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41 009'
41 26'51"
41 0J1 '30''
41 17'25''
41 16'26"
4121'54"
41 015'14"
41 026'32"
4123'58"
41 22'23"
4123'
41 20'
4125'02''
41 027'51 ,,
41 ''29'31"
41 30'27"
41 028'32"

6128'
61030'56"
61 25'16"
61 13'46"
61 15'20"
6010'30"
6055'52"
60005'09"
61001 '23"
6127'48''
61 15'
61 1 6'
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HaropHa51 paBHI1Ha, HO BnocnencTBI111
cner!<a BO!lHI1CTbiH Xapa!<Tep, B CHny

ropoo6pa30BaTenbHblX

.lli1HaMI14eCI<I1X

npo

I({' COB , HOTOpble npH.lla!ll1 Axan l< anai<CI<0~1Y nnaTO MeCTaMI1 He-

21

I
I
\

J<OTOpyJO

np1-1nOll.HS!TOCTb B Bl-1ll.e

HI-131<1-1X

KynonOB 1-1n1-1 W1-1p0-

KI-1X sonH. MecTaMI-1 np01-130wno 3Ha4!-1TenbHOe Mynbll.006pa3Hoe


1-1n1-1 KopwToo6pa3Hoe onycKaHI-1e.
6a3anbTOBble nopOll.bl

OTnl-14aJOTCS! OT MHOfi-1X llpyri-1X 1-13-

sep>l<eHHbiX nopoll. xapaKTepHoi1


3biBaeMbie
6onbwei1

6a3anbTOBble
4aCTI-1

cnoco6HOCTbJO ll.aBaTb TaK-Ha-

OTilenbHOCTI-1.

I-1MeJOT

CTon6YaTbii1

1-1n1-1 wecT1-1rpaHHbie CTOS!T

3TI-1

OTll.enbHOCTI-1

no

xapaKTep. CTon6bl nS!TI-1

1-1n1-1 npas!-1nbHbiMI-1 pS!ll.aMI-1, 1-1n11 o6-

pa3yJOT pall.!-1anbHO paCXOll.SlW.HeCSl nyYKH . npo!-1CXO>I<ll.eHI-1e 3TI1X


OTll.enbHOCTeH
B

o6'S!CHSleTCS!, KaK pe3ynbTaT COKpaw.eHHSl o6'eMa

HanpasneHI-111,

nocKonbKY

nepneHll.I-1KynSlpHOM

nosepxHOCTb

nnocKOCTI-1

oxna>l<ll.eHHSl;

oxna>l<ll.eHHS!-rop1-130HTanbHaSl

nnoc-

KOCTb, CTon6bl np1-13MaTI-1YeCKOH OTll.enbHOCTH CT051T napannenbHbiMH BepTHKanbHbiMI-1


BOH

pSlll.aMH;

nOCI<OnbKY OHa 51BnSleTCSl !<p!-1-

nosepxHOCTbJO-CTon6bi ,

3YJOT seepoo6pa3Hbie

cnell.ySl 3a ee H3rl-16aMH, o6parpynnbl 1) . B 6a3anbTax, KpoMe -<;TOJ16Ya-

Toi1 OTll.eJlbHOCTH, npOSlBJlSleTCSl 11 nJlHTHSli<OBaS! OTll.eJlbHOCTb.


6a3aJ1bTOBble
SlHI-1Sl

MafMbl ,

naBbl,

3aneraJOT

BC11ell.CTBI-1e
B BHll.e

BeCbMa >1<1-1lli<Of0 COCTO -

nOTOI<OB, MOW.HbiX nOKpOBOB,

K ynonos, HHOrll.a 1-1 >1<1-1n.


noTOI<I-1 6a3aJ1bTa YaCTO HMeJOT THnHYHYIO wnai<OBYIO 30Hy. noTOI<H COCTOS!T 113 HeCKOJlbi<HX HaJleraJOW.I-1X llpyr Hall llpyf OM

HacnoeHI-111

nocnell.OBaTeJlbHbiX

H3Bep>~<eHI-1i1.

4acTo

3TH

noKpOBHbie 30Hbi pa3ll.eneHbi TyosbJMH npocnoi:iK a MI-1 . 6a3aJlbTbi npell.cTaBJlSlJOT co6oi1 YepHbie

nnoTHble naBOBbie o 6 pa3osa-

HI-1S! . Pa3HOBI-1ll.HOCTb 6a 3 aJlbTa - -ll.onepHT-HMeeT

6onee

cepbiH oneHOK. Coll.ep>l<aHHe Kpel'meKHCJlOTbi s

cpell.HeM THne

6a3aJlbTa Kone6neTcSl OT
o 6 pa3yJOT

fJli-1Hbi;

47

52/0

no

OC06eHHO

cseTno-

6a3aJlbTbi, BbiBeTpHBaS!Cb,

113BeCTHbl fJli-1Hbl non Ha3BaHHeM

6a3aJlbTOBOH Bai<KI-1.
noYTH

BO

BCeX

BbleMKaX,

np01-13BeneHHbiX Ha 3TOH paB-

HHHe, BCTpeYeHbl MOW.Hble TOJlll.f.H fJ111 H bl, noKpblTble . paCT!-1TeJl b HOH noYsoi1-YepHo3eMOM.
flOYBa, o6pa30BaHHaSl 113 6a3aJlbTOBbiX JlaB, 06bli<HOBeHHO
SlBJlSleTCS! BeCbMa

6naronp1-1SlTHOH

cpenoi:i nJlSl paCT!-1TeJlbHOCTI1.

1) nesHHCOH-neccHHr-nerpo r paqmll, 1925 r .. crp. 133.

22

n o q s a.

VIII.

/ \i<a neMHK f\611x oco6eHHO nonYepKHBaeT 6naronpH51THble


T1rl' I11(' 11Hbie ycnoBH51 f\xanKanaKcKoro nna To. no ero npocb6e,
lli"H jJ. KapnoM illMHllTOM B IOpbese cnenaH aHanH3 13 o6pa3lllll 1 nx anKanaKCKoro YepHo3eMa, 51Bn51tow,eroc51 nponyKTOM Bbl" ' '1 iJ 111 taH H51 nonepHTOBbJX naB f\xanKanaKcKoro nnaTo . 8c51 HapaBHHHa, cnomeHHa51 6onbweto YaCTbto M3 .nonepH TO,,,.,;.. Jl a B, nOKpb!Ta MOW,HbiM . CJlOeM nponyKTOB BbiBeTpY!BaHY!51

' rq 1 1.1~1

1 11x

JlaB -menTOH

rnHHOH,

KOTOpaS! B nosepXH OCTHOH

YaCTYI

''' H'II npespaTMnacb, 6naronap51 o6MnbHOH paCTMTenbHOCTH,


II '1L'iJ II03eM.
llo OT3biBY npocp. illMMUTa 1) OTJlYIYHTeJlbHbie YepTbl axan1 .l JJ,JiiC I<OrO YepH03eMa 3al<ni0Ya!OTC51 B TOM, "'TO BbiCOXWaS! Ha
11r ' 'llyxe

3eMn51

o6pa3yeT

He

xpynKHe,

a c TpynoM paCTHpa-

'"' ' (Jt ecSJ s nopowoK KOMKM.


Cone pmaHMe B HeH rnHH03eMa 11 OKHCM mene3a oYeHb BbJ ' IJ ii O. npY! aHaJlY!3e Ol<a3anOCb:
a) nOTep51 rHnpaTHOH BOllbl npY! 110-150- 1 ,298/o

Lt) Opra HHYeCKMe sew,eCTsa + H 20 (ryMyc) -13,889/ o


c) MHHepa!lbHbJe COCTaBHbie YaCTYI
- 84,813/o
MYlHep anbHbie YaCTYI COCT051T 113:
Ot<YlCYI KanHSJ
(K 20)
,, HaTpa
(Na 2 0)
Yl3BeCTY!
(CaO)
, MarHH51
(Mg O)
,. MapraHu,a
(Mn 2 0 3 )
(Fe 20 3 )
mene3a
~

"

CPoccpopHOH KYlCnOTbi
CepHoi1 KMCnoTbi
XnopYl CToro HaTpa
ln YlH03eMa
OI<YlCYl TYlTaHa
KDeMHe3eMa

(P20 5)
(503 )

(NaCI)
(?1]203 )
(Ti02)

(SiO)
Bcero

1,561 %
0,962
1,520
2,657
0 ,129
6 ,334
0,135
0 ,0089

0,0375
. 23,384
0 ,245
. 47,840
. 84,813/ 0

') r . f\6vtx- r eonorHSl f\pMSJHCKoro HaropbSJ, 1902 1. CT p. 36- 37.

23

VIMeeTC51 11
rOpHOH

npyroi1 aHan13 nO'-IBbi f\xam<anaKCKOH Ha


paBHI1Hbi, np0113BeneHHbiH llOI<-pOM noHTIOXOBbiM 1).

ComacHo

np0113BeneHHOMY B BOeHHOMenmJ,I1HCKoi1 na6o

paTop1111 B TMq)Jli1Ce aHani13Y f\xant<anaKcKoro '-1epH03eMa, B351


Toro

Ha

BeC ero

n_one !'i!emny
OKa38JlC51

I.JaCTei1-ocTanocb
He paCTBOp111lOCb

r.

f\xan1<anat<11 11 Kap3axoM ,

2,226.

ynenbHbiH

1.000
819. B con51Hoi1 1<11CJlOTe pacTBop11JJOCb 33,5/o ~
66,5;o. rnaBHbiM11 COCTaBHbJMI1 '-laCT51MI1 Ol<a
paBHbiM

nocne np01<aJli1B8HI151

3aJJI1Cb:

. 50,030/o
. 23,3690/o
2,918/o
2,1610/o
2,000/o
1 ,422 /o
. 18,1090/o

necOK 11 t<peMHeBa51 1<11CJIOTa .


01<11Cb mene3a
VI3BeCTb
MarHI1H
HaTp11i1 11 t<an11i1 6onee
OpraHI1'-IeCKI1e sew,eCTBa
Kp11CTaJJJJI13aLJ,110HHa51 Bona .
JTI1 naHHbie
xapat<Tep11CTI1KY

JII1WHI1M

pa3 nOllTBepmnaiOT

naHHYIO HaMH

nO'-IB f\xant<anat<Ct<oi1 HaropHoi1 paBHI1HbJ, o6

pa30BaHHOH 113 6a3aJibTOBbJX naB.

IX. OfimaB taonKa reonorHqetKoro npoeHHB lxanKanaKtKoro yeJaa.


06o6W,a51 BCe BbJWeCKa3aHHOe, HaXOlli1M, '-ITO B OCHOBaHI111
scex Bbiweonl1caHHbiX
noponbi,

Hei<OTOpbie

113BepmeHHbiX nopon nemaT ocano'-IHbie


npencTaBMTenH KOTOpbiX B Bl1ne He6onb

WHX BblXOllOB Ha6JJIOllaiOTC51 TOJibi<O B norpaHI1'-IHblX 301-laX f\xaJJ


"

Hanat<ct<oro ye3na.
6naronap5111HTeHCI1BHblM lli1CJIOKall,I10HHblM 51BJJeHI15!M, B npe
nenax f\xant<anat<ct<oro

ye3na

pOt<l1e pa3JJOMbi, C6pOCbl,


neH151, scnencTBI1e
30M

o6pa3oBaJJI1Cb rny6ot<11e 11 Wl1

CllB11fVI 11 npyr11e TeKTOHH'-IeCKI1e SIB

'-lero 113 rny6ot<vtx Tpew,I1H, rnaBHbiM o6pa-

Mepvtlli10HaJJbHOfO 11 WvtpOTHOfO HanpaBJJeHI151 , Bb!WJII1 Ha

llHeBHYIO nOBepXHOCTb JJaBbl, I<OTOpble not<pblJII1 BeCb ye3ll CB011MI1

t<onoccaJJbHbiMI1

H3Jivt51HI15!MH.

Tat<oe 11306HJJHe synt<aHOB

1) H. H. noHTIOXOP - RxanKanaKCKI1H ye3n. MeAI1KO-aHrpononori1LJ .


O'lepK, 1892 r., Twjm11c. Crp. 7- 9.

24

11 1

<

! h ln t-IIHeJ1bHO He60J1bWOM npOCTpaHCTBe yKa3biBaeT Ha 3Ha-

'lll ll ' ll . ttbte

TeKTOHHYeCKHe npou.eccbi 11 Ha xapaKTep reonorl1-

CTpoeHI1Sl Axam~anaKCKoro ye3na.

.,,' 1w 1o

r! pemne

BCero,

11 i >O II:lO WJll1 Ha


"

11 ' ( I<OJlbK I1X

lll ll'l eC KI1e

, 1 .1 W M ,

syn KaHJ.1YeCKI1e

nepBOHaYaJlbHO

noS! sneHI1eM

11311 11SlHY1Sl

lli1CJlOKaiJ,J.10HHbiX Jli1H11SIX, 3aTeM

u.eHTpanbHbJX 11 OKpa11HHbiX

nponyKTbl

.l llllt' 'li1T OBbJX,

Byn-

YaCTSIX ye3na.

Bblpa311J111Cb, rnaBHblM

KBa pu.-TpaXHTOBbJX, Tpaxl1-aHne311TOBbiX ,

aHne311TO-TpaXHTOBblX, aHne3J.1TO-naiJ,HTOBbiX, p11-

ui iii10BbiX 1-1 B pell!<J.1X


11.1'

nOBI1lli1MOMY,

norpaHI1YHblX

cnyYaSIX JlHnapHTOBbiX J.1 naiJ,HTOBbiX na-

11 11x pa3HOBJ.1llHOCTSIX 11

nepexonHbiX

cocTOSIHHSIX.

HeKo-

I' 'I ' I .IX M eCTaX JlaBbl 3 TJ.1 . npenCTaBJleHbl B Bl1lle Jli-1T011llHblX no1 ">II

II

II.

I.

HaCTOsill.I,I1X

06CJ.1llJ.1aHOB,

WJ1aKOBI1llHbiX, nOp11CTbiX naB

Tonb t<O nocne noS!sneHI1SI 3 THX neTporpaHYeCI{I1X pa3HOIIIIII II OCrei1


lt.l ld 11 11Cb

s HeKOTOpbtX yyacTKax

TpaXI1-ll011ep11TOBbie _ naBbl.

XOll i1JlH

II) >!Ill(

AxanK'anaKCKoro nnaTo no-

OrpOMHi >t e ___J.1- ;-J111SIHI1SI

3a HHMI-1

HeOnHOKpaTHO

6a3anbTOBbiX

U1llKJ.1X naB

11 l l lllte n onep11TOB 11 aHaMe3HTOB ) , KOTOpbie 11 noKpb11l11 co6o i1


1111' 11 11

l:lC to HaropHytO YaCTb AxanKanaKCKOH paBHI1Hbi .

l(<> l' I 11e cp enH 6a3aJlbTOBblX


111

IIOJtbiMaiOT CSI

VI

Jl11Wb

113J111SIHI1H XOJ1MI1CTbiM11 OCTpOBKa-

OTlleJlbHble B03BbJWeHHOCTI1

11Jll1 rpS!llbl Tpa-

' 111 <lll t. I X nas oBbiX o6pa3osaHHi1.


1-locne nepBbiX riOBTOpHbiX
II I .IX

MOryYI1 X H3J111SIHHH

6a3aJ1bTO-

1/0t<pOBHbiX JlaB, riOBHll11MOMy, HaYanaCb CHJlbHBSI nestTeJJb-

lllli 11 , BYJlKaH OB Cr.IJeWaHHOfO Tl1na.


Bcn encT BHe
11 11 11 I I I.IJII-1
1<11

c11nbHbtX

Bbi6poweHbl

113 Kp<ner ros 3TH X synKa-

B3pbtsos

B o.rpOMHOM

"'

KOJli1YeCTBe

, I il i<-H a3 biBaeMble n11pO'!<J1aCTI1YeCKHe, pblXJlble MaTep11aJ1bl ,

11 llliJ i e

nenH TOBbiX 11 nenenbHbtX o6pa30BaHI1i1 , synKaHI1YeCKI1X


1-1

p 1o1xJ t b te

M aTe pHanbt, o6pa3osaswHe u.enbte TonwH s u.eHTpanb-

liOii

np.

pa3npo6neHHOH

11

taC TJ-1 f\xanKanaKCKOfO nnaTO,

paCnbtJ1eHHOi1

MaCCbl.

3nt

lll' CI<OIJ

f
I

6b1Jll1 BHOBb riOKpb!Tbl HO -

Il t .tM I-1 rtOf<pOBHbiMI-1 JlaBaMH 6a3aJlO.TOB- U OJlepHT.O B,

aHaMe311TOB

I II X pa3HOB I1llHOCT5!MI1.

3n1

o6pa30 Ba HHSI

llt' ll t panbHoi1

B HaCT05!ll.l,ee

BpeMSI

Ha6Jl!Olla!OTCSI B

YaCTI1 nna To , HaYI1 HaSI OT oKpecTHOCTei1 TaswaH -

25

Tana 11 no HanpasneHI11Q I< cesepy,

rne no6biBaeTCSI sym<aHI1-

YeCKI1H necoi< 11 rn11Ha nnSJ crpo11Te1lbHbiX uenei:1, no cen. XepT-

BYIC BI<niQYYITenbHO.
3TH syni<aHHYeCI<Yie

yw,enbSJX

Meni<YIX pbiXnbiX MaTep11anos,


c Meni<11MI1

MaTep11anaMI1,

OHH o6pa3y1Qr

p. TonapaBaH

pbiXnbie Bbi6pOCbi
a

11 ee np11TOI<OB

npencrasneHbi B BJ.tne

B yw,enbl1

p. Kypbi, Ha psllly

Ha6niQnaiQTCSI 11 KpynHbie;

Tycpo-I<OHrnoMepaTHbie

BMecre

11n11 Tycpo-6pei<YHeBvtn-

Hbie MOW,Hble TOJ1Ll.J,I1.


npeKpaCHbie ecrecrseHHbie

reonor11Yec1<11e pa3pe3bJ, o6-

Ha<eHHbJe B yw,enbSJX p.p. TonapasaH,


11 Kyp~,
BaHI1SI naB

Kblpx-6ynax, Kopx-Yaii

secbMa HarnSJnHo noKa3~BaiQT

f1

CBSI311 C 11HTeHCI1BHblMI1

synKaHHYecKoi1
CYHTaeM

3TY KapTHHY Yepeno-

pblXJlbiX Bbi6pOCHbiX MarepHaflOB.

neSJrenbHOCTbiQ

Heo6xoni1MbiM

Tei<TOHHYeCKI1MI1

S!BneH11SIMH H

B f\xani<anai<CI<OM

np11secn1

Hl1<e

ye3ne,

I<parKHe

Mbl

naHHbJe o

cei1CMH4eCKI1X S!BfleHHSIX 3TOfO ye3na.

X. [eHCMKqeKHe HBHHHH.
OrpoMHoe
ye3ne.

KOnHYecrso

BCflellCTBI1e CI1JlbHblX

S!BfleHHH,

eCTeCTBeHHO,

synl<aHOB,

npoSJsneHHbiX

TeKTOHHYeCI<HX

B 3TOM

llHCJlOKaLI,HOHHbiX

o6yCJlOBI1JlO B 3TO M ye 3ne

YaCTble H

Cl11lbHble 3eMJleTpS!CeHHSI.
6naronapS! HapyweHHOCTH 3eMHOH I<Opbl,
llHCflOLI,HpOBaHHOH

o6naCTH

He nepecTaiQT npOS!BnSJTbCSI.

CKo'~

ye3ne,

B 3TOH CHJlbHO

ceHCMHYeCI<He SIBJleHHSI

H Tenepb

BpeMSJ or speMeHH B f\xani<anai<-

I<aK 11 B cocenHeM c

HHM neHHHal<aHCKOM,

soo6w,e no sceMy f\pMS!HCI<OMY HaropbiQ,

na H

yyscrsyiQTCSI 6onee

HJlH MeHee HHTeHCHBHble CeMCMHYeCI<He I<One6aHHSI.


XoTSJ B HacroSJw,ee

speMSI

3eMnerpSJCeHHSI

3HaYI1TenbHO OCJla6enH B CBOeM HanpS!H<eHHH,


OTpHUaTb
He

TOfO,

npOS!BSITCSI B

YTO

CeMCMHYeCI<He

TOM

io111H

npyroV!

SIBJleHHSI

B 3TOM ye3ne
OllHaKO, He1lb3SI
3lleCb

60JlbWe

Mepe. 3To o6cTosnenbCTBO

yi<a3b1BaeT Ha TO, YTO npH CTpOHTenbCTBe B 3TOM ye3ne BCerna


11011H<Hb1 6biTb npHHS!Tbl
3T0Vr 06JlaCTH.

26

BO BHHMaHHe ycnOBHSI

CeVrCMHYHOCTH

H3 HCTopHYecKHX HCTOYHHKOB TOITbKO s lpy3HHCKOM


., K.apTnHc Uxospe6a" ynoMHHaeTCSI o CHITbHOM 3eMneTp5tCeHHH
s f\xam<anaKCKOM ye3ne, HMeHyeMOM ,)J,H<asaxeTHSI", 16 anpen SI 1088 r. HcTOp1151 CBHneTenbCTByeT o TOM, 4TO , nposanHITCSI
r op. TMOrBH ~ 1 ) , 11 4TO TaKoe CHITbHOe 3eMneTp5tceHHe nnHnOCb
u,enbiH ron 2 ) .
H3 HOB~i1wHx HCT04HHKOB, no naHHbiM KaTanora 3eMner p51CeHHi1 s PoccHH, B f\xanKanaKCKOM ye3ne B nocnenHeM cToneTHH 3aperHCTpHpOBaHbl

TOJlbKO CJlenyiOW,He 3eMneTpS!CeHH51 :

1850 r.-14 OKTS16p51-CJTa6oe COTp51CeHHe.


1853 r.-6 espan51 - TO H<e caMoe.
11363 r .-CHilbHOe 3eMneTpS!CeHI-1e ~1 ).
1868 r .-6 espan51 , 17 1-1 22 MapTa .
1898 r.- B H04b Ha 1 asrycTa-nOBOJlbHO CI-1JlbHOe .
1899 r . -19 neKa6p51 - KaTaCTpOcp1-14eCKOe'' ).
3eMneTpS!CeHI1e 1899 r. OXBaTHilO BCIO IOH<HYIO 4aCTb 3aKaBKa3bSI, HO Ha116011ee 11HTeHCHBHOe npOS!BI1eHI1e 3TOf O 3eMner p51CeHI151 11Cnbnan rop. f\xam<anaKH 11 era ye3n 5 ). H3 scex HaceneHHbiX MeeT Ha116onee nocTpananl-1 28 ceneHHH , pacnono}!{eHHbiX B cesepHOH 11 cesepO -BOCT04HOH 4aCTI1 f\xanKanaK< KOfO ye3na ,-B 6apaneTCI<OM , 6apeBaHCKOM 11 f\parBI1HCKOM
y YaCTKaX,-paCKHHYTbiX
CKOfO xpe6Ta .

no 3ananHOMY CI<JTOHY

3eMJTeTpS!CeHI1e " 1899 r . He orpaH114HJ10Cb


19 neKa6p51 , H B nepBbie nsa Mec51u,a 1900 r.
JJ I1 Cb n04TH eH<eUHeBHO.

f\6yn -(aMCap
OllHHM ynapOM
ynap bi ow.yw.a-

Cneu,11anbHO ycTaHosneHHbiH cei1CMI14eCKH H annapaT s


r . f\ xanKanaKH c Tex nop 3aperHCTp1-1poaan HeCKOITbKO 3eMner pS! CeHHi1 , HO 60J1bWHHCTBO 1-13 HHX 51Bn SIITOCb OT3ByKaM H 3eMne1) Pa 3san HHbi r op. TMorsH HaXOA51TC51 Ha ne soM 6epery Kypbi, Ha
r paHHI.\e f\xan KaJiaKcKoro ye3na.
2 ) 1-bs. KasK. reo r p. 06- s a , r. XV , cr p. 320.
'1) r . f\ 6Hx - reon o r H51 f\pM 51 HC KOro Haropb51, 1902 r ., crp. 15.
1) Tpynbi reonKOM a, HOBa51 cepH51, Bbin. 1; 1903 r . MarepHaiibi no
F l xaJI Kaii aKCKOMY 3eMIIer p51CeHHIO.
5) Yl3 B. K . r. 0 ., r . XIII, Bbin . 5, 11 T. XV .

27

TpS!CeHVIM,

VIMeBWVIX MeCTO

BHe f\xanKanaKCI<OfO ye3na.

S~sneHVIe Ha6monanocb VI s
CBSI3VI C neHVIHaKaHCKVIM

nocnenHVIe ronbi,

3TO

s oco6eHHOCTVI

3eMneTp51CeHVIeM.

XI. none~ nhi e H[ Konae Mhi e.


PynHble npoS!sneHH SI

6onbwei1

YaCTbiO

reHeTHLJ.eCKVI CBSI -

3a Hbl c synKaHVIYeCKVIMH SIBneHH>I MH. BynKaHVIYeCKVIe VI, s CBSI311i


C HVIMl1 ,

fVIDpO-XVIMVILJeCKVIe

6onbwy10 ponb

npou,eCCbl

npVI o6pa3oBaHVIVI

06b!KHOBeHHO Vlrpa!OT

pynHblX

Mecropo>f{neHHi1.

Ho Hosei1wVIe 3pynTVIBHbre S!BneHVISI s F\xanKanaKCKOM ye3ne 11:


soo6w,e

Ha F\pM>~HCI<OM Haropbe,

Bblpa3VIBWVIeC>~

VI3Bep>f{e-

H~1VI KOJ10CCaJ1bHOfO KOJ1VI4eCTBa aHne3VITOBbiX, TpaXVITOBblX, 6a3 aJ1bTOBblX VI llpyrVIX

HOBeMWVIX TVInOB

He 6brnVI conposo>f{neHbl
Ha VI306VInVIe

synKaHVIYeCKVIX nopon,

pynHblMVI npoS!sneHVI>IMVI.

npopbrsos synKaHI1Yecr<VIX nopon,

HVIrne He scrpeYaiOTCSl

none3Hbre VICKonaeMbre.

VI31111SlHVISl synKaHVI'-leCHVIX naB B HeCKOJlb-

3TI1 orpOMHble
KVIX Mecrax TOJ1bi<O

HecMOTp5!

s 3TOM ye3ne

conposo>f{naJOT C5f o6cVInHaHOM

VI

neM3ono-

no6HoiO na BOIO , 06bii<HOBeHHO CBSl3aHHbiMJ.1 C Hl1Ml1.


nl1TOl1IlHbiE'
06CH/IHaHbl.

re, oco6eHHO
llOBOJlbHO
sane

o6Cl1lll1aHOBb l e

npOS!BJleHVISI'

yacro scrpeYaiOTCSI Ha CaMcap - F\ 6 yncHOM xpe6Ha MoHp brx fopax.

3Ha4VI TeJ1bHOM

Vl3 ,[l,yxo6opbS1 s

Ho r;acro>~w,Hi1 o6cHnVIaH

KOJ1VI4eCTBe

Ll,anKVI,

BCTpeyaeTC>I

6nVI3 sepwvtHbl

s.

Ha nepe-

6VIKer-nar, K

cesepy or TonapasaHCKoro o3epa : BcnencTBVIe nanbHOCTVI 3TVIX


MeeT

or yno6Hb!X nyrei1 coo6w,eHVI>I ,

3a ne>f{VI

o6cVInVIaHa He

VIMeiOT npaKTVIYeCKOrO 3Ha4eHVISI.


60J1bWOe KOJ1114eCTBO
BynKaHMIIecKHe
wnaKH.

WJ1ai<OBVIllHblX pa3-

HOBI1llHOCTeVI aHne3VITOBbiX, rpaXVITOBblX, -TpaXVI aHne3VITOBblX, a Hlle3VI TO- na U,I1TOBbiX,

naU,I1TOBbiX lj pVIOJlVITOBblX

ynOM~HYTblX

Xpe6TOB.

nopon VIMeeTC51 Ha CKJlOHaX Bb!We-

neM30nono6Hble

pellKVI; HaCTOSIW,ei1 >f{e neM3bl,


u,enei1, He vrMeeTCSI .

28

11 VI na pV1TO-

naBbl

npVIrOllHOM

HeKorop br e

cpaBHVITeJ1bHO

llll>l npaKTVI4eCKVIX

npo51sneHHSI

neM3onono6Hbrx_

naB, scrpeLJaeMble B ye3ne, G1JlbHO oKpaweHbl 11 oLJeHb Tsepnbl.


D,ocTasneHHbiH nnSI aHaJ1113a o_6pa3et\, np11 11ccnenosaH1111 XHMI1KOM P. D,. KynU.11COM, noKa3an 1):
Bnar11, yneTyLJI1BaiOw,eHCSI np11

105 U .

. 0,80/o
. 2,350jo
. 78,80jo
2,55/o
. 1,48/o
. 5,73/o
. 6,57/o
. 0,90/o
. 0, 18/o
. 0 ,64 /o

noTep11 np11 npOKaJ111BaHI111


KpeMHe3eMa
(Si0 2 )

(CaO)
(MgO)
(111203)

0KI1CI1 KaJlbLI,I1SI
MafHI1SI
aJliOMI1HI1SI

(Fe 2 0a)
(FeO)
3aK11CI1 >f<ene3a
(P 2 0 5)
ocopa
0KI1CI1 KaJ111SI 11 HaTpa (K 2 0+Na 2 0)
H<ene3a

,lJ,ocrasneHHbiH

o6pa3eu, - nerKoseCHbiH,

H03npeBaTbiH

11

JlOBOJlbHO TBepnbiH.
KpoMe 3TI1X synKaHI1LJeCKI1X nponyKTOB, B
Tpenen.

HeKOTOpblX yronKax ye3na B 1130611Jll111 11MeiOT-

CSI 6eno(He>f<Hble ,
HI1LJe'cKI1x

seCbMa MenK0-3epH11CTble

Bb16pocos,

s s11ne 6enbiX

nponyKTbl synKa-

MyKoo6pa3HbiX

nennos,

I<OTOpbie 6b1Jll1 np11HS!Tbl 3a 11H<fJY30pHyiO 3eMJ110. npOS!BJleHI1SI


3TI1X OTJlO>f<eHI1H HMeiOTCSI B rop. Axan1<anaK11, 6nl13 RoeHHoro
roponKa, 11 Ha npasoH CTopoHe p. Kblpx-6ynax, OKono roponCKI1X nocrpoeK.

3necb nocpencTBOM

6enaSI CbinyLJaSI 3eMJlSI

He6onbWI1X

no6biBaeTCSI nyxo6opaMI1

BbleMOK 3Ta
113-non sepx-

HI1X CJlOeB nOLJBbl. ,/J,yxo60pbl pa3BOnSIT 3TY 3eMJ110 B MOJlOI<e 11


3TI1M MOJlOLJHbiM paCTBOpOM 6eJlSIT CBOI1 noMa
.BHyTpeHHeH CTOpOHbl.
Ta1<11e >f<e npoS!sneHI1SI scrpeLJaiOTCSI

cen.

Hl1>f<e

K11nbna 11 6nl13 ceneHHSI

Hapy<HOH 11

,!; >

B yw,enbH

Kopx, s paHoHe

p. Kypbl,
wocceM-

:HOM nopor11.
RHaJ1113bl 3TI1X nopon, 11CBeCTHbiX non
30p11T", npovl3seneHHble XI1M11HO,M

Ha3BaHHeM ,11H<fJy-

Yl. ,lJ,. Kynu.11coM B 1926 r.,

nan11 cneny10w,11e pe3ynbTaTbJ:


1)

11. ,[1,. Kynt.\HC- PeJynbTaTbi Hccne.uosaHHll ,neM3bi" H3 f\xanl<anat<

<I<Oro yeJ.ua, 1926 r. (pyKOnHCbJ.

29

On<yna B35lT o6pa3eU,

ero xapaHTep

ConepmaHHe cpenHei1 npo6bl

5,55 o;o
6,45
78,00
3,25
0,23
4,65
0,90
0,67
0,0018 "

BnCirH npH 105C


noTep5l npH npOHaJJHBaHHH
KpeMHe3eMa
(Si0 2)
0HHCH men e3 a
(Fe20a) '
3aHHCH H<eJJe3a .
(FoO)
0HHCH aJJIOMHHH5l .
(A 120a)
01<HCH HaJJbUH51
(Cao)
0HHCH MarHHII
(~lgO)

( P20s)

<Poccpopa .

"

np11 MHKpOCI<OnHYeCKOM HCCnen08aHHH, npH


8

420

pa3, 8 nep80M 06pa3U.e

1,56 o;o
4,30
91 .60
0,13
0,75 "
1,02
0,44
0,05
0,0033 ..

0,20 jl/o
4,40
94,24
0,13
0,17
0.21
0,38
0,09
0,004

06HapymeHbl

y5enHYeHH W

OCKOnKH

K8apu.a

11 HeKOTOpbie 48CTI14KI1 nHaTOM080H CTpyKTYPbl 8 o6w,eH Macce .

me

np11 Hccneno8aHI1H

nocnenHI1X

MHKpOCKOnOM, name npH y5enHYeHHI1

n5yx

960

o6pa3U.08

pa3, He

non.

06Hapy-

meHO HHK8KHX 11Hcpy30pHbiX CKeneT08.


Bee 3TH o6pa3o8aHH51

518n51IOTC51

nponyKTOM

5ynKaHHYe--

CKHX 8b16pOC08, OTHOC51W,HXC51 I< l<eTerOpH51M rOpHbiX nopon, 113-


8eCTHbiX non Ha388HHeM ,Tpenen".

rnHHbl.

u.enbiO

8bi51CHeHH51

npencTa8neHHOH

xapaKTepa

113 oKpeCTHOCTeH

rnHHbi ,.

cen . HaKa --

naKe811, 8 CMbiCne ee orHeynopHOCTH, XHMHKOM Kynu.HCOM 6bi n


np01138eneH XHMHYeCKHH

8H8nl13

3TOH

rnHHbl. f\H8JIH3

pymHn:
Bnam

3,70/o
4,05 ,
(Si0 2) 62,80 ..
(A l 2 03 ) 12,50 ,
(Fe 2 0 3 ) 7,52 ,
(Fe0 ) 0,85 ,
(Mg0) 0,10 ,
(K 20+Na 20) 8,47 ,

noTepH npH npOK8MI88HHI1


KpeMHe3eMa
fmtHo3eMa
3aKHCH mene3a
0KHCH KanbU.H51
0KHCH MarHI151
0KI1CH KanH51 11 MarHH51

30

06Ha -

.IJ,oCTasneHHbiH o6pa3eu,-6nenHo opaHmesoro u,seTa, nerKO KpOWI1TC51, Ha OLUynb H<eCTKOCTI1 He '-IYSCTsyeTC51.


KaK S111lHO 113 scex aHaJ11130S, see SbiweonHcaHHbie nponyKTbr He HMeiOT npOMblWJleHHOfO 3Ha'leHJ.1SI.

XII. [TPDHTeBbHble MaTePHanbl.


CnenyeT ynoMstHYTb TaKme o opo1nenbHbiX

MaTepHanax,

KOTOpbiMH 1130611llyeT f\xanKanaKCKI1i1 ye3n. Ho see OHH HMeiOT


'-IHCTO MeCTHOe 3Ha'leHI1e. ,lJ,n51

MeCTHbiX

Kan!HaJlbHbiX

H<eHHH oco6eHHO '-!aCTo ynoTpe6n5110TCst cneny10w,11e

COOpy-

3 s11na 113-

sepmeHHbJX nopon.
6yTOSble 1<8MHI1 f10'-ITI1 scex 1lOMOS rap.
f\xanKanaKI1 S351Tbl 113 Kapbepos TaswaH-Tanbi.
norne1lHI1H pacnOJlOH<eH S 1 1/ 2 sepCTaX K IOfO-

Tpai!HT H3 ropbl
TaawaH-Tana.

BOCTOI<Y OT rop. f\xanKanal<l-1

B Bl11le

1130!111pOSaHHOfO

KpaCI-1-

BOfO Kynonoo6pa3Horo xonMa 1 ).


ToHKHH Willi, np11rOTOSJleHHbiH
reHe, 113secTHoi1

s repMaHI111, B feTHIH-

,Voigt & Hochgesang ", noKa3bJsaeT

11pMoi1

non M11KpocKonoM M11Kponi1TOsyiO cTpy1nypy . OcHosHaSJ Macca


COCTOI1T 113 MHOH<eCTsa MeJ1J:<I1X Ta6Jli1T'-18TbiX Kp11CT8J1J111KOB Ca HI11l11Ha, cpen11 I<OTOpblX Bbl1leJ15110TC51 6onee KpynHble 1<p11CTaJ1Jlbl

6HOTI1Ta, porosoi1

o6MaHKI1

11

caH111li1Ha-xapaKTepHhii1

1<p11CT8J1Jl 1lllSI TpaXHTa.


3Ta

nopona

seCbMa

pacnpoCTpaHeHa s

f\xanKanaKcKoM ye3ne s s11ne aHaMe311Ta 11 nonep11Ta. nepSbiH 6onee

TeMHOrO

U,SeTa, MellK03epH11CTOrO xa-

paJ:<Tepa , KOMnaKTHbiH, 11HOrna nop11CTbiH .


.IJ,onep11T-6onee cseTno-ceporo u,seTa, KpynHo-3epH11CTbii1,

ner'-!e nonnaeTC51 o6TeCKe, J.1Horna nop11CTbii1.


Ha

noopoi11<11

11nyT, rnaBHbii\1

J18Bbl, 1<81< Hal16onee neri<O

o6pa3oM, nonepHTOSbJe

f101l1l810W,I1eCSJ

o6pa60TKe. no'-ITH

see 6aJanbTbl f\xanKanaKCKoro yeJna conepmaT OJ111SV.H.


ToHKHi1

wn11, np11roTosneHHbii1

BbJWeynoMSJHYTOH
yw,enb51

11pMOH, 113

p. TonapasaH,

s feTTI1HreHe

o6pa3U,a, B351TOfO

HenocpenCTseHHO

6mn

Ha

Toi1

me

KpaiO

ropona, non

1) My wKeTOB Yl. B. - (J:JH3 HYeCI< a~ reon or1-151, T. II, 1903 r., CTp. 188.

31

MHKpoCI<OnoM

noJ<a3biBaer Macey

KpHcrannos

nnarHOI<na3a-

na6pa.uopa. KpoMe roro, Bbr.uemr10rcsr 4aCrH KpHcrannHKOB asrHra, KpacHosaro-6yporo u.sera, MarHenua 11 pe.uKo KpHcranJlbi OJlHBHHa. nopo.ua :na np11411CJ1SieTCSI I< 6a3aJ1bTaM. HeKoTOpble noMa B f\xanKanaJ<ax noCTpoeHbi u.enHKOM 113 6a3aJlbTa
( .uonep11ra).
non :HHM Ha3BaHHeM I<J1aCC11cp11U.HpyerCSI
KpaCHbiH l<aMeHb, np11B0311MbiH 113 OKpeCTHOCTeH cen. Kapr111<aM. KaMeHb :nor 11.uer, rnaBHbiM o6pa30M ,
nnsr o6m1LJ.OBI<I1 nsepei.1 11 OI<OH, a ra1<>1<.e .ansr KapHH3a. KonoHTpa~CH-auAe3HTbl.

Hbi I<OJlOI<OJlbHI1 f\pMSIHCI<OH u.ep1<BI1 r. f\xan1<aJ1a1<11 C.UeJJaHbl 113


:noi.1 noponbl. 0Ha nemo nonnaercsr o6recKe 11 11Meer Kpaci1BbiH KpacHo-po3oBaTbiH u.Ber. KaMeHb 3ror noBonbHO nopor,
ra1< 1<a1< np11B0311rcsr cpaBHHrenbHO H3naneKa. ~3 KapbepoB
cen. Ka pr111<aM MO>I<.HO nony411Tb KYCKI1 mo6oi.1 BenH411Hbl.
Wnwp, np11rorosneHHbiH B ferri1HreHe , non M11KpocKonoM
noKa3biBaer MHKponr-nHyiO crpy~<rypy. B o6w,ei.1 Macce Bbr.ueJlSIIOTCSI KpynHble 1<pHCTaJJJlbl nnari10I<Jla3a 11 CaHI1llHHa 11 MeJJI<f1e KpHCTaJlJlbl aBn1Ta H CJliOllbl. nopo.ua 3Ta np114HCJ15leTCSI I<
rpax:vno-aHne3HraM. 0Ha HMeer 6onbwoe pacnpocrpaHeHf1e 1<
3ana.uy or cen. KaprHKaM.

e C K H.

ye3.ue

411CTbiX pe4HbiX neCI<OB B f\xanl<aJJai<CI<OM


He BCrpe4aercsr , 3a HCI<Jll04eHHeM He-

6onbWI1X cKonneHI1H s pycne p. Kypbl, s pai.1oHe cen. XeprBI1C.


,IJ,nsr nocrpoe1< B rap. f\xanKanaKH ynorpe6nsrercsr synKaHI14eCI<I1H necoK, npe.ucraBneHHbiH B 3TOM ye3.ue B H30611Jll111.
BbiWe 6brno yKa3aHo, 4TO noc:ne 113J111SIHI1SI 6a3anbTOBbiX
naB Hacryn11n 113BeCTHbiH nep11o.u, 1<orna H3J111SIHHe 6a3aJJbTOBbiX naB npe1<paTI1JlOCb, 11 Ha4aJll1 .aeHCTBOBaTb Hei<OTOpble
U.eHTpbl rpaXHTO-aH.Ue311TOBbiX BYJJI<aHOB, paCnOJJO<eHHbiX B
6n113ne>~<.aw,11x

1< rop. f\xanKanaKH paHOHax. BynKaHI14eCI<HH


U.eHrp 3TOT, OOBH.UI1MOMy, Tl1na CTpOM60J111, np0113Be.USI .UOBOJlbHO CI1JlbHble B3pb1Bbl, Bb16paCbiBaJ1 MHOrO pblXJlbiX npO.UYI<TOB.
60JlbWaSI 4aCTb >1<.11.UI<OH MarMbl, 06bii<HOBeHHO CI1JlbHO 113MeJ1b
4aSICb, BCJ1e.UCTBI1e B3pb1BOB Bbi6paCbiBaeTCSI 113 Kparepa Bynl<aHa s BH.ue Menb4al.1wei.1 nbrneo6pa3HOH MaCCbl nenna 11
neCKa, COCTOSIW,11X 113 MeJli<HX OCI<OJli<OB 3aCTblBWeH naBbl. ne32

n en YaCTO llOKpbiBaeT orpOMHOe npOCTpaHCTBO, 11HOr.ua B BI1.Ue


s ecbMa MenKe~ ~yKoo6pa3HO~ 6eno~ Mace~.
nenen 11 neCf<l1 3aYaCTYIO Yepe.Uy!OTC51 OT.UeJ1bHbiM11 MOW.H biMI1 CJ10SIMI1.

3TO SIBJ1eHI1e Ha6niO.UaeTCSI B ueHTpa11bHOH Ya-

CTI1 ye3.ua. Mow.Hbie cno11 11x nof<OSITCSI Han 6a3anbTOBbiMI1 nas aMH.

3TI1 OTJ10>KeHI1SI BllOCJ1e.U.CTBI111 6biJ111

H 3Jli1SIHI1SIMI1 6a3aJ1bTOBbiX naB.

llO!<pbiTbl

~OBbJM11

)J,eHy.UaUHOHHble npoueCCbl o6 -

H apy>KI1J111 BnocnencTBI111 11x MOI..UHbJe cno~-1 B yw.enbH p.p. TonapaBaH, Kblpx-6ynaxa,

cen.

TaBLllaHTall11HC!<oro xonMa.

!<anaKH,

. HHSI ,

nonolliBbi

ceBepHoro no.uHO>KbSI TaBwaH-Tanbi OT!<pbiTbl u.enbie

Kapbepbl
0Cf<OJ1f<OB

)J.I1J111Cf<H, Kopx-YaSI 11 y

)J,nSJ CTp011TenbHbiX u.enei1 r. f\xan-

3TI1X BYJ1I<aHI1YeCf<I1X neCKOB,

6onee

I<HCJlbiX naB

COCTOSILl.\HX 113 MeJ1I<I1X

J111TOH.UO-CTeKJ10BI1llHOrO

OTKy.ua, rnaBHbiM o6pa30M ,

CJlO>Ke-

3TOT BYJ1I<aHHYeCf<l1~ neCOI< 11

B03HTCSI. TaKo~ >Ke neco1< npHB0311TCSI Taf<>Ke 11 c 6eperoB o3epa Ta611u.xyp11.

XIII. raaporpamaH AxanKanaKKoro yeJaa.


H11 o.uHa
nyeT CTOJlb

MeCTHOCTb

B npenenax 3a!<aBI<a3bSI, He 1130611-

60J1bWI1M I<OJ111YeCTBOM 03ep 11 11CTOYHHKOB, npen

CTaBJ1SIIOW.11X B COBOI<YilHOCTI1 .UOBOJlbHO BHYLll11TeflbHble BO.UHble


3 anaCbJ. 1<a1< F\xan~<anaf<Cf<H~ ye3n.

l11.Uporpa~I1SI 3TOrO ye3na


ero oporpa~He~

B TeCHO~ CBSI311 C

HaXO.UI1TCSI

11 reonori1YeCKHM cTpOeHI1eM.

ueHTpanbHO~ YaCTH

HOCTI1 B IO>KHO~ YaCTI1,

11 Ha rpaHI1uax ye3.ua,

cocpenoTOYeHbi

B oco6eH -

sonopa 3nenbHbie, no-

BOflbHO BbiCOKI1e xpe6Tbl, 11Me!OW.11e BeCbMa f<Jl YilHOe 3HaYeHI1e


.anSI r11nporpa~1-111

Bcero ye3na.

Ll,eHTpOM CI<OilJleHH SI

aTMOC~epHbiX OCaUKOB cny>KaT Tai<

Ha3biBaeMbie MoKpbie lopbl ,

3aTeM F\6yn-CaMcapcKHe ropbl 11

BOCTOYHaSI YaCTb 4anD.blpCI<OrO xpe6Ta . fnaBHbiM o6pa30M , OTCIO.Ua llOJlyYaiOT CB011 BO.Ubl
T Opbie

noBOflbHO

MHOrOYHCfleHHble 60J10Ta 11 Hei<O

~aYHTeflbHbJe

o3epa.

03epa - TonapasaH,

TyMaH-ren, ManaTana, 6yrnallieH 11 XaHYanbJ-o6pa3yiOT c6opHbie sonoeMbi nnSJ MHoroYHcneHHbiX PYYbeB,


peCTHbie

pa~OHbl ,

6oraTble

opowa10w.Hx oi<-

60J10THCTbiMI1 nyraMH.

33

06pa3oBaHHIO 3Ha4HTeJlbHoro '-lHCna o3ep B :noi1 o6nacn~:


cnoco6CTBOBanH, !<pOMe
JJOBHi1 , ew,e 11 ycnOBYISI

oporpacpH4eCI<HX 11 reonorH'-leCKH X ycI<JlHMaTH'-leCKHe.

BbiCOKoropHast o6naCTb

,Uyxo6opbS!, 3aKJlJ04eHHast Me>Hny

BbiWeOnHCaHHbiMYI rOpHbiMYI l.l,enSIMYI MepHnHOHaJl b HOfO 11 WHpOT HOrO

HanpaBJleHHSI.,

OTJlH'-laiOW,HeCSI

BeCbMa

OporeHH'-leCI<YIMYI ycnOBYISIMYI , SIBJlS!eTCSI

6 naronpHS!THblM I1

cryCTHTeJleM aTMOCcpep -

HOi1 BJlarH .
BcnencTBHe
yposHeM

MOpS!

HaCbiW,eHHbli1

3HalJHTeJl b HOi1
KJlHMaT

napaMH

B b iCOTbi

3necb
BOnbi,

:noi1

cypoBbii1.
OCa>HnaeT

MeCTHOCTH Ha n:.

Bo3nyx, 4pe3MepHO
1136biTOI< YIX B

nOlJTYI nOCTOSIHHbiX TyMaHOB, lJaCTbiX 0611JlbHbiX no>Hnei1 -

BHne
JleTOM-:

H CHerOB-311MOIO.
BcnencTBHe cyposoro I<JlHMaTa , cHer 3necb TaeT MenneHHO
na>He

Ha

nnoci<OCTSIX, B rny611He >He ropHbJX 6ano1< 3anep>HH-

saeTCSI 11 no

3.200

no3nHero JJeTa; c

MTp. BbiCOTbl,

CHer

sepwHH,

CXOnHT

nocTHraJOw,Hx

3.000.-

BCero JlYIWb Ha nBa-TpH Me -

CSILI,a.
Ha nnoci<OCTSIX

6ano1<

YepHo3eMHoi1
MYJO

3THX

BbiCOI<HX rap 11 B rny611He nonor11x

~<pyrnoe neTo He BbiCbixaeT snara, I<OTopaS! , scnenCTBHe


snaroHaCbiW,aeMoi:1 no'-lBbi, o6pa 3 yeT HenpoxonH -

rpS13h , a Hepeni<o 11 cnnowHbie 6onoTa,

MHO>HeCTBY

MeJli<YIX

60JlOTYICTbiX

B CBSI311 C 0611JlbHblMYI

pe4el<.

naJOw,He HCTOI<H

3TO

06CTOS!TeJJbCTBO ,

TyMaHaMH 11 lJaCTblMYI nO>HnSI MYI , 11 o6y -

CJlOBJlHBaeT Ha3BaHHe ,MO!<pblX lOp " . 6naronapS! 06HJ11110 BJla rH 11 OTCYTCTBHIO

neTHei1

>Hapbl , ropbl 3TH noi<p b iTH npe i< pac-

HbJMH nyraMH.
f\6yn-(aMCapc!<aSI rOpHaSI CYICTeMa, B OC06eHHOCTYI BOCT04 Hbli1 CI<JlOH ee, TaK>He SIBJlS!eTCSI apeHOi:1 nOCTOSIHHOfO cryw,eHHSI
aTMOCcpepHblX OCani<OB .
6opb6a B03nyWHbiX Te'-leHHi1 , np11HeCeHHbiX 113 npyrY1X o6 JlaCTei:1, B 3TYIX

ropHbiX

MeCTHOCTSIX ,

SIBJlSIIOW,YIXC51 l<al< 6bJ nH

acpparMOi1 YIJlYI

3arpani1TeJlbHOi1 CTeHOi1 ntf51

B03nyWHbiX Te'-le -

H~i1, I<OHlJaeTCSI cryw,eHHeM aTMOCcpepHbi X ocani<OB. f\TMOCcpep HaS!

BJlara

B o6na1<a .

34

non

BJlVISIHHeM

MeCTHbiX

YCJlOBH i:1

npeBpaw,aeTCSI

KpoMe oporeHHYeCKI1X,

KJ111MaTHYecKI1X ycnoa11i1, Ba<HYID

ponb 11rpa10T 11 reonori1YeCKI1e yc110BI1SI :noi1 o6naCTI1.


KaK

npaBI1JlbHO

OTMeYaeT

f\611x,

, CI1JlbHaSI cnoco6HOCTb

Bni1TbJBaHI1Sl anar11 6onbwe!D YaCTbiD MenKonopHCTbJX naB o6ycn oBnHBaeT

MHO}I{eCTBO

06HJ1bHbiX

I<JliQYei:J ,

I<OTOpble BbJXOllSIT

BHI13Y CI<JlOHa rop".


B

3TOM OTHOWeHI1H oco6eHHO BbllleJlSIIQTCSI Mo!<pble ropbl ,

SIBJ1SIIQW,11eCSI HaH60nee
BJlarH Ha
HI1eM

JOW,11x 3lleCb

naB,

cryCTI1TeJ1SIMI1

aTMocepHOH

BbiCOI<OM norpaHI1YHOM nnaTO, J.13BeCTHOM non Ha3Ba-

,IJ,yxo6opbS1.

CTbiX

CI1!JbHblMI1

KoH11rypal.I,I1S1 MeCTHOCTI1, o611n1-1e Bbmana-

aTMOCepHbiX

Ocf:llli<OB, CnOC06HOCTb MeJ1t<OnOp11-

nOKpb1BaiQW,11X CI<JlOHbl xpe6TOB 11 noBepXHOCTb paB-

HI1Hbl, 11HTeHCI1BHO Bni1TbJBaTb B ce6SI BJlary-sce 3TO o6ycnOBJ111BaeT np011CX0}1{lleHHe 6oraTbiX BOllOIQ I<J1104eH, BbiXOllSIW,I1X

nOllOWBbl CI<JlOHOB rop, 11 CKOnJ1eHI1e B I<OTJ10BI1HaX MHO}I{eCTBa

6onoT,

TpSI01H 11 o3ep.

06pa30BaHHIO
ye3ne

MHOr04HCJ1eHHbiX

cnoco6cTBOBanl1

03ep

B f\xant<aJlat<CI<OM

TaK}I{e BynKaHI1YeCt<l1e 11 TonorpaHYe-

CKI1e ycnOBHSI MeCTHOCTI1.


BbtCOt<He BynKaHHYeCKHe
nenbHbJe
SIHI1SIMI1

3pynn1BHble
3aropa}I{I1BaSI

uenH

l.l,eHTpbl,
l.l,eJlble

pSillOBbJX BynKaHOB 11 OT-

CBOHMH l:<OJ10CCaJ1bHbiM11 113111-1

yYaCTI<I1

BCTpe4HbiMI1 JlaBOBbiMI1

nOTOKaMI1, 06pa30BaJ111 pa3H006pa3Hble I<OTJ10BI1Hbl.


Bcnen 3a o6pa3oBaHI1eM 3TI1X KOTJ10BI1H, np11 HanH41111 BbJweonl1caHHbJX
6bJJ10 HaYaTbCSI
nanaSI

Ha

6naronp11SITHbiX

ycnOBI1H, ecTeCTBeHHO, ll0Jl}I{H0

HaKonneHI1e B HI1X BOllbJ. Bo3nywHbJe ocan1:<11,

CI<J10Hbl

3TI1X

rop B Bvllle fiO}I{fiSI

3T11X

BbJBaJ111 o3epa.

HeManoBa}I{HYID pon b B HaKonneHY!I1 BOllbJ CbJ

r pa1111 11

3anpy}l{eHHblX naBaMY!

11 CHera, CTeKaJlY!

BHY!3 11 Ha llHe

o6pa30BaBWHeCSI

KQii'J10BI1H o6pa30-

MHO f OYY!CJl eHHble 11CT04HI1!:<11 , ni1Ta -

!O W,He 3H1 03epa.

A. 0 CJ epa.
Bee o3epa

f\xanKanaKCKoro

y e3na Mory T 6bJTb OTHeceHbJ

I< TY!ny nJ10T I1 HHblX, T.-e. np011CXOll5lW,l1X OT 3 arpa}I{UeHI1SI JlaBOB biX nOTO!:<OB.

35

03epa 3TI1 , BHaYane He nocr11ra10W,11e 6onbWI1X pa3Mepos, noCTeneHHO yseni1YI1BaJ111Cb, 11 yposeHb B HI1X nOBbiwancst
no rex nap, noi<a He ycraHOBI1nocb pasHosecHe Memny I<OJ111YecrsoM ni1TaiOW,I1X 3TI1 03epa BOn 11 I<OJ1114eCTBOM 11Cnap11BWeHCS! sonbi. B HeKOTOpbiX cnyYaS!x nosepxHOCTb 03epa no.UbiManacb HaCTOJlbi<O, "'TO OHO Ha411HaJlO 113Jlf.1BaTb J111WHIOIO
sony 3a npenenbi KOTJ10BI1Hbi 11 o6pa30BbiBano, TaKI1M o6pa30M, He3Ha411TeJ1bHYIO peYKy. nocnenH5151, nOCTeneHHO yrny6mi51
csoe nome npV! BbiXone , TeM caMbiM Bbi3biBana noHV!meHHe
ypoBHS! o3epa. K YV!cny rai<VIX o3ep np11HannemaT: TonapasaH,
TyMaHren, Manarana, 5yrnaweH 11 XaHYanbi.
Heo6xon11Mo 3aMeTHTb, '-ITO yposeHb 3TI1X o3ep nonH5IJ1C51
scnencTBI1e noCTeneHHoro HapaCTaHI151 11 nonH5ITI1SI nHa o3epa
3a C4eT npHHeCeHHbiX nOTO"'HbiMI1 BOllaM11 HaHOCOB BO BpeM51
nomnei1 VI TaSIHV151 CHeros c OKpymaiOw,V!x CKnOHOB rop, a TaKme
HaHocaMV! peYeK, snana10w,11x B 3TH o3epa. HapaCTaHI1e nHa
o3ep coCTaBnS!eT 51BneHI1e, npononma10w,eecS! nocr05IHHO, 11 3TO
o6cT051TenbCTBO cnoco6CTsyeT o6paw,eHHIO ero snocnencTBV111
s 6onoTo V1J1H Bbi3biBaeT name cosepweHHoe ero BbiCbiXaHMe.
03epa f\xanKanaKci<oro nnocKoropbS! npenCT<lBJlS!IOT pa3Hbie CTyneHI1 o6pa30BaH V151 11 pa3BV!Tf.151. HeKOTOpbie naBHO yme
BbiTeKnl1 11 V!C4e3nl1. Cnenbi TaKHX He6onbwl1x, HO MHoroYI1CneHHbiX 03ep Ha6niOnaiOTC51 B pa3HbiX MeCTaX nnOCI<OrOpb51,
B oco6eHHOCTI1 B )J,yxo6opbe,- B pai1oHe Memny cen. 5ornaHOBKOH 11 r. f\xani<anai<I1, a TaKme Memny cen. KyMypno 11 r.

F\xan Kana 1<11

11 T. n.
HeKOTOpbie npyr11e o3epa, He 11Me51 croKa, oCTaiOTC51 B 3aM-

KHYTbiX KOTJ10BI1Hax, Kai<, Hanp11Mep, o3epa npV! cen. OpnosKe,


BaYV!aH, Xo3ani1H, Ta611u,xyp11, f\6yn-ren VI npyr11e MenKI1e o3epa Ha f\6ynCaMcapCI<OM xpe6Te .
HaKoHeu,, HeKoropbie o3epa ocso6omnaiOTC51 oT 11,3J111WHei1
BOnbi np11 nOMOW,11 BbiTeKaiOW,11X 113 HHX peYet<; TaKOBbl 03epa:
TonapasaH, TyMaH-ren, ManaTana 11 XaH48J1bi.
3ro o3epo nemHT s )J,yxo6opbe , s ce03epo TonapasaH.
BepO-BOCTO'-IHOM yrny f\xanKana I<CI<O f O ye3na ,
B I<OTJlOBHHe, CO BCeX CTOpOH OKpymeHHOH BbiCOKI1MI1 ropaMV! :
c

3ananHoi1

36

cropoHbl-T51HYW.11MC51

snonb

3ananHbiX 6eperos

03epa xpe6roM CaMcap-f\6yn, uocrHra!OW,I1M Hai1BbiCwei1 TOYJ:<H

3.300 MTp. (6onbill0H f\6yn),

VI C BOCTOYHOH CTOpOHbi-MOKpbl-

MH ropaMI1, ilOCH1ra!OW,HMI1 2.514,2 MTp. (,lJ.asa-KpaH). ( cesepa KOTflOBI1Ha 3aMb1KaeTGI u,enb!O He60flbWHX B03BbJWeHHOCTei1, coenHHSI!OW,I1X MoKpble ropbl c f\6yn-CaMcapCKOi1 CI1CTeMOi1. 03epo To!lapaBaH c ero 3epKanbHOi1 nosepxHOCTb!O, 3aW,I1W,eHHoe c rpex cropoH 6onbwoi1 nyroi1 ropHbiX BbJCOT, 11Meer

2.075,5 MTp. a6c. BbiCOTbl Hail ypoBHeM MOpS!. npH6pe>t<HaSI


nonoca , nocreneHHO

noBbJWaJOW,aSICSI reppacaMH, 6orara51 ny-

r aMH, Cl1nbHO crecHeHa pa3pyweHHOi1 OCbJnb!O: c 3ananHoi1


cropOHbi--rpaxi1TOBbiX, a c BOCTOYHoi1 cropoHbJ-aHne3HTOBbiX
nopon H 11X pa3HOBI1ilHOCTei1. ( 3ananHOH CTOpOHbl pa3BHTbl
cserno -cepbi e rpaxHTOBbJe H nHnapHTOBbie KopeHHbie noponbi
CHCTeMbl f\6yn-(aMCap, a C BOCTOKa-aHne311TOBble pa3HOBYiil
HOCTI1 H HX nepexonHbie o6pa3oBaHH51 . Cyn51 no n51TI1BepcrHoi1
Kapre rnasHoro wra6a, o3epo TonapasaH 11Meer npononrosaryJO cpopMy, 11 Hal16onbWa51 nm1Ha ero B HanpasneHHI1 c cesepa Ha !Of npOCT11paeTCSI OKOnO 9 1/ 2 KnM., a B LUHp11Hy - OKO
no 5 KflM. 11 3aHHMaeT OKOnO 36 KB- KnM. npOCTpaHCTBa.
no naHHbiM Kaspai1CKOro, 113yYaswero :no 03epo B 1901 r. 1 ) ,
,rny6HHa 03epa BeCbMa He3Ha4HTenbHaS!, B Ol:06eHHOCTI1 B Ce BepHOH YaCTH, rne co cropOHbi cen. PonHOHOBKI1 KynaJOw.v.ec51
Moryr npOXOUI1Tb nOYTH Ha BepCTy OT 6epera. rny6>t<e BCero
o 3epo, Hao6opor, K JO<HOMY 11 JOro-3ananHoMy 6epery, HO 11
3necb rny611Ha He 6onee 5 apw . (3,356 Mrp.), a rny6HHa B 6
apw. (4,267 Mrp.) 51Bn51erc51 penKOCTbJO. Boo6w.e or 6epera no
HH<eHHe nHa Hner secbMa MenneHHO".
,8eCHOH 03epo 11ME.eT ypoBeHb BOilbt Ha
we oceHHero".

2-3 YeTBepTH Bbl

,Boo6w.e or 6epera nOHI1<eHHe .nHa 11.uer secbMa Menn eHHO. ,lJ.HO y 6epe r a neCYaHoe, a Ha HeKOTOpOM paCCT051HI1H
or 6epe r a Ha411Haerc51 ronKHi1 cepbiH Hn. Ha.no, snpoYeM, cKa3aTb, YTO H y caMoro 6epera o3epa, npH necYaHOM nHe, 51Bn51eTc51 MeCTaMI1 TeMHblVt 11nOBaTbiH HaHOC, KOTOpblH 11HOrna na<e
1) <t>. <t>. Ka s pai1Clu1l'1- 0 r Yer o P.OMaHn Hpo si<e ,un11 H3yYeYI15! p. K y pbi 11 03e p TH<j:>ni1CCKoi1 ry 6. 1901 r. Becn111H Pbi6onpoM. N2 7- 1J 33
1901 r.

37

Ha 6epery o6pa3yer napanneJibHbiK 04epraHI1fO 6epera BaJIHK


B 3-4 Bepw. (14-18 CaHT.) Bb!COTOK; 3TOT HaHOC COCT011T 113
Ka1<11x-ro Bonopocnei1 11 ocraTKOB MeJIKHX paKoo6pa3HbiX. Bona
B o3epe He oco6eHHO npo3pa4Ha51, 6yposaroro u,sera 11 cosepweHHO npecHa51. MyrHOCTb BOnbt 3aBI1C11T or sonHeHHS!, KoTopoe Ha 3Ha411TeJibHOK rny611He MO}I{eT nonHI1MaTb 1111 co nHa;
311MOH }l{e, I<Orna BOna yCT011TC51 non JibnOM , OHa COBepWeHHO
npo3pa4Ha51. B reniroe BpeM51 Bona HarpesaeTC51 nosonbHO CI1JibHO 11 np11TOM , 6naronapSt MeJIKOCTI1 03epa, He TOJibKO y noBepxHOCTI1 , HO 11 Ha nHe. Ta1~ , Hanp11Mep, 20 asryoa, HeCMOTp51
Ha TO, 4TO yrpOM 6b!Jl MOp03 11 BOna B Benpax 3aMep3Jia Ha
1/2 sepwi<a 11 no611no BeCb xne6 , B o3epe B 4 Yaca nH51 y 6epera (np11 conHe4HOM ocsew,eH1111) 6btno+ 19 C. 1 ) , no cepen11He
03epa Ha OOBepXHOCTI1 15, a B 11Jiy, B3S!TOM cpopeneBCI<I1M BenepKOM c rny611Hbi 3-4 apw., 13-14".
CornaCHO naHHbiM 113biCI<aTeJibHOK napT1111 r.3T'a (1927 r'.),
sonHaS! nnow.anb o3epa paBH51eTCS! 36,68 KB. I<nM.
rny611Ha 03epa I<OJie6neTCS! Me}l{ny 2,4- 2,8 MTp. Mai<CI1MYM
rny611Hbi-2,80 MTp., MI1HI1MYM - 0,70 MTp .
B o3epe Bona B TI1XYfO norony nonynpo3pa 4Ha S!, a BO
BpeMS! Berpa 11 no}l{nS! - CI1JlbHO MYTHaSt.
nnoCI<Oe nHO 03epa nOI<pbiTO 11JIOM, TOJibi<O cesepO-BOCT04HaS! 6eperoBaSt Yacrb o3epa nec4aHI1CTaS! .
BoKpyr o3epa pacnono}l{eHbi: B cesepHoi1 4acr11-cen . TaM6 oBI<a, B BOCT04HOH- Poni10HOBKa , B fO}I{HOi::i - nor a, a B 3ananHoi::i-Bnani1M11pOBKa 11 He6onbwoi::i nocenoi< f\ccpapa.
03epo TonapasaH cny}I{I1T sonoc6opH biM sonoeMoM nJ151
MHOr0411CneHHbi X pyYbeB 11 arMoccpepHbiX noro4Hbi X so.a, c6er af0w,l1x c BHyrpeHHHX CI<JlOHOB oKpy}l{afOW,I1X o3epo rap. Bee
OHI1 neroM BbiCbiXafOT, 3a 11CI<Jlf04eH11eM py4eHI<a K11px-6ynax,
11n11, 1<a1< era Ha3biBafOT, p . , Yaw1<a " , 6epyw.ei1 csoe Ha4ano
113 po.aHI1l<OB Ha CI<IlOHax CaMcapCKI1X rop. KpoMe p. K11px-6ynax, B o3epo , B 3ananHoi::i 4aCTI1 era, Bna.aaer Macca I<Jlf04ei::i:
Me}l{.ay cen . TaM6osKa 11 f\ccpapa 11MeercS! 6onee 20 ponHI1l<OB,
1) B oJepe, 6mn snaneHH5l XOJ!OllH b!X po,ll,HH KO B, Te Mnepa Typ a HHorn a
6billa He Bb!We 6- 7o.

38

n osonbHO

BHYWHTenbHbiM ne6HTOM

son.bi.

HecKOilbKO non-

1\0 flH biX Kili01.J_ei:1 BbiXOD.~T s 6eperosoi:1 nonoce o3epa Ha yYaCTKe


~~e >Kny cen. f\capa 1-1 Bnan.HMHpOBKoi:1.
Ha :noM >Ke yyacTKe s o3epo snanaer uenaSl cepHSl xoIOD.H biX pon.HHKOB. 0Kono cen . BnanHMHposKa BbiXOD.stT He6onb11 1H e pon.HHKH. He6onbwoi:1 pyyeeK snanaer TaK>Ke y cen . PoIIHOHOBKH.
no D.aHHbiM K.aspaHCKOrO, TeMneparypa pOD.HHKOB B pai:1' 11 1e cen . TaM60BKH pasHa

4 C.

B 03epe BOD.SlTCSl: ca3aH (Cyprinus carpio L.), xpaMyilSl (Capo eta fundulus Pall), ronaBilb (Squalius turcicus De Fil), yKnei1Ka (F\1I> ll rnu s fasciatus Nord), openb (Salmo ]acustrus L. var.) 11 H3penKa
IIO nanaeTCSl ycay (Barbus caucasicus Kessl) 1) .

c IO>KHOH CTOpOHbl 03epa Tonapasa H, y cen . nora, Bbi1e t<a eT nosonbHO 6onbWaSl peYKa non reM >Ke Ha3BaHHeMI o napaBaH - H Ha npOTSl>KeHHH 12,5 KJlM . TeYeT B IO>KHOM Ha11 p aBJleHHH Me>Kny CaMcapcKHMH 1-1 MoKpblMH ropaMH, no ny1o soi:1 . MecraMH 6onorHcroi:1 nonHHe, orpaHHYeHHoi1 nonorHMH
' t< JJ OHaMH rop. CHa1.Jana OHa npope3hiBaer KaMeHHCTYIO rpSlny,
o1 3areM TeYeT no wHpoKoi1 nonHHe
c He3Ha1.JHTenbHbJM yKnoIIO M. WHpHHa pycna y cen . nora OKOilO 15 MTp.

y cen. raHn3a P TonapaBaH BXOD.HT B Herny6oKoe yw,enbe .


! Ia 3TOM y1.JaCTKe OHa, npHHHMaSl B ce651 MHOfO ponHHKOB,
1\I IOBb BCTynaeT B WHpOKYIO nOilHHy, KOTOpaSl KOHYaeTCSl 03ei>O M TyMaH-ren, ne>KaW,HM Ha BbiCOTe 1.997,4 MTp. Han yposIIC M MOpst, r.-e. Ha 78 MTp. HH>Ke, 1.JeM o3epo TooapasaH.
_.,:,

OJ e po Ty~o~aH - ren.

,lJ.nHHa :noro 03epa OKOilO 3 KJlM. V1 WHpHHa-1 - 2 KilM . BonHa st nnow,anb paBHSleTC51

i.fi6 KB. KilM.


03epo TyMaH-ren, HilH, KaK ero HHa4e Ha3biBaiOT, CaraMo,
1\ ('CbMa cxonHo c 03epoM TonapasaH. Tor }l{e xapaKrep OKpyl< <~ to w,Hx nopon J.1 Ka1.JeCTBO BOD.bl.
0HO He SlBilSleTCSl KparepII I.I M o3epoM, KaK 3TO nonaraer s csoeM rpyne npo . MywKe1
) ctJ. ct:>. KaspaficKHH - OT'-!eT o KO MaH,ll.HposaHHH ,LJ.n5! H3y'-!eHH5! peKH
i' yp1.1 H o3ep THnHCCKOH ry6. 1901 r .

39

TOB 1). 113HYeome ycnoBY!SI F\xam<anaKCKOro nnaTo nol<a3biBaiOT, YTO 3anonHeHHbie HbiHe sonaMI1 1-1 HMeiOw,He pa3ni1YHbii4
yposeHb npocTpaHCTBa C03nanHc~ 6naronap5l cnoco6y pacnpoopaHeHHSI 11 . pacnpeneneHI15l 6onee HOBbiX nas, oKpyffiaiOl.l\11X I< OnbiJ,OM 113BeCTHble n pOCTpaHCTBa 2) . .
no naHHbiM 113biCI<aTenei1 napT1111 13T'a, rny6HHa 03epa
I<OJ1e6neTC5l OT 2,6 no 1,5 MTp. vb :noro en en yeT, YTO TyMaHren MenbYe, YeM o3epo TonapasaH.
KpoMe p. TonapasaH, s o3epo TyMaH-ren snanaeT Macca
l<niOYeM. no 3a nanHOMY 6epery 03epa, y nonHOffiHSI xpe6Ta
f\6yn , 113 Tpex yYacr KoB BbiTeKaeT uenaSI cep115l o6vtnbHbiX
l<niOYeM . Y cena ffie CaraMo MOW,Hbie ponHI11<11 BbiTeKaiOT
cnnowHoi1 o611nbHOM opyei1, s Tpex yYaCTKax no 6eperosoi:f
nHHHH. TeMnepaTypa. scex 3TI1X KniOYei1 seCbMa HI13Ka5l.
6epera 03epa B BOCTOYHOM YaCTI1--0TnOrl1e, B 3ananHO~
me YaCTH 11 y Bbixona p. TonapasaH 113 o3epa , Hao6opoT,I<PYTbie. .UHo nnocKoe 11 11MeeT TOT ffie xapatnep, YTO 11 y
o3epa TonapasaH. TyMaH-ren 3aMep3aer onHospeMeHHO c o3epoM TonapaBaH. TaM , rne snanaiOT ponHHI<I1, OHO He 3aMep3aeT cosceM. 3HMOIO sonbi p. TonapasaH, HeCMOTp5l Ha c11nb
Hble MOp03bl, OOCTOSIHHO BbiTeKaiOT 113 03epa. npH BblXOne
113 o3epa p. TonapasaH cpa3y nonanaeT s TeCHHHY 11 nanee
TeYeT no yw,enbiO snnOTb no cen. 6onbwoi1 F\pai<an .
03epa TonapasaH 11 TyMaH-ren pacnonoffieHbi B ropHOH
06JlaCTI1, CnOffieHHOM 113 HneHTI14HbiX BbJWeOni1CaHHbiX 113Bep>HeHHbiX nopon, npenoasn 5liOW,11X secbMa 6naronp115lTHbie reonori1YeCKI1e ycnoBY!SI nn5l o6pa3oBaHI15l 3necb sonoc6opH~X son oeMOB s nosonbHO BHYWI1TenbHOM MacwTa6e.
ManaTani1HCKOe o3epo pacnonoffieHo B
I< IOry OT 03epa TyMaH-ren. no
KOHu,aM npononbHOH oc11 ero, HanpasneHHOM c cesepo-3anana
Ha IOro-EOCTOK, pacnonoffieHbi nyxo6opCKI1e ceneHI15l E<j:JpeMOBKa 11 TpoY!u,Koe. KornoBHHa o3epa, oi<pyffieHHa5l ropHbtMI1
03epo MaAaTana.

13-14 KnM .

1) VI. MywHeTOB-Tpynbi reonKo Ma , HOBa51 cepH5!. MaTepHaJJbi no


f\xaJJH3JJ3l<Cl<OMY 3eMneTpS!CeHHlO, 1903 r., CTp. 66.
2 ) r . f\6Hx - reoJJOfH51 f\pM51HCKoro Haropb51. 1902 r., CTp. 11.

40

2.111,7 MTp.
11an ypoaHeM MOp51 . YpoaeHb 03epa Ha 36 MTp. BbJWe, YeM
y po aeHb o3epa TonapaaaH 11 Ha 114,3 MTp. BbiWe ypoBHSI Ty-

o I poraMI1, COCTOSI W,11MI1 113 naB, ne<I1T Ha BbiCOTe

~1 a H-ren.

npow~xomneHI1e 03epa Manarana MO<HO c nOilHOi:1 OLJell vtnHOCTbiO np11ni1CaTb, KaK 11 npOHCXO<neHI1e BbiWeOnHCaHHbiX

<J 3Cp, cnoco6y pacnpOCTpaHeHHSI naBOBbiX nOTOI<OB, I<OTOpbie


" BHranHCb co cKnOHOB oKpecTHbiX aynKaHI1LJeCKI1X u,eHrpoa. Bc51
10 r o-3ananHa51 nonoaHHa 03epa, Ha411Ha51 or cen. TpOHI.J.KOro
ao ceaepo-aocT04HbiX npenenoa cen. EcppeMOBKH, cno<eHa 113
IJa3 anbTOBbiX (nonepHTOBblX) noKpOBHbiX naB. naBbl 3TH pacnpon p aHSIIOTCSI Bn/lOTb no nonHO>J<I1i:1 BOCT04Hb!X OKOHe4HOCTei:1
t Ja nnbipCKoro xpe6ra : 01<103-nara 11 Opryn-nara .
noaHni1MOMy, nonepHTOBbie naBOBbJe nOTOI<H 113 3pynTI1B IIbiX u,eHrpoa

:noi:1

o6nacr11

pacnpoCTpaHI111HCb a ceaepo-3a -

IJanHOM HanpaaneHHH, o6pa30BaB, TaKI1M 06pa30M, CBOI1MI1


II OK pOBHbiMI1 naaaMI1 YaCTI1 f\xanKanaKCKoro nnaro.
3ananHa51 YaCTb o3epa cno<eHa 113 rpax11-nonepvtTOB biX
11a s, KOTOpbie crapwe B03pacroM, YeM nonepHTbi.
BbiWe, np11 onHcaHHH xapaKrepa 6 a3anbTOBbiX naa, 6 biJJO
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l. BO HCTBO-np11 OCTbJBaHHH o6pa30BbJBaTb MHOrOrpaHHbie CTOJ16
' laTble npH3MaTHYeCKHe OTUe/lbHOCTH- B
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le Mn eTp51CeHH51X, TpeW,HHbl OTUenbHOCTe i:1,

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' 'onbi nerKo HC4e3atOT Yepe3 3TH rpew,I1Hbi. TaKoe 5laneHI1e
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41

nas, Jli-1WeHbi I<niOYesbiX HJlH ponHHI<OSbiX son. iKHTenH cen.


TpoHu,I<oro nonb3y'IOTC51 sonoi1 113 I<ononu,es, HMeiOwHx 38 MTP~
rny6HHbi . B cen. EcppeMOSI<e, I<Ononu,bi npoi1neHHbJe s 6a3anbTax, Tal< H He nanH nonOH<viTenbHbiX pe3ynbTaTOB, a n03TOMY
<HTellH nOJlb3YIOTC51 nn51 nHTb51 03epHOK sonoi1.
B I<ononu,e Hosoro ceneHH51 Ha IO<HOM 6epery o3epa
ManaTana, HMeHyeMoro , 3nHasat<aH ", oceHbiO , np11 MOeM noceweHHH, Ha rny6HHe 20 MTp. ewe He 6biJ10 BCTpe4eHO BOnbJ.
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HCT04HHI<OB 22 OI<T516p51 1927 r. 6biJl onpeneneH

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npo51BnsteTC51. HeMHoro cesepHee OT 3Toro MeCTa HMeeTC51
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3Toro He6onbworo ecTecTseHHOro pe3epsyapa, HC4e3aeT Ha
nHe cocenHero ospara s TpewKHax Tex <e 6a3anbTOB.
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To <e caMoe SJBJleHHe, HO B 6onee I<pynHOM MacwTa6e
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MeCT, rne sana o3epa HC4e3aeT s rpewHHax. MecTa HC4e3HOseHHst BOnbi MeCTHbiMH >I<HTeJ151MH nyxo6opaMH Ha3BaHbl ,ny1lttUct.l t1t " . Haci<OJlbt<O 3Ha4HTenbHbi Hei<OTOpbie H3 3THX , nyYHH",
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42

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43

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nopT11TCSI, CTaHOBI1TCSI

nenaeTCSI COBepweHHO Henp11rOUHOH nnSI


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ypOBeHb BOilbl B 03epe nOnbiMaeTCSI. np11 3TOM 48CTb BOilbl 113
o3epa 11CYe3aer Yepe3 BbiweonHcaHHbie ,nyYI1Hbt " .
BecHOIO B o3epo snanaeT HeCKOJlbKO pyYbeB, 113 KOTOpbiX
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peYJ<a K10pS!H-Yai1, 6epyw,aSI csoe Ha'-!ano Ha CKJlOHax MoKpbtX
rop. PonHI1KOB BOKpyr 03epa He 11MeeTCSI.
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no'-!TI1

11CKJ110411TenbHO

aTMoc<jJepHbiMI1 ocanKaMI1 11 He60!lbWI1M py4eHKOM K10pS!H4ai1 .


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44

KaKOe

HH6ynb Blli151HI1e Ha o6pa30BaHI1e pOllHI1KOB y 03epa TyMaH-ren ,


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noponax, 3anera10w,11x non llHOM 03epa TyMaH-ren, BbtXOllSIT Ha
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BOlli1TCSI. 0TMeYallC5l HaMI1 11 HenpHSITHbtH sKye Manarani1HCKI1X
son.
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TyMaH-ren, OT-

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]1 I<JlM. 01<0110 Cell. ropenOBI<a, COelli1HSieTC5l C pe41<0H , BbtTeKaiOW,eH H3 o3epa 6yrnaweH.
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HeM MOpS! H rome np11Hannemi1T t< 6accei:1Hy p. TonapasaH .


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45

MTp. ,lJ,Ho nnocKoe 11 sechMa 11!111CToe. BecHoi1 yposeHb o3epa


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- Phi6Ha$1 ayHa

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pacnpoCTpaH$1!10Cb no cen. ropenOBKI1. B HaCT09.W,ee speMSJ:
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Ho TO!lbKO 6h!Bwee nHo o3epa, C11!lbHO 3anonHeHHoe o3epHbiM
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pacTeHHH BeCbMa 3Ha4HTenbHbl . ctJayHa 03epa HMeeT CI<Opee
xapaKTep 6onOTHOH cpayHbl. J..13 pbi6 nOCTOSIHHO <11BeT B 03epe
r onbJ<O ronaBnb (Squalius turcicus De Fil), a BeCHOH nnSI HKpoMeTaHI1Sl HHorna 3axon11r 11 y~:<nei1J:<a (fllburnus fasciatus Nbrd 1).
1) <:D. <:D. Kaspai1CKf1i1 - BecTHMK Pbt6onpoM., 1901 r., N2N2 7- 10.

47

Korna-To yposeHb o3epa CTOS!JJ 3HaYvneJJbHO Bbiwe, 11 113


Hero, c cesepHOH cropOHbi, Yepe3
f\nei<CaH-na pac11, BbJTeKana peYI<a.

y~enbe ,

rai<-Ha3biBaeMoe

Ha IO}f{HOH cropoHe 03epa pacnonomeH cyxoH 3aJJI1BYI1K,


nHO I<OTOpOrO rlOKpb!TO TOp<i>OM 11 ,nepHOM ". ,lJ,epH :HOT MeCTHbiMI1 m11renSIMI1 ynorpe6nSieTCS! ( s oco6eHHOCTI1 y nyxo6opos)
nnSI noi<pbiTI1Sl I<pbiW scex 3naHI1H. ,lJ,H.o y~eJJbS! f\nei<CaH-napacl1 11 ynoMSIHyroro 3aJJI-1BY11Ka npeBbiwaer HbiHeWHYJH yposeHb o3epa 6onee, YeM Ha 1 Merp. YposeHb 03epa nOHI1311JJCSI
BCJJenCTBI1e OTKpbiBWerOC>I HOBOrO 6onee HI1 3I<OrO CTOI<a BOnbi
113 03epp s cesepo-socrOYHOH era YaCTI1. B npenenax 6biswero
o6'eMa 03epa

reonor11YeC1<0e

crpoeHI1e

MeCTHOCTI1

npencras-

n>~eT 6naronp11S!THble YCJJOBI1Sl nJJ>I nonH>ITI151 ypOBHS! era nyTeM

nonnopa no sepXH11X KpaeB y~eJJbSl f\nei<CaH napaCI1. np11


:HOM npensap11TeJJbHO noTpe6yeTC51 B0 3BeCTI1 MOUJ,HbiH 11 BblCOKI1H nonnopHbiH san , 11JJI1 CI<opee Bbi COI<YIO 11 nJJI1HHYIO nno_TI1Hy, s paHOHe Bbixona pe1<11 113 o3epa-TaM, rnenpei<pacHbte
nyra, npencrasnSIIOll.\11e 6biBwee nHo o3epa, noi<p biT bl nepHoM.
0KOI10 me nepeBHI1 6 a3aJlbTbl 0 6H a>t<a!OTC51, 11 11M e!OTCS! COMHI1TeJJbHble Mecra , yepe3 I<OTOpbie Momer 11CYe 3aT b sana.

o3epo

K cesepo-3anany or o3epa XaH4aJJbi, Ha


BbiCOTe 1.749,5 MTp. Han ypOBHeM MOpS!, paCrlOJlO}f{eHO He6oJJbWOe 6onoTI1CTOe o3epo BaLJI1aH . Kornos11Ha
ero nem11T y nonHO>t<bSI HeBbtCOKOH ropbl Cypn -cap, cno>t<eH HOH uen111<0M 113 6a3aJJbTOBOH nasw. 03epo 3TO ci<opee HOCI1T
BallHaH.

xapai<rep 6onora. Tonbi<O secHOH yposeHb ero HeCI<OJJbi<O nonbiMaeTcSI, a CI<OrlJJS!IO~I1 HC>I B peni<I1X cny4aS!X 113JJI1WeK BOl
CTeKaer s npyroe 6onoT11croe o3epo-3pec, pacnonomeHHoe
s 5 I<JJM. or Hero Ha cesepo-3anan. B BaLJI1aHcKoe o3epo ponHI1KOB He snanaeT. 0HO nonnepm11BaeTCS! 11CKJJI0411TellbHO CTOI<OM aTMocq,epHbiX son. !. -136biTOK BOnbt 113 He60JJbWOH KaHa
Bbi, Bbi BeneHHOH 113 p. Kbtpx-6ynax nn>~ Hy>t<n cen. 8aLJI1aH ,
nocrynaer s 03epo. Bona 03epa MYTHaSI 11 secbMa
Henp11>1THOro st<yca. >K11ren 11 cen. BaYI1aH 311MOIO, Korna sana
s KaHaBe 3a.M ep3aer, ynorpe6n>IIOT nnSI ni1TbS! pacronneHHbiH
CHe r . 311MOIO 03epo cosepweHHO 3aMep3aer.

48

3ro o3epo, pacnonomeHHOe 1<a1<, yme 6bino ynoM51Hyro, B 5 sepcrax Ha cesepo-3anan or


Q3epa BaYHaH, nem11r Ha BbiCore 1.721,6 Mrp. Han ypoBH. MOpS!
11 B Hacrollw,ee speMSl cosepweHHO BbiCoxno. 0cHoBaHI1e ere
noi<OI1TCSl Ha 6a3aJJbTOBbiX nasax, no!<pbiTbiX MOW,HbiM cnoeM
paCTHTeJibHOH
'B

nOYBbl 11 fJII1Hbl. no 6eperaM yMepwero 03epa,

Hei<OTOpblX ero

yYaCTI<aX, BbiCrynaJOT 06HaH<eHI1Sl 6a3aJibTO-

BbiX naB C 11X xapa!<TepHbiMH

MHOrorpaHHbiMH OTneJJbHOCTSlMI1 .

Heci<OJJbi<O ner roMy Ha3an 3TO o3epo cpa3y nowno Ha y6biJJb,


a B 1926 r. cosepweHHO BbiCoxno. B o3epe 3pec pbi6a He soll.v!JiaCb, HO 3aTO OHO 6biJIO JJI0611Mb1M MeCTOM OXOTHI11<0B )ta
n111<11x

yro1<

6onee

11/ 2

11 npynu

nr11u, 6ononKrbiX o3ep. 03epo 11Meno

Mrp. rny611Hbl. B Hacro51w,ee speMSl O!<pecrHbie ml1-

renl1 Ha roM Mecre, rne

paccr11nanocb o3epo,

cama10r

~<apro

enb 11 I<OCSlT CeHO.


Ta1<oe Ha nepBbiH B3rJJ51n
BeHI1e

03epa,

np11

6JJH31<0M

6b1Crpoe, 3aranoYHoe HCYe3HO03Hai<OMJJeHHI1 C reOJIOfl14eCI<HM

crpoeHI1eM o3epHoro yyacrKa, Momer 6biTb o6'51CH'=HO reMI1


np11411HaMH, 0 I<OTOpblX

Mbl

me

ynOMI1HaJII1 np11 OnHCaHI111 03epa

Manarana. nosHn11MOMy, B nepHon nocnertHHX 3eMnerp51CeHI1H,


noncr11naJOw,11e
B BHne

I<pynHbiX

o3epo

6a3aJJbTOBbie naBbi,

CTOJJ64aTbiX

orneJJbHOCTeH

npencrasneHHbie
B sepT11l<aJJbHOM

HanpaBJJeHI111 , 6b1JII1 HapyweHbl CHJibHbiMH CeHCMH4eCKI1MH I<OJJe6aHI1SlMH .


Bcnencrs11e Hero o6cro51renbCTsa rpeu.J,HHbl ornenbHOcrei1
6a3aJJbTa , paCXOnSlCb 11 paCW11pSl51Cb, naJJH MeCTO nJJSl 11C4e3HOseHH51 sonbi o3epa. 6biBwHe snanenbLJ,bl o3epa, socnonb30saJJI1Cb 3TI1M 06CTOSlTeJibCTBOM 11, npOJ.13BeUSl He3Ha4HTeJibHble nonpblBHble pa60Tbl, CHSlJII1 OUHY 113 CTOJIOYaTbiX 6a3aJJbTOBblX OTneJJbHOCTeH, o6pa3y51, csoeo6pa3HbiH nornorHreJJbHbiH I<Ononeu,, Kyna 11 6bma HanpasneHa soua 03epa no Herny6oKHM !<aHaBI<aM. 3rl1 MeponpHSlTI151 3Ha4HTeJJbHO yseJJI1411JIH nponyCI<HYIO
cnoco6HOCTb 3roro yron1<a,
B03MOH<HOCTb BJJaneJJbU,aM
BOnbl

u,eJJHI<OM ocywHJJH

o3epo

11 nanH

11COOJib30BaTb OCB060nHBWHHCSl OT

nOBOJibHO 60JJbWOH yYaCTOI< nn51 ceJJbCI<O-X03SlHCTBeHHbiX

Hymn.
49

6bJswee o3epo 3pee He HMeno HK ponHHKOB, snana!OW.Hx


B Hero, HK pyYeMKOB. 0HO u,enHKOM eyweeTBOBanO 3a eYeT
06HnbHbiX aTMOecpepHbiX oeanKOB.
CnenbJ TaKHX 6bJBWHX 6onoTHeTbJX He6onbWHX o3ep Ha6monaJOTeSJ B pa3HbJX MeeTax f\xanKanaKcKoro nnoeKoropbS! .
MHorHe 113 HHX paenonomeHbJ K JOro -3anany OT 6bJBwero 03epa
3pee B pa3HbJX MeeTax, s oeo6eHHoerK me s pai1oHe een . KyMypno. HeeKonhKO TaKKX MeCT Ha6nJOnaeTcSJ TaKme 1-1 no ne soi1 eTopoHe p . TonapasaH , no nopore H3 een . 6ornaHOBJ<K:
s rap. f\xanKanaKH . Bee 3TH MeeTa, HbJHe npespaTHBWHeeSJ
B nnoeKHe, poBHbJe nymai1KH , npenerasn1-1nH Korna-To eo6oi1:
He60nbWHe 6onOTHeTbJe 03epa. VJeYe3HOBeHHe onHHX 1-13 HHX
o6'51CHSJeTe51 BblebiXaHHeM B TO BpeM51, KaK BOnbJ npyrHX 11CYe3nJ.t
Yepe3 o6pa3osaswHeeSJ He6onbwKe Tpewi1HbJ ornenhHOeTej;t
6a3anbTOBbJX naB, nemawHx non 3THMH 03epaMH. Bee 3TH 6bJBWI1e 03epa paenonomeHbJ Ha f\xanKanaKeKoM nnaTo, enomeHHOM HeKnJOYHTenbHO H3 6a3anbTOBbJX nas. Ha HeKOTOpblX 113
3THX nnowanei1, npK He3HaYHrenbHbJX ropoo6pa3osaTenhHbJX
HnH eei1eMI1YeeJ<I1X npou,eeeax, non BnH5JHHeM nHHaMHYeeKI1X
npOTKBOUei1eTBYJOlll,HX eHn , 11n11 BOnH006pa3HblX TOnYJ<OB, np11
HI1YTO<HOM non'eMe 3TI1X yyaerJ<OB, np011CXOnHnO paexomneHHe
Tpewi1H ornenhHOerei1 6aJanbTOBbJX nas, HMeJOwi1x sepTKJ<anbHoe HanpasneHKe. Ta1<11M o6pa3oM, 3115JJOll1,11e rpewHHbJ 3TI1X
n opon CblrpanK ponb KaHanOB, noeny<I1BWHX npHYHHOH HeYe3HOBeHI1SJ HaJ<Oni1BWI1XCSJ BOn. 3ro 51BneHI1e BeebMa noyYHTenbHO
11 HarnSJnHo npeneTasneHo Ha Meere 11eYe3HoseHI1SJ sonbJ Ha
yYaeTKe 6bJBwero 03epa 3pee 11 s pai1oHe een. KyMypno, rne
paenonomeHO HeeJ<OnbKO TaKHX, HbJHe BbJCOXWKX,
o3ep.

He60nbWHX

Vb npyrHX 03ep ynOM51HYTOrO TKna B f\xanKanaJ<eKOM,


ye3ne oeo6eHHoro BHKMaHK51 3acny<KBaiOT: o3epo Xo3anHH, HaxonSJweeeSJ B Kpai1HeM JO<HOM y r onKe f\xanKanaKeKoro ye3na ,
11 o3epo Ta611u,xyp11 , HaxonSJweeeSJ s eesepo -soeTOYHOM era
yrny.
noenenHee, nOBI1nKMOMy, HMeeT HeKOTOpyJO eB513b C 6aecei1HOM p. TonapasaH.
50

03epo pacnonomeHo Ha BbJCOTe 1.990,6


MTp. Han ypOBH. MOp51. 0HO nOBOJlbHO HenpaBv!nbHOH cpopMbl, C ManeHbKI1MI1 3aJ11-1BaMH; nni1Ha era OKano 4 KJlM., w11p11Ha 3,5 KJlM. BonHa51 noaepxHoCTb
-OKOJ10 14 KB. Kni'l. 03epo CO BCeX CTOpOH OKpy<eHO ropaMI1.
C BOCTOKa T51HeTC51 xpe6eT CaMcap-f\6yncKoi1 CHCTeMbJ c aepwi1HaMH Taa-KoTenH, 5e6ep-ropoi1 1-1 WaaH a6anH , a c 3ananHOH CTOpOHbJ , Memny ceneHHeM KH3Hn-Kvtnvtca 1-1 MonHTbJ, o3epo OKpy<eHO u,enOH cep11ei1 803BbJWeHHOCTeH, OTJleJ15110Lli,I1X
o3epo oT noni1Hbl p. Ku,H51 ,
Ta6M~l<YP(He 03e-

po.

fny6HHa 03epa 3Ha411TeJ1bHee, 4eM npyrHX 03ep f\xanKanaKCKOrO ye3na, 11 Kone6neTC51 OT 1 no 24,7 MTP 1 ).
B Ta611u,xypc1<oe o3epo ananaeT cpaBHI1TeJ1bHO Mana ponHI1KOB 11 TO J111Wb co CTopoHbJ cen. K11311J1-KI1ni1Ca. CaMbJH 3HaLJHTenbHbJH 113 HI1X ananaeT a ceaepHyiO era YaCTb. KpoMe ponHHKoa, 03epo ni1TaeTC51 BeWHI1MH TaJ1blMI1 BOJiaM11 H nO<Jl51MI1.
Bo apeM51 naaonKOB ypoaeHb 03epa noJibJMaeTCSI no 1 MTp. 5eper 03epa K 3anany OT cen. KH311J1-KHJ111Ca OTJ10ri1H 11 11MeeT
6onOTI1CTbJH xapaKTep. IOro-aocT04HbJH me 6eper-noaonbHO
KPYTOH. IOro-3ananHbJH 6eper- MeCTaMI1 o6pbiBI1CT, a 3ananHbiH 6eper--coaepweHHO OTJIOrHH 11 OT4aCTI1 60J10TI1CT.
5epera o3epa MecTaMI1 nOI<pbiTbi MeJ1KI1M nec1<oM, o6pa30BaHHbiM 113 JlaBOBbiX nopOJI. neco'K :3TOT ynoTpe6n51eTC51 nn5l
CTp011TeJ1bHbiX u,enei1.
Bona o3epa 4HCTa51, noaonbHO npo3pa4Ha51, 3eneHoaaTo CHHero u,aeTa. Ha aKyc OHa np1151THa51.
no naHHblM KaapaHCKOrO, TeMnepaTypa BOJlbl 11 aaryCTa,
a 2 4aca JIHSI, Ha noaepxHOCTH 6nH 3 6epera, 6bJJ1a 16,2 C.
(a B03nyxe 18), 12 aarycTa J60, np11 TeMnepaType ao3nyxa
14,2 (neHb conHe4HbJH, aeTep NO); Ha cepem1He o3epa , Ha noaepxHOCTI1, 11 aarycTa 160 11 12-ro 15. TeMnepaTypa Hna Ha
rny611He 13,1911 24,4 MTp. 11 11 12 aarycTa . 6bJJ1a 6e3 113MeHe HI151 15 ( 2 ).

- - - - - - -1
) ~- ~ - Kaspaikt<Hi1-BeCTHHK Ph1 6o np. 1901 r.
2) BeclHHK Pb16onp . 1901 r .

51

3ro 06CT051TenbCTBO HaBOLlHT l<aapaHCI<OfO Ha MbiCflb 0


TOM, 4TO Ha LlHe 03epa 6b!OT l<fli04H C LlOBOflbHO BbiCOI<OH TeMneparypoi1 sortbl. 3ro MHeHHe csoe OH nouraepmnaer rai<me 11
TeM 06CTOSITenbCTBOM, 4TO 03epo 3aMep3aer CpaBHHTenbHO
n03LlHO, 4acro He paHee nei<a6p51 , 11 ocso6omnaerc51 or nhna
paHbwe scex npyr11x 03ep, Haxon51W.HXC51 s f\xani<anai<CI<OM
ye3ne.

B Ta6Hu,xypci<OM 03epe H<HBer nHWb onvtH BHLl pb16bi-<}Jopenb.


IOro-3ananHa51 cropoHa 03epa cno<eHa H3 6a3anbTOBbiX
nopon. Cen. MonHTbl noCTpoeHo Ha 6a3anbrax.
03epo Ta6Hu,xypvt He HMeer croi<a. 3ananHa51 OI<OHe4HOCTb ero ol<aH4HBaerc51 He6onbWHM 3anvtsoM, npencrasn5110W,HM,
nOBVIIlVIMOMy, MeCTO 6biBWero CTOI<a. no 3TOMY HanpasneHHIO,
nanee 1< 3anany, Bb1cryna10r MHOf04HCneHHble ponHHI<H, H3 I<OropbiX o6pa3yerc51 pe41<a Mer~-)J,<yp, npasbiH npHTOI< p . TonapaaaH.
noBHilHMOMy,

3TH

pOilHVII<VI

HMeiOT CB$13b c 03epoM. Ha-

fli14He Ha 3TOM yyacrl<e 6a3anbTOB~x nas co caoi:icrseHHOH HM


rpeW,HHOBaTOCTbiO naeT OCHOBaHHe npennonO>t<VITb CB513b 3TVIX
portHHI<OB c o3epoM. Tai<HM o6pa30M, rvt.llporpa<}Jvt4eCI<a51 CB513b
o3epa Ta6vtu,xypvt c 6accei1HOM p. TonapaaaH , noBHililMOMy,
HeCOMHeHHa.

MbiCnb

3TY

nonraep<naer

ai<aneMHI<

f\611x

1-1

H. B. Mywi<eTOB.
nepBbiH 1-13 HVIX npH3Haer: ,Tal< l<al< I<One6aHHe 03epa B
pa3nH4Hble apeMeHa rona secbMa He3Ha4vtrenbHO, ro MO<HO
nonyCTVITb, 4TO 03epo HMeer Cl<pbiTbiH non3eM HbiH CTOI< I<
f\xani<anaKCI<OH paBHHHe"

).

reonor Mywl<eTOB Tal<>t<e npvt3Haer, 4TO "nOBVILlVIMOMy,


cyw,eCTBYIOT nOrt3eMHbie TOI<VI OT 03epa, nHTaiOW,f.1e OilVIH 1-13
npHTOI<OB p. Meu,-)J,myp " 2).
l-13 l<pynHbiX 03ep f\xanl<anai<CI<oro ye3na ronbi<O 03epo
Xo3anvtH He CB513aHo c 6accei:1HOM p. TonapaaaH. HO OHO npen
crasn51er oco6biH HHrepec.
1) r. f\6Hx-reonon151 f\pM51HCHOro Haropb51. 1902 r ., CTp. 39.
2) Marep. reonHOMa, HOB. cep ., Bbtn. I, 1903 r., crp. 63.

52

03epo

~o3an~H .

3To o3epo pacnonomeHo s IOmHoi1 oKoHe4HOCTI1 f\xanKanaKCKoro ye3na, Ha rpaHI1u,e

era, Ha BbiCOTe 1.880,7 MTp. Han ypoBHeM MOpS!. ,Uni1Ha 03epa-OKOJIO 9 t<JIM., w11p11Ha-5 KnM. 03epo Xo3an11H He 11MeeT
. 3aMeTHbiX OTt<pbiT biX eTot<os. B o3epo snanaeT HeeKOJibi<O py'-leHI<OB 11 He 6 onbWa51 p e 4t<a - e eesepHoi1 eTopOHbi. 6epera
oTnor11e, MeCTaMI1 TOnKVIe ; IO}I{Hb!H 6eper 6onee KpyToi1 VI name
MeCTaMVI o6pb!BI1eT. .UHo ~1nVIeToe . Bona coneHaSJ, MYTHaSI.
BcneneTBVIe nnoxoro Ka4eCTBa sonbi s 03epe HeT pbi6bi.
no aHaJII13Y npa noHTIOXOBa 1 ) , Oni1H JI11Tp BOnbl eonep }1{111 0,8804 rp. cyxoro ocTaTKa, 113 KOTOporo: xnop11cToro HaTpa-0,6113 rp., OCTaJibHa SI
HaTp VI MarHI1H.

'-laeTb

nanaeT

no MHeHVIIO f\6VIxa , np11CyTeTBI1e

Ha

eepHOI<I1eJibiH

B Xo3ani1HeKOM

03epe

eynbcpaTa HaTpa, yrnet<11enoro .!'1 xnop11e1oro HaTpa o6'51CH Si eT


CSI TeM 06CTOSITenbeTBOM, '-ITO 4aeTb nHa 03epa COCTOI1T 113 Meprenei1 onl1rou,eHa , KOTOpbie Kat<pa3 11 1130611ny10T Ha3BaHHbiMI1
COJISIMI1.
KpoMe BbtweonHCaHHbiX o3ep, B f\xanKanaKCKOM ye3ne
11MeeTeSI HeCKOJibKO npyr11x, 6 onee MeJIKI1X 03ep, KOTOpbte He
CB513aHbt c 6accei1HOM p. TonapasaH. Bee OHI1 pacnonomeHbl B
BbieoKoropHoi1 o6nac111 CaMeap-f\6yncKoi1 Cl1eTeMbi . MHomecTso
MaJieHbKI1X 03ep, ni1TaiOW,11XeSI MHOr04viCJieHHblMI1 11CT04HVIKaMI1,
3anOJIHSIIOT Bnani1Hbl Ha CVIn bHO XOJIM I1 eTOH nosepXHOCTI1 Bb!CO
I<OrOpHOH '-laeTI1 3TOrO xpe6Ta .

B.

P eJCu u ucmo1-tnuJCu.

KaK yme ynoMI1Hanoeb Bbtwe, oeo6o

6naronp1151THbie y c-

JIOBI1SI nnSI rvmporpacp1111 f\xam<anai<eKo r o yeJna


soeTO'-IHaSI 11 cesepHa51 ero YaeTb.

npeneTaBnS!eT

rnaBHOH BOnHOH ap1ep11ei1, B KOTOpyiO Cni1BaiOTCSI n04T11


see f\xant<anaKe1<11e pe4KI1 11 11CTO'-IHI1KI1, 51Bn51eTC51 p . To na pasaH.
1) )J,-p

no HTIO XOB -

f1 XaJI Ka lla KC IH1H ye3l!.

1892

r ., CTp .

13.

53

PeKa TonapasaH BbiTeKaeT Vl3 IOH<HOH OKOHeYHOCTVI T onapasaHCKoro o3epa , nemaw.ero Ha


.!C O 1 e 2.075,54 MTp. Han ypOBHeM MOp51, VI Ha npOT51H<eHVIH
12 t<nM . TeYeT B IOro-3ana11HOM HanpasneHHI1 MeH<11Y MoKpbiMH

Ill

11 CaMcapCKI1MH ropaMH no nyrosoi1 uonHHe, a 3aTeM sna11aeT


s o3epo TyMaHren, HJJVI CaraMo, nemaw.ee Ha BbiCOTe 1.997,4
MTp. Han ypOBHeM M0p51. 0l<OJ10 Cen. faHn3a OHa npVIHHMaeT B
ce651 06HJlbHbie 11CT04HVIKH TOfO H<e Ha3BaHI151.
PeKa TonapasaH, npoi1n51 Yepe3 o3epo TyMaH-ren, ysenH'-111BaeT CBOH ne611T 3a CYeT HOBbiX VICT04HI1KOB, BnanaiOW,11X B
TyMaH-ren c cesepHoi1 11 c 3ana11Hoi1 CTopoHbi ero, VI nanee
TeYeT 6onee 10 KJJM . Ha 3ana11 snnoTb 110 cen . Oponmanap.
HenaneKo OT .nora cena B p. TonapasaH sna11aeT c nesoi1
cTopOHbi p. OpnosKa, o6pa3oBaHHa51 113 peYet<, BbiTeKa!Ow,vtx
H3 o3epa ManaTana H 6ymaweH. P. OpnosKa OKano cen. CaTxa np11HHMaeT B ce651 o611JlbHbie 11CTOYHI1KI1 Taro me Hai1MeHOBaHI151. 60JlbWa51 YaCTb 3THX XOJl011HbiX 11CTOYHI1KOB (6,2P),
no 11aHHbiM f\611xa, n051BI1nacb nocne CI1JlbHoro 3e MneTp51ceHH51,
HMeswero MeCTo B 1863 rouy 1 ). H11me cen. Opo11manap B p.
TonapasaH ana11aeT He6onbLUa51 peYKa, BbiTeKaiOw,a51 113 o3epa
XaHYanbi-ren.
TaKI1M o6pa3oM, see Bbtweoni1CaHHbie o 3epa: TonapasaH,
TyMaH-ren, ManaTana, 6yrnaweH H XaHYanbi, np11Ha11nemaT K
6accei1Hy p. TonapaBaH .

Vb o3epa TyMaH-ren, npopsaBWHCb no y3KOMY yw.enbiO


Memny CaMcapCKI1MI1 VI MoKpbiMH fopaM11, p. TonapasaH BbixonHT Ha f\xanKanaKCKYIO HaropHyiO paBHI1HY 11 npoX011HT y
n011HOH<HH KaMeHHCTbiX XOJlMOB, KOTOpbie HJ111 nOJJOfO cnycKaIOTC51 1< peKe HJJH o6pbiBaiOTC:51 y 6epera KPYTbiMI1 cKanaMH.
HVIH<e cen. ,Il,mHrpaweH peKa spe3bisaeTC51 B 110BOJlbHO
Y3Koe yw,enbe, orpaHI1YeHHoe snJIOTb 110 cen . Xocnl151 c nesoi1
CTOpOHbl 6a3aJlbTOBbiMH, a C npaBOH CTOpOHbl TpaXVITOBbiMH
JlaBaMH. Y Ha3BaHHOfO ceneHI151 peKa , BbiX01151 113 TeCHOfO
yw,eJlb51 11 np11H51B B ce651 C JleBOH CTOpOHbl He60JlbWOH XOJl011Hb!H V!CTOYHI1K (n051BI1BWI1HC51 nocne 3eMJleTp51CeH1151), TeYeT
1) r. f\6Hx- reoJIQfl151 f\pM51HCKOro Haropb51 . 1902 r. CTp. 15.

54

B paCWVIpeHHOH 4aCTVI yw,enb51, a 3aTeM BHOBb


yw,enbe, OrV16a10w,ee

C IOH{HOH

CTOpOHbl

yrny6n51eTC51 B

KpaCVIBbiH

XOnMVIK

TaswaH-Tana, c.no}!{eHHbiH uenVIKOM Vl3 TVIOVI4Horo TpaXVITa.


HMH{e cen. XocnVISI p. TonapasaH

Te4eT

no cKanVICTOMY

yw,enb!O, cno}!{eHHOMY Vl3 6a3anbTOBbiX nas, VI oKono

c. 6aspa,

C npaBOH CTOpOHbl, npVIHVIMaeT B ce651 He60nbWYIO pe4KY F\6yn


{6aspa), KOTOpa51 o6pa3yeTC51 Vl3 06MnbHbiX VICT04HVIKOB

Cene-

HI-151 TOrO H{e HMeHH. 3TH BeCbMa 06HnbHble HCT04HVIKH , npVIBO.ll51W,VIe B UBHH{eHHe HeCKOnbKO MenbHVII..I,, BbiCTynaiOT y OCHOBaHI-151 orpOMHOH OCbinVI
csoHx son. TaK, no

H OTnVI4aiOTC51

naHHbiM

TeMnepaType B03nyxa s

HH3l<OH

TeMnepaTypOH

F\6VIxa , s ceHT516pe MeC51Ue,

9,1 P, TeMnepaTypa

VICT04HV1Ka

npVI
6bina

5 ,2P 1 ) .
HanpoTMB rap. F\xanKanaKVI, c npasoi1 CTOpOHbi, B p. TonapasaH npeKpaCHbiM KacKanoM snanaeT oTnH4a!Ow,a51C51 KpVIcranbHOH

npo3pa4HOCTbiO

csoei1

BOUbi p. KynVIKaM, 6epyw,a51

CBOe Ha4ano Vl3 f\6napCKHX pOUHHKOB, pacnonOH{eHHbiX B

KnM.

cesepo-socToKy oT r. F\xanKanaKVI. TeMnepaTypa HCT04HVIKOB

soc.

Yw,enbe, s KOTopoe TonapasaH


XocnH51 ,

nocTeneHHO

yrny6n51eTC51

BHenp51eTC51

VI

6nVI3

B03ne

cen.

rap. F\xanKanaKH

npeUCT51BJ151eT y}!{e Vl3 ce651 rny6oKyiO BbiMbiBHYIO TeCHVIHy, UOCTVIra!Ow,yiO ,

500

no

Mepe

npH6nVIH{eHVI51

1<

cen. XepTBVIC, 6onee

MTp. rny6vtHbl.
Ha 3TOM npocTpaHCTBe, 6naronap51 npeKpaCHbiM 6oKOBbiM

-06Ha}!{eHVI51M 3p03110HHOrO

yw,enb51 , Bbi51Bn5110W,I1M BeCbMa Har-

J151UHble reonorvt4eCKHe pa3pe3bi , npenoasnSleTcSl B03MOH{HOCTb


nerKo . VI3Y411Tb reonorVI4ecKoe opoeHVIe 3TOH o6naCTVI.
H{e Harn51UHbie pa3pe3bi npencTasn51eT

rny6oKoe

TaKHe

yu.J,enbe

.Kbipx-6ynax--'-npVITOK p. TonapasaH .
.IJ,sa rny6oKVIX yw,enb51 coenHHSliOTC51

HVIH{e rop.

F\xanKa-

JiaKVI, VI F\xanKanaKcKoe nnaTo Me}!{ny HVIMI1 npencTaBn5leTC51


.BVIUe Y3Koro MbiCa

1)

r.

vtnVI

nonyooposa .

f\6Hx - reonon-tSI f\pMSIHCKOro Ha r opbSI. 1902 r ., CTp. 25.

55 ,

3ra peKa-neBbiH 6onbwol1 npvtroK


PcH a Kbrpl! 6yna/(.

napasaH-6eper

esoe

HaYano

p. To-

HenaneKo

or

o3epa XaHYanbi, K 3anany or Hero, 6nvt3 een. ,lJ,vtnvt, rne vt3non I<paeHbiX WJlaKOBVInHbiX nopon BbiTeKaJOT MHOrOYVICJleHHbie,
seebMa 06VIJlbHbie XOJlOnHbie vteTOYHVIKVI.
BMeere, reKyr

Bee OHVI, eoenvtH5151eb.

B eesepHOM HanpasneHvtvt , noYTVI

napannenbHO

p. TonapasaH , VI, noereneHHO yrny6n51~eb s 6a3anbTOBbie nasoBbie o6pa3oBaHvt51 , Hvtexon51T B rny6oKoe yw,enbe p. TonapasaH.
Yw,enbe p. Kbtpx-6ynax
JTVI

TaK<.e

nBa rny60KVIX yw,eJlb51

3p03VIOHHo r o npovtexo<.neHvt51.
51 BJ1 51 10Te51

Ha eTOJlb KO

3HaYvt -

TeJlbHbiM eereerseHHbiM npeHa<.eM, YTO HapywaJOr o6w,y10 rvtnporpavtYeeKyJO eB513b o6wvtpHoro f\xanKanaKeKoro nnaro. 6naronap51 3TOMY 06CT051TeilbeTBy , Bee vteTOYHVIKVI, nvtT aJO I.l..\VIe Haeene
Hvte,

Bbi6vtsaJOTe51

vt3

ei<nOHOB

yw,envtl1

p. p. TonapasaH 11

Kbtpx-6ynax, Me<.ny reM B HaropHOH paBHY1H e He 11Meere51

Hl1

onHOrO 11eTOYHI1Ka.
B yw,enbl1 p. TonapasaH nosonbHO o6Y1nbi-I bie 11eTOY HY1KV1
BbJ611BaJOTest

113- non 6a3anbTOBbiX

peKH, 611113

He60JlbWOH YaeOBHH, paenono<.eHH OH

nas,

no

npasoi:1

er opoHe
Ha

neBOH

eropoHe yel'b51 p. Kyn~-tKaM. ,IJ,pyroi1 11eTOYI-IY1K BbiTe Kaer oKono


MOCTa Yepe3 p. TonapasaH, Ha nesol1
w oi1 HeTOYHHK

HMeeTe51

TaK<.e

ee

BbiWe

er op oHe.

He6onb-

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CTa i-IU,VIvt 11 woeee no HanpasneHVIJO K ropony .


HeeKOJlbKO

He3HaYvtTeJlbHbiX

vteTOYHVIKOB

Bbi 6J.1 BaeTe51

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11111<a M11,

Bbi611BaJOW,11MI1e51 611113

11eKJ110 YVI TeJl bHO

MOeTa

Ha

11eTOY

f\a x anKailaKeKOM

1110eee.
Y w,enbe p. Kbtpx-6ynax OTJ111Yaere51 6onee o 6vtnbHbiM11 11e' 0' 111 1II<a M1-1 . (aMble MOW,Hble 113 HVIX,
111 11<11 '-lanraH- nyHrap, Haxon51Te51

TaK Ha3biBaeMble

K eesepy or

p OIIr<n: JlO p e BOJliOL.I,VIVI BOna OTeJOna nepeKaYvtBanaeb


rr t,lii r oponoK. ,IJ,pyr11e nsa vteTOYHvtKa paenono<.eHbi

tro ti

r opo He p . Kbipx - 6ynax. OnvtH

vt3

HI1X,

vteTOY-

soeHHoro

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r o-

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npa -

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Jl f1(><1Xa ll et<VIH, paenono<.eH HenoepenerseHHO non roponoM,

n o

II( "UM '-1 II JIOX O OTpamaeT e51 Ha ero no6pO KaYeeTBeHHOeTvt ; n py-

roi:1 - - Bbixon11r BbiWe no yw.enbJO pe1<11, OI<ono


3ananHOH 4aCTI1 ropona nOJlb3YIOTC51 BOllOH

6aHb.

3TI1X

.>K11ren11

11CT04HI11<0B

ll1151 ni1Tb51.
V!Meerc51 ew.e Macca npyr11x MeJ1KI1X ponHI1KOB, pacnono>t<eHHbiX no neaoi:1 cropoHe p. Kbipx-6ynax . Me>t<ny roponoM 11 BOeHHbiM ropOlli<OM, 06f:a3yJOW,11X He60JlbWI1e 60J10TI1CTbie

y4aCTKI1

B yw,e11 bl1 . .n1151 X a paKTep11CTI11<11 3H1X 11CT04HI1 KOB C411TaeM


J111WHI1M np11BeCTI1 aHaJ1113bl HeKOTOpbiX 113

HI1X,

Hbie B BOeHHO-Mell11l.J,I1HCI<OH 11a6opar0p1111 B


TaTbl aHaJ1113a 1 1111rpa BOllbi B rpaMMax) 1):

f\6na pCKHe
pOllHHKH(B
5 KJJM. Or
ropona)

np0113BeneH-

1899

r.

(pe3yJlb-

PO.IlHHK y

He

PoAHHKn
tia.llrau-ITyHrap
(n Y"lcun KLIJIX-

MOCra Ha p.
TonapasaH

J;y.ax)

~--- ---~-=--=
-=c"-'=========i=====-"-=

Y rneKHCJJ. Harp .
H3BeCTb

(Na 2 C0 3 )

0,0161

(Ca(Oa)

0,0082

0,0876
0,0694

0,0833

0,0189

0,0682

0,1581

(MgCOa)

MarHHH
CepHOKHCJJ. Harp
H3BeCTb

(-Na 2S0 4 )
(CaSO.,)

cne,LJ,bl

0,0094
0,0329

0,0009

(NaCI)

XnopHCTbiH Harp

0,1156

0KHCb )l<eJJe3a H fJJHH03eM


. (Fe20 3+ i'11 20a)

cne.llbl

0,0008

cne)lbl

KpeMHe3eM

0,0264

0,0218

OpraHH YeC I<H e sewecrsa


- - - - - - - --

0,0002

0,0276

- --

0,0286

0,0089

0,0550

----7-- --- - - -- ----- - - --

0,0707

0,2680

I.
1

06u.taS! )He CTK OCTb


rp anycax

HeMei.IKHX

I ,72

so

TeMneparyp a

A~~;;H ~c~oY~HKO.B

_s .

s_e~p~x .

0,0049

B l

KaK Bl1nHo 113 3TI1X aHaJ11130B,

0,4792

'

8,4

!7,40

10,25

10,25

18.720

80.000

A6napc1<11e ponHI11<11 na10r

npeKpacHyJO BO BCeX OTHOWeHI151X 011TbeByJO BOllY 11 OTJ1114aJOTC51


/

1) F\. X. fpHropbes
1903 r ona.

H 11. F\.

WraKMaH-nHrbeBbre

BOAbi

KasKaJa.

57

secbMa Manoi1 mecn<OCTbiO. Ocyw.ecTBneHI1e npoeKTa sononposona 113 3HIX 11CTOYHI1KOB naCT r . f\xanKanaKI1 npeKpaCHYIO no
KaYeCTsy sony. Bonbi

me

LJanraH-nyHrap

oTni1YaiOTC51 nosonb-

HO 60J1bWOH H<eCTKOCTbiO.
BecbMa o611nbHbie 11 MHOrOYI1CneHHbie
IOTC51 B yw,enbe

p. TonapasaH

MenKI1X pbiXnbiX OTnOH<eHI1H ,


MI1 naBaMI1.

Cyu51

11CTOYHI1KI1 snY1sa-

113-non Tonw,H

synKaHHYeCKI1X

nonCTI1naioW,11X non 6a3anbTOBbJ -

no npeKpaCHbiM

reonori1YeCKvtM

pa3pe3aM,

o6pa3oBaBWI1MC51 scneucTBvte 3p03110HHbiX npou,eccos B yw,enbl1


p. Tonapasa1-1 vt ee rnaBHbiX
Yai1,

np11TOKOB -

HI1<HHe rOp1130HTbl yw,enb51

K b ip x-6yna x 11 K.opx-

CnOH<eHbl

V1 3 6 a3anbTOBbiX

naB, Han KOTOpblMI1, B 3TI1X paHOH aX , no Ct<nOHaM yw,enb51 BbJCTynaeT nOBOJ1bHO

MOW,HaSI TOnW, a

nenvtTOBbiX

rni1HI1CTblX 06-

pa30BaHHH, nepecnoeHHbiX c oTnomeHI1eM sy n~<aHHYecKoro necKa , nenna 11 MenKHX synKaHvtYeCKI1X Bbt6pOCOB,


TOpblX MeCTaMI1 nocr11raer

30

MOW,HOCTb KO-

MTp. B ee 3 Tvt OTJIO>t<e HI-151, B cso10

OYepellb, BHOBb llOKpblTbl 6a3aJ1bTOBbiMI1 noKpO BHbl MI1 naBaMI1.


noYTVI

see 11CTOYHI1K11

yw,enb51

HI1<HI1X rOp1130HTOB 3TI1X


pacnonoH<eHHblX
nas.

Me<ny nsyM51

Bee 11CTOYHI1KI1 11 Kononu,bi

C5ITCSI K 3Toi1

TonapaBaH

BbiTeKaiOT 113

o6pa30BaHI1S\MI1
cen. ,lJ,11n11cK a

6 a3anbTOBbiX
TaK<e OTHO-

pbixnoi1 sonoHOCHoi1 Tonw,e. Boo 6w,e TO

Moe MOH<HO CKa3aTb


BaiOW,I1XC51

synKaHI1YeCKVIX pb1XJ1 b i X OT no<eHI1H,

H11H<e

peWI1TenbHO 0

BCeX 11CTOYHI1KaX,

C.C. npTeHa, LJyHYXeJl

HCTOYHI1Kax yw,enbSI peKVI TonapasaH,

11 0

me

ca-

Bbi6VI-

np aB 06epeH<HblX

BbJTeKaiOw,vtx

113 CKJ10

HOB yw,enb51 , Me>I<ny ceneHI151MVI K.opx VI ToK.


Oco6eHHO MOUJ.HO

Bbi611BaiOTC51

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secHOIO VI B

HaYan e neTa , nocne TaSIHI-151 CHeros VI o6HnbHbiX nomnei1 . Bonbi


11x nosonbHO meCTKVI 11 conep<aT MHOro nsyyrneKI1Cnoro KanbU,HSI, 0

YeM CBI1neTenbCTBYIOT o6pa30BaHVI51

na nosonbHO

BHYWVITenbHbiX

Bc51 3ananHa51
rny6oKVIMVI

Ha MeCTe 11X BbiXO-

cnoes 113BeCTKOBbiX

YaCTb f\xanKanaKCKOH

oTnomeHVIH .

paBHHHbi

H3pe3aHa

yw,enbSir111 p. p. TonapasaH, K.bipx-6ynax 11 K.opx-

Yai1, a B norpaHVIYHOH 3ananHoi1 YaCn1-yw,enbeM pei-<11 K.ypbi.


Bc 51 3Ta MeCTHOCTb, KaK 6binO yKa3aHo BbiWe, noKpbna 6a3aJlbTOBbiM

llOKpOBOM,

nepeKpblTbiM,

MOW,HbiM CJ10eM r11V!Hbl

58

B CBOIO

11 paCTVITeJ1bHOH

OYepenb, nOBOJ1bHO

nOYBbi-YepH03eMOM.

Bee yw,enbSl

:no~ 4acn1 f\xanKanaKCKO~

HaropHOH

paBHHHbt

HrpatOT npeHHpytOW.YJO ponb. 11TMocepHbJe ocanKH, nanaSI Ha


3TY 4aCTb
npOHHKaiOT

nnaTO, 4epe3 Tpew,HHbl


B 6onee HH>KHHe

6a3anbTOBbiX OTD.enbHOCTeH

rOpH30HTbl

BOD.OnpOHHU,aeMblX

pblXJlbiX sym<aHH4eCJ<HX OTnO>KeHHH H OTTyD.a, B BHD.e MOW,HbiX


HCT04HHKO B, BbiXOD.SlT no CKnOHaM npeHHpyiOW,HX yw.enHH.
B
HHHe ,

eHny 3THX npH4HH


3aKnl04eHHOM

BepXHOeTH nnaTO

f\xanKanaKeKOH

HaropHOH pas-

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HnH B006W,e B ero BepXHHX

BCTpe4aJOTe Sl pOD.HHKH,

BblXOD.SlW,He

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H3 CI<JlOHOB

Ha

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Ha D.HeBHYIO noBepXHOCTb .

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D.peHHPYIOW.HX yw,enH~ H3-nOD.

6a3anbTOBblX naB .

TaKoe 3ai<OHOr"'epHoe SlBneHHe Ha6nJOnaeTeSl TaKme H B yw,enbH


p . Kypbl,

HaxonSlw,eMeSl

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nnaTo. Mow,HbJe IKT04HHI<H

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een.

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Bee eena paenono>HeHbJ


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no t<pa51M npeHHpytOw,Hx yw.enH~ , Bbl-

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vb- 3a OTeyTeTBHSl BblXOD.OB BOD.bl Ha D.HeBHYIO nosepXHOeTb,
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63