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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

College of Engineering and Technology


Chemical Engineering Department

WATER STORAGE TANK


Design Description:
Bulk storage of liquids is generally handled by closed tanks to prevent
escape of volatile and contamination. In some instances, such as water
storage, where contamination and dilution are not a factor, large reservoirs
can be employed. Natural terrain, concrete-walled excavations, or concrete
tanks are the typical construction. Reinforced-wall design is required and the
concrete must be waterproofed with a suitable paint to prevent any
possibility of leaking.
Design Selection:
This tank is selected to supply the water needed by the spray washer,
reactor (degumming machine), the sink – and – float tank and, hot washing
tank
Design Considerations:

1) Capacity of the tank


2) Type of material being handled
3) Classification of tank to be used
4) Material of construction

Data and Assumptions:

1) The amount of water stored in the tank is 2952.77 kg H2O.


2) The tank is vented for an easy flow of water.
3) Assume H= 4/3 D, since this is a common ratio used for tank designs.
4) Allowance of 20% as safety factor is used.

Design Requirements:

1)
2) Volume of the tank
3) Height and diameter of the tank

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Chemical Engineering Department

4) Working pressure
5) Shell thickness
6) Head thickness
7) Depth of the head
8) Volume of the head
9) Surface area of the head
10) Bottom thickness

Design Calculations:
The density and the mass of the water are as follows:
ρH2O=1000 kg/m3
mH2O=2952.77 kg H2O
Therefore the volume of the tank is,
VH2O=2952.77 kg H2O1000 kg/m3
VH2O=2.95 m3
Basis: per batch of operation
1) Volume of the tank
Calculating for the volume of water in the tank and assuming 20% allowance
as safety factor,
Vtank=VH2O(1.20)
Vtank=3.54 m3
Use 3.60 m3 water storage tank.
2) Height and diameter
To compute for the standard ration of the water storage, assume H=4/3 D,
Vtank=π4D2H
But, H=4/3 D
Therefore, the diameter and height of the tank are:
Vtank=π3D3
3.54=π3D3
D=1.50 m 4.92 ft;H=2.00 m (6.57 ft)

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Use 1.60 m and 2.00 m for diameter and height, respectively.


3) Working pressure
Ptotal=Poptimum+Hρ
Since the tank is vented, Poptimum= 14.7 psi, and H=2.00m (6.57 ft)
Therefore,
Ptotal=14.7lbsin2+6.57ftft2144 in262.4 lbsft3
Ptotal=17.55 psi
Use 18 psi as working pressure.
Plate Design:
4) Shell thickness
For shell thickness, use Eqn. 4-3, Process Equipment Design by Hesse and
Rushton, p. 85,
ts=PD+C2Se-P
Where:
S = ultimate tensile strength
P = maximum allowable working pressure
D = diameter
C = allowance for corrosion
e = efficiency
To find the maximum allowable tensile strength, use Eqn. 4-1 of Process
Equipment Design by Hesse and Rushton, p. 84,
S=Su×Fa×Fr×Fs×Fm
Where:
Su = ultimate tensile strength
Fa = radiograph factor
Fr = stress relieving factor
Fs = ultimate strength factor
Fm = material factor
Thus,
Su = 13000 psi (for low-carbon nickel steel, PED, p.69)

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Fs = 25% (Table 4-2, PED, p.84)


Fm = 1.00 (for high tensile strength carbon steel, PED, p.81)
Fr = 1.00
Fa = 1.00 (if stress relieving, radiographing is not required,
PED, p.88)
Substituting to the equation of maximum allowable tensile strength,
S = 13,000 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 0.25 = 3250 psi
For double-butt joint,
e = 0.80 (based on material factor, PED, p.89)
For corrosion allowance,
C = 1/16 in (Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineering by Peters, p. 542)
Substituting to the equation,
ts=PD+C2Se-P
ts=17.55 lbs/in26.57ft12 inft+1/16 in23,250lbsin20.80-17.55lbsin2
ts=0.27 in ≈6.78 mm
Use 7 mm shell thickness of the tank
5) Head thickness
For thickness of head:
A standard dished head was chosen for simplicity and availability
th=Plw2Se
Refer to Eqn. 4-6, p.86, PED
Since: Di = 1.50m (59.04 in)
Do=Di+2ts
Do=59.58 in
From PED, p.69
Crown radiusL=Di-6 (in in.)
L=53.04 in
kr=knuckle radius=0.06 Do
kr=3.57 in
Calculating the ratio, R = kr/L

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R=0.07
For the value of W, from table 4-3, p.87, PED
W=1.80
With S = 3250 psi, as calculated previously, the value of the head thickness,
using the equation 4-6 of PED,
th=PLW2Se
th=0.32 in ≈8.18 mm
Use 9 mm as head thickness.

6) Depth of the head (h):

From Eqn. 4-14, p. 92, PED,


h=L-L2-D24
h=53.04-53.042-59.0424
h=8.97 in ≈0.23 m
Use 0.30 m as the head depth of the tank.

7) Volume of the head (V):

From Eqn. 4-15, p.92, PED,


V=1.05h23L-h (all values in inches)
Substituting the previously computed values to the above equation would
give,
V=12685.26 in3≈0.21 m3
Use 0.30 m3 as volume of the head.

8) Surface area of the head (A):

From Eqn. 4-16, p.92, PED,


A=6.28 hL
A=2987.83 in2≈1.93 m2
Use 2.00 m2 for surface area of the tank.

9) Bottom thickness:

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The same values and calculation of thickness of head were done on


thickness of bottom, since thead = tbottom.
Hence, tbottom = 8.18 mm (9 mm).

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SODIUM HYDROXIDE TANK


Design Description:
Bulk storage of liquids is generally handled by closed tanks to prevent
escape of volatile and contamination. Reinforced-wall design is required and
the concrete must be waterproofed with a suitable paint to prevent any
possibility of leaking.
Desin Selection:

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This tank is selected to store and supply the sodium hydroxide needed
in the alkaline sorbing (degumming) process.
Design Considerations:

1) Capacity of the tank


2) Type of material being handled
3) Classification of tank to be used

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4) Material of construction
5) Quantity of material moved per unit time

Data and Assumptions:

1) The tank is closed to avoid contamination of the NaOH solution.


2) Density of sodium hydroxide is 2100 kg/m3
3) Assume H= 4/3 D, since this is a common ratio used for tank designs.

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4) Allowance of 20% as safety factor is used.


5) Mass of NaOH is 93.60 kg (refer to the material balance)

Design Requirements:

1)
2) Volume of the tank
3) Height and diameter of the tank

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4) Working pressure
5) Shell thickness
6) Head thickness
7) Depth of the head
8) Volume of the head
9) Surface area of the head
10) Bottom thickness

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Design Calculations:
The density and the mass of the sodium hydroxide are as follows:
ρNaOH=(2100kgm3)
mNaOH=93.60 kg
Therefore the volume of the tank is,
VNaOH=93.60 kg 2100 kg/m3

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VNaOH=0.04 m3
Basis: five days of operation (15 batches)
1) Volume of the tank
Calculating for the volume of water in the tank and assuming 20% allowance
as safety factor,
Vtank=VNaOH1.2(15 batches )
Vtank=0.79 m3

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Use 0.8 m3 water storage tank.


2) Height and diameter
To compute for the standard ration of the water storage, assume H=4/3 D,
Vtank=π4D2H
But, H=4/3 D
Therefore, the diameter and height of the tank are:
Vtank=π3D3

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0.79=π3D3
D=0.91 m 2.99 ft;H=1.21 m (3.98 ft)
Use 1.0 m and 1.30 m for the diameter and height of the storage tank,
respectively.
3) Working pressure
Ptotal=Poptimum+Hρ
Since the tank is not vented, Poptimum= 14.7, and H=1.21 m ( 3.98 ft)

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Therefore,
Ptotal=14.7+3.98ftft2144 in2130.92 lbsft3
Ptotal=18.32 psi
Use 19 psi as working pressure.
Plate Design:
4.) Shell thickness

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For shell thickness, use Eqn. 4-3, Process Equipment Design by Hesse and
Rushton, p. 85,
ts=PD+C2Se-P
Where:
S = ultimate tensile strength
P = maximum allowable working pressure
D = diameter

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C = allowance for corrosion


e = efficiency
To find the maximum allowable tensile strength, use Eqn. 4-1 of Process
Equipment Design by Hesse and Rushton, p. 84,
S=Su×Fa×Fr×Fs×Fm
Where:
Su = ultimate tensile strength

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Fa = radiograph factor
Fr = stress relieving factor
Fs = ultimate strength factor
Fm = material factor
Thus,
Su = 9000 psi (for Stainless steel type 304, Timmerhaus)
Fs = 25% (Table 4-2, PED, p.84)

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Fm = 1.00 (for high tensile strength carbon steel, PED, p.81)


Fr = 1.00
Fa = 1.00 (if stress relieving, radiographing is not required,
PED, p.88)
Substituting to the equation of maximum allowable tensile strength,
S = 9000 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 0.25 = 2250 psi
For double-butt joint,

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e = 0.80 (based on material factor, PED, p.89)


For corrosion allowance,
C = 1/16 in (Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineering by Peters, p. 542)
Substituting to the equation,
ts=PD+C2Se-P
ts=18.32 psi(35.88 in)+1/16 in22250lbsin20.80-18.32 psi

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ts=0.18 in ≈4.66 mm
Use 5 mm shell thickness of the tank.
5.) Head thickness:
For thickness of head:
A standard dished head was chosen for simplicity and availability
th=Plw2Se
Refer to Eqn. 4-6, p.86, PED

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Since: Di = 0.91 m (35.88 in)


Do=Di+2ts
Do=36.24 in
From PED, p.69
Crown radiusL=Di-6 (in in.)
L=29.88 in
kr=knuckle radius=0.06 Do

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kr=2.17 in
Calculating the ratio, R = kr/L
R=0.07
For the value of W, from table 4-3, p.87, PED
W=1.80
With S = 2250 psi, as calculated previously, the value of the head thickness,
using the equation 4-6 of PED,

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th=PLW2Se
th=0.27 in ≈6.95 mm
Use 7 mm as head thickness.

1) Depth of the head (h):

From Eqn. 4-14, p. 92, PED,


h=L-L2-D24

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h=29.88-(29.88)2-35.8824
h=5.99 in ≈0.15m
Use 0.2 m as the head depth of the tank.

2) Volume of the head (V):

From Eqn. 4-15, p.92, PED,


V=1.05h23L-h (all values in inches)

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Substituting the previously computed values to the above equation would


give,
V=3151.44 in3= 0.05 m3
Use 0.1 m3 as volume of the head.

3) Surface area of the head (A):

From Eqn. 4-16, p.92, PED,

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A=6.28 hL
A=1124.00 in2=0.73m2

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Use 0.80 m2 as the surface area of the head.

4) Bottom thickness:

The same values and calculation of thickness of head were done on


thickness of bottom, since thead = tbottom.
Hence, tbottom = 6.97 mm (7 mm).

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BELT CONVEYOR WITH SPRAY WASHER


Design Description:
Belt conveyor, as the name suggests, consists of endless belts,
suitably supported and driven, which carry or transport solids from place to

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place. Belts are made of canvas, reinforced rubber or balata and strip steel.
Strip steel is employed for conveying materials through furnaces. Belt
conveyors are adapted to wide varieties and quantities of materials; require
relatively low power and can transport solids for a long distance. The width
of the belt varies from 14 to 16 in, and the number of idlers varies
correspondingly. This spacing ranges from about 5 feet for narrow belts

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down to 3 feet for the widest belts. This conveyor is designed with a built-in
spray washer.
Design Selection:
The belt conveyor is selected to transport the water hyacinth stalks to
the pressing equipment. It is designed with built – in spray washer to wash
the stalks at the same time they are being conveyed.
Design Considerations:

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1) Capacity of the belt conveyor


2) Length of travel/length of the belt
3) Type of material being handled
4) Speed of the conveyor
5) Number of spray nozzles
Data and Assumptions:
1) Capacity based from material balance is 968.80 kg

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2) Normal speed range of belt conveyor is between 200 to 400 ft/min (from Unit
Operations by Brown, p. 55)
3) Ratio of feed to wash water is 1:2
4) The belt width is 36 in (3 ft) (from Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook
section 21-10
5) The spray washer has 9 nozzles

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6) The lump size of feed is 18 in for 36 in width belt conveyor (Unit Operations
by Brown, p. 58)
7) The safety factor for belt conveyor is 15 % (Timmerhaus, p. 36)
Design Requirements:
1) Capacity of spray nozzles
2) Capacity of belt conveyor
3) Power requirement

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Design Computations:
From material balance:
Inlet capacity is 968.80 kg/batch of water hyacinth stalks
1) Capacity of spray nozzle:
V=MD
Where: M= mass of water
D = density of water

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Since water to feed ratio is 2:1,


M=2(968.80 kg)
M=1937.60 kg H2O
D=1000 kg/m3
V= 1.94 m39 nozzles
V= 0.22m3nozzle
Use 0.30 m3 of water per spray nozzle for washing.

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2) Capacity of the belt conveyor (T)


T=968.80 kgbatch×1 batch8 hours×2.2lbskg×1 ton2000 lbs
T=0.13tonhr 266.42kghr
Giving an allowance factor of 15%, for future expansion,
T=0.13tonhr(1.15)
T=0.15tonhr 305.90kghr

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Use 310 kg/hr as belt conveyor capacity.


3) Power requirement
Using equations for power requirement (Unit Operations by Brown, p.58) for
plain bearings,
Hp=FL+LoT+0.03WS+T∆z990
Where: Hp = horsepower required
F= friction factor, 0.05 for plain bearings

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L= length of conveyor between terminal pulleys, ft.


Lo = 100 for plain bearings
S= speed of belt, fpm
T= capacity of belt conveyor, ton/hr
∆z = increase in elevation of material, ft
W = mass of moving parts including belts and idlers per foot
distance centers of terminal pulleys (both runs), lbs

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Computing for W,
From table 16, Unit Operations by Brown, p.58
Approximate weight of belt conveyors = 1.0 lb/in of width per running
foot
W=1lbin-ft36 in(2 runs)
W=72lbsft

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Assuming L = 30 ft, since the length of the conveyor should be greater than
the length of the spray washer,
Hp=0.0530ft+1000.15tonhr+0.0372lbsft200 ftmin +(0)0.15990
Hp=2.84 hp
Use 3 Hp since it is commercially available.

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