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1.

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.
,
; 35 ,
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, . ,
, ,

.
, 7-
. , ,
w

.
, ,
: ,
, .
.
, .
1 2 . ,
, .
.
1.1
z1 z 2 , d a1 , d a2 , d f1 , d f 2 w ,
z ;
d a ;
d f ;
a w .
:
1 ( );
2 ;

. 1
,
, .
.

.
z1 z 2 , d a1 , d a2 T,
z ;
d a ;
N .
:
1 ( );
2 ;
.
z1 , z 2 , d a1 , d a 2 , b1 , b2 , T .

. 2

y
d
b
y ( a1 ) 2 ( ) 2 ;
2
2

w T

d a2
d
b
( a1 ) 2 ( ) 2 .
2
2
2

() ,
() .
z1 , z 2 , N1 , P1 , d a 2 , b1 , T .

. 3
d a1 N

w T

b2
;
4N

d a1 d a 2
.
2

.
z1 , z 2 , N1 , P1 , N 2 , P 2 , b1 , b2 , T .

. 4
2

d a1 N1

b1
;
4 N1
2

da 2

b
N2 2 ;
4N2

w T

d a1 d a 2
.
2

.
z1 , z 2 , d a1 , d a 2 , T .

. 4

w T

d a1 d a 2

.
2
2

.
z1 , z 2 , d a1 , d a 2 , N 1 , N 2 , P1 , P 2 , b1 , T .

. 5
2

d a1 N1

b1
;
4 N1

d f 1 2 P1 d a1 ;

df2

N2
;

cos(
)
2z 2

d a 2 2 P2 d f 2 ;

w T

d f 1 da 2

.
2
2

.
z1 , z 2 , d a 2 , N 1 , P1 , b1 , T .

. 6
2

d a1 N1

b1
;
4 N1

d f 1 2 P1 d a1 ;

w T

d f 1 da 2

.
2
2


.
z1 , z 2 , d a1 , N 2 , P 2 , T .

. 7

df2

N2
;

cos(
)
2z 2

d a 2 2 P2 d f 2 ;

w T

d a1 d a 2

.
2
2


x1 x2 , .

. 8

.
N , b P (. 8.79, );
b2
;
da N
4N
d f 2P d a .
b, ,
b d a ,
b
d a
b .
2N
d a d f
N P ( 8.79, ):


);
2z
d a 2P d f .
d f N / cos(

d a d f .
.
m ( ( ,
) C p ( , 1
) D p ) pb , pb
( ,
). ,

:
) pb ;

. 9
) W W , zn
zn ,
W W
pb
;
z n z n

. 10

. 11

) M M () D D .
, :

d D (") M (") D(") ;



M (") D(")
d D (")
.
cos(0,5 / z )

. 12

d
cos D (") b(") ;
d D
( D D)
y D inv D inv D
;
db
( inv - . inv tg . )
yD 0 ,
M M , D D
(),

. 13
d b ,
d b ( ,
);

. 14

pd d b / z
,
: d b y D < 0,000005,
d b ; d b


yD

d b d b (1

)
D D ;
tg D tg D
db
. .

d b min(d D , d D ) ;
:
D = 20;
M =184,41;
D =25;
M =198,04.
8.119 :
d D =184,02-20=164,02
d D =198,04-25=173,04
0

d b 164,02
164,02
cos =
=1
164,02
164,02
cos =
=0,9459
173,04
=0
=0,3304
25 20
y D inv0,3304 inv 0
= -0,0179
164,04
y D > 0,000005,
1

d b 164,04(1

0.0179

)
25 20 =154,64
tg 0,3304 tg 0
164,04
1

d b :
154,64
cos =
=0,9428
164,02
154,64
cos =
=0,8937
173,04
=0,3399 0,548
=0,4653 0,627
y D inv0,4653 inv 0,3399 (25 20) / 154.64 =-0,00928
y D > 0,000005,
1

d b 154,64(1

0.00928

)
25 20 = 139,54
tg 0,4653 tg 0,3399
154,64
, y D 0,000005

) s y s y hay hay
;

. 15

. 16
:
, :
sy
y arctg
;
d a 2hay
d a .
, :
sy
dy
.
sin y
d b ;

db
dy
y inv y inv y ( y y )

cos y

y 0

d b min(d y , d y )

y
d b d b (1
)
tg y tg y
, y D < 0,000005.
pb . (. 1)

. ,
, d b
0,005 ;
d b .
pb
. 8.3, ,
. m ( p D p ) .
.
,
pb .
() pb .
pb ,

pb pb f pb ,
f pb - , 1643-81.
6
,
.
Cp

pb , ??

, ??

Dp

?????

pb , ??

, ??

Dp

2,774
2,782
2,835
2,847
2,877
2,884
2,927
2,933
2,952
2,964
2,971
2,983
3,013
3,028
3,035
3 042
3,067
3,072
3,074
3,124
3,171
3,211
3,219
3,287
3,351
3,408
3,459

1,0000
0,9769
0,9769
1,0000
1,0106
0,9769
0,9769
1,0106
1,0000
0,9769
0,9769
1,0106
1,0583
1,0106
1,0000
1,0000
1,0106
1,0583
1,0106
1,0583
1,0583
1,0583
1,0583
1,1545
1,1545
1,1545
1,1545

26
26

26
26

26
26

24

24

24
24
24
24
22
22
22
22

1
/8

1
/8

4,271
4,282
4,292
4,316
4,400
4,428
4,475
4,520
4,542
4,552
4,562
4,600
4,608
4,611
4,686
4,756
4,817
4,828
4,854
4,983
5,166
5,166
5,266
5,311
5,323
5,356
5,436

1,5000
1,4111
1,4111
1,5160
1,5160
1,5000
1,5160
1,5875
1,5160
1,5000
1,5000
1,5160
1,5875
1,5160
1,5875
1,5875
1,5875
1,5875
1,7500
1,7500
1,8143
1,7500
1,8143
1,7500
1,7500
1,8143
1,8143

18
18

16

16

16
16
16
16

14

14

14
14

1
/8

3
/8

3
/8

28
25
22,5
25
25
20
17,5
22,5
20
15
14,5
20
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
20
17,5
15
14,5
25
22,5
20
17,5

Cp

?????

3
/16
3
/16

3
/16

/16

3
/16

3
/16

25
15
14,5
25
22,5
20
20
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
20
17,5
15
14,5
28
25
25
20
22,5
15
14,5
20
17,5

3,467
3,503
3,511
3,559
3,616
3,686
3,690
3,749
3,793
3,802
3,805
3,854
3,863
4,018
4,096
4,161
4,166
4,228

1,2500
1,1545
1,1545
1,2500
1,2700
1,2700
1,2500
1,2700
1,2500
1,2500
1,2700
1,2700
1,2700
1,4111
1,4111
1,5000
1,4111
1,4111

22
22
20
20

20

20
20
20
18
18

18
18

pb , ??

, ??

Dp

6,406
6,423
6,438
6,575
6,642
6,702
6,817
6,828
6,843
6,919
6,935
7,007
7,023
7,118
7,194
7,232
7,333
7,372
7,380
7,459
7,498
7,570
7,586
7,604
7,610
7,628
7,667
7,685

2,2500
2,1167
2,1167
2,3091
2,2500
2,3091
2,3091
2,2500
2,2500
2,3091
2,5000
2,3091
2,3091
2,5000
2,5266
2,5400
2,5266
2,5400
2,5000
2,5266
2,5400
2,5266
2,5000
2,5000
2,5400
2,7500
2,5266
2,5266

12
12
11

11
11

11
11
11

10

10

10

10

28
15
14,5
25
25
22,5
20
20
15
14,5
17,5
15
14,5
25
22,5
28
20
17,5

5,506
5,518
5,548
5,694
5,755
5,867
5,904
5,967
6,027
6,056
6,069
6,083
6,134
6,144
6,148
6,241
6,249
6,342

1,8143
1,8143
2,0000
2,0000
2,0213
2,0213
2,0000
270213
2,1167
2,0213
2,0000
2,0000
2,0213
2,1167
2,0213
2,2500
2,1167
2,1167

14
14

12

12

12
12

Cp
?????

pb , ??

, ??

Dp

5
/16

5
/16

5
/16

5
/16

5
/16
5
/16

25
15
14,5
25
20
22,5
20
15
14,5
17,5
28
15
14,5
25
25
25
22,5
22,5
20
20
20
17,5
15
14,5
17,5
28
15
14,5

8,950
9,015
9,040
9,084
9,104
9,124
9,200
9,215
9,222
9,254
9,373
9,513
9,594
9,635
9,657
9,709
9,862
9,885
9,965
10,071
10,267
10,332
10,332
10,402
10,442
10,532
10,598
10,621

3,0319
3,2500
3,1750
3,0319
3,0000
3,0000
3,0319
3,1750
3,0319
3,2500
3,1750
3,1750
3,2500
3,1750
3,1750
3,5000
3,2500
3,2500
3,5000
3,5372
3,5372
3,6286
3,5000
3,7500
3,5372
3,6286
3,5372
3,5000

8
8

8
8

1
/4
1
/4

1
/4

1
/4

1
/4

1
/4

15
14,5
28
25
25
22,5
20
20
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
28
20
17,5

Cp
?????

/8

3
/8

3
/8

3
/8

7
/16
7
/16

7
/16

7
/16

20
28
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
25
20
17,5
20
15
14,5
28
15
14,5
25
25
22,5
25
20
28
20
22,5
17,5
15

7,708
7,725
7,830
8,036
8,118
8,191
8,345
8,322
8,331
8,364
8,456
8,542
8,564
8,584
8,633
8,800
8,856

pb ,
11,934
12,053
12,100
12,112
12,138
12,166
12,267
12,287
12,295
12,483
12,497
12,546
12,684
12,813
12,846
12,876
12,897
12,926
12,949
13,200
13,284
13,426
13,626
13,656
13,687
13,801
13,832
13,870
14,236

2,5400
2,5400
2,7500
2,8222
2,7500
2,8222
2,7500
3,0000
2,8222
2,7500
2,8222
3,0000
2,8222
2,8222
3,0319
3,0319
3,0000

,
4,0425
4,2333
4,2500
4,0425
4,0000
4,0000
4,0425
4,2333
4,0425
4,5000
4,2333
4,2500
4,2333
4,5000
4,2333
4,2333
4,2500
4,2500
4,5479
4,5479
4,5000
4,5479
4,5479
4,5000
4,5000
4,5479
4,5479
5,0000
5,0000

10
10

9
9

5
/16
5
/16

Dp

6
6

15
14,5
25
25
20
22,5
15
28
20
14,5
17,5
25
15
14,5
25
22,5
20

Cp

1
/2

1
/2

1
/2

1
/2

9
/16
9
/16

9
/16
9
/16

9
/16
9
/16

20
25
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
28
20
20
17,5
25
15
14,5
15
14,5
25
22,5
20
20
17,5
15
14,5
15
14,5
28
25

10,645
10,676
10,712
10,734
10,758
10,872
11,011
11,036
11,070
11,096
11,380
11,389
11,406
11,510
11,733
11,789
11,808

3,5000
3,7500
3,6286
3,5372
3,5372
3,6286
3,6286
3,6286
3,7500
4,0000
3,7500
4,0000
3,7500
4,0425
4,0425
4,2500
4,0000

7
7
7

pb ,

Dp

15,660
15,826
16,133
16,237
16,409
16,643
16,654
16,690
16,728
16,868
16,906
17,084
17,265
17,600
17,713
17,901
18,031
18,080
18,168
18,207
18,249
18,401
18,431
18,443
18,507
18,704
18,746
19,026
19,066

5,5000
5,5585
5,5585
5,5000
5,5585
6,0000
5,5585
5,5000
5,5000
5,5585
5,5585
6,0000
6,0638
6,0638
6,0000
6,0638
6,5000
6,3500
6,0638
6,0000
6,0000
6,0638
6,3500
6,0638
6,5000
6,5691
6,3500
6,3500
6,5691

4
4

7
/16
7
/16

1
/2
1
/2

Cp

11
/16
11
/16

11
/16

11
/16

11
/16
11
/16

3
/4
3
/4

3
/4

3
/4

3
/4

3
/4

3
/16

13
/16

14,5
25
20
15
14,5
17,5
15
14,5
20
28
15
25
14,5
25
22,5
28
20

25
25
22,5
20
20
28
17,5
15
14,5
15
14,5
25
25
22,5
20
20
28
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
25
25
20
17,5
22,5

14,388
14,464
14,667
14,744
14,761
14,918
14,997
15,140
15,173
15,208
15,221
15,256
15,334
15,369
15,416
15,451

5,0532
5,0800
5,0532
5,0800
5,0000
5,0532
5,0800
5,0532
5,0000
5,0000
5,0800
5,5000
5,0532
5,0532
5,0800
5,0800

5
5

pb , ??

, ??

Dp

21,066
21,196
21,242
21,291
21,424
21,468

7,2571
7,0744
7,0000
7,0000
7,2571
7,0744

?1/2

?1/2

21,517
21,582
21,744
22,000
22,022
22,073
22,191
22,376
22,710
22,778
23,001
23,020
23,054
23,467
23,617
23,868
24,107
24,224
24,277
24,352

7,0744
7,5798
7,2571
7,5798
7,2571
7,2571
8,0000
7,5798
7,5798
8,0000
7,5798
8,0851
7,5798
8,0851
8,0000
8,0851
8,4667
8,0851
8,0000
8,0000

/8

5
/8

5
/8

5
/8

5
/8
5
/8

Cp
?????

7
/8

?1/2

?1/2
?1/2

/8

19,189
19,269
19,314
19,393
19,417
19,682
19,725
19,770
19,931
19,934
19,980
20,143
20,533
20,663
20,665
20,884

6,5000
6,3500
6,3500
6,5691
7,0000
6,5691
6,5000
6,5000
7,0000
6,5691
6,5691
7,0744
7,0744
7,2571
7,0000
7,0744

4
4

13
/16

13
/16

13
/16
13
/16
7
/8
7
/8

7
/8

20
15
14,5
20
28
17,5
15
14,5
25
15
14,5
25
22,5
25
20
20

pb , ??

, ??

Dp

Cp
?????

22,5
17,5
15
14,5
14,5
15

26,808
26,852
27,252
27,267
27,311
27,336

9,2364
9,0957
9,0957
9,2364
9,0000
9,6010

/8 14,5
/16 25
17,5
15
/16 22,5
15

14,5

28
15
/16 20
17,5
15
/16
15

15

/16

1
/16

15

25
15
25
14,5
22,5

23/4
11/8
11/8

23/4

13/1

22,5
20
17,5
20
15
25

27,374 9,0000
27,601 9,0957 11/8
27,665 9,0957 11/8

27,674 9,3264 23/4

27,739 10,0000
3

27,866 9,6010
1 /16
3

28,028 9,2364 2 /4
3

28,093 9,2364 2 /4
3
28,343 9,6010
1 /1

14,5
15
14,5
17,5
28
22,5
15
14,5
20

28,472 10,0000
28,766 9,6010

25
13/1 17,5
6

28,775 10,1063 1 /4
28,928 10,1600 21/2
29,135 9,6010
13/1

25
25
15

20

25
25
22,5
22,5
20
20
20
17,5
15
14,5
17,5
28
15
14,5
15
14,5

20
25
17,5
15
14,5

29,202
29,333
29,489
29,521
29,835
29,993

9,6010

1 /1 14,5
3

11/4

10,1063
10,1600 21/2
10,0000
10,1063 11/4

10,1600 21/2

22,5
22,5
20
20
20

24,459

8,5904

24,535
24,574
24,591
24,933
24,965
24,995
25,360
25,368

8,0851
8,4667
8,0851
8,5904
9,0000
8,4667
8,5904
8,4667

25,625
25,693
25,738

9,0000
8,4667
8,5904

25,752

8,4667

25,898

9,0957

26,068

8,5904

26,128

8,5904

26,298

9,2364

25

11/16

1
15
22,5
1
14,5
1
1 /16 22,5

28

20
1
1 /16 20
17,5

11/16

25
15
17,5
14,5

30,214 10,6117
30,280
30,346
30,415
30,441
30,513
30,668
30,739
30,800

15/1
6

10,1063 11/4

10,0000

10,0000
1

10,1600 2 /2
11,0000

10,1063 11/4
10,1063 11/4
10,6117
15/1

17,5
15
14,5
17,5
28
15
14,5
22,5

30,831 10,1600 2 /2
15
30,902 10,1600 21/2
14,5
31,320 11,000
25

0
31,327 10,6117
15/1 20

25

11,117
0
31,795 10,6117
31,653

11/8

11/16

11/16

23/4

11/8

22,5

20

11,117
0
32,276 10,6117

pb ,

Dp

20
14,5
25
17,5
22,5
25

15
14,5
25

11,288
8
32,202 10,6117
32,142

21/4

15/1 17,5
6

15/1

25
15

9,0957

26,569

9,0000

pb ,

Dp

32,473
32,765
32,819
33,092
33,287

11,0000
11,2888
11,1170
11,6223
12,0000

21/4

13/8
17/16

20
22,5
20
25
28

34,310
34,335
34,530
34,823
35,200

11,6223
11,2888
12,1276
11,6223
12,1276

21/4

17/16

11/2
17/16
11/2

33,309

11,1170

21/4

13/8 17,5

35,268

11,6223

17/16

33,326
33,380
33,457
33,733

11,2888
11,0000
11,0000
11,6223
11,1170
11,1170
11,2888
12,0000
11,2888

21/4

21/4

17/16
13/8
13/8

20
15
14,5
22,5

35,349
35,425
35,802
36,160

15
14,5
17,5
25
15

36,337
36,415
36,498
36,802
36,861
36,886
37,408
37,492
38,052

11,6223
12,0000
12,1276
12,7000
12,1276
12,0000
12,0000
12,1276
12,7000
12,1276
13,1382
12,7000
12,7000

2
2

17/16

11/2

11/2

11/2

11/2
11/2

Cp

32,267

13/8

25

26,400

33,735
33,812
33,824
34,167
34,257

25

22,5

13/8

15/1 14,5
6

Cp

14,5
20
20
25
17,5
15
14,5
15
22,5
14,5
25
20
17,5

pb ,
, ,
:
.
.
d w
X .
x.
X xm
d w .
, ,

.

. 16

. 17
:
)
W
0.5
x(
( zW 0.5) zinv )
;
m cos
tg

) ()
x (inv D inv

D z
)
;
2 z zpb 2tg

) s y
x ( y

z
inv inv y )
2z
2tg

W zW W zW .
D D , y y .
m , , x1 x2
aW .
*
ha c * .
.
,

0,5 z d f
ha* c *

x ;
cos zm
d f ;

7

( - , 1
) D p )
Dp
3/4
4/5
5/7
6/8
7/9
8/10
9/11

ha ,

h f ,

6,350
5,080
3,630
3,175
2,822
2,540
2,309

7,937
6,350
4,535
3,970
3,528
3,175
2,885

Dp
18/24
20/26
22/29
24/32
26/35
28/37
30/40

ha ,

hf ,

1,059
0,980
0,876
0,795
0,726
0,687
0,635

1,437
1,354
1,255
1,173
1,105
1,067
0,889

10/12
11/14
12/14
14/18
16/21

2,115
1,814
1,814
1,412
1,209

2,465
2,268
2,268
1,790
1,590

32/42
34/45
36/48
38/50
40/54

0,604
0,564
0,528
0,508
0,470

0,858
0,818
0,782
0,762
0,724

,
:
ha*
c*

0,80
0,20

1,00
0,25

1,25
0,30

1,50
0,35

,
*
; ha c* .
,
.

.
, ,
, ,
( ).
;
*
ha 1 c* = 0,25: 1,5/1,25; 1,75/1,5; 2/1,5; 2,25/1,75; 2,5/2; 2,75/2; 3/2,25; 3,25/2,5; 3,5/2,25;
3,75/2,75; 4/3; 4,5/3,25; 5/3,75; 5/5,5; 6/4,5; 6,5/5; 7,5/5,5; 8/6,5.
. 8.4 ha h f .
1.2
, ,
y
d y .

. 18
.

. ( ):
d
d
w T a1 a 2 .
2
2
(
):
)
;
)
W W , zW zW
, pb ;
)
M M D D ;
.
d D d D . :
d
tg b b tg y ;
dy
cos tD

db
;
dD

inv D
y D inv tD

D D
;
d b cos b

y D 0 ,
y -
d b .
pbt d b / z

pb pbn pbt cos b
pb , .
, m ( C p D p )
dy

(. . 8.3) pb .

y D < 0,000005 d b

yD
d b d b (1
)
D D
tg D tg D
cos b
db


mz
arcsin( tg y )
dy
t (2.93).

, :
)

z W
x
(
( zW 0,5) inv t ) ;
2tg zpb z
)

z
D
x
(inv td inv t
).
2tg
2 z zpb
D tD

W zW W zW , tD
D .
m , , x1 x2
aW .
6.3
aW
( 180
). ( ) pb , m ,
, d b , , t x ( . )
,
cos w

sin 2 b1 sin 2 b2 2 sin b1 sin b2 cos


sin

b1 b2 ,
.

sin b
sin w
.
cos w

tg w
dw
tg b

w1 w2 ;
0,5(d w1 d w2 ) aw .

w1 w2 ,
, .
b d b , m
.


jn ( z1inv tw1 z 2inv tw2 )m cos ( sbn1 sbn2 ) ,


db
;
dw
sbn W pb ( zW 1) .

, .

tw arccos

6.4

, ,
.
.
z1 z 2 ,
Rwe ( )
, a f , d ae ,
sye s ye
d aye
.
haye
,
s yx hayx ,
l x ( .
)

. 19
(

)
( = 20) ,
. :
w1 w2 (3.11);


2R
mwe we sin w ;
z

awve Rwe (tg w1 tg w2 ) ;

d ae
d ave
;
cos w
d fve 2 Rwe (tg w tg ( w f )) .
,
l x ,

Rwe
s ye s yx
;
Rwe l x
hayx
Rwe
(tg ( a w )
)l x .
Rwe l x
Rwe l x

s ye
tg yve
.
d ave 2haye
haye hayx

, ,
s ye
d yve
.
sin yve

:
d
cos yve b ;
d yve
inv yve ( yve yve
);
y inv yve
y 0 .

, d bve .
d
cos w bve ,
m we z v
zv

z
.
cos w

w ,
.

(inv w inv )
z
z2
x x1 x2
( 1
).

2tg
cos w1 cos w2

cos w
me mwe
.
cos

d yve

yve arccos

mwe z cos w
.
cos w d yve


mz
se e ( yve inv inv yve ) .
cos w
:
se1 me (1,5 2 x1tg x ) ;
se 2 me (1,5 2 x2 tg x ) .
, x = 0, x

z
x 0,03 0,008( 2 2,5) .
z1
( x1 x2 ) x
a f , ,
*
, ha c * .