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(Shares constructivism and situated cognitive views)

Skills are specific to domain and require embedded instructions When teachers come together, asking questions, looking
Skills are specific to domain and require embedded
When teachers come together, asking
questions, looking at research and exploring
student thinking to discover the way their
students learn best - Kerry McDonald
Example: teacher's college and not being prepared for real
life situations.
Spiro & DeSchryver: Ill Structured domains include; social
studies, humanities and the arts.
Professional Domain: Teaching
The way concepts are learned for application is though
experience, exposure to examples and interaction (Spiro,
Instructional Design
(Rooted in information-processing theory)
Learning outcomes seen as generalizable skills that can be
applied x-culturally
7 Characteristics
Question / Area of interest: We design tasks and lessons
that are differentiated to suit the needs of all students. That
being said, How do we design tasks for students with
learning disabilities that involve collaboration and inquiry?
For example, autism and FASD?
Teacher, Student, Colleagues, Peers
Framing the problem
Most important aspect of learning; "A student's development
of a capability to self-regulate." (Zimmerman, B.J., 2002).
Collecting evidence (data, explaining options)
Planning, Doing, Evaluating
Self Regulated Learning
4 Stage Model
Glogster, Google Edu Apps, Weebly, Mindomo, Powtoon,
Scribblar, Google Docs, Glide, Twiddla, Realtime Board
Analyzing evidence (Understanding, interpreting and
applying data)
Technology and Programs
Celebrating and Sharing (Reflecting)
1. Identify a problem
Collaborative Inquiry
2. Generate possible solutions
3. Chose one to try
4. Reflect on the results
5. Ask, 'how can I improve it?'
Finding or solving for the unknown must have some social
cultural, or intellectual value. Actually finding the 'unknown'
is the problem.
6. Examine what is happening now
"An unknown entity in some situation" (Jonassen, 65)
Students are not being taught problem solving skills
"The most important cognitive activity in everyday and
professional contexts" - Jonassen, D.H.
Jonassen argues that "we do not understand the breadth of
problem solving activities well enough to engage and support
learners in them." (pg. 63)
Binary Dimensions: Short term, Long term, simple, complex
Any goal-directed sequence of cognitive operations
(Anderson, 1980)
Problem Solving
Difficulty Level -- > Specifity --> Proximity (can be
completed in the near future).....REPEAT.
Goal Setting
mental representation of the situation in the world
Goals regulate an individual's actions because they provide a
way to track progress, monitor engagement, and reflect
upon learning.
Activity based manipulation of the problem space.
QUESTION /area to investigate further: How are the mental,
social and team models different and how do the schemas,
goal setting and cognitive activity change based on the
different models?
Problem Space = mental model of the problem -->
interested in extending this to the structure of the brain and
seeing what parts of the brain are activated depending on
the various models.
What we learn and understand about what
students know today becomes the seeds for
tomorrow's questions. - Kim McDonald