
,

. , ,
, -

182

9.

1959-1970


. 36 ,

-

.
.

1964

1962


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,

1962

1964 ( ,

, ,
),
. . ,

1962 . 37

1964 ,

. ,

1964

, ,
- ).

1964

, :


. ( , ,
)
, ,

Aviation Week

22

1964

183

111.

New York Times

3 1964

...
,
, .

[7]

. ,
,

,
.

, ,
, ...
".

:
.

1967

,
.

4,5

( )

1968 12,5-15 .
1970 . 38

,
.

( , )

500-600

. ,

(.

Times 12

1970 ,

Nation
3).

26 1970

New York


,
: ,
,

184

9.

1959-1970

.
, -

. ,
,

.
-

1968 ,

4-5

. 39

1969


, -;

45

, ,

. ,

1962

.
,

(
-52

1970 ).

. , ,

,
,

1961-1962

- -
1969 . - -

,
,
, -

, .
,

New York Times 25 1969

, [ "-"]
[ ]

185

111.

1961


-.
,

1969 ( 1962-1964 )

,
.

1969


, .

15


. ,
,

: ,
, ,
,
, . ,
, ,

. 40
, , ,

1969 ,

,
.
,

19

1969

New York imes

.
: , ,
, ,

.
:

1969

19

. , ,

27

), ...
.

45

- . 41
,
, ,

186

9.

1959-1970

. 42
>, ,

1970 :

[ ]

... ,

... ... , "


". 43

17

Associated Press

, - >.

-52 .

22

1959

- :

."
...

6 .

1,5 .

,
: ,

.,

400

,
, ,

.
,
,

. 44

[8] -
, ,

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: ,
,

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187

111.


, -
,

260 -)

. , 1

,
,

1954


. J

. 45
)
,

Continental Air Services,

Air Americ<

, 1
.

-
. 46 ,

Eastern Economic Review 12

1968

Fa1

, ~

, , , r.

, 1

".

50

, ; 1
, , ,
t

F-4, F-105 -52. r.

, <
, ~

, 1
,

:
,
.

188

9.

1959-1970

1969-1970 ,

:
, ,

1970

50

67 . . 47 ,
1965 ,
.
,

;
. 48 ,
:
, ,

.

. , -
; ,

. ,
,

1965 .


, .
,
- (,

, , ),

.
,

1961

1965

),

.*
* (.

The Pentagon s) -
1945-1967 .: (United StatesVietnam Relations, 1945-1967: Study),
- ,

1971

189

111.

, ;

, . 49



.

(,

29

1964

1965

. ,

. 50
, ,

,
-:

13 . ,
67 . .


,
.

,
(

400 ,

-),
(

. ) .

400 ( -)

.

1970-

30-35

. ,

60%

5-10%

. ( ,
) ,

190

5 . . 51

9.

1959-1970

,

, ,

:
,

4,8

. . ,

30- , ,
,

. 52
, - (
, -

) ,
, ,

. , ,

10
,

1970

, ,
, , .
,
1970- ,

,
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,
,
, .

1983 : {
1970 }

1960- . 2 , ,

, , ,

, >. 3

.

, Ui

Oil (

U/) , ,
U/
,
.

Mitsi

Oil

Exploratio ,

.
,

1972 ,

1, 1

, ,

. Chevro

British Gas Asia,

192

/.

1972 . 4

10.

1970

U/, ,
,

1995 . 5

,
, ,
U/ ,

,

1968 . 6

New York Review of Books

1970

,

,

, ,
. ,
( ,
,

), 7 ,

,
,
.

, . ,
;
, , ,

,
.

, .

.
, ,

193

111.

1970 , 8

, ,

.
:

[ ] ,
.


. ,

,
.
, ,

.,

1963

1963

,
. ,

1963

. 9

196 7

,
.


.
:

1968

1969

(
).

1969

.
,

1959

, .
, ,
, ,

. 10

194

10. ,

1970

. ,

1968

1969-1970 .

: ,
,
, , ,
,


,
.
.

1968



.
1950- ;

1971

, . 11
,

1967

,
.

,

1957

1970 . 12

1968

. 13
,

195

111.

().

,
,

1968


,
,

1968

[] :

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, , ];
(

). 14


:
,

, 15
; , ,

,
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, ,
.
, -

, , , . 16
, ,

1968

- - ,

, 17
, ,
.

196

1969

10.

1970

. 18

MAGNET

). 19
,
, ,
.

1970

Union Oil of California".

. 20

, ,
,


. , , ,

, ,
,

: ,

.


,
,
, . ,

1964

197

111.

, .

( )
-

1969 ,

( , ,
).
, ,
-, ,
:

( )
, (

) ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,

. 21

,
, ,

80%;

,

1969 11
1,2

1968 (. . 22,9 ; 64/,


14,6 , ). 22

20-
;

1969

. 23


,


. 24 ,
, -
; ,

,
-
.

198

10.

1970

1967

1959

, ,

.
:
,

. , ,

Air America,

, : ,
,


. ,

, - . 25

, ,
. ,

Far Eastern Economic Review


- 1969 ]".

, [

. 26 ,
, ,

,

.
,
,
, ,
-.

1958-1959


. , ,,

- .
,

, ,
,
. ,


: , -

199

111.

, ,

. ,


.27
, ,

,
. ,

1966

12

.
1960-


.
:
;
; , ,
,

. 28
, ,
, .


.

,

.
()*,

.

(, - )
.**

( ) ,
34-.***

* Civilia Irregular Defese Group (CIDG) (.).


** Military Assistace Commad, Vietam - Studies d Observatios Group (MACV-SOG)
(.).

*** Operational Plan 34 (.), OPLAN 34Alpha ;


(OHB/SOG).

200

1961

1964 .

l\

10.

1970

. ,

,
, , ,
.


New York Times:

1967 . 29
196 7 ,

-, 1959-, .


, ,

. 30
: ,

196 7

".
,

, ".

. 31

New York

imes,

, " "
.

196 7 ,

, -,

, ,
,
,

.
. ,
(),

. 32

201

111.

, ,
,

111970

, ,

. 33
,

18 , ,

,

,

. 34
,

.

9
,

(!),

. 35

(, ,

),
.

15

. 36 ,
,

. ,


( ),
. ,
-, ,

,

,

. , ,
, ,

1970

, - .

202

10.

1970

, ,
.
,
,

( ,
), ( ,

1964 ,
10 ) . 37
, Le Monde Diplomatique,

, . 38
,
.

Union
Oil of California Mitsui Oil Exploration Company
1972 .
Newsweek,
(
,

). 39

1969 1970

.
,
". ". ,

. 40

, ,
,
,

. 41

. ,
,
.
, -

203

111.

Civil Air Transport ()

Air America.

...

1958

; 42

-
,

1970

1958

. 43

Air America

- , 44
,
.

XIX ,

,
. ,

. 45
:

1965
1958 , ,

. 46

1964

1970

,
. ,

1964


, .
34- ,
,

America,

1964 . 47

Air

,
,
, , ,

. 48 ,

204

10. ,

1970


,
,
.
,

, 49
. ,
,
34-,
,

5 1964


, ,
, ,

,
.50

1970

,
.
,
, .

1964 , -
1964

. , ,

Standard Oil 1 ,
Standard Oil ,
- ;
,

Caltex,

70%

, .
,

1964-1965 ,

, ,

.
,

1970

, , ,

, ,
.

1970 ,

, -

205

111.

30

:

,

]. 51

Newsweek,

,
:
, ,

5 7 ,

-. 52

5 .

,
, ,
".

. 53 , ,
,
, .

, , "
"

1968

*.

. 54

, -

( ,

1968 .

206

10.

1970

2-3

: , ,
, , ,

. 55
, , ,
, ,

30


. , ,
1950-
,

, ,

[18

] .

New York Times

,
,

... . 56

. ,

. 57 ,
,

: ,

:
,

- .
, " ".
- , ,
, , ,

- . 58

, , , -

207

111. :

. ,

1971 , ,

, ,
, .

:
". , ,
, ,
.

, ,
. ,
, .
,
,
. 59

, ,
. ,
,
,

, , ,

30

1970

- ,

5 . .

? , , 25-
,

? ,

,
,
,
? , , , ?
, , , .
, , ,
.

,
.
,

208

10.

1970

,
, , ,

1970

1964

. ,

Air America 1964

,
(OHB/SOG)
.
,


,
.

1970

1964

.

, .
,

.
,

, ,

.
, :
,
.

.
, ,
,
, ,

209

111.

( )
:
? ,
,
,

.

28

1970


(,
),

. 60 ,
, ,
,

. , ,

()


-,

1968 .

,
.
: . ,
,

Air America;

'-

Union Bank, Union


Oil of California (
) ThompsonRamo-Wooldridge (TRW).
- Atlantic-Richfield, Standard Oil of California
General Dynamics. , .
-
210

10. ,

1970

*. ,
,
. 61
,

400

[- ],

1944


. 62

1964


,

,

. 63 ,

,
.

1964 .

,
. ,

1964 ?

(, ,

24

.)

>,

-
1963

? 64
,
- ?
* (.

National Security Industrial Association)

1919 r.;

1997 r.
(American Defense

Preparedness Association)
(National Defense Industrial Association),

45 .

211

111.

1970 ,

,
,

?
,

1970

, ,
.


1960-1970- ,

1964-1965

1970

. -. .): , ,
, ,

. 65
,

1965

,
(,

1969 ),

. (,

)
.

11
, (( ))


, ,

1970 ,

Air Aerica [ Civil Air

Trasport, ) . 1




[, )
.

?
,
,

, ,
, -,

. 2
,
.

60%

1950 , ,

. 3

1971

213

111.


1960- ,

. . ,
, / Air Aerica

. 4

, ,
. ,

,
,

. 5 , -

. 6
,

, ,

- ;

, .
,

() :
,

. 7
,

, ,
. ,

, ,
,

. 8
,

1903

. ,
,
. -

214

11. ,
,
, (

40

. 9 ,

, -
() ()
- -, , ,

, -
.

, -,
.
,
, -

-. 10


, ,


-,

. , ,
, ,

- ,

956-60


-.

1948


.
,

:
". ".
"

" . 12 ,
,

- . -

215

111. :


:
[ ] ,
[ ].
, ... .

,
,

. -
-. ,
, ,
.
,

. 13

.
,
, .

, -, ,
.
.

, >

, - ,

- .
,
,


-. 14

,
,
. ,

1941 ,

, (
) .
,

() (

)

216

Western Enterprises, Inc., -

11. ,

. 15

Sea Supply, lnc. ,


,

, 16

.17
,

lnc"
1950 , 31 1959-
Air America, lnc. , ,


, 1961-


".

1971

, -
,
. , ,


...

, , [
] ,
,

1958 ,

(1961 ]. 18

, , ,

(CATCL),
lnc. -

, ,
,

CATCL
. CATCL 60%

>, ,

,

217

111.

. 19

1946 ,

CATCL

. 20

China Defense Supplies

1940- . ,

, ,
,
. ,
, , ,

. 21
1940-
, .

,
.

1949


-
,

.22

1949 , Time,

,

>>, ,

. 23
, ,

5 1950

.
, , ;

, ,
, ,

30 . 24
-

218

1954 1958 .

11. ,
,
,

lnc.

10 1950 ,
Airdale Corporation)

. 25 ,

Inc.

CATCL

. 26 -
,

CATCL,
Pogue and Neal , lnc.,

,
.

National City Bank of New York


( 1951 1953 ) ;
Empire City
Savings Bank - . -
, lnc.

,
-

Citibank

Citibank

City Bank Farmers Trust.

,
(

). ,
,
, , ,

.
- -,

.27
,

Am

. ,

Airdale Corporation

1957

CATCL.

219

111.

Pacific Corporatio) 100% , l. ( owed


Air America, l.), , l.,
Asiatic Aeroautical m, Air Asia.
, Asiatic Aeroautical m

, ... . 28

CATCL,

Airdale

Corporatio

40%



, .

Airdale/Pacific

Corporatio : ,

, ,

( ,

10 ), . 29
Air America
- ,

,
,
,

Chia Airlies (

1968 ,
). 30

Pacific Corporatio

, Dillo

Read

. -

,
.
, ,

Am,

, Lehma

Brothers,

, - Natioal

City k. Natioal City


k of America (
), 31
-
,

220

11. ,
. ,

1953

Am

1960-

. ,
, Am

1953

2 2

, ,

.
, 1959
,

Am, ,
. ,

. 32 ,

Am

300-

1961

1956 ( -
). 33
,
1950-

Am,

, . ,

( ,

1933

, .

-"":
, , ,

. 34 ,
, , -

221

111.

, : ,

, ,

Air America
Am. 35
Air America, ,

60- ,

.

1949 1961

, -, ,

: 93-

1946

- ,

. 36
,

Inc.

1954

CATCL,

, , ,
.
,


, ""
. 37
, ,

,
,
, ,

.

1948 ,

, 38

17 1949
222

l\ 11. ,
.
,


.
,

.
,

. 39
1950-
,

. 40

,
,

. 41

1964

,
,

. 42 ,

1958

60

1960

, [. . ]
. 43
:

, ,
,
,

, , ,
(.

E/CN.7 /395, 18).


, .
, ,
>, -

223

111.

(.

1960

E/CN.7 /395, 15).

1961

? :

1956-1960 ,

. ,
, (

). 44
:

- . ,
, ,



,
.

1950- ,
,

70-

XIX

. 45



,
. 46


,
.

224

11. , UPY
. ,

(

) ,

-.47

1954

. 48

. 49 1950-
,
,


. 50 ,
,
,

(

1950

,
,

). 51
, ,

1927

, ,
(
)

( , ). 52


. ,

1963 :

, "" (
,
)

225

111.

.
, ".

"",

, . 53

,

,
.

( ) :
(>), > (>) . , 1930-

;

, -, , -,
, . 54

1959

, . ,

-.

. 55
,


,

.

1960

... ,
[]

[. . ] .
,
. , ,

. 56

,
-

226

11. ,
.

,
. ,

,
:
, ,

: , -

. 57

,
, : 1930-

-
,

. 56
,

1971

1952

. 59

1961

() ,
,

. 60
,

()*, . ,

1967

()**.
,

,
.

* Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League (APACL) (.).


** World Anti-Communist League (WACL) (.).
227

111.

1980 .* 61

(
, )

1959

, -,

. 62 ,

-
.** ,

1959

, ,


-,

. ,
,

Christian Science Monitor,

. 63
, ,

1959


, -
, .
,

1959

, , 64

17 1980 .


.
.
, ,

1982

Uohn

irch

Society) -

1958

. -.


, ,
, , .
, -
. .
- ,

228

1945

11. ,
,

. 65

1959 , ,

" ". 66
:

1959

,
. 67
, ,

. 68

1959


.
,

1959

( , 1960-),

18

1959

. 69

26

-
,
, -


, ,

,

. ,

27 ,

, . 70

,

229

111.

. ,

). 71

, ,

1964

( ,
)

. 72

1959-1964

1959

. , , 1970- ,

. 73
,

CATCL, -


( , )
. ,

-
, , 1955 : ,


; , ,
-

,
,

.74

1971

, ,

. 75
,
-

230

11. ,

.

1960

Bird and Son,

-
;

, ,

. 76

Bird and Son ;

, , ,

. 77
(, , )
, ,

Sea Supply, lnc.

,
. ,
. 1959 , - Universal
Construction Company,

. 78

1962 ,

, ,
,

,
( )

. 79

,

, ,
.

,
, -

231

111.

,
. , .
4- , ,
, ,
. ,

,
(. .
.

. .),

1961

. 80

CATCL)

Air America

(,

Services -

Seaboard World

. 81
,


? ,

CATCL,

. , ,
,

,
,

CATCL,

.

. r
(

US Life),

. 82
.

Am;

; .

Loeb Rhoades;

;
. ,

Universal Trading Corporation,

232

11. ,
* ,
,


,
. )

U. S. Life

Union Casualty of New York,

( ),
,

U. S. Life

Union Casualty.


. 83
,

National City Bank,

( , ,

Hotel

Nacional de Cuba). 1950 ,


Transamerica Corporation,
- World
Commerce Corporation (WCC),
. WCC
84

, 85

Commerce International (China)

86

. 87 (),

Commerce International, ,


. . 88

Air America
City Investing .
U. S. Life (.
-,

, ,

, ,
( , . ),

1957 .

1960 .

233

111.

) 89 . ( ,
;

). 90
,

,
, ,

,
,

- Sea Supply, Inc. , ,

. . , ,

1951 ,

.
, (
)

. ,

1955

1956

( ,

- American Bankers Insurance Company of Florida)


30 .

, .
,
( ,
),

,

,
.

, ,

. 91

American Bankers lnsurance,

Sea Supply, lnc.,

, ,

. 92

Sea Supply . . , 1964

. , ,

19631967
-

(Exchange and
lnvestment Bank) . 93 ( ,

234

11. ,

-

. 94 )
, Geeral

Development Corpo-

ration , ,

. 95
, ,
-

Caesar's Palace

. 96

1966

,
,

1968

- . 97

Miami National Bank: 1965


Peninsular Hotel,


.98

,
. , ,

, ,
>

, >

1903 ,


, .
Air America CATCL

1965

,
Air America
, . 99 -

235

111.

1971


,
,

25%

. 100

(
1960-
)

,
.
,

1927

1950-

- , , -

, . 101

Dwight D. Eisehower, speech, August 4, 1953; The tg Papers: The Defese


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10

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, ,


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,
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"" ,
. [] (

10 1986 ; Gary Webb, Dark Alliance. New York: Seven Stoies, 1998, . 238).
45 . 93 . 11 .

-.

Alan

Block, Masters of Paradise.

New Brunswick, N./.: Transaction, 1991, . 189-190.


46

OSS (?),
. , Civil Air Transport
and Sea Supply, ,
, <<

, , ,


. ,
, ,
, ,
.

, ,

BCCI.
Mafia, . 201.
48 Theodore Draper, Very Thin Lie: The Iran-Contras Affairs. New York: Hill & Wag.
1991, . 200-202.
49 Cooley, Uholy Wars, . 180.
50 S Francisco Chroicle, 15 2001
>, (1996 ),
47

Brewto,

Uocal

New York: Algora, 2000,

280.

Delta. Richard Labeviere, Dollas for Terror.

, Uocal,

(?).

Delta

.
51
52

Cooley, Uholy Wars, . 157, 159.


Paul Fidley, They Dare to Speak Out Westport, .: Lawrence Hill, 1985.

241


, AIPAC (-
). . . ,

AIPAC, , ,
"- ",
, , . ,

, (Umut Uze, The Impact of the


Jewish Lobby America Foeign Policy i the Middle East www.mfa.gov.tr/grupa/pecept/
VI-4/u.uze.htm). ,
.

BCCI

() ( ). . Justi Raimudo,

Rich: Treaso Is the Reaso. www.atiwar.com/justi/j021601.html.


Uzer, Impact
54 . 1 ,
Foeig Oil
53

Compaies Goup, "" ,


(Robert , See No Evil. New k: Cown, 2002, .
243-244). , -
. ,
,

2002

, ,

. . Guadia, 12
2002 (); socates.bekeley.edu/-pdscott/qfia.html (
).

Demaris, Dirty Busiess, . 191.


. Lw . Walsh, I-tr: The Fial Report New k: Radom House/
Times Book, 1994, . xiv:
55

56

.
, >.
,

(?)
30 1998 .
58 David Kaiser, America Tagedy: d, Johso, d the Origis ofthe Vietnam War.
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6 Kaise, mi Tagedy, . 492.
57

Alla Nair, Idoesia

Killers /

Natio,

:
.

. ,

1945 . ,

242


{The Eagle Has Crash
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61 Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for and the Escalation of War
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62 Logevall, Choosing War, . xvii.
63 . .: John . Newman, JFK and
Vietnam. New York: Warner, 1992, . 449.
64 . . 11 .
65 . . 5, 6, 11 .
66 Michael Lind, Vietnam: The Necessary War. New York: Free Press, 1999; Kaiser, American
Tragedy. (Robert Mann,
Grand Delusion. New York: Basic, 2001).
67 , ,
.
,
. .: Opium
and the Politics of Gangsterism in Nacionalist China, 1927-1945 / Bulletin of Concerned Asian
Scholars, July-September 1976, . 19-48.
68 Arthur J. Dommen, Conflict in Laos: The Politics of Neutralizationn. New York: Praeger,
1971; Hugh , Laos: Buffer State of Battleground. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968.
69 Kaiser, American Tragedy, . 198.
1961-1963 ., . 24, . 17 4.
70 (. . 9
) , (Kaiser, American Tragedy,
.198, 210, 316).
71

, , , .
72

Kaiser, American Tragedy, . 28, 197.

73

, ,

, ,

Southern Air DynCorp.


William . Buckingham Jr., Operation Ranch Hand: The Air Force and Herblcides in
Southeast Asia, 1961-1971. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, United States Air
Force, 1982, .133-134.
75 . . 10 .
74

76

, , ,
.
11

. .

11

5 .
Scottand Marshall, Cocaine Politics, . 172; , Politics ofHeroin, . 16, 124; Peter Dale
Scott, Deep Politics and the Death ofJF. Berkeley: UniversityofCalifomia Press, 1976, .167-176.
78

. .

79

243


(Ross . Coen, The China Lobby in American Politics.
New York: McMillan, 1960). , 1960
80

. ,
( , ).

Octagon 197 4 . . . 11 .
Scott and Mashall, Cocaine Politics, . 172-173.

81

. , , ,
.
2

.
. , :
,

(Los Angeles
19 1998 .).
3 Peter Dale Scott, Dugs, Contas, and The CIA: Government Policies and the Cocaine
Economy. Sherman Oaks, Calif.: Fom the Wildeness Pulications, 2000, . 30.

imes,

Alfred W. , The Politics of Heoin: CIA Complicity in the Global Dug d. Brooklin,
Lawence Hill, 1991, . 19.
5 Carl . Trocki, Opium. Empire, and the Global Political Economy: Study of the Asian
Opium d, 1750-1950. London: Routledge, 1999; imothy k and Tadashi
Wakabayashi, eds., Opium Regimes: China, Bitain, and }, 1839-1952. Berkeley: University
of Califonia Pess, 2000.
6 Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant lslam. Oil, and Fundamentalism in Cental Asia. New
Haven: Yale University Pess, 2001, . 173-175, 182.
7 Washington imes, 3 1999 .: (( 1998 . ..
4

N. .:

" , ,

. ((

24 1999 . , ((

.
8 Guardia,

15

2001

.: ((

1999

".
, ,

, , -

244

. ,
.

David McClintick, Swodfish: True Story of Ambltion, Savagery, and Betayal. New York:
Pantheon, 1993, . 227-228; Newsweek, 15 1985; Peter Dale Scott, Drugs, Contras, and
the CIA, . 29-32.
10 Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in
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11 William French Smith, Drug Traffic Today: Challenge and Response // Drug Enforcement,
Summer 1982, . 2-3; , Politics, . 447. Cf. U. S. General Accounting Office, Drug Control:
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12; Peter Dale Scott, Honduras, the Contra Support Networks, and Cocaine, in Alfred W.
and Alan . Block, eds" War on Drugs: Studies in the Failure of U. S. Narcotics Policy. Boulder:
Westview, 1992, . 127.
9

(
) ,
1960- .)) (New York Review
of Books, December 3, 1992).
12 Washington Post, 13 1990 .; , Politics, . 459.
13 John . Cooley, UnholyWars: Afghanistan,America, and International Terrorism. London:
Pluto, 2000, . 17.
14 Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press.
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Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991, . 701.
15 Zblgniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic
Imperatives. New York: Basic, 1997, . 7.
16 Yergin, The Prize, . 702.
17 Nouvel
Observateur (15-21 1998 .): , 3 1979 .


. ,
, .
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.

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September 9, 1979).

Post,

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19

Brzezinski,

Grad

Chessboard,

124.

((
.

, , .

Zblgniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard, . 125.


1 1997 . . : Michael l,
Resource Wars: The New Ladscape of Global Coflict (New York: Metropolitan Books/Heny
Holt, 2001), . 4.
22 Lester W. Grau. Hydrocarbons and New Strategic Region: The Caspian Sea d Central
Asia // Militay Review, May-Jue 2001.
23 17 1997 .
; Rashid, Taliban, . 17 4.
24 Michae\ , Resource Wars, . 90; New York Times, 8 1998 . 1949 .
20

21

(New York Times, Januay 29, 2002).


Rashid, Taliba, . 162; Guardia (London), Januay 12, 2002.
26 1996 .
Occidental, British Petroleum, Amoco, Enron . . . 6.
25

246

Robert Baer, See No Evil: The True Story of Groud Soldier i the CIA's War
Terrorism. NewYork: Crow, 2002, . 243-244.
28 )'s Itelligece Review, October 5, 2001, www.jaes.com/security/itematioal_
security/ews/ /jid/jidpromoO 11105.shtml.
29 .: Ld DailyTelegraph, 15 16 2001 r.; Motreal Gazette, 15
2001 r.; Le d, 14 2001 .
30 Los Ageles Times, 15 2001 .
31 Cooley, Uholy Wars, . 43.
32 Michael Griffi, Reapig the Whirlwid: The Taliba Movemet i Afghaista. Ld:
Pluto, 2001, . 133; Cooley, Uholy Wars, . 243; Peter L. Berge, Holy War, I.: lside the
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Labeviere, Dollars for Terror: The Uited States d Islam. New York: Algora, 2000, . 102104, 223-224. Der Spiegel (6 1986 .), 1986 .
27

-
.
34

Simo

Terrorism.

Reeve, The New jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama Lade, d the Future of
Press, 1999, . 167. ,

Bosto: Northeaster Uiversity

, ,
. , ,
14 ,
(Cooley, UholyWars, .110-111).
35 Guardia (Ld), 1 2001 .
36 Bodasky, i Lade, . 314-315: ""
8 .
, "" , 10-15% ,
.
37

.: www.jaes.com/security/itematioal_security /ews/jir /jirpromo011022_3_.

shtml.
,
, , ,

1980- . -->

2001

. .

, ,
1990-

rr.

(Griffi, Reapig the Whirlwid, .

150). -

(Cooley, UholyWars, . 155).

( , )
. , ,
, . , ,

247

1996 .,

, , ,
(Giffin, Reaping
the Whilwind, . 142-143; Cockbun and St. \i, Whiteout, . 267).
, Asia imes Online 4 2001 .
, (29 ),
,

6,5 .
November 25, 2001, www.observer.co.uk/Distribution/Redirect_Artifact/0,46 78,0-605618,00.html.
39 Paul Stares, Global Hablt: The Drug Pro\em in Borderless World. Washington, D. .:
Brooking lnstitution. John Kerry, The New War: The Web of Crime That Threatens
America's Security. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997, . 96.
38

sv,

Newsweek, 212001 .: ,
40%
. San Francisco
Chronicle, 21 2001 .:
1

2,5%
580 >.
2 Scott and Marshsl\, Cocaine Politics, . 96-103.
3 Alfred W. , The Politics of Heroin: \ Complicity in the Global Trade. New York:
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4 Richard Nixon, Asia after Vietnam // Foreign Affairs, October 1967, . 111. .
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6 , Politics, . 162.
7 , Politics, . 286-287.
8 Peter Dale Scott, Honduras, the Contra Support Networks, and Cocaine: How the U. S.
Government Has Augmented America's Drug Crisis // ln.: Alfred W. and Alan . Block,
eds., War Drugs: Studies in the Failure of U. S. Narcotics Policy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview,
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9 , Politics, . 446.
10 V. Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs in South Asia: From the Opium Trade to the Present Day. New
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11 Jonathan Marshal\, Peter Dale Scott, and Jane Hunter, The lran-Contra Connection:
Secret Teams and Covert Operations in the Reagan Era. Boston, South End, 1987, . 36-40;
290

248


, Politics, . 461-4 79; Jonathan Marshall, Drug Wars: Corruption, Counterinsurgency,
and Covert Operations in the Third World. Forestville, Calif.: Cohan & Cohen, 1991, . 55-56;
Johnatan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.
12 Nugan Hand Bank, :
. ()
?

. ?

, ,
?

Scott, Hoduas, the Conta Support Netwoks, and Cocaine, . 126-127.


, Politics, . 191 ( ).
15 John . Cooley, Unholy Was: Afghanistan, America, and lnternational Terroism. London:
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16 Clai Sterling, Thieves' World: The Theat of the New Global Netwok of Oganized
Cime. NewYok: Simon & Schuster, 1994, . 44; 1990 .
13
14

.
17 Antonio Nicaso and Lee Lamothe, Global Mafia: The New World Order of Organized
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18 , New War, . 18.
19 Yegin, The Pize, . 538-539.
20 David . Spiro, The Hidden Hand of American Hegemony: Petrodollar Recycling and
lnternational Markets. lthaca, N. .: Cornell Univesity Pess, 1999, . : 1974 .



.
,
. ,

(.
21

103-112).

, .
, . ,

,
,
. , .
-, ,

(Spiro, idden
121).
22 John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret W against the Jews. New York: St. Martin's,
1994, . 343; Spiro, Hidden Hand, . 123-124.
23 Yergin, The Pize, . 772.
24 \, UnholyWas, . 116-117.
Hand,

249

Jonathan Beaty and S. . Gwynne, The Outlaw Bank: Wild Ride into the Heart of BCCJ.
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26 Greg Palast, The Best Democracy Money Buy. London: Pluto, 2002, . 48.
, , - 1944 r.
, 1980 r. -
25

: ,
. r.

1997 "
(Progressive, 2000, . 34).
27 . . 11 .
28 Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War. Vol. 2, The Roaring of the Cataract,
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29 .: Peter Dale Scott, foreword to
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30 Martin . Lee, The Beast Reawakens. Boston: Little, Brown, 1997, . 202.
31 Washington Post, 10 2001 .; San Francisco Chronicle, 21 2001 .
(); New York imes, 28 2002 .
32 United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Afghanistan Annual Opium
Survey, 2001.

33

, ,

2001, www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2001/rpt/8482.htm.
34

((

, (( 1980- r"
.
35

7 2001 " www.cia.gov/cia/puic_affairs/


speeches/archives/2001/ /UNCLASWW_02072/001.html.
36

, ,

2001.
37 Ahmed Rashid, Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2002, . 178.
38 Rashid, Jihad, . 214-216.
39 . Peter Dale Scott, Deep Politics and the Death ofJF. Berkeley: University ofCalifornia
Press, 1996, . 203. ,

,
. : ((
,
>. ((
(( ,
, (( (.

237).

, ((
- .

250


hv Uocal

, ,

(. . ).
(.: Richad Labeviee, Dollas foTerro:

The Uited States d Islam. New k: Algoa, 2000, . 280). ,


, Le d Diplomatique.
40 Michael Giffi, Reapig the Whilwid: The Taliba Movemet i Afghaista. Ld:
Pluto, 2001, . 145-146; Christia Lamb, Waitig f Allah: Pakista's Struggle f Democacy.
New k: Vikig. 1991, . 195:
, 1989 . 4
- . .

,
, 8

1989 .

,
,

41

(Orth, Vaity Fai, h 2002, . 178).


, Politics, . 446-447.

15

, .
,

1986 .,

- -
1980-

rr. , ,

( , -
1980- . ).
-

.: . Emdad-ul Haq, Dugs i South Asia, . 194-195.


Politics, . 458; Giffi, Reapig the Whilwid, . 148 ();
. Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs i South Asia, Drugs i South Asia, . 189 ( ).
43 Lw Lifschultz, Pakista: The Empie fi // W Drugs, . 451.
44 t Truell d Lary Gurwi, False Pofits: The Iside Story of BCCI, the Wold's Most
Corupt Fiacial Empie. Bosto: Houghto Miffli, 1992, . 123.
45 r-w Report: U. S. Cogess, Seate, Committee Foeign Relatios, The BCCI
Affai, St /h r d St k w. Washigto, D. .: GPO, 1992, . 27-28.
46 Truell d Gurwi, False Pofits, . 123.
47 Ibld, . 130.
48 /oseph /. t, The Secet istory of the CIA. New k: Forum/Cow/Radom
House, 2001, . 410, 467.
49 Loftus d s, Secet W, . 395.
ltematioal Cedit d Ivestmet m (ICIC). Bruce Campbell &
m, BCCI,
, - Nuga d. , i
Waehouse (Truell d Gurwi, False Pofits, . 125).
42

50

( . ) <(
:

251


." , , ". ,

, " ''.
". ,

, , ,

, (t, Secet istory, .


51

Loftus and

Aaons, Secet W, .

395.

466-467).

, :

BCCI

1976 .

, ". ,

BCCI
Fine, Jewish Pess, March 6, 1992).
52 Kerry-Brown Report, . 68, 611.
53 lbld, . 361-363.
54 . : Stephen Pizzo, Ficker, and Paulo Muolo, lnside Job: The Looting of America's
Savings and Loans. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989, . 89.
55 Marshall, Drug Wars, . 52; Robert 1. Friedman, Red Mafya. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000,
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56 Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw Bank, . 195-196.
, 1,5 ,
, BCCI )) (. 63).
57 Robert Lacey, The ingdom: Arabla and the House of Sa'ud. New York: Avon, 1981,
. 451-455.
58 New York Times, 16 1980 " 16 1979 .; Washington Post, 18
1979 .; Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw k, . 238, 255, 272-277.
59 Kerry-Brown Report, . 300, New York imes 6 1981 .:
, 1977 "
)) (Anold

, ".

1981 . - , ,
- ,

1977 .

,
. )) ,

1970- "
, )). . :

Cooley, UnholyWars, . 112-113.


James Ring Adams and Douglas Frantz, Full Service Bank. New York: Pocket Books,
1992, . 64-72. 1977 r. . ,
60

.
61 Truell and Gwynne, False Profits, . 160-161; , Politics, . 454; Lawence
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: Alain Labrousse, La drogue, l'argent et les armes.
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62 Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw Bank, . 52 (); Lifschulz, Pakistan, . 342 (lterpol).
63 Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw Bank, . 48. )),
, , ; .: Adams (. 257)
Kerry-Brown Report (. 226, 348).

252

64

Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw Bank, . 52.

65

( ,

); : Chistina

Lamb, Waiting f Allah, . 206, 222 . Emdad-ul Haq, Dugs in South Asia, . 185.
66 . Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs in South Asia, . 185, Hindustan Times, 1
1994 . ( ,
) ,
. ,

1979

., ,

, <<

(Robert .
Gates, Fom the Shadows. New k: Simon & Schuste, 1996, . 144, 146).

, -->

1978 . . . Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs in


South Asia, . 185, 187; Hamidulla Amin and Godon . Schultz, Geogaphy of Afghanistan,
Kabul: Centre f Afghanistan Studies, 1984, . 381; Larry Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless W:
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67 , Politics, . 451; Lifschultz, Pakistan, . 321-323, 326.
68 . Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs in South Asia, . 188.
1990- .,
, "", ...
... , ,
... , >

(Stephane Allix, La petite cuillee de


la oute de l'heoine [Pais: Editions Ramsay, 1998], . 33-34; Cooley,
150; Giffin, Reaping the Whilwind, 148).

Scheheazade, su

Unholy Was, .

69 ,

1970- . ., .: Catheine Lamou

Michel R. LLamberti, The International Connection: Opium

fom Gowers

to

Pushes.

and
New

Yok:Pantheon,1974,pp.190-192.
10 Maueen

Orth, Vanity Fai, h 2002, . 170. 2001

,
( , .

152).
Cooley, Unholy Was, 128-129; Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw Bank, . 305-306.
72 Beaty and Gwynne, Outlaw Bank, . 306, 382; Allix, La petite cuillee ... . 35, 95.
73 Maueen Orth, Vanity Fai, h 2002, . 170-171. -
71

, ,

, .

Washington Post, July 19, 1992.


Mohammed Yousaf and k Adkin, Afghanistan Superpowe. Havertown, Penn.: Casemate, 2001, . 189.
76 Rashid, Jihad, . 43.
74
75

The Defeat of

253

Rashid, Ta\iban, . 129.


Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs in South Asia, . 189.
79 Yousaf, Bear Trap, . 193. Rashid, Jihad, . 223.
00 Alix, La petite cuillere, . 100.
81 BCCI ., .: Kerry-Brown Report, . 49-51; Truell and
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82 Loftus and Aarons, Secret War, . 381-382.
83 Bergen, Holy War, Inc., . 67
84 Bergen, Holy War, Inc., . 70.
85 . 52 . 8, r. 11.
86 . r. 11.
87 . . 8 " ": Air America . 1970 . ,
, , 1960 . -
77
78

, . ,

ero

1962

. ,

(.:

Peter Dale Scott,


Vietnamization and the Drama of the Pentagon Papers in Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel
ed. [Boston: Beacon, 1972) 5:231; . : , Po\itics, . 300).
88 , Politics, . 162, 184-86; . : . 11 .
89 , Politics, . 190. ,
.

1959 .,

.
, .
90 Bernard Fall, Anatomy of Crisis, (Garden City, N. .: Doueday, 1959), . 99; .
11 .
91 . . 11 .
92 , CAT/Air
America - 4 1959 .
1960 ., - . ,

, , , - . .

,
.

1968 ,

( ) , ,
.
r
. r

.
93

Scott, War Conspiracy, . 64 (Cline); Cumings, Origins, . 102 (LeMay).

1960- . r ,
.
94

. Anthony

254

Kubek, How the Far East Was Lost (Chicago: Henry regnery, 1963);
Scott, Deep Politics, . 292-93.

95

1971

. ,

- 13,5 (,

Politics, . 283-84).
96 . . 11

. (( "-"

, .

97

1959 .

1970

,
. ;
; .:

Seymour Hersh, The Price of w, (New York:


Summit Books/Simo & Schuster, 1983), . 267-68, 288-89, 293, passim.
98 ,

, , ,
(( .


1 Carl . Trocki, Opium, Empire, and the Global Political Economy: Study of the Asian
Opium Trade, 1750-1950 (London: Routledge, 1999), 134.
2 Peter Dale Scott, Vietnamization and the Drama of the Pentagon Papers, in The Pentagon
Papers, Senator Gravel ed. (Boston: Beacon, 1972), 1:366; quoted in Alfred W. , The
Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade (Brooklyn, N. .: Lawrence Hill,
1991), 165.
3 Joseph Burkholder Smith, Portrait of Cold Warrior (New York: Ballantine, 1976), 66-6 7;
Cumings, Origins, 2:533, 872.
4 , Politics, 170, 177.
5 Ibld, 191, .
1970 .
6 , Politics, 178, . William R. Corson, The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the
American Intelligence Empire (New York: Dial, 1977), 320-22.


, . , ,
: , ,

(,
7
8

Politics, 177-78).
Politics, 173, 178.
lbld, 185.

1954 r.

. (Petagon

Papers, Senator

Gravel ed., 1:438).


9 . . 11 .
1Cumings, Origins, 2:770.

255

11

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.
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, (Cumigs, Origis,

Goodfellow, Jauary 15, 194 7):

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Archives, Staford, Calif., 1).

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1950 .

, , ,

(Cumigs, Origis,
14

Leary,

Peilous Missios,

110.

. .

2:123).

11

. ,
, ,
.

Leary, Peilous Missios, 110.


Byrd, Cheault, 343.
17 Cumigs, Origis, 2:872.
18 Cumigs, Origis, 2:611, 613; .
15
16

: Corso,

Armies of lgorace, 315-21.

20

: ,

> (. . ).
19

Politics, 167; . Scott, Deep Politics, 165-66.

; .: Burto Hesh, The

Old Boys: The America Elite d the Oigis of the CJA (New k: Sciber's, 1992), 299.
20 , Politics, 167-68, 268.
.: Marshall, Scott, d Huter, lra-Cotra, 64-65.
, , ,

().
21

Politics, 168-70; . . 11

City, N. .: h Doueday, 1984), 42-44,


84 (Lasky): R. . Naylor, Hot d the Politics of Debt (New York: Simo & Schuster,
1987), 292.
23 Wall Street Joual, April 18, 1980; Leroux, l Baks We Trust, 82-88.
Castle k (Leroux, l Baks, 86) , ,
(Summers, rg of Power, 253-57).
24 Scott d Mashall, i Politics, 92-93 (Nuga Hand); Lu, I Baks, 87
(Olmsted). ,
22

Lu, l Baks We Trust (Garde

.
25

(.

133), (. 533),

, , :

256

(The Origis ofthe

War).

26

Ross

. .

Koen, The China Lobby in American Politics (New York: Macmillan, 1960), ix.
11 .

27

Cumings, Origins, 2:515.

.
: <<


... "" .

, ""
, [ " "]
( ),
,

(Sterling, Thieves'

World, 45).
28 Tocki,

Opium, 149. Cf. Brook and Wakabayashi, eds., Opium Regimes, 83, 92, 94, 97,
305, 309; John Butcher and Howard Dick, eds., The Rise and Fall of Revenue Farming (New
York: St Martin's, 1993), 90-91, 168-69, 179-80, 251-55, etc.
29 , Politics, 262-68; Trocki, Opium, 133, Brook and Wakabayashi, Opium Regimes,
278, 327; see this book, 193.
30 Trocki, Opium, 133; . : Jonathan Marshall, Opium and the Politics ofGangsterism
in Nationalist China, 1927-1945, Bulletin of Concerned Asia Scholars, July-Septembe 1976,
29-30; . . 11 .
31

, -
, , ,

. .: t

Dale Scott, Opium and Empire:


Heroin in Southeast Asia, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Septembe 1973, 49-56.
32 , Politics, 270; see this book, 193.
33 Scott, Deep Politics, 167; . . 11 .
34 New York Times, June 2, 1995, AJ, 16. 1994 .,
"" (Thieves' Wold, 43).
35 San Fancisco Chronicle, February 6, 1996; February 7, 1996.
36 Cumings, Oigins, 2:511-12.
,
, .

,

1950- .. ,
(.

133), ,

. ,
, .

,
.

257


l . Block, Failures at d Abroad: Studies i the lpleetatio of U. S. Drug
Policy, i War Drugs, 41; l . Block d Joh McWillias, << the Origis of ri
Couteritelligece: Buildig Cladestie Network, Journal of Policy History, 1989.
38 Scott, Deep Politics, 165-67.
39 Curt Getry, J. Edgar Hoover: The d the Secrets (New York: Pegui, 1991),531-32
(FBI); Scott, Deep Politics, 145-46 (FBI); Sally Dt d Roger Morris, The d the
Power (New York: Alfred . nopf, 2001), 254, 424 . (cf. 28), (CIA); Peter Dale Scott, Midig
the Darkess: for the Year 2000 (New York: New Directios, 2000), 178-79 (FBI, CIA).
40 1949-1950 r. ,
37


(Cuigs, Origis,

2:62, 123, 143, 803, etc.).


(Cuigs, Origis,

2:512). r,

. . .
41

Cuigs, Origis,

42

.: ,

2:872 . 93.
Politics, 89-96; r. 11 .
43 Paul Rogers, Oil d the War Terroris: Why Is the Uited States i the Gulf?
Jauary 9, 2002, www.opedeocracy.et/foru/docuet_details.asp?Cat ID= 103&DocID
= 969:
,
, .

Rashid, Jihad, 216; . 178.


lbld, 166, 191-92.
46 Alai Labrousse, iterview with Pulso (Bolivia),
44

45

www.arcoews.co/pressbriefig

21septeber.html. )
, ))
. Pulso, Geopolitical

Drug Dispatch

,

)).
47

Rashid, Jihad, 236-37.

48

www.state.gov/ /pa/bgn/2924-htm.

Busiess

Week, 12 2001
/b3719158.htm. ,

/2001/01_07 /

., -, www.busiessweek.
,


,
.

, ;

258


-
, , . .:

AI Giodano,
in Colombla: Uribe's Rise from Medellin: Precursor to Narco-State, NarcoNews, March 19, 2002, www.narconews.com/narcocandidatel.html.
z 1998 " www.gwu.edu/-nsarchiv /NSAEBB/
NSAEBB69 / /part3.html#doc64.

Naco-Candidate

Human Rights Watch -


24 2002 r.
474 1

1 2001

(Nation, 19 2001 r.; Transnational


lnstitute, Drugs and Democracy, 1 2001 " www.tni.org/drugs).
5 Ana Carrigan, Irish imes, August 23, 2000.
6 State Department release, April 21, 2001, ea.usa.or.th/mirror/usinfo.state.gov /topical/
global/drugs/ /01042116.htm.
300 ,

(.

St Petersburg Times, 3 2001 .).


State Department, briefing Andean Initiative, 16, 2001.

, . ., ,

Guenter Lewy, America


in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 185-86.

,
(.

301 );

.
9

, ,

Monsanto -

.
, , . .

Jeremy
Bigwood, ((Toxic Drift: Monsanto and the Drug War in Colomhia, www.alternet.org/story.
html?StorylD= 11088. Greenpeace, ((

> (.

www.greenpeaceusa.org/media/factsheets/glyphosate.htm ).

Center for Defense Information, Show Transcript: Colombla in Crisis, www.cdi .org/

adm/1315/ /transcripthtml. , >,


, . -
; -
(. Housto Chronicle, July 16, 2000).

259


11 Washigto

Post, December 10, 2000.


11, 1998.
13 Huma Rights Watch, COLOMBIA: The Ties That Bid: Colombla d Military-Paamilitary
12

Miami

Heald, Novembe

Liks, www.hrw.og/eports/2000/colombla/#COLOMBIAAND MILIARY-PARAMILITARY.


24 2002 .
1997 . 17 .
14 St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 5, 2000, AlO.
15 Newsweek lteatioal, 21, 2001.
16 Dug fmt Admiistratio, Taffickes from Colombla, www.usdoj.gov/dea/

laffickes/colombla.htm.

Los Ageles Times,


30, 1997. ,
, - .
. Newsweek
(. 21
2001 .) , , ,
"" 1,2 . (.
24 2002 .).
18 Newsweek, 21, 2001; S Facisco Choicle, /u 21, 2001.
19 t Dale Scott, Hoduas, the Cotra Support Netwoks, d i: How the U. S.
Govemet Has Augmeted Ameica's Drug Cisis, i Alfed W. d l . Block,
eds., W Dugs: Studies i the Failue of U. S. Nacotic Policy (Boulde: Westview, 1992),
126-27. 1990 .
20 David McClitock, Swordfish (New k: th, 1993), 228; t Dale Scott, Drugs,
ts, d the CIA (Sherma Oaks, Calif: Fom the Wildeess Pulicatios, 2000), 7.
21 Scott, Hoduas, 161. Iteatioal Nacotics tl Stategy Report, 1999. Released
the Bueau f Iteatioal Nacotics d Law fmt Affais, U. S. Departmet
ofState, Washigto, D. ., h 2000, www.state.gov/www/global/acotics_law/1999_
17

www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/cgrtest/ct970709.htm. .

Septembe

ac_report.

Report, 1999. Released the Bueau f


Narcotics d Law fmt Affais, U. S. Departmet of State, Washigto,
D. ., h 2000, www.state.gov/www/global/acoticsJaw/1999_ac_eport.
23 /oseph Buttige, Vietam: Political istory (New k: g, 1968), 456-60.
24 U. S. m Special Wf School, Subject: Visit to Colombla, February 26, 1962,
llt Pess, Declassified Documets Rf Series (1976:1540); Michael McClitock,
lstrumets ofStatecaft: U. S. Guerilla Warfae, Couter-isurgecy, d Couter-terrorism
(New k: th, 1992), 222. 1959 ., . ,
22

lteatioal Nacotics tl Stategy

lteatioal


(. McClitock, lstrumets,

143).
25

McClitock, lstumets,

223.

(] -

260

1950- .:
, .

1963 Field Maual U. S. Army Counte-insugency Foces (FM 31-22), 82-84; quoted
in McClintock, Instruments, 252.
27 Reglamento de Combate, 317; . : McClintock, Instuments, 252, 223.
28 McClintock, Instruments, 193; Office of Pulic Safety, lnternational Police
Academy, syllabus f Course . 6. 19 -
26

, .
29

-19 -

- .
, . . Ana
Carrigan, The Palace of Justice: Colomblan Tagedy (New k: Fou Walls Eight Windows,
1993).
.
, ,
,

.
.: t

Dale Scott,
Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 202-4.
30 San Francisco Chronicle, June 15, 2001.
-
, .


, .
(Bloomberg.com, March 25, 2001, . : Robert
Jereski, The Conflict in Aceh, www .preventconflictorg/portal/main/eseach/jeeski.htm).
2002 . ,
Unocal, (Los
Angeles imes, September 19, 2002).
31 Scott and Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 89.
32 Human Rights Watch, State of War: Political Violence and Counter-insurgency in
Colombla, www.hrw.org/reports/1993/stateofwarl .htm.
33 Human Rights Watch, Colombla's Killer Networks: The Military-Paramilitary Partnership
and the United States, 1996, www.hrw.og/hrw/eports/1996/killel.htm; . Frank
Smyth, Progessive, June 1998: 1991 .
.
, .
,

" ". "" ,


, , "
". , -

261


, , ""
, .

Human Rights Watch, The ies That Bind: Colombla and Military-Paamilitary Links,
2000, www.hw.og/epots/2000/colombla; Alma Guillermoprieto, Our New War in
Colombla, New York Review of Books, April 13, 2000.
35 {Guillermo Prieto, Our New War) : <<
, 1995 . 48,6 .
. 1999 . 21,8 .
, 1995 . 115,3 . ,
38, 7 .
, 1995 1999 ., .
1995 . , , 214,8 . ,
1999- - 183 .. . Chicago Sun-imes, /anuary 21, 2001: 1990- .
34

66% {

).

55%

, , , . .
, , . , , ,

. ,

2,5 , . ,

1998

1999 .

Scott and Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 81-84.


New York Times, October 25, 1997.
38 Lucian R W. , Armies in the Process of Political Modernization, in The Role ofthe Military
in Underdeveloped Countries, ed. /ohn /. /ohnson {Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962),
87-89. RAND
36
37

{.

224); Peter Dale Scott, The United States and the Overthrow ofSukarno,
1965-196 7, Pacific Affairs {Vancouver, . .), Summer 1985, 239-64.
1965 .
39 Edwin Lieuwen, Militarism and Politics in Latin America; in /ohnson, Role ofthe Military,
138, 147.
40 /ohnson, Role ofthe Military, 153-54.
41 New York imes, 28, 2001.

1 Human Rights Watch, Colombla's Killer Networks: The Military-Paramilitary Partnership


and the United States, 1996, www.hrw.org/hrw /reports/1996/killerl.htm.

262


Fank Smyth, Pogessive, June 1998.
/onathan Mashal\, t Dale Scott, and /ane Hunte, The lan-Conta Connection: Secet
Teams and Covert Opeations in the Reagan (Boston: South End, 1987), 70-71.
4 ., : Paamilitaismo como politica containsugente de estado, home3.
swipnetse/-w-34817 /FARC/990120-paa-milita-documento.htm.
5 t Dale Scott and Jonathan Mashal\, Cocaine Politics: Dugs, Amies, and the CIA in
Central Ameica (Bekeley: Univesity of Califonia Pess, 1998), 89; citing Rens-selae W. Lee
111, The White Labyrinth (New Brunswick, N. /.: Tansaction, 1988), 117-18.
6 Scott and Mashal\, Cocaine Politics, 88; citing James Mills, The Undegound Empie
(New k: Del\, 1986), 882.
7 3 .
2001 . (Associated Pess,
9, 2002).
8 Andew Cockbun and Leslie Cockbun, Dangeous Liaison: The Inside Story of the
U. S.-Isaeli Covert Relationship (New k: HapeCollins, 1991), 214-18.
2


, , :

, , , ,
. , ,
(.

215).

-,

(Washington Post, t 16, 1999; /erusalem


Post, Septembe 21, 1999).
9 Scott and Mashall, Cocaine Politics, 56-64.
--

(Scott and Mashall, Cocaine Politics,


41-42). t Dale Scott, Drugs, Contras, and the CIA (Sherman Oaks, Calif.: Fom the Wilderness
Puications, 2000), 7-8.
10 Scottand Marshal\, Cocaine Politics, 54-64, 101-21; Scott, Drugs, Contras, and the CIA. 7-37.
11 Alfred W. , The Politics of Heoin (Booklyn, N. .: Lawrence Hill, 1991), xiv-xv,
162-78, 284-92, 448-60, passim.
12 1982 . .
,

. .: U. S. Central Intelligence
Agency, Office oflnspecto Geneal [Federick Hitz], Investigations Staff, Report of Investigation
concening Allegations between CIA and the Contras in Tafficking Cocaine to the United States,
96-0143-\G, vol. 2, The Contra Story, s. 23-30, 57-71; Scott, Drugs, Contras, and the CIA, 12.
13 m chapte 2 in this volume; Stephen Handelman, Comade Ciminal: Russia's
New Mafia (New Haven: \ Univesity Pess, 1995), 195-204. Casey's so-cal\ed Opeation
Mosquito deserves to investigated, as does the CIA use at this time of un fom
Shakachi Tading, Swiss fim \t accused of laundeing funds fom both Afghan heoin
and Colomblan cocaine.

263

Scott and Marshal\, Cocaine Politics, 10-12, 132-50.


Ibld, 149. See also David Harris, Shooting the Moon (Boston: Little, Brown, 2001),
157-59.
16 Scott and Marshal\, Cocaine Politics, 133-34, 149-50, 154.
17 Gary Webb, Dark Alliance (New York: Seven Stories Press, 1998), 332.
14

15

18

Occidental Oil

1983 .

-.

1986

1989 .,

New York Times, March 21, 1984 ( ); k Bowden, Killing (New


York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001), 44 ( ).
19

, ,

,
, .

Scott and Marshal\, Cocaine Politics, 97-98.


ibld, 94.
22 Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U. S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980s (Gainesville: University
Press of Florida, 1994), 412.
20

21 .:

23

, . ,

16 1986 . , ((
. ,

San Francisco Examiner,

(( ,


24

(Scott and Marshal\, Cocaine Politics, 172-73).

(.:
25

Scott and

Mashal\,

Cocaine Politics, 99-103).

((>
<<-19 .

221.
(Scott and Marshal\,

Cocaine Politics, 95-96, 102).


26 Bowden, Killing , 54.
27 Scott and Marshal\, Cocaine Politics, 102; Bowden, Killing , 54.
28 Los Angeles Times, /une 8, 1986; Harris, Shooting the Moon, 18; Wall Street /ounal,
Apil 22, 1987; cf. Elaine Shannon, Desperados (New York: Viking, 1988), 150.
29 Lee, White Labyinth, 172-75, 179-81; Shannon, Desperados, 142-43, 173-76; Scott
and Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 95-96, 102.
3 Carigan, Palace of /ustice, passim.
31 Bowden, Killing , 159.

264

Ana Carrigan, Irish Times, August 23, 2000. 1989 r.


(Patrick Clawson
and Rensselaer W. Lee III, The Andean Cocaine Industry [New York: St Martin's, 1996], 57).
33 Bowden, illing , 184-225. 2001 . Amnesty
International , -.
AIUSA,
32

[]

" " (Amnesty International USA press


release, April 25, 2001; www.amnestyusa.org/news/2001/colombla04252001_2.html).
34 Washington Post, /uly 21, 1996 (reports); Bowden, illing , 186, 263, 268
(fraternized). ,
2000 .
: ,
,

.
, , ,


. , ,
, ,
,

(Ana Carrigan, Irish Times, August 23, 2000).

, ,
-

.
35

(Los Angeles Times, /une


23, 1994). , , ,
1994 . (Bowden, Killing , 272; .
: Washington Post, /uly 21, 1996). , ,
: .


36

1994 . (e.g., Montreal Gazette, /une 28, 1994).


Washington Post, August 28, 1995. - -,

-. , ,

37

1998 .
Clawson and Lee, Andean Cocaine Industry, 61; Boston Globe, November 11, 1999.

, ,
- ,
-.
38

DEA, Traffickers from Colombla, www.usdoj.gov/dea/traffickers/colombla.htm.

265

Ricardo Rocha, The Colomblan Economy after 25 Years of Drug Trafficking. www.odccp.
org:80/colombla/rocha.html.
40 www.usdoj.gov/dea/briefingbook/page34-48.htm.
41 Mills, Underground Empire, 1135, 1181; Peter Dale Scott, Minding the Darkness: Poem
for the Year 2000 (New York: New Directions, 2000), 153-57.
42 14-20 1997 .
39

> .

EI Espectador,

.
, .

(San Francisco Chronicle, April 22, 2001 ).

(New York imes, February 14, 2001).


Paul Eddy, The Cocaine Wars (New York: Norton, 1988), 342.
44 . www.airlines2.freeuk.com/417.htm. 1972 . Southern Air

43

.
(
)

1976 . (1:239)

, , ,

, , , -

(Marshall, Scott, and Hunter, lranContra Connection, 17).


45 Guardian (London), January 21, 1987. Cf. New York Times, January 20, 1987; Scott and
Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 166. Global lnternational Airways
, Southern Air Transport
- , , Southern Air
GIA . .: Pete Brewton, The Mafia, CIA, and George Bush (New
York: S. . 1. Books, 1992), 206.
46 Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Inspector General, Investigations Staff, Report of
Investigation concerning Allegations of Connections between CIA and the Contras in Cocaine
Trafficking to the United States, 96-0143-IG, vol. 2, para. 907. Discussed in Scott, Drugs, Contras,
and the CIA, 36.
47 Webb, Dark Alliance, 254; Scott and Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 18; New York imes,
August 23, 1987.
,

( , ) (Wall
Street Journal, November 22, 1996; New York Times, November 23, 1996; Scott and Marshall,
Cocaine Politics, vii [1998 ed.]).
48 Scott and Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 17-18; Webb, Dark Alliance, 254.
49 . Jonathan Winer, memorandum to file re: Meetingwith William Weld, September 26,
1986, in Webb, Dark Alliance, 254. ,
:

30 [1986 .),

, -

266

Southern Air.

- ,
no (San Francisco Chronicle, January 20,
1987; Scott and Marshall, Cocaine Politics, 18; cf. U. S. Congress, lran-Contra Affair, Report of
the Committees lnvestigating the lran-Contra Affair, House Report 100-433, Senate Report
100-216 [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1987), 288).
50 Harris, Shooting the Moon, 158.
51 Ken Guggenheim, Associated Press, June 5, 2001.
52 Cockburn and Cockburn, Dangerous Liaison, 218. The CIA officer was Alan Fiers. Another
ex-CIA operative, Felix Rodriguez, accused Gadd (Walsh, Iran-Contra: The Final Report [New
York: Times Books, 1994), 495).
53 Associated Press, June 5, 2001.
54 Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U. S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980s (Gainesville: University
Press of Florida, 1994), 406-9.
55 Sally Denton and Roger Morris, The Money and the Power (New York: Knopf, 2001),
327-29.
56 Roger Morris, Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America (New York: Holt,
1996).

1 U. S. Department of State, United States Support for Colombla: Fact Sheet Released
the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, March 28, 2000, www.state.gov/regions/wha/
colombla/fs_000328_plancolombla.html.


-. , ,

, .

Center for Defense lnformation, Show Transcript: Colombla in Crisis. N.d.


Washington Post, November 7, 2000.
5 Reuters, November 17, 1998 (chainsaws); Amnesty International, Enough ls Enough!
Amnesty lnternational Report AMR 23/48/99 (threats).
6 Amnesty International, <<Enough ls Enough! 2001 .
3

, , <<

(New York Times, June 7, 2001 ).

San Francisco Chronicle, February 12, 2001.


Jeremy Bigwood, DynCorp in Colombla: Outsourcing the Drug War, www.corp-watch.org.
9 San Francisco Chronicle, December 19, 2000.
7

267


., : Baltimore Su, June 1, 2000; New York imes, January 21, 2001; Toronto
Star, January 12, 2001.
11 ., : Tad Szulc, The Ghost of Vietnam Haunts 'Plan Colombla', Los Angeles
Times, August 20, 2000.
10

12

, ,

, : ...
. ,

(.
13

Michael Radu, Colombla: Trip Report, June 1, 2001; FPRI).


1983 . Occidental Oil

-
( , - Occidental Oil
and Gas Corporation, . House Government Reform Subcommittee Criminal Justice, Drug
Policy, and Human Resources, Febuary 15, 2000, www.ciponline.org/colombla/021507.
htm). >
, 1984 . 1986 . No 221.
14 Peter Dale Scott, The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno, 1965-1967, www.
pir.org/scotthtml.
15 , February 15, 2000; Thad Dunnig and Leslie Wirpsa,
Oil Rigged: There's Somethig Slippery about the U. S. Drug War in Colombla, www.americas.
org, February 2001.
16 William Hederso, Asia Society Coference of 10-11, 1963; . : t Dale
Scott, The Vietnam War and the CIA-Financial Estaishment, in Mark Selden, ed., Remaking
Asia (New York: Pantheon, 1974), 127. ,
Socony Mobll,
(. . 2 ).
17 .: Duning and Wirpsa, Oil Rigged:
. 1998 . ,
, ,

.

2000 r.

Los Angeles Times

, ,
, - .
18 ., , David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of
the Vietnam War (Cambridge: Harvard University Pess, Belknap Press, 2000), 488-93; Larry
Berman, Lyndon Johson's War: The Road to Stalemate i Vietnam (New York: Norton, 1989).
Daniel Ellsberg. Papers on the War (New
York: Simon & Schuster, 1972).
19 Chicago Tribune, June 10, 2001. ,

, , .
,

> (. . ):

268

, ,

" "

(Michael Radu, Colombla: Trip Report, fpri.org. June 1,

2001).
20

Toronto Star

21

1998

.:

"", "",

, , " " (
, ),

. ( ,
( .

100 .)

7 .)

, 1

Tiempo,
8 .
21 Mark Bowden, Killing (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001),30, 33, 35, passim.
22 Dallas Morning News, August 19, 1898: << ,
DynCorp ---, ,

,
. ,
,
, ,

.
23

- "" (
Southern Air Transport) .: Jonathan Marshall, Peter Dale Scott, and Jane Hunter, The lranContra Connection: Secret Teams and Covert Operations in the Reagan Era (Boston: South
End, 1987), 7-17.
24 Concern about the danger of entrusting outside contractors with command positions
has been voiced inside the Pentagon estaishment Three years ago paper written at the
Army War College Colonel Bruce Gant warned: "Foreign policy is (being) made default
() private military consultants motivated bottom-line profits" (Guardian [London],
June 2, 2001).
25 Peter Dale Scott, The War Conspiracy: The Secret Road to the Second lndochina War
(indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972), 197-99.
26 Columbus Dispatch, August 25, 1999.
27 Columbus Dispatch, April 4, 1999. 1990- . ( ) SAT
, . :

SAT

32

, .
28 See Department of Transport Docket OST-96-1153, www.airlineinfo.com/osthtml2/347.htm. SouthernAir- Polar Air Cargo itty HawkAircargo,
Inc. EVA Air, ,
Evergreen Air.
29 Journal of Commerce, July 8, 1996.

269

Associated

Pess,

June 5, 2001.
Dale Scott, and Reginald Zelnik, The Politics of Escalation in
Vietnam (Boston: Beacon, 1967); k Cook, Colombla: The Politics of Escalation, Covert
Action Quartely, Fall-Winte 1999.
32 Tad Szulc, International Herald Tribune, Decembe 29, 2000.
30

31 Fanz Schumann, t

, r
. ", , , .

"

(New k Times, January 8, 2001; . : Gazette [Montreal],


February 9, 2001).
33 Patrick Clawson and Rensselae W. Lee III, The Andean Cocaine Industry (New k:
St. Martin's, 1996), 89.
34 Claie Steling. Thieves' Wold (New k: Simon & Schuste, 1994); John Kerry, The
New W (New k: Simon & Schuste, 1997).
35

2000 .

Svesda Maru ( -
2001 .
(.: Singapoe Straits imes, 18, 2001 ).

),

, .
.

36

.: t

(Bekeley: Univesity

Dale Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK


ofCalifornia Pess), 166-77.

,
. ,

/i Ameica , - (. .

).
2

New k Times, June 6, 1971.

,
,
.

96%,

, .
,

1971

.,

(Alfed , The

N. .:

270

Politics of Heoin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug d [Booklyn,


286, 288).

Lawence .1991),

( ),

; ,

. , ,
,

, [
.

. .] , -

[]

(State Departmet, Foreig Relations 9 (1949): 428-31,


Acheson to Taipei, November 18,1949; . : Bruce Cumings, The Origins ofthe Korean War,
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 2:510.
4 Peter Dale Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1996), 165-69; Cumings, Origins, 2:510-12.
5 Chalmers Roberts, The Day We Didn't Go to War, Reporter, September 14, 1954, 35;
reprinted in Marvin . Gettleman, Vietnam (New York: Fawcett, 1965), 101.
6 Richard Nixon, Cuba, Castro, and John F. Kennedy, Reader's Digest, November 1964, 291.
7

World Oi\, August 15, 1970, 186; cf. Ocean Industry, December 1969, 63.
Oil and Gas Journal, April 28, 1969, 56; map of concessions in Ocean Industry, December
1969, 64.
8

10 ,

1950- .

, , ,

(Stewart Alsop, The Center [New York:


Harper & Row, 1968), 157).
11 Lawyers and Lobbyists, Fortune, February 1952, 142.
12 Migue\ Ydigoras Fuentes, War with Communism (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: PrenticeHal\, 1963), 49-50, 63-64.
13 . . Wise, The Bustling House of Lehman, Fortune, December 1957, 157.
14

Nelson Rockefel\er, Widening Boundaries of National Interest, Foreign Affairs, /uly


1951, 523-38.
16 William Henderson, Some Reflections on United States Policy in Southeast Asia, in
William Henderson, ed., Southeast Asia: Pro\ems of United States Policy (Cambridge: MIT
Press, 1963), 253-63.
17 Gabriel Kolko, The Roots of American Foreign Policy (Boston: Beacon, 1969), xii-xiii.
18 Kolko, Roots, 92. (The Politics ofWar, New York:
Random House, 1968) : ,
15


(.

610).
George Sheldon, Status ofthe Viet Nam, Far Eastern Survey, December 18, 1946, 373-77.
20 Department of State, Bulletin, 18, 1953, 708.
21 U. S. Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Internal Security Report, 1956, 197.
19

271

3
Martha Byrd, Chennau\t: Giving Wings to the Tiger
(Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1987); Christopher Robblns, Air America (New
York: Avon, 1985); and William . Leary, Perilous Missions: Civi\ AirTransport and CIA Covert
Operations in Asia (University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1984).
2 David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins ofthe Vietnam War
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 2000), 11-12.
3 David L. Anderson, Trapped Success (New York: Columbla University Press, 1991),
207-8. ,
1

,
. .

, .
, , :

;
,

, .
5

Anderson, Trapped Success, 156.

- , .
Alfred W. , The Politics of Heroin (Brooklyn, N. .: Lawrence Hill, 1991), esp. 211
(Vietnam), 288, 299-305, 331-34 (Laos).
7 Audrey R. Kahin and George . Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy (New York: New
Press, 1995), 9.
6

1950- .

1953 1954 rr. .


1961 . (7); Pentagon Papers (New York: Bantam.
1971), 137 (); Kahinand Kahin, Subversion, 12-13,179-84. 1958 .

(Kahin and Kahin, Subversion, 185-88).

Foreign Relations ofthe United States (FRUS) 1958-1960, vol. 16, . 65, . 218; Kaiser,

American Tragedy, 21.


11

(FRUS)

;
.

. 11,
1958 r. ,
12

-
.

272


13 . i America

1965 . .

1960 .,

- ,

60
Politics, 316-18).
14 Arthu J. Domme, Coflict i Laos: The Politics of Neutralizatio (New k: g,
1964), 17. FRUS, 1959-1960 .,
(,

,
15

FRUS

, ,
[], , . ,
, , ". ,

(.
--,

2000 .; . : th Summers (with R Swa ), The Arrogace


of Power [New York: Viking, 2000), 306).
16 1968 . ,
, , ,

, (Summers,
Arrogance, 299).
17 1971 . ,
. ;

, , -
.
18

1964 .

, .

.
19

Summers, Arrogance, 47-48, 53-57, 62-63, 85, 133-34, 180-81, 194-95, passim.

, (

(Summers, Arrogance, 85, 186; Roger Morris, Richard Milhoits Nixon


[New York: Henry Holt, 1990), 576).
. , .: Stephen . Ambrose, Nixon: The Education of Politician 1913-1962
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987), 213-15.
20 Summers, Arrogance, 239-45, 253-57, 510 n., 513 n. ,
; (. . 55,
57) , -
.
,

(. .

241 ). , ,
3). ,

(. .

, ,

273


)). ,
.
21

(Arrogance,

185)

( ,
)
. (.

180-81),

, ,
.

1969-1970 .,

Air
. ,

1964 . .
22

11.

, ,

(( , , ,
196 7 ., 1968 1972 ., ,
(Summers, Arrogance, 85, 164, 286, 519 n.). ,
,

100

(Summers, Arogance,

133-34).

1946

, , (
), ,
(.

Summers, Arrogance, 54-57).


23

1947

(Ambrose, Nixon, 178; Summers, Arrogance, 63).

, ,
-, , ,

,
, (Summers,
Arrogance, 62-63; John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War against the Jews
[New York: St Martin's, 1994], 221, 557).
24

, -

. .

Summers, Arrogance, 297-308.


New York Times, October 26, 1969, 24.
26 New York Times, September 10, 1969, 10.
27 New York Times, August 27, 1964, 6.
28 Washington Post, April 6, 1961, 9; New York imes, March 25, 1961, 2. 1969 .
(New York Times,
September 24, 1969, 1).
29 n Chan Chennault, Chennault and the Flying Tigers (New York: Eriksson, 1963),
76-83; Russell Whelan, The FlyingTigers (NewYork: Viking, 1942), 31-32; Claire Lee Chennault,
Way of Fighter (New York: Putnam's, 1949), 100-101, cf. 131-33.
25

274

)):
, ,

China Defense Supplies,

(. Barbara Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45 [New
York: Macmillan, 1971), 220).
30 San Francisco Chronicle,April 2, 1970, 31; W. . Wertenbaker, The China Lobby, Reporter,
April 15, 1952, 9-10.
31 , 1948 .
[, ] "
,

[ ]";

1949 .
[Airdale Corp.), ,
(Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the n W [Pinceton:
Princeton University Press, 1990), 2:133; Christopher Robblns, Air America [New
York: Putnam's, 1979), 48-49, 56-57, 70). 1949 .

, ,

". , .
, ))

(Byrd, Chennault, 333).


32 ,

, , I,
/ . I

1954 .

, ,
. .

Byrd, Chennault, 338, 346-48.


Anna Chan Chennault, Thousand Spings (New York: Eriksson, 1962), 248; cf.
Chennau\t, Chennault and the Flying Tigers, 275. ,
33

,
)),
))

-
(Leary, Perilous Missions, 137).
34 Robert Lee Scott Jr., Flying Tiger: Chennault of China (Garden City, N. .: Doue-day,
1959), 282.
35 Stewart Alsop, Saturday Evening Post, December 13, 1958, 86.
36 Roger Hilsman, Move Nation (Garden City, N. .: Doueday, 1967), 300. See chapter 11.
37 Claire Lee Chennault, Voice ofthe Tige (as eported Tom McClary), Flying. October
1954, 64-68. See also Look, September 7, 1954, 80-83; Flying. 1955, 69; Newsweek, April
26, 1954, 41.
38 Pentagon Papers, 137; Chennault, Thousand Springs, 263-64.
-

275

(Leary, Perilous Missions,

113,137).
39

nd

40

New k imes, June 19, 1954, 3.

41

Fod, Satuday

.
42

Fall, Hell in Very Small Place (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1967), 24.

Pentagon

Evening Post, February 12, 1955, 102.


137.

s,

, , ,

, ,
, , -

,
.

. .

, ( , ,

1960
FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, nos. 190-91, . 471-73.
43 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 202, . 491.

). .

44

1959

, . 1959
,
, , , ,
. .
45

FRUS 1958-1960, vol.16, no. 319, . 723, no. 421, . 887 n. (Jantzen).
FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 203, . 491. ,


,
.
,

(Kaise, Ameican Tagedy,

23).

1959 ".

-
, ,

RAND

Corpoation , ,

,
-, , ,

(. . Halpen and . . Fiedman,


Communist Stategy in Laos, Rand, RM-2561, 51; . nd Fall, Anatomy of Cisis:
The Laotian Crisis of1960-1961, . : Roge . Smith [Gaden City, N. .:
Doueday, 1969], 108). ,
,

. , ,

276


,
, .

46

(Fall, Aatomy, 96).

, ,
,
" ",
(Aderso,

Trapped Success, 180).

. .
47

Domme, Coflict i

Laos, 115. 1961

, ,

200


<<
(tg Papers, 137). . Joh th Kaus, Orphas ofthe Cold War:
America d the Tibeta Struggle for Survival (New York: Puic Affairs, 1999). ,
,

(James Morriso d th J. , The CIA's Secret War


Tibet (Lawrece: Uiversity Press of Kasas, 2002).
48 Fall, Aatomy, 99. Cf. FRUS 1958-1960, 16, . 226, . 537.
, , . 11.
49 Domme, Coflict i Laos, 118; Fall, Aatomy, 104.
5Fall, Aatomy, 103-4.
51 , 1971 , 1960 .;
i

. , ,
1961- (,
52

Politics, 312).
Fall, Aatomy, 20-21. ,

,
.

(Fall, Aatomy, 19;

Politics, 141).

1959


. ,

1959 ,
Hugh , Laos (Ld: Oxford Uiversity Press, 1968), 130.
FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, . 232, . 546; ,

.
53

-.
(Aatomy,

21).
FRUS 1958-1960, 16, . 243, . 562.
19 , ,
54

277


; ,

55

5 ; .

,
, . .

1,5 . . 3
(FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16,

257, . 596).
56

(Fall, Aatomy, 130-38; Domme, Coflict

Laos, 123).
57

(. .

55).
Fall, Street without Joy (Harisburg, .: Stackpole, 1964), 334-35; cf. Aatomy,

58

Bernad

59

, ,

136.
, ,

210).

(The Last Cofucia [New York: Macmilla, 1963),

, ,

, .
60

1959 .

. ,
,

Sea Supply, l.,

, (.

11).

1960 .

300

, , ,

>
61

(New k Times, December 29, 1960).


Post, September 12, 1959.
Air America

Bagkok

. , ,

,

62

(FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, . 252, . 583).


New York Times, September 25, 1959, 4; September 27, 1959, 16.

: ,


, ,
? , , ,

,
. Fortue
(. .

98

(( .

278

1961 r.,

),

63

26

, , ,
(New York Times, August 31,

1959, 10).
FRUS , 24 ,
26 -
, 25 ;
(FRUS 1968-1960, vol. 16, . 24 7, . 571-72). ,

.
64

FRUS

(. ). ,

(FRUS
1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 258, . 600).
Air America .
65 Dwight D. Eisenhower, Waging : 1956-1961 (Garden City, N. .: Doueday, 1965),
431. , , ,
3, 4 .
;

5 .
Joseph Alsop, Washington Post, October 4, 1959, 25.
67 Fa\l, Street without Joy, 334; cf. Anatomy, 136.
68 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 252, . 583 n.; cf. . 584 n. ,

66

( )
. ,

,
; ,
, (Fall,
Anatomy, 134-35).
69 Washington Post, September 11, 1959, 14.
1 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, s. 252, 254, 258, 262 ., passim.
, 6 ,
.

, ,

(FRUS no. 260, . 602, SecState to president,

September 6, 1959).
71

6 1959 .

, . , ,

,
- .

(Council Against
Communist Aggression) ,
Wa\l Street Journal and Washington Star (. Hoover Institution, Stanley Hornbeck

279


s,

131). ,
Defense ofFeedom), 1980 .

(Coucil fothe

.
72

Arthu

J.

Schlesige J.,

Kaise, Ameican Tagedy,

25:

Thousand Days (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965), 326. Cf.

73

(FRUS vol. 16,

319,

1959 . ,
. 723).

1971

. , ,

1959 .
Politics, 300-3, 331-34, 283-84, 379-80).
74 Dommen, Laos, 133.
75 Denis Wn, Reporting Southeast Asia (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1966), 16 7.
76 Schlesinge, Thousand Days, 326-37.
, 1962 . ,
(,

.
77

Dommen, Laos, 154. ,

<

, i Ameica.
, <<>

, , <<

(
78

79

Move Nation, 124).


Keyes Beech, How Uncle Sam Fumed in Laos, Satuday Evening Post, Apil 22, 1961, 89.
.

FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 431, . 914; . 686


18 1960.
81 Dommen, Laos, 164.
82 New k Times, Decembe 21, 1960, 30; Le Monde, Decembe 6, 1960, 4.
83 , Politics, 310-11. ,
, , ,

(. ,
84

Politics, 331).

1960 . ,

(,

Politics, 316-17). (Anatomy, 93-94), ,


,
, ,

. ,
- ,

280


, , (FRUS 1958-1960,
vol. 16, no. 312, . 714; . no: Kaiser, American Tragedy, 24-25). . ,
r 1961 r. ((>>

, ((
(,

Politics, 300).
New York Times, April 28, 1966, 28.
86 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, . 397-98, . 846-50.
87 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 415, . 876; Kaiser, American Tragedy, 27.
88 , Politics, 311.
89 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 424, . 893.
9 FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 463, . 973.
91 Eisenhower, Waging , 608-9. Cf. FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 487, . 1008-9;
85

.
92

FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 487, . 1009.


New York Times, December 8, 1960, 7; .

FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 480,


999. ((, ,
93

, -,
[] .

, , ,
,

1961

"

.
.
94
95

FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, no. 486, . 1006.


New York Times, December 21, 1960, 30. -

( ,

Air America

23

1960 . Air America


1960 . 14

- ,
311960 .
96
97

Eisenhower, Waging , 609.


1971 . , -

. , -
, ,

. , , , .

[Arrogance, 184]

, (( -

" "
.

[Newman,
Vietnam (New York: Warner, 1992), 225-29], - -
(( - "" - Theodore Draper, Very Thi Lie (New York: ill &
Wang. 1991), 574-76).

JFK

281


, , ,
. .

1959 .

. , ,

(FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, . 316, . 720).


22
(FRUS 1958-1960, vol. 16, . 309, . 708), ,

, .

Charles j. V. Murphy, Cuba: The Record Set Straight, Fortue, September 1961, 94,
Paul W. Blackstock, The Strategy of Subversio (Chicago: Quadragle,
1964), 250.
99 Washigto Post, jauary 6, 1961, Al 9:
98

, :

, [
!].
10Fred J. Cook, The Warfare State (New York: Macmilla, 1962), 265; Los Ageles Times,
April 6, 1960, sec. 3, 2. 1957 . ,

.
,
. . Kahi d Kahi, Subversio,

86, 262.

101 Hilsma,

Move, 311.
102 Hilsma, Move, 115.

1 Peter Dale Scott, Laos: The Story Nixo Wo't Tell, New York Review of Books, Apil 9,
1970,35-45.
2 Alfred W. , The Politics of i (Brooklyn, N. .: Lawrece ill, 1991), xiv-xv.

, -

- .
3

Politics, xv.

, (

, ) .

1964 ., (. 11 ). ,

(

1971

.)

>
,

1971

(New York Times, july 8, 1971).

., ,

282

13,5

(,

Politics, 286).

Politics, 302-3.

, ,

, , ,
,
.
,
1964 . (David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, /ohnson, and
the Origins ofthe Vietam War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 2000),
317). , ,
, , (, Politics, 563).
5 , Politics, 337.
6 . . Halpern and . . Friedman, CommunistStrategyin Laos, RAND, RM-2561, 51; cited
and amplified in Bernard Fall, Anatomy of Crisis (Garde City, N. .: Doueday, 1969), 108.
7 Arthur Schlesinger /r., Thousand Days (Bosto: Houghto Miffli, 1965), 325-26.
8 Hugh , Laos: Buffer State or Battlegroud (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968),
113-31; U. S. Cogress, House, Committee Government Operations, Uited States Aid
Operatios i Laos: Seveth Report, 86th Cong., lst sess., /u 15, 1969.
9 . , . : San Fracisco Chronicle, March 6, 1970,
9. , ,
, ,
, . ,

-;

(Fall, Aatomy of Crisis, 199; cf. 189). - (. Thousad


Days, 328), "",

, ( )
"-". ,
. .
,

Laos, 145-65.
Arthur /. Domme, Conflict in Laos: The Politics of Neutalizatio (New k: Praege,
1964), 238. , 1962 .
10

,
. ,
, , ,

,
". ". .
, (.

301).
Fall, Vietnam Witness, 1953-66 (New York: Praege, 1966), 249.
12 , Laos, 178; Roge ilsma, Move Natio (Garde City, N. .: Doueday, 1967),
127; New k imes, h 25, 1961, 2; Fall, Aatomy of Cisis, 206; Fortue, Septembe
1961, 94; Schlesige, Thousad Days, 336-37.
13 , Laos, 182; cf. Hilsma, Move Natio, 140.
14 Deis W, The Last Cofucia (New k: Macmillan, 1963), 217-18.
11

nd

283


Ld Times, 24, 1962; 31,

15

1962

., .

1962. Satuday Eveig Post 7


87-88,

, << .
,
(Kaise, America Tagedy,
.

127; . FRUS 1961-1963, vol. 24,


223, . 264). . is, America Tagedy, 134-39.
16 , Politics, 300; . 288.
17 , Politics, 335-37.

16

1961 .,
4 . (Washigto Post, h 16, 1970,
10). , 2 3 . ,

(,

Politics, 349).
Move

19 ilsma,

Natio,

Domme, Coflict i

152-53.
Laos, 238; Gt Wolfkill, Reported to

Alive (Ld: W. .
1966), 273-74.
21 t\ to the Declaatio the Neutrality of Laos; Articles \(), 2, 4; i Domme,
Coflict i Laos, 314-15.
22 Hilsma, Move Natio, 115; cf. d Fall, Steet without joy (Haisbug. .:
Stackpole, 1967), 340; Domme, Coflict i Laos, 233.
23 New k Times, Decembe 5, 1962, 3; Domme, Coflict i Laos, 243.
24 Domme, Coflict i Laos, 244.
25 Jack Foisie, S Facisco Choicle, h 10, 1970, 16; Domme, Coflict i Laos,
239, . , ,
20

Alle,

, ,
.

,
.

1970 .

.
26

(New k imes, h 14, 1970, 11 ).


4 1964 .


; .

House Committee Appopiatios, Foeig Opeatios


1965, Heaigs f Subcommittee, 88th g., 2d sess., 414.
Coflict i Laos, 256:

Appopiatios f
27

Domme,

"-"

... "-" " " [ ]
,
. ,
26

1964

284

1962

..

Laos, 193.

""

19


, , ,
(,

Politics, 302).

,
, ,
(.

303).

Denis Warner, Reporting Southeast Asia (Sydey: Angus & Robertson, 1966), 190.
(Wilfred Burchett, The Secod Idochia War [New York: lnterational
Pulishers, 1970], 162-63) , 18
29

, , - ,

19 .
New York imes, 14, 1964, ll;May 19, 1964, 5; Fall, Street withoutjoy, 341.
31 Warner, Reporting Southeast Asia, 191. The integration order recalled similar rightist
order in 1959 to the Pathet Lao, an order that was instrumental in triggering the Laotian war.
32 New York imes, 16, 1964, 2; 28, 1964, 10.
33 Pentagon Papers, 239; Dommen, Conflict in Laos, 259; , Laos, 194.
30

,
. . . D.
Allman, Far Easter Ecoomic Review, January 1, 1970, 21: ((

,
, .
34 Pentagon Papers, 239; Dommen, Conflict in Laos, 238; Joseph . Goulden, Truth ls the First
Casualty: The Gulf of Tonkin Affair-Illusion and Reality (New York: Rand McNally, 1969), 97.
35 , Laos, 194; Dommen, Conflict i Laos, 258: ((
, ... .

[ ]

48 .

, ((
. ,

: .

Fall, Aatomy of Crisis, 193ff., 223.


ls the First Casualty, 97. ,
((-, , 1962 .
(Reported to Alive, 273-74): (( F-101
1 . ... ,
... ...
, . ...
. . , 30 1964 .
, America Foreign Policy, 1964, 943; . Domme, Coflict in Laos, 258.
37 , Laos, 182: (( ,
36

Goulde, Truth

"-", .
: , .
38

. .

Far Eastern Ecoomic Review, (1 11970 ., . 21)


20 . -

, ((

285


. (Richad

Dudman, St Louis Post-Dispatch, Decembe 23, 1969),

, , .
:

1969 .
242 " . .
of w [New k:

650 (Seymou Hesh, The i


Summit, 1983], 168).
39 New k imes, Decembe 31, 1968, 6.
40 New k Times, 15,1969, 13; 17, ; F Easten Economic Review, June 5,
1969, 569; San Fancisco Chonicle, h 6, 1970, 26.
41 New k Times, 19, 1969, 6; 20, ; 27, 5; 28, 9.
42 Fanz Schumann, t Dale Scott, and Reginald Zelnik, The Politics of Escalation in
Vietnam (Boston: Beacon, 1966); David Kaslow and Stuart . Loory, The Secet Seach f
in Vietnam (New k: Random House, 1968), 3-74; Ramparts, h 1968, 56-58;
New k Times, January 6, 1968, 28.
43 Newsweek, February 16, 1970, 37.
44 San Fancisco Chonicle, February 17, 1970; February 19; Febuary 22; February 23.
1969 . , ,
,

. . . , " ". -,
,

, , (F
Easten

Economic Review, Septembe 11, 1969, 648).


Fall, Steet without Joy, 341.
46 Robert Shaplen, Time Out of Hand (New k:
Times, t 26, 1969, 24.
45

47

& Row, 1969), 346; New

- .

67 .

(". - )
,
- :

- 40 . .
, , -
(Hesh, i

of w, 171 n.).
June 17, 1965, Department of State Bulletin, July 5,1965, 18; . Department
of State Bulletin, h 22, 1965,414; 17, 1965,750,753; Theodoe D, How Not to
Negotiate, New k Review of Books, 4, 196 7, 2 7 n.; Theodoe D, Abuse of w
(New k: Viking. 1967), 76-77; Schumann, Scott, and Zelik, Politics of Escalation, 47 n.
49 Pentagon s, 107, 152-53, 338, 422. 1965 .
48

, . .
50

New k Times, January 27, 1965, 2; cf. Pentagon

51

: Fed Banfman,

s.

Pesidential W in Laos, 1964-1970, . Nina Adams and


and Revolution (New k: & Row, 1970), 278-80.
52 San Fancisco Chonicle, August 3, 1971, 1, 18.

286

Alfed

W.

eds" Laos:

10

1 David . Chandler, The Tragedy of Cambodian istory: Po\itics, War, and Revolution
since 1945 (New Haven: \ University Press, 1991); Marie Alexandrine Martin, Cambodia:
Shattered Society, trans. Mark W. McLeod (Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 1994).
2 Seymour Hersh, The Price of Power: issinger in the White House (New York: Summit,
1983), 176. r r,

r
r .

Hersh, Price of Power, 179.


Government ofThai\and, Petroleum Concessionaires in Thai\and (as of March 20, 2002),
mfd02.dmr.go.th/ /resources/petroleum/concession/concessionairs.pdf.
5 Journal ofCommerce, February 17, 1995.
6 Bangkok Post, October 29, 1997.
7 7 1964 r., . New York Times,
June 13, 1971, 37; The Pentagon Papers (New York: Bantam, 1971), 306.
3

8 ,

, : r, ero

. ,
,

. ,
))

1960 .

, , ,

(Chandler, Tragedy, 198; Martin, Cambodia, 122).


William Rosoff, Dissension in the ingdom, . Jonathan Grant, Laurence Moss, and
Jonathan Unger, eds., Cambodia: The Widening War in lndochina (New York: Washington
Square, 1971), 89.
10 Rosoff, Dissension, 90.
11 Journal ofCommerce, February 17, 1995.
12 Ma\colm Caldwel\, Oil and the War, Liberation, Spring 1971, 59.
Unocal (. Union Oil of Ca\ifornia), Chevron,
Amoco Amerada Hess; ExxonMobll , . mfd02.dmr-.go.th/resources/
petroleum/concession/concessionairs.pdf. 1970 r. Union Oil of Ca\ifornia
, (World
Oi\, August 15, 1963, 203).
9

13

(United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East,
Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore
Areas), (Report of the Sixth Session), 21-27 1969 . (/
CN.11/L.239), 9, 66-70.

287

U. S. Naval Oceaographic Office, u\ Report, 1968, 1,16; cf. 7, 73, UN Doc. E/CN.\
1/L.216, 5. \i Geophysical Associates,
Marie Acoustica\ Services Texas Istrumets, !.
14

15

. ,

10 1971 .; . i S Fracisco Chroicle, 111971 ., . 17.


Wal\ Street Joura\, September 22, 1970, 34.
17 Uited Natios Ecoomic Commissio for Asia d the Far East, Committee for Coordiatio
of Joit Prospectig. Report ofthe Third Sessio Que 24-July 4, 1967) (\ CN. 11/L. 186), 32.
18 UN Doc. E/CN.l 1/L.239, 9.
19 UN Doc. E/CN.l 1/L.239, 93; E/CN.11/186, 36; cf. E/CN.11/L.216, 7-8.
16

, )
, .
20

Malcolm Caldwel\,

Liberatio, Sprig

1971, 59.

1971 .

(2

1971

.),

.
,
. , -

, U\ (. Ui

1971 . .
Oil of Califoria)

- .

1 1972 .
Herblcida\ Damage the Uited States i Southeaster Cambodia,
. . Westig (Widham Col\ege), . W. Pfeiffer (Uiversity of t), J. Lavorel, d
L. Matarasso, . : Thomas Whiteside, Defoliatio (New York: Ballatie, 1970), 131.
22 Uited Natios Statistical Office, World Trade u\, 1968 Supplemet (New York:
Wa\ker, 1969), 5:410. ,
21

Report

.
. (.
(.

133)

179),

.
, , .

Rosoff, . Grat, Cambodia, 90.


U. S. Cogress, House, Committee Foreign Affairs, Chemical-Biological Warfare".
Hearigs, 91st g. lst sess., 198; cf. Whiteside, Defo\iatio, 130.
23

24

25

, , , ))

1969 .

".
)) (Chadler,

3,5 .

Tragedy, 184).

Muthe-Kaas,

Far Easter Ecoomic Review, December 25, 1969, 668.


Post, March 28, 1970, AlO.
, . ime, March 16, 1959, 34. (William Worthy, The CIA
26

Harold

27

Staley Karnow, Washigto

288

Plot against Cambodia, Le Sangkum, Phnom Penh, September 1965, 17)


Air Vietnam 7 1959 . ,
Air Vietnam ,
. (101-7) , , ,
1959 .,
. (Audrey
George Kahin), -

(Audrey R. and George . Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy (New


York: NewPress, 1995), 12-13).
28 New York Times, January 28, 1970, 1; San Francisco Chronicle, 29, 1970, 14.
29 New York imes, January 28, 1970, 1. .
(Patrick J. McKeman),
.

New York imes, February 19, 1967, 25; Le Monde, 6, 1967, 1, 3.


San Francisco Chronicle, 23,1971. See also John L. Plaster, SOG: The Secret Wars
of America's Commandos in Vietnam (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), 97-98; Douglas
Valentine, The Phoenix Program (New York: Morrow, 1990), 328.
1970 . - ,
30

31

Andrew Tully, The Super Spies (New York: Wi\liam Morrow, 1969), 201.
Guardian (New York), April 25, 1970, 1.
34 New York Times, 5, 1970, 16; San Francisco Chronicle, 29, 1970, 14.
35 Robert Shaplen, New Yorker, 9, 1970, 136.
36 Bangkok World, March 18, 1970, 1.
37 - , . : Wi\fred Burchett, The Second Indochina
W (New York: lnternational Pulishers, 1970), 55-56.
38 Daniel Roy, Le Coup de Phnompenh, Le Monde Diplomatique, April 1970, 12-13; Martin
Gettleman et al., eds., Conflict in Indochina (New York: Random House, 1970), 350.
32

33

(Charles Meyer, Derriere le sourir khmer (Paris: Plon, 171), 321-24, cf. 181). ,

, (.

32)
- ,

, , . ,
,

1970 .

[Tokyo], January 1974, 44).

. . .

Noam Chomsky, Edward S. Herman, The Political Economy of Human Rights (Boston: South
End, 1979), 2: 194; Jean Claude Pomonti, Serge Thien, Des courtisans aux partisans (Paris:
Gallimard, 1971).

289

Far Easter Ecoomic Review Yearbook, 1971.


Newsweek, 25, 1970, 25.
41 Burchett, Secod ldochia War, 65; cf. Joatha Grat, The Regime of L Nol, i Grat,
Cambodia, 121. (. 203) (. 184), ,
39
40

,
(Chadler,

Tragedy, 203).

, ,

. ,
, ,
,

"", ,

(Hersh, Price, . 179). ( ,

. ,
, 1970 .)


. ,

1968 .,

( ) .

1965 .

. :

? ( Holtzappel, The 30 September Movemet, )ournal


of Cotemporary Asia, 11, . 2 [1979): 222) . . Peter Dale
Scott, The Uited States d the Overthrow of Sukarno. 1965-1967, Pacific Affairs, Summer
1985, 239-64, www.pir.org/scott.html.
42 1961 ., . tg Papers, 137; . David Wise
d Thomas . Ross, The lvisie Govermet (NewYork: Batam, 1965), 145-56.
43 S Fracisco Chroicle, September 4, 1970, 24.
+1 New York Times, April 5, 1970, 1, 22.
45 , , , 1971 .
,
, :

12 1970 ., . , ,

[ ].
" ",
,
. " ", ,
(, ) ((

( ),
" " ( )

(The

Phoeix

Program [New York: William Morrow, 1990), 327).


(.

290

328).

Wall Steet Jounal, Apil 18, 1967, 30; . : Michael Tanze, The Political Economy
of Intenational Oil and the Undedeveloped Countries (Boston: Beacon, 1969), 363-64.
46

47

34-)) i Ameica

(SOG).

,
. ,

,
,
48

1963 1964 .

, "

"
.

16 ".

1975 ".

4,8

. ,

" " ,

)) (Hesh, i,

181 n.; cf. ahin and Kahin, Subvesion, 13, 246).

Pentagon s, 386, 440.


50 Pentagon s, 26.
49

51 , 30 1970 .; Gettleman, Conflict in


lndochina (New k: Random House, 1970), 382, 384.
5 z Newsweek, 11, 1970,25.
53 San Fancisco Chonicle, 4, 1970, 13.
54 San Fancisco Chonicle, 2, 1970, 7; Wall Steet Jounal, Apil 28, 1970, 1.
55 U. S. Congess, Senate, Committee Foeign Relations, Cambodia: 1970, Staff
Report (Washington, D. .: GPO, 1970), 5; cf. 6.
56 Robert Shaplen, Lette fom Indochina, New k, 9, 1970, 139; New k imes,
Apil 4, 1970, 3; cf. Washington Post, April 5, 1970, 6.
57 Oakland Tibune, 2, 1970, 1.
58 San Fancisco Chonicle, 14, 1970, 43. Cf. End Run Joint Chiefs? Laid Pushes JCS
Reoganization, Chistian Science Monito, 14, 1970:

, ,
)).

60

San Fancisco Chonicle, h 30, 1971, 33.


San Fancisco Examine, 21, 1970, 1.

61

59

1938-1941 ., ,
(New k Times, August 17, 1970, 21 ).
(Washington: National Secuity Industial

6 z Richad D. , Ocean Engineeing


Association, 1966), 1.
63 . National Union Catalogue, autho list, 1963-1967, 39, 50-51.
64 Wold Petroleum. Septembe 1963, 66. 1955 .

, ,

291

1971

> .
65

New k imes,

9, 1971, 8.

11

1 .

3.
Alfred , The Politics of i (kl, N. .: Lawrence Hill, 1991), 167-68; cf.
this book, 207n93. . Alan . Block, Mastes of Paadise
(New Buswick, N. J.: Tansaction, 1991), 165, 168-71, 189-90.
3 , Politics ofHeoin, 167 (sold ).
2

-46 -47

(.

169). , 1972 .,
William Leary, Perilous Missions (Univesity, Ala.: Univesity of Alabama Pess,
1984), 204-8. ,

i Ameica,
. ,

(.

195-96)

1953-1954 .

(.

174-76).
Politics ofHeoin, 19:
, i America
... . . 129, 291 (
... ), 307, . . ,
4

., ,

, ,

(. 2 ;

Stephane Allix, La petite cuillee de Scheheazade


[Paris: Editions Ramsay, 1998], 95; ld de Maenches, Dans le secet des princes - Paris:
Stock, 1986).
. ,
(. 446 ),

, " ,
, .

Le Monde Diplomatique, h
13, 2002; mondediplo.com/2002/03/13drug?va_s = afghanistan + %2 + heoin; .
. Emdad-ul Haq, Drugs in South Asia (New k: St Martin's, 2000), 198. ,
. - , .
5

. .

., ) . Tocki, Opium, Empie, d the Global Political Economy: Study of the


Asian Opium d, 1750-1950 (London: Routledge, 1999); Timothy k and Tadashi
Wakabayashi, eds., Opium Regimes: China, Britai, d ), 1839-1952 (Bekeley: Uivesity
of Califonia Pess, 2000).
6

292

Cocaine Politics: Dugs, Amies, and the CIA in


of Califonia Pess, 1998), xviii-xix.
8 . t Dale Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (Bekeley: Univesity of
Califonia Pess, 1996), esp. 164-91.
9 Samuel Eliot Moison, The Oxfod istory of the Ameican People (New k: Oxfod
Univesity Pess, 1965), 825-26. ,
7

Dale Scott and Jonathan

Mashall,

Cental Ameica (Bekeley: Univesity

,
,
10

1903

..

,
- , -
,
, ,

Stephen Bimingham, u
The Geat Jewish Families of New k (New k: & Row, 1967), 236-38; U.
S. Cogess, Seate, Documets, 58th Cong" 2d sess., . 53; House, Documents, 58th Cong"
lst sess" no. 8. (Bimingham, u Cowd, 237).
Cowd:

11

, ,


-, 3
.

Post, Decembe 22, 1963, All; . Roge Hilsma, Move Natio


City, N. .: Doueday, 1967), 63.
13 David Wise d Thomas . Ross, The Espioage Estaishment (New k: Radom
House, 1967), 166.
12

Washigto

(Gaden

14

( )

1949 . Carter, Ledyard, and


Milburn -,
, ,

Standard Oil interests.


1951

( 4

),

.
, , 1934

194 7
Carter, Ledyard, and Milburn,
ks Trust (
, ), -
. Sullivan and Comwell (
); 1951 . .
, Manufactues Capital Corporatio
-; 1950-1951 - .
, , - National City Bank of New k
City Bank Fames Tust, 1953 1953 -

(, ).

293


- ( - ,

United Fruit)
1953

Who'sWho.
,
-

1951

Cahill, Gordon, Reindel, and Ohl

, , New
York Social Register, , -

-, .
i America , ,


.
15 David Wise and Thomas . Ross, The Invisie Government (New York: Bantam, 1965),
115-16; New Repu!ic, April 12, 1969, 8.
16 Wise and Ross, lnvisile Government, 140.
17 New York imes, September 20, 1957, 7.
18 The Pentagon Papers (New k: Bantam, 1971), 137.
19 Arnold Dibe, The Nine Lives of 11, Satuday Evening Post, 18, 1968, 50; New
York Times, November 11, 1949, 14; April 5, 1970, 22; F China Review, November 1963,
31. 1949 , ,

. ,
. , ,

1972
CATCL,
. i America , ,
, (San Fancisco
Chronicle, April 2, 1970, 31 ).
(Leary, Perilous Missions, 106-12, 199-208).
2Charles Wertenbaker, The China Lobby,)) Reporter, Apri\ 15, 1952, 9.
21 /ohn R. Beat, Marshall in China (New York: Doueday, 1970), 85.
22 U. S. Congress, House, Committee Un-American Activities, Intenational Communism:
Cosultatio with Major-Geeral Claire Lee Chennault, 85th Cong., 2d sess., April 23, 1958,
9-10; U. S. Department of State, U. S. Policy in the Korean Crisis (Washington, D. .: GPO,
1950), 21-22.
23 Time, October 15, 1951, 23.
24 New York Times, /uly 6, 1951, 9; /une 9,1951, 6; 1. F. Stone, The idden istory
of the War (New k: Monthly Review Press, 1969), xi. New York
Times, ))

. , ,
, .
25 Leary, Peilous Missions, 110-12;
Putnam's, 1979), 48-49, 56-57, 70.

294

Chistopher

Robblns, Air

Ameica

(New York:

26

5, 5 .

CATCL,

6-12 . (Collie's, August 11, 1951, 35).


Amory, Who Killed Society? (New k: Pocket Books, 1960), 202.
Nine Lives, 50.

27 Clevelad
28

Dible,

29

(Cuno Engineeing)

,
, ,
30

New

Times,

lnc.
5, 1970, 1, 22. Lockheed,
U-2, USAF

Apil

( ))) .
31 Tansameica Copoation 1940-

9% 22% Bank of Ameica.


New k Times, Apil 8, 1960, 62; U. S. Cogress, House, Committee on Amed Services,
Special Subcommittee on National Ailift, Heaings, 86th g., 2d sess. (Washigton, D. .:
GPO, 1960), 4616-50, 4730-34. Pan Am ,
6- 300
32

,
, .

,
, ,
(Fedeick . h, i Tansport Policy
and Natioal Secuity (Chapel Hill: University ofNorth Caolina Pess, 1965), 225).
.
33 Angus McDoald and Al , Pan Am Makes the Going Geat, Scanlon's, April 1970, 53.
1961 Pan Am TWA
38 . 1962 Pan Am 500%

Ed Reid, The Gim Reapes (Chicago: Henry Regery, 1969), 219; Wallace un,
Money: The New F in Ameican Life (Cambidge, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin,
1965), 10, 274.
34

Gamers'

35 . , i Ameica, ,

, Air Asia,

Am

, ,
))

1941

Pan Am,

, )) ,

1959

, ,

, -

1959, 16). Pan Am

(New k Times,

Septembe

27,

295


. McAlister, Vietam: The Origis of Revolutio (New York: f, 1969), 228; .
David Feigold, Opium d Politics i Laos, Nia Adams d AI , eds" Laos: War d
Revolutio (New York: Harper, 1970), 335.
37 George Thayer, The War Busiess (New York: Simo & Schuster, 1969), 158.
Area Book for Thailad (Washigto, D. .: GPO, 1968)
36 /.

, , ,
[. . ] (.

454).
Society i Thailad: Aalytical istory (lthaca, N. .:
Corell Uiversity Press, 1957), 289.
39 UN Documet E/CN.7 /213 (commuicated the U. S. represetative), November 17,
1950,9.
Skier, Chiese

38

G. William

40

" . ,

, , .

Illicit Narcotics
Traffic, Hearigs, 84th g" 2d sess. (Washigto, D. .: GPO, 1955), 13; UN Documet /
CN.7 /394, April 29, 1960, 2.
41 U. S. Cogress, Seate, Committee the /udiciary, Narcotic Cotrol Act of 1956, Hearig,
84th g" 2d sess" 4, 1956, 34.
1955 . ,
- .
(UN Documet /
CN.7 /303/Rev. 1, 34).
42 UN Commissio Narcotic Drugs, Report ofthe Nith Sessio (1954), E/CN.7 / 283, 22.
43 UN Commissio Narcotic Drugs, Report ofthe Thirteeth Sessio (1958), EI CN. 7 /354,
26, cf. 22; Reportofthe fifteeth Sessio (1960), E/CN.7 /395, 19, cf. 18. ,
,
- >

, .

Peter Dale Scott, The Great


Coup (Bosto: South d, 1980), 15-16; Peter Dale Scott, Deep Politics d the Death
of JFK (Berkeley: Uiversity of Califoria Press, 1976), 167.
44 S Fracisco Chroicle, September 4, 1970, 1. Free Chia d Asia,
Heroi

, ,


,

>

(Free Chia d Asia, /u 1959, 21; cf. /auary 1959, 10). ,

th Kaus, Orphas

, : . /h

of the Cold War: America d the Tibeta Struggle for Survival (New
York: Pulic Affairs, 1999). , - .
45 Wilfred Blythe, lmpact of Chiese Secret Societies i Malaya (Ld: Oxford Uiversity
Press, 1969), 190, 250.
46 " " UN Commissio Narcotic Drugs, Report of the Seveteeth Sessio, /
CN.7 /432, 15.

296

Blythe,/mpacf, 441,449.
Blythe, Impact, 441-42.
49 Skier, Chiese Society i Thai\ad, 120-21.
50 Skier, Chiese Society i Thailad, 337.
51 UN Documet E/CN.7 /210, November 3, 1950, 3.
52 . R. Isaacs, The Tragedy of the Chiese Revolutio (Staford: Staford Uiversity Press,
1951), 81, 142-46; . . Wag, )oural of Asia Studies, 1967, 437; Blythe, Impact, 21,
28-29. . , Politics ofHeroi, 263-70. ,
47
48

> r ,
r .
. (
r ) .

Narcotic Drugs, Report ofthe Eighteeth Sessio, E/CN.7 /455, 10.


Politics, 269-82.
54 Will Oursler d L. D. Smith, Narcotics: America's Peril (Garde City, N. .: Dou\eday,
1952), 87.
55 E/CN.7 /394, April 29, 1960, 8. ,
- ;
53

Cf.

UN

Commissio

, r ; .

Scott, Deep Po\itics, 167.


56 Ross . , The Chia Lobby i America Politics (New York: Macmil\a, 1960), ix.
57 )oseph \, The Chia Lobby (New Rochel\e, N. .: Arligto House, 1969), 148,
emphasis added.
58 Michae\ Straight, Corruptio d Chiag Kai-shek, New Repu\ic, October 8, 1951, 12.
59

; .

George

Kerr, Formosa Betrayed (Bosto:

Houghto Miffli,

60

New York Times, February 16, 1961, 9;

61

Scott d Marshal\,

Sigapore

1965), 297-98.
Straits imes, February 20, 1961, 1.

Politics, 87.
- . , ,

, .

APACL: Its Growth d Out\ook (Taipeh: APACL, 1960). ,


Marshall et \., The lra-Cotra ti (Bosto: South d, 196 7), 64-65.
63 Christia Sciece Moitor, )u 16, 1970, 8; cf. 29, 1970, 14: <
62

. )th

, ,
. , ,

, ""
.

, ,
, .

U. S. t of April 29, 1960, to UN Commissio Narcotic Drugs, E/CN. 7/394, 2.


U. S. t of April 29, 1960, to UN Commissio Narcotic Drugs, E/CN.7 /394, 1; Free
Chia d Asia, )auary 1959, 10.
66 Bemard Fall, Aatomy of Crisis (Garde City, N. .: Dou\eday, 1969), 99.
64
65

297

67

1952-1954 .,

1956-.

-:
: - ,
, (Skinne,

in Thailand, 343).

Chinese Society

. , , << ...

(New k Times, Novembe 6,


1957, 34). . 2 ; , Politics of Heoin, 189-90.
68 UN Commission on Nacotic Drugs, Report of the Seventeenth Session (1962), / CN. 7 /432,

11.
69

APACL, F China and Asia, t 1959, 14.

F China and Asia, t 1959, 31.

71

.
,

CAT/FCRA

19 1961

.,

-47, , , .

-
Straits Times, Febuary 22, 1961, 3).
, Poshing Ailines,
-4 7 . Poshing Ailines ,
Am
, CNAC, .
72 Bangkok Post, Apil 18, 1964.
73 San Francisco Chronicle,August 16, 1971, 12. See , Politics ofHeroin, xiv-xv, passim.
74 , 1961 .,
(Bangkok Post,

Febuary

22, 1961, 1;

Singapoe

,
.
, Aviation

i Transport. ,

lnvestors, lnc., Vietnam


Vietnam Air Tansport, ,

, , ,


. . ,

Politics of Heroin, 227-28, passim.


U. S. Congress, House, Committee on Foreign Affais, The World Heroin Proem, Report
of Special Study Mission, House Report no. 92-298, 92d Cong., lst sess. (Washington, D. .:
GPO, 1971).
75

76 ,

(The Opium Must Go Through, Life, August 30, 1963, 12).

-, .
, -

298

(U. S. Congess, Senate, Committee on Government Operations, Oganized

Crime d Illicit Traffic i Narcotics, Hearigs, 88th g., 2d sess. [Washigto, D. .: GPO,
1964), 956, 961; Narcotics Hearigs). ,
,

1950- .:
". , ,
(U. S. Cogress, Seate, Select Committee Improper Activities i
the Labor or Maagemet Field, Hearigs, 85th g., 2d sess. [Washigto, D. .: GPO, 1959),
12225; McClella Hearigs). Cf. , Politics ofHeroi, 296-99.
77 1969 . Cotietal Air Services

Cotietal i Lies, ,
Air Ameica, 1 . (Wall Street Joural, August 23,
1965, 20; Cotietal Airlies, ul Report, 1965, 13; New York Times, August 27, 1964,6).
78 U. S. Cogress, House, Committee Governmet Operatios, U. S. Aid Operatios i
Laos, House Report . 546, 86th g., lst sess. (Washigto, D. .: GPO, 1959), 2; Hearigs,
327; NewYorkTimes, March 24, 1959, 19.
79 New York Times, February 2, 1962, 8.
80 Staley Karnow, Washigto Post, March 16, 1970, AlO.
, , ,

"" (Ss, d

Row, 1965), 661).

[New York:

&

(F
Chia d

Asia,

Decembe

1960, 5-6).

(, ,

Air America). 1967 .


800 , ,

( ), .
((

1959 .; S Fracisco Choicle, August 16, 1971, 12; Feigold, Opium d Politics, 323; Fk
wig d ig Garrett, The New Opium W, Ramparts, 1971, 34. . ,
Politics of i, 355-61.
81 New k Times, March 19, 1964, 4; Bagkok Post, h 20, 1964; New k imes,
August 27, 1964,6; South Chia Mornig Post, Jue 22, 1964, 1; Satuday Review, 11, 1968,44.
82

. AIG,

. AIG ,
(Washigto Weekly, March
83

McClella Heaigs,

84

Messick,

15262-72.
(New k: Putnam's, 1971), 89.

Lasky

1995 .
17, 1997).

1968 . <(
200 .
(New k imes, December 1, 1969, 42).



85

New k Times, 23, 1950, 34.

86

299

(n Chan Chennault, Chennault and the

Flying iges [NewYok: Eriksson,


1963], 76-83). 1949 .
Commerce International (China),
(U. S. Congress, Senate, Committee Judiciary, Communist Threat to the United States through
the Caibbean, Hearings, 86th Cong" 2d sess" testimony of William D. Pawley, Septembe 2,
1960,72, 9). .
87 Washington Post, September 9, 1951, AI, 8; Congressional Record,
Senate, Septembe 10, 1951, 11066-67; Reporter, April 29, 1952, 10-11; Koen, China Lobby,
50. . Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1990), 2:509-12.
88 . . Wise, The World of Alexander Guterma, Fortune, December 1959, 160.
-
, -, (Chester Cooper, The Lost Crusade [New
York: Dodd Mead, 1970], 52), ,
. ,

, .
89

91

SevenArts Productions ; cf. Messick, Lansky, 228; Reid, Grim Reapers, 107.
Messick, Lansky, 211.
McClellan Hearings, 12246.

92

-,

90

1960- .

((Zenith Enterprises Melmar,


lnc.). Sperry Corp. ,
1941 . - ( S Intercontinent Corp., ). Carl G. Fisher Corporation

-
.
93 New York imes, December 1, 1969, 42. Miami
National Bank. , , 1975 .
, . National City Bank of New York,

1976


Melose

Miami National

Helliwell,
and DeWolf.


. . Penny Lernoux, ln Banks We Trust (Garden City, N. .:
Anchor Douhleday, 1984), 42-44, 84.
94 New k Times, August 14, 1959, 9; Messick, Lansky, 269. ,
1950 . U. S. Life
, ,
> Neisco Corporation (San Francisco Chronicle,
July 15, 1971, 5). 1964 . Neisco
Miami National Bank.

300

95

- 1945 1950 . ,

, Fist Florida Resouce Coporation.


,

(R. . Naylo, Hot


Money and the Politics of Debt (New k: Simon & Schuster, 1987), 292).
96 Reid, Grim Reapers, 225-26.
97 Reid, Gim Reapers, 296.
98 Messick, Lansky, 241.
99 " 1970 . Air America
(New York
imes, April 5, 1970, 22; Flight lnternational, 16, 1970).
100 Eliot Marshall, Heoin: The Source of Supply, New Repuic, July 24-31, 1971, 24:
, ,
.

101

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