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# Acceleration, a = rate of change of velocity

## Newtons first law:

A body will either remain at rest or continue move at constant velocity provided there is no external
force acted on it.
Newtons second law:
The rate of change of momentum of the body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting and it
occurs in the direction of the force.
Newtons third law:
For every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction and the two forces act on different bodies.
Principle of conservation of momentum:
The total linear momentum of a closed system is always constant.
Centre of mass is a single point on which the whole mass of a body is assumed to concentrate.
Degree of freedom of a gas molecule:
The number of independent ways in which a molecule can acquires energy.
Law of equipartition of energy:
The total kinetic energy of a gas molecule is divided / distributed equally among its effective number of
degrees of freedom and the energy acquired by each degree of freedom is kt.
Internal energy is the sum of kinetic energies and potential energies for all the gas molecules in the gas
system.
Specific heat capacity, c:
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1kg of the substance by 1 kelvin or 1 degree
celcius.
Heat capacity, C:
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of the body by 1 kelvin.
Molar heat capacity, Cm:
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 mol of gas by 1 kelvin.
Molar heat capacity at constant volume, Cvm:
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 mol of gas by 1 kelvin at constant volume.
Molar heat capacity at constant pressure, Cpm:
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of the gas by 1 kelvin at constant pressure.
First law of thermodynamic:
The heat supply to a gas system is equal to the sum of the increase in internal energy of the gas and the
work done by the gas.

Isothermal change:
It is a change to a gas system occurring at constant temperature.
It is a change to a gas system occurring without heat entering or leaving the gas system.
Thermal conductivity is the rate of heat flow per unit cross-sectional area per unit temperature gradient.
Principle of conservation of energy:
The total energy of a closed system is always constant.
Centripetal force:
The resultant force needed to keep a body move In a circular path and it is directed towards the center
of the circular path.
Newtons law of gravitational:
The magnitude of gravitational attractive force between two particles is directly proportional to the
product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart.
Gravitational field strength:
The gravitational field strength at a point in a gravitational field is defined as gravitational force per unit
mass acting on a body placed at a point.
A synchronous satellite is a satellite which remains stationary relative to a stationary observer from
earth.
Gravitational potential:
Gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field is defined as work done in bringing a unit mass
from infinity to the point.
Gravitational potential energy, u:
The gravitational potential energy of a body at a point in the gravitational field is defined as a work done
in bringing a body from infinity to a point.
Escape velocity is the minimum projected velocity for a body to escape into infinity from the surface of a
planet.
The centre of gravity of a body is defined as a single point where the whole weight of the body acts.
Hookes law:
The extension of a material is directly proportional to the force applied provided the proportional limit
of the material is not exceeded.
Elastic potential energy / strain energy is the work done of stretching of a material.