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2/2013

ANCHOR BOLTS

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE


- Threaded rebars ATP, AHP, AJP
- Threaded high strength steel bolts ALP-L, ALP-P, AMP

ATP

AHP

ALP-L

ALP-P

AMP

Eurocode design according to EN1993-1-8 (2005) & EN 1992-1-1 (2004)


Certified Finnish product manual (NA: FIN)

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

CONTENTS

page 2
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

Page

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ...................................................................................................................................3

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................3


2.1
PRODUCT RANGE ...............................................................................................................................................3
2.2
MATERIALS .......................................................................................................................................................3
2.3
MANUFACTURING ..............................................................................................................................................3
2.4
QUALITY CONTROL ............................................................................................................................................3
2.5
DIMENSIONS ......................................................................................................................................................4
2.5.1 ATP and AHP rebar bolts .............................................................................................................................4
2.5.2 ALP anchor bolts..........................................................................................................................................5
2.5.3 AMP anchor bolts ........................................................................................................................................6

CAPACITIES..........................................................................................................................................................7
3.1
BASIS OF DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................7
3.2
BOLT CAPACITIES ..............................................................................................................................................7
3.3
COMBINED LOADINGS ........................................................................................................................................7

THE USE OF ANCHOR BOLTS..........................................................................................................................8


4.1
RESTRICTIONS ...................................................................................................................................................8
4.2
DESIGN PRINCIPLES ............................................................................................................................................8
4.3
PLACING OF BOLTS.............................................................................................................................................9
4.3.1 Minimum bolt edge distances for normal forces............................................................................................9
4.3.2 Minimum bolt centre to centre distances for normal forces...........................................................................9
4.3.3 Minimum bolt edge distances for shear force................................................................................................9
4.4
ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENT.......................................................................................................................... 10
4.4.1 Connection reinforcing principle................................................................................................................ 10
4.4.2 Column to column joint .............................................................................................................................. 10
4.4.3 Placing short stud head anchor bolts in slabs or low foundations ............................................................... 10
4.4.4 Placing short stud head anchors in a foundation column ............................................................................ 11
4.4.5 Placing rebar bolts in a foundation column ................................................................................................ 11
4.4.6 Placing AMP bolts in a column .................................................................................................................. 12
4.5
ADDITIONAL CLAUSES FOR T40 REBAR.............................................................................................................. 13
4.6
CORRECTION OF CAPACITY VALUES .................................................................................................................. 13
4.6.1 Change of concrete strength ....................................................................................................................... 13
4.6.2 Small edge distance .................................................................................................................................... 13
4.6.3 Small centre to centre distance ................................................................................................................... 13
4.6.4 Durability and concrete cover .................................................................................................................... 14

INSTALLATION .................................................................................................................................................. 14
5.1
FORMING A BOLT GROUP .................................................................................................................................. 14
5.2
BOLT ASSEMBLY AND TOLERANCES .................................................................................................................. 15
5.3
BENDING AND WELDING OF BOLTS .................................................................................................................... 15
5.4
COLUMN INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................................... 15
5.5
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 16
5.6
INSTALLATION CONTROL.................................................................................................................................. 16
5.6.1 Instructions for bolt assembly ..................................................................................................................... 16
5.6.2 Instructions for column installation ............................................................................................................ 16

Download free from www.anstar.fi


ColJoint design program
for bolt/column shoe connection

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

page 3
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
The anchor bolt transfers forces acting in the bar direction to foundation or lower column by
rebar bond or by stud head anchoring. Connection shear force is transferred to the concrete
structure by the concrete edge pressure acting on the bolt shaft.

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURE

2.1

Product range
The anchor bolt product range include following bolt types:
ATP
AHP
ALP-L
ALP-P
AMP, -M

Short rebar bolt with stud head anchor


Rebar bolt with straight bonding rebar
Short high strength anchor bolt with stud head anchors
High strength anchor bolt with straight rebars
Standard bolt for moment stiff connection between precast beam and column

Beside the bolt the standard delivery contains 2 nuts and 2 round washers. For the AMP bolt
lower nut and washer can be replaced with a round threaded steel plate.
2.2

Materials
Rebar T16-T32
Rebar T40
ALP thread
Nut
Washer

2.3

SFS 1215 (EN 10080)


NS3576-3
High strength steel
Imacro M, Ovako
DIN 934
EN 10025

A500HW (B500B), f y = 500 N/mm


B500NC
fy = 700 N/mm
fu = 800-1100 N/mm
Grade m8 ATP, AHP Grade m10 ALP, AMP
Grade S235JR+AR

Manufacturing
Method of manufacturing
Rebars and bolt materials are mechanically cut
Anchors are MAG welded with a robot or by hand to high strength steel bolt. Weld class
C EN-ISO 5817.
Threads M16-M52 are rolled and M60 is cut.
Anchoring stud is hot forged and air cooled.
Surface treatment options:
1) Black steel with lightly oiled thread is standard supply
2) Hot dip galvanizing according to EN ISO 1461 including also nuts and washers
- ATP and AHP bolts are galvanized troughout
- threaded part of ALP and AMP bolt is galvanized before welding black anchors
Manufacturing tolerances
Total bolt length
Length of thread
Metric thread ISO 965-1

2.4

10 mm
+5,-0 mm
6g

Quality control
The quality control follows the requirements set by the Finnish Code
of Building Regulations. Anstar column shoes are certified by the
Finnish Concrete Assosiation according to Eurocode and the exter-

page 4
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

2.5

nal quality control of manufacture is provided by Inspecta Sertifiointi


Oy.
Dimensions

2.5.1 ATP and AHP rebar bolts


ATP and AHP rebar bolts are used to join columns to foundations in connections transferring
normal forces, shear forces and bending moments. ATP bolts are used in connections where
short anchoring lengths are needed, such as in slabs and short foundation columns. AHP
bolts can be used in foundations where there is enough space for straight rebar anchoring.

ATP

D
L

washer

AHP
L

Fig. 1. ATP and AHP foundation bolts


Table 1. Dimensions of ATP and AHP anchor bolts (order AHP with desired L)
Type
ATP16
ATP20
ATP24
ATP30
ATP39

L
mm
280
350
430
500
700

AHP16
AHP20
AHP24
AHP30
AHP39

800
1000
1200
1500
2000

other lengths
in stock

1500, 2000, 2500, 3000


1500, 2000, 2500, 3000
2000, 2500, 3000

K
mm
100
120
140
170
190

As
mm2
157
245
353
561
976

M
mm
M16
M20
M24
M30
M39

mm
T16
T20
T25
T32
T40

D
mm
36
46
58
73
100

S
mm
38
46
55
65
90

T
mm
5
6
6
8
8

weight
kg
0,7
1,2
2,2
4,3
10,0

100
120
140
170
190

157
245
353
561
976

M16
M20
M24
M30
M39

T16
T20
T25
T32
T40

38
46
55
65
90

5
6
6
8
8

1,5
2,7
4,8
10,2
21,6

Also available as hot-dip galvanized.

Table 2 and figure 2. Rebar lap length l0,min (EC2) for bolt tensile force
concrete strength
bond condition
concrete cover
percentage
AHP16
AHP20
AHP24
AHP30
AHP39

1
2
6

C25/30
1,0
1,0
0,7
1,0
1,5
1,5
482
689
602
860
694
992
857
1224
1303
1861

1,0
0,7
1,5
574
720
898
1149
1561

C32/40
1,0
1,0
1,5
821
1027
1284
1642
2232

0,7
1,0
1,5
1174
1467
1833
2367
3187

l 0,min

page 5
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

2.5.2 ALP anchor bolts


ALP anchor bolts are used to join columns to foundations in connections transferring normal
forces, shear forces and bending moments. ALP-L bolts are used in connections where short
anchoring lengths are needed, such as in slabs and short foundation columns. ALP-P bolts
can be used in foundations where there is enough space for straight rebar anchoring.
K

50

ALP22L,..., -52L

ALP60L

ALP-L
L
K

50

ALP36P
ALP39P
ALP45P
ALP52P
ALP60P

ALP22P
ALP27P

ALP-P
L

Fig. 3. ALP anchor bolts


Table 3. Dimensions of ALP anchor bolts
Type
ALP22L
ALP27L
ALP30L
ALP36L
ALP39L
ALP45L
ALP52L
ALP60L

L
mm
490
620
650
740
860
970
1130
1290

K
mm
140
170
170
180
190
210
240
270

As
mm2
303
459
561
817
976
1306
1758
2362

M
mm
M22
M27
M30
M36
M39
M45
M52
M60

mm
3T16
3T20
3T20
3T25
3T25
3T32
3T32
4T32

D
mm
80
100
105
130
135
150
150
220

S
mm
55
65
65
80
90
100
100
130

T
mm
6
8
8
8
8
10
10
12

weight
kg
2,6
5,0
5,7
10,0
12,6
22,5
27,2
39,6

ALP22P
ALP27P
ALP30P
ALP36P
ALP39P
ALP45P
ALP52P
ALP60P

1070
1150
1370
1390
1490
1710
1880
2430

140
170
170
180
190
210
240
270

303
459
561
817
976
1306
1758
2362

M22
M27
M30
M36
M39
M45
M52
M60

3T12
3T16
3T16
4T16
4T20
4T20
4T25
4T32

70
80
85
105
115
135
150
180

55
65
65
80
90
100
100
130

6
8
8
8
8
10
10
12

3,6
6,7
8,0
11,8
17,7
23,6
36,3
70,0

Also available as hot-dip galvanized (only threaded bar not anchors)


L
K
Kj
M

D
S
T

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Total length of bolt


Length of thread
Area of threaded cross-section
Metric thread size
Amount and diameter of rebars
Combined anchor space needed
Washer diameter
Washer thickness

page 6
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

2.5.3 AMP anchor bolts


AMP anchor bolts are used in moment stiff precast beam-to-column connections. Bolt dimensions have been designed for limited embedment space in concrete column. AMP bolts can
also be used in connections where short anchoring lengths are needed, such as slabs and
short foundation columns to transfer normal forces, shear forces and bending moments.
AMP-M bolts are used to connect two precast beams facing opposite sides of the column.
Product code is AMP-M-L (for example AMP52M-1480).

AMP

AMP-M

Column width

K
A

50

50

K
50

Fig. 4. AMP anchor bolts


Table 4. Dimensions of AMP anchor bolts
Type
AMP36
AMP39
AMP45
AMP52
AMP60
AMP36M-L
AMP39M-L
AMP45M-L
AMP52M-L
AMP60M-L

L
K
Kj
M
A
B

U
S

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

L
mm
670
680
800
930
1490

K
mm
180
190
210
240
270

As
mm2
817
976
1306
1758
2362

M
mm
M36
M39
M45
M52
M60

A
mm
160
180
200
230
270

B
mm
80
90
100
115
130

mm
T25
T32
T32
T32
T40

U
mm
137
140
165
190
270

S
mm
80
90
100
100
130

weight
kg
10,5
13,8
20,7
38,3
72,8

180
190
210
240
270

817
976
1306
1758
2362

M36
M39
M45
M52
M60

T25
T32
T32
T32
T40

80
90
100
100
130

Total length of bolt


Length of thread
Area of threaded cross-section
Metric thread size
Length of anchor plate
Width of anchor plate
Diameter of rebars
Anchor plate distance from thread
Washer diameter

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

CAPACITIES

3.1

Basis of design

page 7
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

The anchor bolts have been designed according to:


Tension:
EN 1993-1-1:2005 Design of Steel Structures, General rules
EN 1993-1-8:2005 Design of Steel Structures, Joints
Tension resistance has been calculated with M2 = 1,25 (NA: FIN)
EN 1992-1-1:2004 Design of Concrete Structures, General rules
Shear:
-

3.2

Elastically embedded bolt with edge distance 10 according to De Beer


A slightly conservative capacity compared to CEN/TS 1992-4-2:2009 chapter 6.3,
suitable for anchoring machinery (smaller displacements in serviceability limit state)

Bolt capacities
The anchor bolts have been designed for tension and compression capacities calculated
from the thread cross-section (EN 1993-1-8: 3.6). The bolt capacity is the same as the capacity for corresponding column shoe.
Table 5. Design capacities for rebar bolts. Concrete C25/30.
Bolt
ATP16
ATP20
ATP24
ATP30
ATP39

good bond,
AHP16
AHP20
AHP24
AHP30
AHP39

= 0,7

Normal force
NRd [kN]
62.2
97.0
139.7
222.1
386.5

Shear force
VRd [kN]
3.7
6.9
10.9
19.1
36.7

Corresponding
column shoe
APK16
APK20
APK24
APK30
AK39

Table 6. Design capacities for high strength steel bolts. Concrete C25/30.
Bolt
good bond, 2 = 0,7
ALP22L,-P
ALP27L,-P
ALP30L,-P
ALP36L,-P
AMP36, -M
ALP39L,-P
AMP39, -M
ALP45L,-P
AMP45, -M
ALP52L,-P
AMP52, -M
ALP60L,-P
AMP60, -M

3.3

Normal force
NRd [kN]
174.5
264.4
323.1
470.6
562.2
752.2
1012.6
1340.0

Shear force
VRd [kN]
15.2
25.2
33.4
52.8
64.6
88.7
123.9
168.3

Corresponding
column shoe
APK24
APK30
APK33
APK36
APK39
APK45
APK52
APK60

Combined loadings
For combined tension and shear loads the following equation should be satisfied:
(NEd / NRd)1,5 + (VEd / VRd)1,5
NEd
NRd
VEd
VRd

=
=
=
=

Design tension load


Tension capacity
Design shear load
Shear capacity

1,0

page 8
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

THE USE OF ANCHOR BOLTS

4.1

Restrictions
Anchor bolt capacities have been determined for static loads. When designing dynamic actions larger load safety factors should be used and the connection system should be analysed for each case.
Using capacity values require that the minimum centre to centre and edge distances as well
as reinforcement instructions for transferring bolt loads to concrete are followed. Impact ductility properties of ALP and AMP bolt material enables normal usage to - 40 C.

4.2

Design principles
In grouted joints bolts usually transfer only tension loads, while shear load is transferred by
friction (EN 1993-1-8: 6.2.2).
In ungrouted joints (installation) all loads will be carried by slender bolts. Shear loads are
bending the threaded bolts and the compression side will determine the bolt size needed.
Compression load acting on a bolt (symmetrical bolt group)
NEdp = NEd / n + MEd / (0,5 * H * n)
NEd
MEd
H
n

N Ed

joint design compression load


joint design bending load
bolt c/c distance
amount of joint bolts

M Ed

Bolt bending moment caused by shear load

Q Ed

MQEd = 0,5 * QEd * (G + M) / n


QEd
G
M
n

joint design shear load


grout thickness (mm)
thread size (mm)
amount of joint bolts

Moment resistance
MRd = 1,5 * f y * W x / 1,1 = 0,192 * f y * As
As
thread cross-section
fy = 500 MPa (rebars)
fy = 640 MPa (high strength steel)

1,5

N Edp

Combined action
NEdp / NRd + MQEd / MRd < 1,0
Fig. 5. Joint design before grouting

page 9
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

4.3

Placing of bolts

4.3.1 Minimum bolt edge distances for normal forces


AHP and ALP-P bolts
The bolts require only an ordinary concrete cover thickness to the surface of the concrete
structure according to EC2 chapter 4.
ATP, ALP-L and AMP bolts
The bolt minimum edge distances are determined for the stud head anchor.
4.3.2 Minimum bolt centre to centre distances for normal forces
AHP and ALP-P bolts
The bolts are placed according to requirements for lap spliced rebars.
ATP, ALP-L and AMP bolts
Bolt minimum centre to centre distances are determined for the stud head anchors.
Table 7. Minimum edge and centre to centre distances for stud head anchors
Bolt
ATP16
ATP20
ATP24
ATP30
ATP39

Minimum distance [mm]


e1
e2
e3
e4
38
76
47
94
56
112
71
142
A c1
93
186

ALP22L
ALP27L
ALP30L
ALP36L
ALP39L
ALP45L
ALP52L
ALP60L

63
78
88
104
113
131
152
160

126
156
176
208
226
262
304
320

AMP36
AMP39
AMP45
AMP52
AMP60

75
80
90
100
110

150
160
180
200
220

ATP

ALP-L
A c1

e1

e2

e1

e2

AMP
115
125
150
180
215

230
250
300
360
430

A c1

A c1
e1

e2

e3

e4

4.3.3 Minimum bolt edge distances for shear force


The bolt minimum edge distance for shear force is 10*, if the shear force is transferred
directly to concrete. If the edge distance is smaller the whole bolt shear force should be
transferred using additional stirrups or U-bent rebars.

page 10
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

4.4

Additional reinforcement

4.4.1 Connection reinforcing principle


Anchor bolts always require reinforcement of foundation and column so, that tension, compression and shear forces can be transferred to surrounding concrete. Following chapters
describe some recommended reinforcing principles.
4.4.2 Column to column joint
AHP bolts join precast concrete columns with steel shoes. The reinforcement should be designed according to following instructions, see figure 6.
1. Bolt tension and compression forces are
transferred to the column by using a single
main reinforcement bar corresponding to bolt
or by using two smaller main reinforcement
bars, the lap length of which must correspond
to the bolt length. (see table 2)

AHP
Aqt + A st

2. All shear forces are transferred with the stirrup reinforcement Aqt.
3. Transverse stirrups Ast must be placed in both
ends of the bolt according to EC2 section
8.7.4. These stirrups are given in table 9.

A st

Fig. 6. Reinforcing principle for column top

4.4.3 Placing short stud head anchor bolts in slabs or low foundations
Tension load
Concrete cone failure is resisted by surface reinforcement or when needed with additional bent bars Art.
Compression load
if Hmin 5*M
if Hmin < 5*M

ATP
ALP-L

no additional reinforcement is needed


U-links or stirrups Apt should transfer the whole action Nd
use AMP bolts

Art

Apt
H min

Fig. 7. Placing ATP or ALP-L bolts into a slab

page 11
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

4.4.4 Placing short stud head anchors in a foundation column


Stud head bolts can also be placed into foundation columns. The reinforcement of the columns should be designed in the following manner:
1. Tension forces acting in the bolt should be transferred to the foundation by using main rebars bent
as U-stirrups, which are anchored to the slab lower
surface. The anchorage length of straight rebars is
not usually long enough.

ATP
ALP-L
A qt

2. The bolt requires stirrup reinforcement Aqt in


the top of the foundation column to transfer
shear forces, see figure 8.

A vt

3. Stirrups Avt for taking splitting forces


should be placed above the stud heads
according to figure 8. Ordinary stirrup
reinforcement should be added to this
stirrup area.
Fig. 8. Placing ATP or ALP-L bolts in a foundation column
Table 8. Splitting stirrups Avt for short bolts and additional stirrups Ast for long bolts
Bolt
ATP16
ATP20
ATP24
ATP30
ATP39

Splitting stirrups
Avt
example
19 mm
1T8
29 mm
1T8
40 mm
1T8
67 mm
2T8
111 mm
3T8

AHP16
AHP20
AHP24
AHP30
AHP39

Additional stirrups
Ast
example
70 mm
2T8
110 mm
3T6
160 mm
4T8
250 mm
5T8
400 mm
5T10

ALP22L
ALP27L
ALP30L
ALP36L
ALP39L
ALP45L
ALP52L
ALP60L

51 mm
76 mm
88 mm
135 mm
161 mm
216 mm
290 mm
386 mm

ALP22P
ALP27P
ALP30P
ALP36P
ALP39P
ALP45P
ALP52P
ALP60P

60 mm
101 mm
101 mm
101 mm
157 mm
157 mm
245 mm
402 mm

1T8
2T8
2T8
3T8
4T8
6T8
6T8
5T10

Bolt

2T8
3T8
3T8
3T8
4T8
4T8
5T8
6T10

4.4.5 Placing rebar bolts in a foundation column


AHP and ALP-P anchor bolts can be placed in foundation columns where there is enough
height. Tension forces acting in the bolts are transferred to the foundation with main rebars,
which are anchored to lower surface of foundation. The reinforcement is placed in the following way, see figure 9.
AHP:

The anchorage length of the AHP bolts have been determined so, that straight
rebars with same size placed in the column corners transfer the bolt loads.

ALP-P: ALP-P bolts are anchored for full tension force with rebars of the same size as in
the bolt. If rebars with larger diameters than the bolt anchor bars are used the lap
length should be checked.

page 12
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

ANSTAR OY, Erstantie 2, FIN-15540 Villhde


Tel. +358-(0)3-872 200, Fax +358-(03)-872 2020
www.anstar.fi anstar@anstar.fi

To transfer bolt shear forces a stirrup


reinforcement Aqt should be placed in
top of the foundation column.

Aqt + Ast

ALP-P

Addition stirrups Ast should be placed in


the lap ends, see table 8.
Ast

Fig. 9. Placing ALP-P bolts in a


foundation column

4.4.6 Placing AMP bolts in a column


AMP anchor bolts have been designed for moment stiff connection between precast beam
and column. The rectangular anchor plate transfers compression loads to the concrete on
front side of the column. The stud heads transfer tension loads to the opposite side. The
longer side of the anchor plate is placed vertically in the column, this way the bolt can be
placed close to the column edge.
H

Reinforcement for shear forces

Tension zone

ET
Compression zone

Fig. 10. Placing AMP bolts in a column


Table 9. Minimum bolt distances in a rigid column-to-beam connection
Bolt
AET36
AMP36
AMP39
AMP45
AMP52
AMP60
A
F
L
D
K
E
ET
H
B

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

A
mm
100
100
110
110
110
110

F
mm
90
90
100
110
130
130

L
mm
710
670
680
800
930
1490

D
mm
540
500
500
605
700
1220

K
mm
170
180
180
195
230
270

E
mm
50
50
60
60
60
70

Bolt distance from bracket


Minimum edge distance to column side
Total length
Embedment length into column
Length of visible thread
Distance from surface of beam assembly plates
Minimum concrete cover for stud head
Minimum rectangular column height
Minimum rectangular column width

ET
mm
40
80
70
70
70
100

Hmin
mm
580
580
580
680
780
1380

Bmin
mm
380
380
480
480
580
580

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4.5

page 13
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

Additional clauses for T40 rebar


The bolt AHP39 based on rebar T40 concrete bond can be used in following conditions
(EC2 chapter 8.8):
1. Use bundled rebars 2T32 or 3T25 in lap joints or consider a lower stress level.
2. Stirrups are always used as confining reinforcement
3. Additional reinforcement and crack control must be considered in each case.

4.6

Correction of capacity values

4.6.1 Change of concrete strength


The capacity values of the anchor bolts can be corrected in relation to concrete grade in the
following way:
Normal force capacity
For lower concrete grade C20/25 the capacities should be corrected by multiplying with
0,83.
Instead of reducing capacities for AHP bolts with Lmin you can choose a longer stock size
bolt, e.g. AHP24-2000.
Shear force capacity
Bolt shear force capacities can be modified for both lower and higher concrete grades
than C25/30 with correction factor n:
n = fck / 25
where

fck is the characteristic compressive cylinder strength for concrete used

4.6.2 Small edge distance


If ATP, ALP-L and AMP bolts are placed closer to the structures edge than required in section 4.2, the bolt capacity values should be reduced in the following manner.
Normal force
With minimum edge distance the bolt normal force capacity is taken as 100. When bolt
centre is at the edge of the structure this value is 0. Any values in between can be linearly
interpolated. The bolt may not be placed closer to edge than concrete cover required for
stud head.
Shear force
The use of full bolt shear capacity requires a minimum edge distance 10*. If a smaller
edge distance is used, all shear forces should be transferred to concrete by stirrups. With
adequate reinforcement there is no need to reduce the bolt shear capacity.
4.6.3 Small centre to centre distance
If ATP, ALP-L and AMP bolts are placed closer to each other than the required minimum
centre to centre distance, the bolt capacity values should be reduced in the following manner:
Normal force
With minimum distance from each other the combined tension capacity is taken as 100.
When the bolt centres overlap this value is 50. Any values in between can be linearly interpolated.
Shear force
There is no need for correction. All shear forces are anchored with stirrup reinforcement.

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page 14
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

4.6.4 Durability and concrete cover


The durability of the concrete joint with anchor bolt and steel shoe is designed according to
EC2 chapter 4. The same exposure class is chosen for joint as for column and foundation
structure if there is no special need to use a higher class. Check structural fire design when
needed.
Concrete cover of anchors
The nominal concrete cover of anchor bars and anchor plates are determined according to
exposure class related to environmental conditions.
Concrete cover of threads
The concrete cover and protection of threaded part including nuts and washers is determined according to exposure class:
Exposure class X0
- In dry and warm conditions visible steel parts are painted if they can be maintained
later.
- Without maintainability the steel parts are covered with a required concrete cover.
Exposure classes XC1 and XC3
- All bolt parts are covered with a required concrete layer and the leakage of water into
the connection is prevented by structural solutions.
- In cold and humid conditions bolts are hot-dip galvanized.
Exposure classes XC2, XD4, XD, XS and XF
- The use of anchor bolts in these environmental conditions should always be
checked. The steel parts must in all circumstances be covered with a non cracking
concrete layer. The leakage of water into the connection has to be prevented by
structural solutions.

INSTALLATION

5.1

Forming a bolt group


The anchor bolts are concreted into a bolt group by using an AAK assembly frame. With the
frame it is easy to secure the right bolt positions, it also protects the threads during concrete
casting.

A rectangular assembly frame with four bolts can be ordered by using product code AAK-MH*B, where M is thread size and H*B are bolt centre to centre distances.

B
Fig 11. AAK assembly frame

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5.2

page 15
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

Bolt assembly and tolerances


When using APK column shoes the anchor bolts should be assembled in the foundation concrete according to height levels given in figure 12 and table 10. Also in other applications the
bolt height levels may not differ more than the allowable tolerance, so that full bolt capacities
can be used.
Table 10. Bolt height levels with APK steel shoes
Bolt
size
AHP16
AHP20
AHP24
AHP30
AHP39
ALP22
ALP27
ALP30
ALP36
ALP39
ALP45
ALP52
ALP60

corresponding
column shoe
APK16
APK20
APK24
APK30
AK39
APK24
APK30
APK33
APK36
APK39
APK45
APK52
APK60

A
mm
105
115
130
150
180
130
150
170
170
180
195
230
260

G
mm
50
50
50
50
60
50
50
50
60
60
70
80
80

Fig 12. Bolt height level

torque
Nm
100
200
350
650
1000
200
350
650
800
1000
1500
2500
3500

A = Bolt height level from concrete


E = Grouting thickness under column

The bolts are cast into concrete with following tolerances:


Height tolerance
Maximum allowable bolt inclination
Bolt hole clearance in column shoe

M16-M30
M36-M60

20 mm
L/100
5 mm
7 mm

When assembly tolerances are exceeded please ask further instructions from projects structural designer.
5.3

Bending and welding of bolts


When needed, straight rebars can be bended at site (not the threaded part). When bending
rebars the requirements concerning bending radius and working temperatures should be followed. Lap lengths to main reinforcement should be checked for the bent bolt.
It is recommended that no load carrying fixings are welded to the rebars without consulting
the structural designer.

5.4

Column installation
Column installation is started by levelling the upper surface of lower washers to correspond
to the planned bottom level of the precast column. The column is lifted to its place and the
upper nuts are tightened. The column is levelled into an upright position by adjusting the bolt
nuts. The nut housings have been designed for DIN 7444 slugging wrenches.
Tightening torque values are given in table 11. The values correspond to 40 % of rebar and
20 % of high strength steel bar yield strength. The bolts are locked with double nut or by
breaking the thread above the nut. The given torque is not enough for cyclic compressiontension loaded bolts.

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page 16
Anchor bolts
Instructions for use

The grouting of the column shoe and the nut housings is done according to grout manufacturers instructions. The grout concrete should be non-shrinking and correspond to the column concrete strength.
5.5

Safety precautions
The anchor bolt threads are to be protected during and after concrete casting. The bolts may
not be loaded before the concrete has achieved its design strength if the plans do not specify
anything else. When installing columns the working order and the assembly supporting plan
should be followed. Grouting of the connection should be done according to the installation
schedule and the grouting concrete should reach the planned strength before upper structures can be assembled onto the column.

5.6

Installation control

5.6.1 Instructions for bolt assembly


Before casting
ensure that bolt and frame according to plan (type, dimensions) are used and that
steel parts are not damaged
ensure that the bolt group position in the formwork corresponds to given tolerances
ensure that bolt height level corresponds to given tolerances
ensure that the additional reinforcement has been installed
see that the bolt group is tightly fixed to formwork
see that the bolt threads are protected until column installation.
After casting
check that bolt positions are in accordance with given tolerances
write a measurement report.
5.6.2 Instructions for column installation
The column erection is done according to designers installation plan. The assembly controller should check the following:
installation order
supports and bracings during installation
tightening of nuts
joint grouting schedule and grouting instructions