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# Control element in reactor

## Transfer function of reactor and order of transfer function

Chemical equation:

(excess)
6 10 4 + 22 6 12 6 +22
+ 2 + 2

Since water is in excess, concentration of water effectively remains constant during the reaction
because the rate of consumption would be very small that change in concentration becomes negligible.
Assuming elementary reaction:
=
r = rate of reaction of A per unit volume
k = rate constant (1/s)
= molar concentration of A
= exp(

= frequency factor
E = activation energy
R = gas constant

## CSTR model development is based on these assumptions:

1. The CSTR is perfectly mixed.
2. The mass densities of the feed and product
streams are equal and constant.
3. The liquid volume V in the reactor is kept
constant by an overflow line.
For these assumptions, the unsteady-state mass balance
for the CSTR is:
()
=

=

= ( )

## For energy balance, the following assumptions are made:

1. The thermal capacitances of the coolant and the cooling coil wall are negligible compared to the
thermal capacitance of the liquid in the tank.
2. All of the coolant is at uniform temperature, .
3. The rate of heat transfer from the reactor contents to the coolant is given by:
= ( )
4. The enthalpy change associated with the mixing of the feed and the liquid in the tank is
negligible compared to enthalpy change for the chemical reaction.
5. Shaft work and heat losses to the ambient can be neglected.
Based on the assumptions made, the energy balance is:

= ( ) + ( ) + ( )

## = heat of reaction per mole of A that is reacted.

Dynamic model:

= ( )

= ( ) + ( ) + ( )

## Since both equations are non-linear, linearization is required.

= ( , )

= ( ) ( ) + () ( )

(
) = exp( )

( ) =
exp(
)
2

= ( exp ( )) + (
exp (
))
2

= ( , , )

) (

=(

) (

) + ( ) ( ) + (

(
) =

( )

( ) =

+
exp ( )

( ) =

( )

( ) + (
=

+
exp ( )) +

Laplace transformation:
[ (

exp ( ))] () = (
exp (
)) ()
2

[ (

( )

+
exp ( ))] () =
() +
()

## Arranging the equations,

( (

( )

exp ( ))) ( (

+
exp ( ))) ()

2
= (

exp (

))

() + (
exp (
))
()
2

Transfer function:

()
12 2
= 2

() (11 + 22 ) + 11 22 12 21

11 =

12 =

21 =

exp ( )

exp (

22 = (

2 =

( )

+
exp ( ))

## Process control terminology

Controlled variable (CV): concentration of municipal solid waste at outlet stream
Manipulated variable (MV): Temperature of coolant
Disturbance variable (DV): concentration of solid waste at inlet, inlet temperature of solid waste

Control algorithm
A proportional, integral plus derivative (PID) controller would be used. The proportional control mode
produces a change in the controller output proportional to the error signal. Meanwhile, the integral
control mode changes the output of the controller by an amount proportional to the integral of the
error signal. Therefore, the integral mode is able to provide an automatic reset action that eliminates
the proportional offset by constantly changing the controller output until the error is reduced to zero.
The combination is referred to as the proportional plus integral (PI) control mode. However, integral
mode is increases the tendency for oscillation of the controller variable. The proportional plus integral
control mode is used on processes with large load changes when the proportional mode along is not
capable of reducing the offset to an acceptable level.

In addition, the derivative action is able to improve the closed loop stability. Controllers with
proportional and derivative action can be interpreted in a way that the control is made proportional to
the predicted output of the system. The effect of derivative action is to increase the damping in the
response and generally improve the stability by reducing the settling time. Therefore, it is useful in
reducing the oscillation caused by the integral action in the system response. The time domain equation
of the proportional plus integral plus derivative mode is