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15 Important Steps to Improve GSM HOSR

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Identify all the cells in the network which are having HOSR below target based
on 2 weeks trending at least.
Categorization is required for all failed handovers check counter H372 & H372A
to H372l.
Need data for following counters at BSC level & cell level ZK3011B & K3011B to
check the congestion impact on HOSR.
Need to check the uplink & downlink imbalance status for all the cells where
HOSR is poor & in their neighboring cells as well, using following counters, s462A to
s462k.
Need to check the main & diversity level difference for all the cells where HOSR
is poor & in their neighboring cells as well, using following counters, s4556 and s4557.
sectors swap is also possible to identify using these counters.
Need to check rl9a08 (rate of transmitted error frames) counter for all the cells
where hosr is poor & in their neighboring cells as well, this counter indicated the
transmission quality.
Check clock alarms in network, check whether there is 2214E1 local alarm or
2216e1 remote alarm.
Interference counters analysis required if quality handover percentage is high.
Identify all one way neighbors in network & get them defined both ways.
Identify all the cells which are having neighbor count less than 5.
Identify all the cells which are having neighbor count greater than 20.
Put distance criterion on all neighbor relations & identify the relations with high
distance.
Check Co-bCCH/BSIC cases in neighbor list for cells where HOSR is poor.
Please identify all neighbor relations where no handover happe

How to reduce Call Drops In a GSM Network


posted Oct 13, 2009, 12:53 AM by Gulzar Singh [ updated May 9, 2011, 1:13 PM ]

Meaning

The TCH call drop rate refers to the ratio of call drops to successful TCH seizures after the BSC successfully as
TCH call drop rate can be measured from the following aspects:

TCH call drop rate (including handover)

TCH call drop rate (excluding handover)

The TCH call drop rate, one of the most significant KPIs for telecom operators, is related to retainability. It ind
call drops due to various reasons after MSs access TCHs. A too high TCH call drop rate adversely affects the us

Recommended Formulas

TCH call drop rate (including handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/(Number of successful TCH seizures
Number of successful TCH seizures (TCH) + Number of successful TCH Seizures in TCH handovers (TCH)) x

TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/Number of successful TCH seizures (

Factors That Affect the TCH Call Drop Rate

According to user complaints and network optimization experience, the major factors that affect the T
follows:

Hardware failure

Transmission problem

Version upgrade

Parameter setting

Intra-network and inter-network interference

Coverage problem

Antenna system problem

Imbalance between uplink and downlink

Repeater problem

1.1 Hardware Failure

When a TRX or a combiner is faulty, seizing the TCH becomes difficult, and thus the TCH call drop ra

1.2 Transmission Problem


The TCH call drop rate increases in the following conditions:

The transmission quality on the A or Abis interface is poor for various reasons.

Transmission links are unstable.

1.3 Version Upgrade

After the BTS version or BSC version is upgraded, the BTS version may be incompatible with the BSC
parameters and algorithms in the new version may be changed. In this case, the TCH call drop rate in

1.4 Parameter Setting

The settings of some parameters on the BSC and MSC sides may affect the TCH call drop rate. If the
occur, the TCH call drop rate may increase:
1.

The parameters SACCH Multi-Frames and Radio Link Timeout are set to too small values.

2.

The parameter RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is set to a too small value.

3.

The

4.

The parameters Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset are inappropriate

5.

The length of timer T3103 (this timer is set to wait for a Handover Complete message) is set to a

6.

The length of timer T3109 (this timer is set to wait for a Release Indication message) is set to a t

7.

The length of timer T3111 (this timer specifies the connection release delay) is set to a too small

8.

The length of timer T305/T308 is set to an invalid or too great value.

9.

The parameter TCH Traffic Busy Threshold is set to a too small value.

parameter RACH Min.Access Level is set to a too small value.

10. The parameter Call Reestablishment Forbidden is set to Yes.


11. The parameters related to edge handover are inappropriately set.
12. The parameters related to BQ handover are inappropriately set.
13. The parameters related to interference handover are inappropriately set.
14. The parameters related to concentric cell handover are inappropriately set.
15. The parameters related to power control are inappropriately set.
16. T200 and N200 are set to too small values.
17. Some neighboring cell relations are not configured.
18. The parameter MAIO is inappropriately set.
19. The parameter Disconnect Handover Protect Timer is set to a too small value.
20. The parameter TR1N is set to a too small value.

21. The parameters Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA are set to too small va
22. If a repeater is used, the parameter Directly Magnifier Site Flag is set to No.

1.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interferen

If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist, or if severe intra-network interference occ
frequency reuse, call drops may occur on TCHs because of poor QoS. This adversely affects the TCH
The following types of interference may occur:
1.

Inter-network interference from scramblers or privately installed antennas

2.

Interference from the CDMA network of China Unicom

3.

Repeater interference

4.

Inter-modulation interference from BTSs

5.

Intra-network co-channel and adjacent-channel interference

1.6 Coverage Problem


The following coverage problems may affect the TCH call drop rate.
1.

Discontinuous coverage (blind areas)

The voice quality at the edge of an isolated BTS is poor and calls cannot be handed o
this case, call drops may occur.

In complex terrains such as mountainous regions, the signals are blocked and thus the tra
discontinuous, leading to call drops.
2.

Poor indoor coverage

Densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor signal lev
drops.
3.

Cross coverage (isolated BTS)

The serving cell causes cross coverage due to various reasons (such as excess powe
handed over to another cell due to no suitable neighboring cells. In this case, the sign
and the voice quality of the MS deteriorates. Thus, call drops occur.
4.

Insufficient coverage

If the signal from an antenna is blocked or the BCCH TRX is faulty, call drops may occur beca
coverage.

1.7 Antenna System Problem


The following antenna system problems may affect the TCH call drop rate

1. If the transmit antennas of two cells are improperly connected, the uplink signal level in each cell
downlink signal level in the cell. Therefore, call drops are likely to occur at places far away from the B

2. If a directional cell has main and diversity antennas, the BCCH and SDCCH of the cell may be tr
antennas. If the two antennas have different pitch angles or azimuths, the coverage areas of the two
In this case, the following result may occur: An MS can receive the BCCH signals from one antenna;
the MS cannot seize the SDCCH transmitted by the other antenna and thus a call drop occurs.
3.

If the feeder is damaged, water leaks in the feeder, or the feeder and the connector are not secu

the transmit power and receiver sensitivity of the antenna are reduced. Thus, call drops may occur.

1.8 Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink

The difference between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level may be great in the follow
The transmit power of the BTS is high.
The tower mounted amplifier (TMA) or BTS amplifier does not work properly.
The antenna and the connector are not securely connected.
As a result, call drops may occur at the edge of the BTS coverage area.

1.9 Repeater Problem

If a cell is installed with a repeater, BTS coverage problems may occur in the case that the repeater is
uplink and downlink gain is inappropriately set. Therefore, the TCH call drop rate increases.

If a wide-frequency repeater is used and the gain is set to a great value, strong interference may be c
network quality is adversely affected and the TCH call drop rate increases.