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.

LINGUISTIC
AREAS.
SAE,
.. ( )

4 2015

()

(-)

(?)


( )

SPRACHBUND
(. ,
. ,
.-. j j,
. unie linguistique)

LINGUISTIC AREA

CONVERGENCE AREA

Campbell, Lyle. 2006. Areal linguistics: a closer

scrutiny. In: Matras, Y., McMahon, A. and Vincent, N.


Linguistic Areas: Convergence in Historical and
Typological Perspective. Houndmills, Basingstoke,
Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. 1-31.


(Sprachbund)
. .
(1890 1938)

//
.
, 1923. . . .
118.
1928 .


(Sprachgruppe)

(Sprachfamilie)

(Sprachbund)

(Sprachbund) ,



,
,
,


,
.
Balkan Sprachbund

()

(3)

un
ti
ai
ajo

eu
tu
el
ea

ne
ju
ata
ato

noi
voi
ei
ele


-
,


,




.
(. . .,

Convergence area vs.


Linguistic area
Matras, Yaron. 2009. Language

Contact. Cambridge: CUP.


Matras, Yaron. 2011. Explaining
Convergence and the Formation of
Linguistic Areas. In: Hieda, Osamu et
al. (eds.). Geographical Typology and
Linguistic Areas. Amsterdam
Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 143-160.

Convergence area
Geographical zones in which

convergent development are


widespread among a group of
languages are referred to as
convergence areas.
Weinreich, Uriel. 1958. On the compatibility
of genetic relationship and convergent
development. In: Word 14. 374-379.

Linguistic area
A linguistic area can be recognized when

a number of geographically contiguous


languages share structural features which
cannot be due to retention from a common
protolanguage and which give these
languages a profile that makes them stand
out among the surrounding languages.

Haspelmath, Martin. 2001. The European linguistic


area: Standard Average European. In: Haspelmath,
M. et al. (eds.). Language Typology and Language
Universals (Handbcher zur Sprach- und
Kommunikationswissenschaft vol. 20.2). Berlin: De


(..

()

(.. ):
(-)

()
(.. ):
, , .

(Mesoamerican linguistic area)



(South Asian linguistic area)
Standard Average European

(European linguistic area)

(Balkan Sprachbund


1. (gjuha shqipe)
2. ( )
3. :

(limba romn) =-
/ (limba armneasc)
(limba vleasc)
(vlskl, rumni)

4.

( )
( )

( )
(hrvatski jezik)
BC
(bosanski jezik/ )
S
(crnogorski jezik/ )

5. (Trkdili) (?)
6.


Hinrichs, Uwe.Die sogenannten

'Balkanismen' als Problem der SdosteuropaLinguistik und der Allgemeinen


Sprachwissenschaft. In: Handbuch der
Sdosteuropa-Linguistik. Hrsg. von Uwe
Hinrichs. Wiesbaden, 1999. S. 429-462.
1)
2)
3)

. li dzku ali muleari


. (.
)


? = ?

. Ku po shkon? ?
Ku sht shtpia jote? ?
. ?
j j ?
+ +

. skam kur
.
.

. >
. ard >

( )
1. -

.

.
. cart > cri
. sht ()


.
11 19
2.

. ( + + ())
. ( + + )
. doisprezece (doi + spre + zece < *doi supre dece)
. dymbdhjet (dy + mb + dhjet)
. (++()())
.

.
- -
. - -
.
orau-l cas-a
.
qytet-i shtpi-a
. --

( ,
)
.

(DAT)
.
j

.


(GEN)
j

.

(DAT)
.


(GEN)

i-ddui cartea Marie-i carteaMarie-i

ia dhash librin Mari.


s

libri i Mari-s


(DAT)

u-ded vivlia pi Maria


.
(1)

.
(2)
-

(GEN)

vivlia aliMarie

-

., . !
.
Mario!
. .
!

., . -

.
mai bine
.
(ca)ma bune
.
m mir
.

3.
.

.
(= )
.
.
. pru mi
.

.

.
. l vd pe George
. e shoh Gjergjin
.

. + .:
. 1) + .:
2) (.) + -:

. 1) (.) (.) + :
/
2) (.) (.) + :

.
(.) a voi + : voi vedea
. va+ : va s-ved
.
(.) do + : do t shoh
.
+ :
. ka + : ka dikhav

.
.
. vreau s scriu (. vreau a scrie)
. dua t shkruaj (. . . dua
me shkru:)
. (. .-.
)
. (. .
elimpisati)
. me kamavte xramosarav

4.
.

.
.
. coas
. kos
.

(.)
(.)
daskl
dhaskal
(< .. )

5.
.

1.


2.

.
3.
, ..
.
4. (!),
.

,
.

European Linguistic Area


Standard Average
European
(SAE)

Whorf, Benjamin Lee. 1941. The

relation of habitual thought and


behavior to language. In: Leslie
Spier (ed.). Language, culture and
personality: Essays in memory of
Edward Sapir. Menasha, Wis.: Sapir
Memorial Publication Fund. Pp. 75
93.

Dahl, sten. 1990. Standard

Average European as an exotic


language. In: Johannes Bechert,
Giuliano Bernini, & Claude Buridant
(eds.) 1990. Toward a typology of
European languages. (Empirical
Approaches to Language Typology,
8.) Berlin: Mouton: De Gruyter. Pp. 3
8.

(1) Inversion as an expression for direct

interrogative sentences (SVO vs. VSO)


(2) Word order used to distinguish between
main and subordinate clauses (Continental
Scandinavian and some other Germanic
languages)
(3) Use of formal and impersonal subjects
(non-Pro-Drop languages):
Germ. Es regnet, Eng. It is raining.
(4) Expressing possession using a transitive
verb have
(5) Possessive-based Perfect of have-type:
Eng. I have run.

Haspelmath, Martin. 1998. How young is Standard

Average European? // In: Language Sciences 20.


Pp. 271287.
Haspelmath, Martin. 2001. The European
linguistic area: Standard Average European. In:
Haspelmath, M. et al. (eds.). Language Typology
and Language Universals (Handbcher zur
Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft vol.
20.2). Berlin: De Gruyter. Pp. 14921510.
van der Auwera, Johan (ed.). 1998. Adverbial
constructions in the languages of Europe.
(Empirical Approaches to Language TypologyEUROTYP, 20-3.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
van der Auwera, Johan. 2011. Standard Average
European. In: B. Kortmann & J. van der Auwera
(eds.). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe:

The European linguistic area:


Standard Average European
SAE a linguistic area (or Sprachbund) in

Europe that comprises the Romance,


Germanic and Balto-Slavic languages, the
Balkan languages and more marginally also
the westernmost Finno-Ugrian languages
most of the characteristic SAE features (also

called Europeanisms) are not IndoEuropeanisms but later common innovations


(Haspelmath 2001)

CHARLEMAGNE SPRACHBUND

(,
)

(
)


(,
)

STANDARD
AVERAGE

EUROPEAN

(,
)

(
.)

(-,
,
,
)


(, ,
)

SAE
()
1. Definite and indefinite articles.


:
, ,

2. Relative clauses with relative pronouns.



(. . who whose, .
).
3. 'Have'-perfect. :
+ (. . I
have said, . Jai dit, . Un kam
thn):

4. Nominative experiencers.

(.
I like music, . Un plqej muzikn / M plqen
muzika):
, ,
(., .-.)

5. Participial passive.



( ):
, ,
,
6. Anticausative Prominence.


(anticausative-prominent languages):
, , , ,
,

7. Dative external possessors.

(.
. Die Mutter wusch dem Kind die Haare
):
, , , , (,
)
8. Negative pronouns and lack of verbal negation.


(. . Nobody
listened , . ):
, , , ()
-

9. Particles in comparative constructions.

( . than, . )
:
, , (,
), , , ,

10. Relative-based equative constructions.



(. . grand comme un
lephant ):
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
11.

,

.
12. Intensifier-reflexive differentiation.

(. . selbst vs. . sich -

SAE
1.

;
2. ,
;
3.
;
4.
;
5. , ;
6.
;
7. ;
8. ,
;
9.

European

Who borrowed from whom?


? ?
contacts during the great transformations at the

transition from late antiquity to the early Middle


Ages in Europe;
Of course, we must always reckon with the
possibility (or even likelihood) that different SAE
features are due to different historical circumstance
(Haspelmath 2001)



SPRACHBUND
LINGUISTIC AREA


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