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The connection between biodiversity and cultural diversity is very strong in The Republic

of the Sudan. Due to the varying climate regions in the country the inhabitants depend on certain
resources for survival. In prehistoric history, this dependency created a strong bond between the
Earth and the people therefore creating traditions and establishing value systems that are still
present today. The Nile River areas and varying climate regions are two examples of how the
biodiversity lead to cultural diversity in Sudan.

The above image depicts the different climate and ecological areas of

The above image depicts the different river systems in

The Republic of the Sudan. These areas are directly tied to values and

Sudan. The rivers and water availability create the

Traditions through the resources available and the resources necessary

biodiversity of the region. (Photo credit FAO)

for life. (Photo credit IPI)

The Nile River and all of its surrounding tributaries and flood zones are the major force
behind the biodiversity and therefore cultural diversity development in Sudan. During prehistoric times, the Nile was the origin of settlement on Earth, this is also true for prehistoric
settlement in Sudan, The Nile is the link that runs through Sudan, and influences the lives of
Sudan's people. (Society and Culture) The Niles purpose thousands of years ago through today
remains the same. It and its tributaries provide water through flooding and irrigation for
agriculture but it also serves as a means of transportation and commerce (Society and Culture).

Nomadic people, then and now, make seasonal pilgrimages to the Nile valleys, which allows for
governing bodies to control the scattered and often isolated population of the interior. (Society
and Culture) This governance has led to various environmental protection policies in place today.
Nearly a decade ago President Kiir, the president of South Sudan, began legislation to do
everything possible to protect and propagate South Sudanese fauna and flora, and seek to reduce
the effects of wildfires, waste dumping, and water pollution. (South Sudan- Biodiversity) This
emphasis in law demonstrates the importance biodiversity to the inhabitants of Sudan.
The Nile River was the major source for creating a diverse cultural around biodiversity,
the varying climate regions are the major source of maintaining the cultural around the
biodiversity. The country encompasses virtually every geographical feature, from the harsh
deserts of the north to the rain forests rising on its southern borders. (Sudan) Due to this large
variety of geography, numerous nomadic and settled tribes have developed over time. For every
nomadic tribe that still inhabits the Sudan region, there is a unique culture that is important to
that tribe. Governing the Sudan regions has becoming increasingly difficult because these tribes
hold on to the established values and traditions that have been in place for hundreds of years
(USIP). No individual entity is willing to give up their centuries old traditions because they are
actively practicing those traditions, instilling the values in their youth, and are beneficial to their
way of life. Strong religious views and land use rights are only compounding the situation. For
example, raising and herding cattle is the main life support and means of earning a living to a lot
of the nomadic tribes in the area. They are dependent on grazing lands. Other groups have vested
interests in the same lands which is causing the land to be over utilized, making the soil poor and
unable to maintain the much needed nutrients (Regional).

In conclusion, the Nile River and the varying climate regions are the reason biodiversity
has a strong effect on the cultural diversity of Sudan. Only time will tell if the diverse cultural
aspects will remain the same as new entities begin to take control of the region and pass new

Diversity, Unity, and Nation Building in South Sudan. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2015.
FAO.org. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2015.
The International Potash Institute - IPI. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2015.
Regional perspectives on agriculture and biodiversity in the drylands of Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved
August 6, 2015.
Society and Culture. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2015.
South Sudan - Biodiversity. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2015.
Sudan - The Society and its Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2015.