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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

GATE

INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

in 3 Volumes

by Team NODIA

Copyright By NODIA & COMPANY

Information contained in this book has been obtained by author, from sources believes to be reliable. However,

neither NODIA & COMPANY nor its author guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein,

and NODIA & COMPANY nor its author shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of

use of this information. This book is published with the understanding that NODIA & COMPANY and its author

are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services.

Ph : +91 - 141 - 2101150,

www.nodia.co.in

email : enquiry@nodia.co.in

Printed by Nodia and Company, Jaipur

Syllabus

GENERAL ABILITY

Verbal Ability : English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,

instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability : Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and

data interpretation.

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and

improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series.

Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss

and Greens theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear

differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchys

and Eulers equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and

variable separable method. 48

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula,

Taylors and Laurent series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode

and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,

Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods

for differential equations.

Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems: Kirchoffs laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit

theorems. One-port and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of

Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve

fitting.

Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation: Resistive, Capacitive,

displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque, vibration

and shock.Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level.Measurement of pH,

conductivity, viscosity and humidity.

Analog Electronics: Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits.

Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage.Feedbackamplifiers.

Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations.Instrumentationamplifier.

Precisionrectifier.V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op-Amp based active filters. Oscillators and

signal generators.

Digital Electronics: Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC

families, TTL, MOS and CMOS.Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and

mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer,

S/H circuit.Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters.Basics of number system.

Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing. Microcontrollers.

Signals, Systems and Communications: Periodic and aperiodic signals. Impulse response,

transfer function and frequency response of first- and second order systems. Convolution,

correlation and characteristics of linear time invariant systems. Discrete time system, impulse

and frequency response. Pulse transfer function. IIR and FIR filters. Amplitude and frequency

modulation and demodulation. Sampling theorem, pulse code modulation. Frequency and time

division multiplexing. Amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying and pulse shift keying for

digital modulation.

Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R,L

and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current

probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Q-meter and waveform analyzer.Digital voltmeter

and multi-meter.Time, phase and frequency measurements.Cathode ray oscilloscope.Serial and

parallel communication.Shielding and grounding. 49

Control Systems and Process Control: Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient

Response, steady-state-errors.Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay

systems.Phase and gain margin.State space representation of systems.Mechanical, hydraulic

and pneumatic system components.Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P,

P-I, P-I-D, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers.

Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation: Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR

spectrometry.X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED,

laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics.Interferometers, applications in

metrology. Basics of fiber optics. Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG. Clinical

measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of Computer Assisted

Tomography.

***********

Preface

This book doesnt make promise but provides complete satisfaction to the readers. The market

scenario is confusing and readers dont find the optimum quality books. This book provides

complete set of problems appeared in competition exams as well as fresh set of problems.

The book is categorized into units which are then sub-divided into chapters and the concepts

of the problems are addressed in the relevant chapters. The aim of the book is to avoid the

unnecessary elaboration and highlights only those concepts and techniques which are absolutely

necessary. Again time is a critical factor both from the point of view of preparation duration

and time taken for solving each problem in the examination. So the problems solving methods

in the books are those which take the least distance to the solution.

For a wide collection of problems, for a variety of problems and the efficient way of solving

them, brief theory and problem solving methodology what one needs to go through is there

in the book. Each unit (e.g. electrical and electronic measurement) is subdivided into average

seven number of chapters on an average each of which contains 40 problems which are selected

so as to avoid unnecessary redundancy and highly needed completeness. As well as, a brief

theory with problem solving methodology and some important points has been introduced at

the starting of each chapter, which helps in solving the problems.

We shall appreciate and greatly acknowledge the comments and suggestion from the users of

this book.

Team NODIA

in 3 Volumes

* Multiple Choice Questions * Numerical Answer Type Questions *

*Problems graded in the order of complexity from basic to advanced level*

*Over 1100 Questions with full & detailed explanations*

Shop now

Just Rs. 1390 /Shipping Free

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *

Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

CHAP 3

Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion

3.1

Introduction

as rotational displacements. In this chapter, we will deal with the electrical

transducers that is used to measure the translational and rotational motion.

Following topics are covered in the chapter:

Measurement of translational displacement using resistive potentiometer,

LVDT, capacitive displacement transducer

Different methods of measurement of translational velocity and

acceleration

Measurement of rotational displacement using RVDT

Different methods of measurement of rotational velocity and acceleration

Digital and analogue tachometers

Vibration and shock measurement

3.2

motion of a body in a straight line between two points. Many different types

of translational displacement transducer exist and these, along with their

relative merits and characteristics, are discussed in the following sections.

Figure 3.1 shows the different types of potentiometer circuits. Circuit (a)

provides dc output currents of range 420 mA or any other desired range;

Circuit (c) is the usual variable potential divider, also known as singleended potentiometer circuit, Circuit (d) is a push-pull potentiometer circuit.

Circuits (b) and (d) develop bipolar outputs for bidirectional motion about

the central point.

in 3 Volumes

by NODIA Publication

PE 3

3 Page 8

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Measurement

of Translational

Translational

and Rotational

Rotational

Motion

Measurement

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and Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of

and

Motion

o

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Loading Effect

If the voltmeter is electronic in nature, and has high input impedance, the

loading effect will be negligible, with the ratio of Vo /Ei of Figure 1.1(c)

being the same as Rx /R p . For a linear transducer, Rx /R p is the same as

the fractional value x , which is the ratio of the displacement given to the

contactor, to its full-scale value. Hence under no-load conditions,

x = Rx = Vo

Rp

Ei

For the same position of contactor, the output voltage will be lower if RL , the

resistance of voltmeter forming the load, is finite and this new value of Vol, if

taken to represent the displacement, is given by

Vol = xl

Ei

With the true value being x , the error is given by

error

= xl x

Representing R p /RL by m , the percentage error can be obtained as

100 ^xl - x h

= 6 mx ^1 x h@100

xl

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d

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w

w

in

.

o

LVDT is a passive inductive transformer. It works on the principle of variableinductance.

Construction of LVDT

consists of a single primary winding P1 and two secondary windings S1 and

S2 wound on a hollow cylindrical former. The secondary windings have an

equal number of turns and are identically placed on either side of the primary

windings. The primary winding is connected to an ac source.

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PE

Chapter

3

EF

88

PE 9

9 3

Chapter

EF

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *

Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

Measurement of

of Translational

Translational and

and Rotational

Rotational Motion

Motion

Measurement

Measurement

of

Translational

and

Rotational

Motion

PE 933

Page

EF

i. n

o

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a

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w

A movable soft iron core slides within the hollow former and therefore

affects the magnetic coupling between the primary and the two secondaries.

The displacement to be measured is applied to an arm attached to the soft

iron core. The whole assembly is placed in a stainless steel housing and the

end lids provide electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding. The frequency of

the ac applied to the primary winding ranges from 50 Hz to 20 kHz.

Operation of LVDT

i. n

alternating magnetic field which in turn induces ac voltages in the two

secondary windings. In order to convert the output from S1 to S2 into a

single voltage signal, the two secondaries S1 and S2 are connected in series

opposition, as shown in Figure 3.3. Let the output voltage of the secondary

winding S1 is VS1 and that of secondary winding S2 is VS2 . Hence the output

voltage of the transducer is the difference of the two voltages. i.e.

Vo = VS1 VS2

a

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w

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.c

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EF

Measurement

of Translational

Translational

and Rotational

Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of Translational

and Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of

and

Motion

PE

10

Chapter

3

EF

10

Advantages of LVDT

i. n

o

.c

for displacement upto 5 mm.

2. High output: It gives a high output, and therefore intermediate

amplification devices are not required.

3. Infinite resolution: The change in output voltage is stepless. The

effective resolution depends more on the test equipment than on the

transducer.

4. Ruggedness: These transducers can usually tolerate a high degree of

vibration and shock.

5. Less friction: There are no sliding contacts.

6. High sensitivity: The transducer possesses a sensitivity as high as 40

V/mm.

7. Low power consumption: Most LVDTs consume less than 1 W of

power.

8. Low hysteresis: This transducer has a low hysteresis, hence repeatability

is excellent under all conditions.

a

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Disadvantages of LVDT

in

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2. They are sensitive to stray magnetic fields.

3. The receiving instrument must be selected to operate on ac signals, or

a demodulator network must be used if a dc output is required.

4. The dynamic response is limited mechanically by the mass of the core

and electrically by the applied voltage.

5. Temperature also affects the transducer.

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transducer, in the sense that the movable plate or electrode may be the

conducting surface of any object in the vicinity of the fixed plate. If the

transducer has a solid insulating material of dielectric constant , as shown

in Figure 3.4(a), the capacitance is given by

C 0 = 0 At

x0 +

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When the core slides within the hollow former, the output voltage Vo will also

change. The amount of voltage change will be proportional to the amount of

linear motion.

PE 11

11 3

Chapter

EF

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *

Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

Measurement of

of Translational

Translational and

and Rotational

Rotational Motion

Motion

Measurement

Measurement

of

Translational

and

Rotational

Motion

PE1133

Page

EF

i. n

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given by

0A

C 0 + TC =

x 0 Tx + t

So, the fractional change in capacitance is

N

TC = Tx

x

x 0 + t 1 ^xNT

C0

+ th

where N is the sensitivity factor given as

1+ t

x0

N =

1+ t

x0

3.3

i. n

calculated indirectly by other means as described below.

o

.c

a

i

d

translational displacement transducers described in previous section can be

used to produce a translational velocity signal. Unfortunately, the process of

differentiation always amplifies noise in a measurement system. Therefore,

if this method has to be used, a low-noise instrument such as a d.c. excited

carbon film potentiometer or laser interferometer should be chosen. In the

case of potentiometers, a.c. excitation must be avoided because of the problem

that harmonics in the power supply would cause.

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Where an accelerometer is already included within a system, integration

of its output can be performed to yield a velocity signal. The process of

integration attenuates rather than amplifies measurement noise and this is

therefore an acceptable technique.

3.4

accelerometer. Most forms of accelerometer consist of a mass suspended by a

spring and damper inside a housing, as shown in Figure 3.5. The accelerometer

is rigidly fastened to the body undergoing acceleration. Any acceleration of

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by NODIA Publication

PE 3

3 Page 12

EF

Measurement

of Translational

Translational

and Rotational

Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of Translational

and Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of

and

Motion

PE

12

Chapter

3

EF

12

i. n

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a

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w

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In steady state, when the mass inside is accelerating at the same rate as

the case of the accelerometer, then we have

Fa = Fs

or

Kx = Mxp

or

xp = Kx (3.1)

M

This is the equation of motion of a second order system, and in the absence

of damping, the output of the accelerometer would consist of non-decaying

oscillations. A damper is therefore included within the instrument, which

produces a damping force, Fd , proportional to the velocity of the mass M

given by

Fd = Bxo

This modifies the equation (3.1) to

Kx + Bxo = Mxp

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3.5

n

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w

in

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o

about some rotation axis. The various devices available for measuring

rotational displacements are described in following sections.

NOTE

Rotational transducers are important not only for measuring the rotation of bodies such as

shafts, but also as part of systems that measure translational displacement by converting the

translational motion to a rotary form.

A Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT) is an electromechanical

transducer used for measuring angular displacement and operates on the

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Fa = Mxp

This force is opposed by the restraining effect, Fs , of a spring with spring

constant K , and the net result is that the mass is displaced by a distance x

from its starting position such that

Fs = Kx

PE 13

13 3

Chapter

EF

Measurement of

of Translational

Translational and

and Rotational

Rotational Motion

Motion

Measurement

Measurement

of

Translational

and

Rotational

Motion

PE1333

Page

EF

linearly proportional to the angular displacement of its input shaft. When

energized with a fixed ac source, the output signal is linear within a specified

range over the angular displacement.

i. n

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.c

Construction of RVDT

core replaces the core in the LVDT as shown in Figure 3.6. Most RVDTs are

composed of a wound, laminated stator and a salient two-pole rotor (core).

The stator, containing four slots, contains both the primary winding and the

two secondary windings. Some secondary windings may also be connected

together.

a

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and reliable, repeatable position sensing with infinite resolution. Such reliable

and repeatable performance assures accurate position sensing under the most

extreme operating conditions.

i. n

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Operation of RVDT

within a housed stator assembly. A fixed alternating current excitation is

applied to the primary stator coil that is electromagnetically coupled to the

secondary coils. This coupling is proportional to the angle of the input shaft.

The output pair is structured so that one coil is in-phase with the excitation

coil, and the second is 180c out-of-phase with the excitation coil. Now, we

consider the following cases to understand the operation of RVDT:

a

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CASE

I

When the rotor is in a position that directs the available flux equally in both

the in-phase and out-of-phase coils, the output voltages cancel and result in

a zero values signal. This is referred to as the null position.

CASE

II

If the core is turned anticlockwise, the flux linking with one winding S1 ,

increases while the other S2 decreases. Hence the output can be considered

as a positive value.

CASE

III

If the core is turned in clockwise direction, the flux linking with winding S1

reduces, while that linked with winding S2 increases, hence producing an out

of phase output that is in the opposite direction that is a negative value.

3.6

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *

Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

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EF

of Translational

Translational

and Rotational

Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of Translational

and Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of

and

Motion

PE

14

Chapter

3

EF

14

i. n

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a

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passage of equally spaced marks on the surface of a rotating disc or shaft.

As each mark is sensed, a pulse is generated and input to an electronic

pulse counter. Instantaneous velocity can be calculated at each instant of

time that an output pulse occurs, using the scheme shown in Figure 3.7. In

this circuit, the pulses from the transducer gate the train of pulses from a

1 MHz clock into a counter. Control logic resets the counter and updates

the digital output value after receipt of each pulse from the transducer. The

measurement resolution of this system is highest when the speed of rotation

is low.

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inductive and magnetic ones.

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Optical Tachometers

tachometers. Optical pulses can be generated by photoelectric techniques

Optical tachometers yield better accuracy than other forms of digital

tachometer but are not as reliable because dust and dirt can block light

paths.

Induction Tachometers

Induction tachometers are a form of digital tachometer that use inductive

sensing. They are widely used in the automotive industry within anti-skid

devices, anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and traction control.

Magnetostricitive Tachometers

The rotating element in magnetostrictive tachometers has a very simple

design in the form of a toothed metal gearwheel. The sensor is a solid-state,

Hall-effect device that is placed between the gear wheel and a permanent

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systems. They also provide the usual means of measuring translational

velocities, which are transformed into rotational motions for measurement

purposes by suitable gearing. Many different instruments and techniques are

available for measuring rotational velocity as presented below.

PE 15

15 3

Chapter

EF

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *

Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

Measurement of

of Translational

Translational and

and Rotational

Rotational Motion

Motion

Measurement

Measurement

of

Translational

and

Rotational

Motion

PE1533

Page

EF

magnet. When an inter-tooth gap on the gear wheel is adjacent to the sensor,

the full magnetic field from the magnet passes through it. Later, as a tooth

approaches the sensor, the tooth diverts some of the magnetic field, and so

the field through the sensor is reduced. This causes the sensor to produce an

output voltage that is proportional to the rotational speed of the gear wheel.

i. n

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a

i

d

Analogue tachometers are less accurate than digital tachometers but are

nevertheless still used successfully in many applications. The a.c. tachometer

has an output approximately proportional to rotational speed like, the d.c.

tachogenerator. Mechanical structure of an analogue tachometer takes the

form of a two-phase induction motor, with two stator windings and (usually)

a drag-cup rotor, as shown in Figure 3.7.

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One of the stator windings is excited with an a.c. voltage and the

measurement signal is taken from the output voltage induced in the second

winding. The magnitude of this output voltage is zero when the rotor is

stationary, and otherwise proportional to the angular velocity of the rotor.

The direction of rotation is determined by the phase of the output voltage,

which switches by 180 as the direction reverses. Therefore, both the phase

and magnitude of the output voltage have to be measured.

a

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Angular velocity measurements can be obtained by differentiating the output

signal from angular displacement transducers. Unfortunately, the process of

differentiation amplifies any noise in the measurement signal.

In measurement systems that already contain an angular acceleration

transducer, it is possible to obtain a velocity measurement by integrating

the acceleration measurement signal. This produces a signal of acceptable

quality, as the process of integration attenuates any measurement noise.

3.7

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EF

of Translational

Translational

and Rotational

Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of Translational

and Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of

and

Motion

PE

16

Chapter

3

EF

16

i. n

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p = K

J

A damper is usually included in the systems to avoid undying oscillations in

the instrument. This adds an additional backward torque Bo to the system

and the equation of motion becomes

Jp = Bqo + Kq

a

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or

3.8

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Measurement of vibration

therefore measurement of the accelerations associated with such vibrations is

extremely important in industrial environments. Vibrations normally consist

of linear harmonic motion that can be expressed mathematically as

X = X 0 sin (t)

point in time, X 0 is the peak displacement from the equilibrium position, and

is the angular frequency of the oscillations. The velocity v of the vibrating

body can be obtained as

v = wX 0 cos (wt)

in

.

o

= w20 sin (wt)

It is apparent that the intensity of vibration can be measured in terms of

either displacement, velocity or acceleration. Acceleration is clearly the best

parameter to measure at high frequencies. However, because displacements

are large at low frequencies, it would seem that measuring either displacement

or velocity would be best at low frequencies. In next section, we will learn the

technique of vibration measurement.

d

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3.8, to translate the accelerometer output into a recorded signal. The three

other necessary elements are

1. Signal-conditioning element: It amplifies the relatively weak output signal

from the accelerometer and also transforms the high output impedance

of the accelerometer to a lower impedance value.

2. Signal analyser: It converts the signal into the form required for

output. The output parameter may be either displacement, velocity or

acceleration and this may be expresses as either the peak value, r.m.s.

value or average absolute values.

3. Signal recorder: It must be chosen very carefully to avoid distortion of

the vibration waveform.

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a housing that is attached to the accelerating, rotating body. Rotation of

the mass is opposed by a torsional spring and damping. Any acceleration

of the housing causes a torque Jp on the mass. This torque is opposed by a

backward torque due to the torsional spring and in equilibrium

Jp = K

PE 17

17 3

Chapter

EF

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *

Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

Measurement of

of Translational

Translational and

and Rotational

Rotational Motion

Motion

Measurement

Measurement

of

Translational

and

Rotational

Motion

i. n

PE1733

Page

EF

o

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In these devices the base of the device or transducer is attached to the object

whose motion or vibration is to be measured, as shown in Figure 3.9. Inside

the transducer, is a mass m supported on a spring of stiffness k and viscous

damper, with damping coefficient c . The motion of the mass relative to the

frame or base, gives an indication of the motion of the object and is the

output of the instrument.

o

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a

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where

n2 z 0 =

A0

1

(1 r2) 2 + (2r) 2

r = w/w n , frequency ratio

k , undamped natural frequency

n =

m

= c , damping ratio

2 km

= circular frequency of motion of the moving object

These are similar to seismic devices except that there is no mechanical spring

used here and the restoring force is provided by a feedback arrangement, as

shown in Figure 3.10.

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3 Page 18

EF

of Translational

Translational

and Rotational

Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of Translational

and Rotational

Motion

Measurement

of

and

Motion

o

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systems. It is possible to get higher accuracy and increased stability as

effects like hysteresis, non-linearity, temperature effects, etc. associated with

mechanical springs are absent here.

3.9

Shock

in

.

o

to rest, often because of a collision. This is very common in industrial

situations and usually involves a body being dropped and hitting the floor.

An instrument having a very high-frequency response is required for shock

measurement, and for this reason, piezoelectric crystal-based accelerometers

are commonly used.

**********

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PE 19

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PE1933

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EXERCISE 3.1

MCQ 3.1.1

MCQ 3.1.2

MCQ 3.1.3

MCQ 3.1.4

i. n

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.c

An LVDT produces an output voltage of 2.6 V for displacement 0.4 mm. The

sensitivity of LVDT is

(A) 0.15 mm/V

(B) 0.15 m/V

(C) 6.5 V/mm

(D) 6.5 V/m

a

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0.75 m , the deviation of linearity is maximum and it is ! 0.0025 V. The

linearity at the given load is

(A) 0.5%

(B) 0.025V

(C) 0.2%V

(D) 1.25%

.

w

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What is the output voltage for a displacement of 8 mm from its central

position ?

(A) 0.2 V

(B) 0.4 V

(C) 0.32 V

(D) 3.2 V

In a linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) the output voltage is 1.8

V at maximum displacement. At a certain load the deviation from linearity

is maximum and it is ! 0.0045 V from a straight line through the origin. The

linearity at the given load is

(A) ! 25% (B) ! 40%

(C) ! 0.25% (D) ! 0.4%

i. n

o

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MCQ 3.1.5

whose amplification factor is 500. An output of 1.8 mV appears across the

terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance of 0.6 mm. If

the millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions and the scale can be read to 14 of a

division, then the resolution of instrument will be _______mm.

MCQ 3.1.6

LVDT is 40 V per mm. The bellows is deflected by 0.125 mm by a pressure

of 0.8 # 106 N/m2 . The sensitivity of the LVDT in V per N/m2 is

(A) 4 # 10-6 (B) 6.25 # 10-6

(C) 5 # 10-6 (D) 1.25 # 10-6

MCQ 3.1.7

MCQ 3.1.8

a

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with a gain of 250. The voltmeter scale has 100 divisions and the scale can

be read upto 1/5th of a division. An output of 2 mV appears across the

terminals of the LVDT, when core is displaced through a distance of 0.5 mm.

The resolution of instrument is ______mm

whose amplification factor is 250. An output of 2 mV appears across the

terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance of 0.5 mm.

The millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions. The scale can be read to 15 of a

division. The resolution of the instrument in mm is

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PE

20

Chapter

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EF

20

i. n

MCQ 3.1.9

3 # 103 N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.02 m (before the mass

hits the stop). The maximum measurable acceleration is ______

MCQ 3.1.10

of 0.66. If the system is excited by a frequency 6 Hz, the error due to the

proximity of excited frequency with natural frequency of the instrument will

be _______ %

MCQ 3.1.11

of elasticity for steel is 200 GN/m2 . When a force of 22 N is applied at the

free end, the value of deflection at the end will be

(A) 16.975

(B) 9.21

(C) 0.0589

(D) 33.75

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MCQ 3.1.12

A body is dropped from a height of 10 m and suffers a shock when it hits the

ground. If the duration of the shock is 5 ms, the magnitude of the shock will

be (g is acceleration due to gravity)

(A) 7g (B) 200g

(C) 286g

(D) None of these

MCQ 3.1.13

A variable reluctance type tachometer has 120 teeth on rotor. The speed

of the shaft on which the rotor is mounted is 1500 rpm. What will be the

frequency of the output pulses ?

(A) 25 pulse per second

(B) 3000 pulses per second

(C) 2 pulses per second

(D) None of these

MCQ 3.1.14

MCQ 3.1.15

in

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speed of rotation of the shaft on which the wheel is mounted. The gating

period is 103 s and a reading of 0004 is obtained on the four digit display. If

the number of teeth on rotor is 150, then the speed of shaft is

(A) 150

(B) 4000

(C) 1600

(D) 100

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with 20 points mounted on the shaft of the machine seems to be at standstill.

If the adjusted frequency of the flashes is 5000 per minute and approximate

speed of the machine is 765 rpm given by the other method, then the correct

speed of the machine is_______rpm

MCQ 3.1.16

stroboscopic method. The neon lamp is supplied from the same source to

which the induction motor is connected. The stroboscopic disc has six black

and six white sectors. What will be the speed of the induction motor when

the sector appears to be moving at 50 rpm ?

(A) 1000 rpm

(B) 50 rpm

(C) 950 rpm

(D) 1050 rpm

MCQ 3.1.17

N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.025 m (before the mass hits the

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(D) None of these

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PE2133

Page

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MCQ 3.1.18

displacement. The spring constant is 300 N/m and the mass of the core is

50g. What is sensitivity of the accelerometer ?

(A) 15 ms-2 /mV (B) 150 ms-2 /mV

(C) 0.66 ms-2 /mV

(D) None of these

MCQ 3.1.19

A variable reluctance type tachometer has 60 rotor teeth. The counter records

3600 counts per second. The speed in rpm is ______

MCQ 3.1.20

An inductive pickoff operating from a 120 tooth wheel is used with a digital

frequency meter to measure the speed of rotation of the shaft on which the

wheel is mounted. The gating period is set to 10 4 s , and a reading of 0030

is obtained on the four digit display. If the available gating periods are 102 ,

103 , 10 4 , 105 , 106 , 107 s respectively, what would be the optimum setting of

gating period for making this measurement ?

(A) 10 4 s (B) 105 s

(C) 106 s (D) 102 s

i. n

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MCQ 3.1.21

While measuring speed of a steam turbine with stroboscope single line images

were observed for stroboscope setting of 3000, 4000 and 5230 rpm. What is

the speed of the turbine ?

(A) 6000 rpm

(B) 700 rpm

(C) 12000 rpm

(D) 14000 rpm

MCQ 3.1.22

A disc mounted on the shaft of a machine has 12 pattern points. The number

of flashes projected on the disc by a stroboscope is 6000 in a minute. If the

disc appears to move forward in the direction of rotation at 10 rpm, the

speed of the disc is

(A) 500 rpm

(B) 490 rpm

(C) 510 rpm

(D) 5000 rpm

MCQ 3.1.23

i. n

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a

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circuit shown in figure below. The total resistance of the potentiometer is

5 k . The applied voltage Vt is 5.0 V. When the wiper is 0.9 inch from B ,

what will be the value of the output voltage ?

(A) 0.66 V

(B) 1500 V

(C) 1.5 V

(D) 66.6 V

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MCQ 3.1.24

is used in the arrangement shown below. Potentiometer R 3 -R 4 is also 5 k and

Vt is 5.0 V. The initial position to be used as a reference point is such that

R1 = R2 (i.e. the shaft is at the centre) At the start of the test, potentiometer

R 3 -R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is balanced ^Ve = 0h. If we assume that

the object being monitored moves a maximum resistance of 0.5 cm towards

A, then what will be the new value of Vc ? (shaft distance is 5 cm)

(A) 0.5 V

(B) 2.5 V

(C) 3 V

(D) 5.5 V

MCQ 3.1.25

a wire of total resistance 5000 . Under normal conditions the slider is at

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Chapter

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22

MCQ 3.1.26

MCQ 3.1.27

i. n

a wire of total resistance 5, 000 . Under normal conditions, the slider is at

the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of the potentiometer,

as measured by the Wheatstone bridge, is 1850 , the linear displacement is

______ mm.

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a wire having a resistance of 10000 . Under normal conditions, the slider

is at the centre of the potentiometer. For the linear displacements x and y

the resistance of the potentiometer as measured by a Wheatstone bridge are

respectively 3850 and 7560 . Which of the following is/are correct ?

(A) x = 5.75 m

(B) y = 12.8 m

(C) Displacements x and y are in opposite direction

(D) All of the above

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MCQ 3.1.28

of 125 mm is used in the arrangement shown in figure below. Potentiometer

R 3 R 4 has a resistance of 5000 and ei = 5.0 V . The initial position to be

used as reference point is such that R1 = R2 i.e. the wiper is at midstroke.

At the start of the test potentiometer R 3 R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is

balanced and e 0 = 0 . Assuming that the displacement being measured will

move a maximum distance of 12.5 mm towards A, the value of e 0 will be

______ volt

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PE2333

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solutions 3.1

SOL 3.1.1

Sensitivity is given by

i. n

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a

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p

Displacement

= 2.6 = 6.5 V/mm

0. 4

S =

SOL 3.1.2

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Maximum deviation of linearity is

D max = 0.0025 V

V0 = 1.25 V

So, Linearity

= D max # 100

v0

= 0.0025

1.25

= 0.2%

SOL 3.1.3

s = 5 = 0.4 V/mm

12.5

So, the output voltage is

= 0.4 # 8 = 3.2 V

SOL 3.1.4

SOL 3.1.5

i. n

o

.c

The output voltage of LVDT at maximum displacement is

= 1.8 V

The deviation from a straight line through the origin is

= ! 0.0045 V

Hence, percentage linearity is

= ! 0.0045 # 100 = ! 0.25%

1.8

Correct answer is 0.0067

The sensitivity of LVDT is

Output voltage

=

Displacement

= 1.8 = 3 mV/mm

0.6

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= 500 # 3 = 1500 mV/mm

Also, we have

1 scale division = 4 V = 40 mV

100

So, minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is

= 1 # 40 = 10 mV

4

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PE

24

Chapter

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24

SOL 3.1.7

i. n

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The output voltage of LVDT is

Vout = 2 mV

and Displacement

= 0.5 mm

So, the sensitivity of LVDT is

Vout

=

= 2 mV

0.5 mm

Displacement

= 4 mV/mm

Sensitivity of the entire set up is

= (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)

= 250 # 4 mV/mm

= 1000 mV/mm or 1 V/mm

Again, full-scale of voltmeter is

=5V

and number of divisions on voltmeter scale is

= 100

1 scale division = 5 = 0.05 V or 50 mV

100

Minimum voltage that can be read on voltmeter is

= 50 mV = 10 mV

5

Hence, resolution of instrument is

10 mV

=

= 0.01 mm

1000 mV/mm

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SOL 3.1.8

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Sensitivity of LVDT =

3

output voltage

= 2 # 10

0.5

displacement

= 4 # 103 V/mm = 4 mV/mm

Sensitivity of instrument = (amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)

= ^250h # ^4 # 103h = 1 V/mm

= 1000 mV/mm

1 scale division = 5 V = 50 mV

100

Minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is

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SOL 3.1.6

= 10 # b 1 l = 0.0067 mm.

1500

Correct option is (B)

We have LVDT sensitivity,

s = 40 V/mm

Output voltage for a deflection of 0.125 mm,

v out = 40 # 0.125 = 5 V

Hence the sensitivity of LVDT is

5

= v out =

p

0.8 # 106

= 6.25 # 106 V per N/m2

PE 25

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Chapter

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SOL 3.1.9

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= b 1 l # 50 = 1 mV

5

Hence, resolution of instrument is

= 1 # b 1 l = 1 # 103 mm

1000

Correct answer is 1200.

Given natural frequency is

PE2533

Page

EF

i. n

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a

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0.05

M

So, maximum acceleration is

am = 2 xm = ^245h2 # ^0.02h

= 1200 m/s2

n =

SOL 3.1.10

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The ratio of output displacement to input displacement is given by

^x2 - x1hm

u2

=

2

xm1

^1 u2h + ^2u h2

u = 6 = 1.5

4

So, we get

^x2 - x1hm

^1.5h2

=

1

xm1

2

8^1 1.52h + ^2 # 0.66 # 1.5h2B2

SOL 3.1.11

= 0.961

Hence, percentage error is obtained as

= ^0.961 1h # 100% = 3.9%

a

i

d

= 33.75 # 1012 m2

So, deflection is obtained as

3

= FL

3EM

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i. n

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Moment of inertia of the cantilever is

M = 1 bt3 = 1 # ^0.15h # ^.003h3

12

12

22 # ^0.25h3

=

3 # 200 # 109 # 33.75 # 1012

= 16.975

SOL 3.1.12

The equation of motion for a body falling under gravity gives the following

expression for the terminal velocity

v = 2gx

where x is the height through which the body falls. So the average deceleration

during the collision can be obtained as

= v

t

where t is the time duration of the shock. Substituting the appropriate

numerical values into these expressions, we obtain

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v = ^2 # 9.81 # 10h = 14.0 m/s

Hence, the magnitude of shock is

= 14.0 = 2801 m/s = 286 g

0.005

Correct option is (B).

Given

Speed of shaft,

N = 1500 rpm

Number of teeth on rotor,

T = 120

So, frequency of output pulses is

f = N # T

60

= 1500 # 120

60

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= 3000 pulses per second

SOL 3.1.14

SOL 3.1.15

Given

Digital counter reading = 0004

Gating period = 103 s = 0.001 s

Number of teeth on rotor, T = 150

So, number of pulses per second is

Digital counter reading

f =

Gating period

= 0004 = 4000

0.001

Hence, rotational speed is

f

N = # 60

T

= 4000 # 60 = 1600

150

Correct answer is 750

Given

Number of points on the disk, n = 20

Number of flashes per minute, K = 5000

Prime speed of the machine, N = K = 5000 = 250 rpm

n

20

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Na = 765 rpm

So, the multiplying factor is 3. Hence, the correct speed is

= N#3

= 250 # 3 = 750 rpm

SOL 3.1.16

Given

Supply frequency,

f = 50 Hz

Number of poles on induction motor, P = 6

So, synchronous speed of motor is

120f

N s =

p

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PE2733

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= 120 # 50 = 1000 rpm

6

Therefore, slip of induction motor is

s = RPM at which the sector appears to be rotating

= 50 rpm

Hence, speed of induction motor is

N = N s s

= 1000 50 = 950 rpm

SOL 3.1.17

i. n

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Given

Seismic mass,

M = 0.06 kg

Spring constant,

K = 4500 N/m

So, the natural angular velocity is

0 = K

M

= 4500 = 273.86 rad/s

0.06

Since, maximum mass displacement is

= 0.025 m

Hence, maximum acceleration is

= 20 # (Maximum mass displacement)

= ^273.86h2 # 0.025

= 1875 m/s2

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SOL 3.1.18

Given

Core mass,

M = 50 g = 0.05 kg

Spring constant, K = 300 N/m

So, natural angular frequency is

0 = K

M

300 = 77.46 rad/s

=

0.05

Also, maximum mass displacement is

A = 25 mm = 0.025 m

Therefore, maximum measurable acceleration is

= 2 A

= ^77.46h2 # 0.025

.

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SOL 3.1.19

= 150 m/s2

Hence, accelerometer sensitivity is obtained as

s = Maximum measurable acceleration

Maximum core displacement # output

= 15 ms2 /mV

= 150

25 # 0.4

Correct answer is 3600

pulses per second

Speed

=

number of teeth

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SOL 3.1.21

= 3600 rps = 3600 rpm

60

Correct option is (C).

The setting of the gating period for this measurement is 10 4 s and this gives

a reading of 0030 on a four digit display. It is seen that out of four digit

places only two are utilized. For optimum setting of gating period, all the

four digits places should be utilized. This requires that the gating time be

increased by a factor 102 , i.e.

Optimum gating time setting = 10 4 # 102 = 106 s

i. n

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For m different flashing rates f1 , f2 .......... fm , the speed of system is given by

fm f1 ^m 1h

n =

^ fm f1h

Here, we have

fm = 5250 rpm

f1 = 3000 rpm

and

m = 3

Hence, speed of steam turbine is

5250 # 3000 ^3 1h

=

^5250 3000h

= 14000 rpm

.

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SOL 3.1.22

SOL 3.1.23

Speed of machine when patterns appear stationary is

f

n =

m

= 6000 = 500 rpm

12

When the patterns move in the direction of rotation at a speed of 10 rpm,

the speed of machine in this case is

n = 500 + 10 = 510 rpm

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We draw the transducer circuit as

n

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in

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R2 = 0.9 in # 5 k = 9 # 5 k = 1500

30

3.0 in

So, we get

V0 = R2

R1 + R 2

Vt

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28

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R2

V

R1 + R 2 # t

Hence,

V0 = 1500 # 5 V = 1500 = 1.5 V

5k

1k

Correct option is (A).

V0 =

or

SOL 3.1.24

PE2933

Page

EF

i. n

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If the wiper moves 0.5 cm towards A from the centre, it will have moved

3 cm from B . So,

R2 = 3.0 # 5 k = 3 k

5.0

Ve = VR2 VR 4

= c R2 m # Vt c R 4 m # Vt

R1 + R 2

R3 + R4

= b 3 k l # 5 V b 2.5 k l # 5 V

5k

5k

= 3 V 2.5 V = 0.5 V

SOL 3.1.25

Total resistance = 5000

L = 50 mm

Rt = 5000 = 100

So,

50

L

Resistance of normal position is

= 5000 = 2500

50

Change in resistance is

= 2500 1850 = 650

Hence, the displacement is

y = 650 = 6.5 mm

100

Correct answer is 6.5 .

Total resistance of the potentiometer wire is

Rt = 5, 000

Total length of the potentiometer wire is

L = 50 mm

Resistance per mm length of potentiometer wire,

Rt = 5000 = 100

50

L

SOL 3.1.26

.

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Motion

= 5000 = 2500

2

Change in resistance of potentiometer from its normal position is

= 2500 1850 = 650

Hence, linear displacement is

y = 650 = 6.5 mm

100

Correct option is (D).

The resistance of the potentiometer at its normal position is

= 1000 = 5000

2

Resistance of potentiometer per unit length is

= 1000 = 200 /mm

50

For first case, change of resistance from its normal position is

= 5000 3850 = 1150

So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is

x = 1150 = 5.75 mm

200

For second case, change of resistance from its normal position is

= 7569 5000 = 2560

So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is

y = 2560 = 12.80 mm

200

Since, one of the displacements represent a decrease and other represents an

increase in resistance of potentiometer from its value at the normal position,

the two displacements are in the opposite direction.

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SOL 3.1.28

in

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Given

Total length of AB = 125 mm

Midpoint of AB = 62.5 mm from either A or B

If the wiper moves 12.5 inward towards A from midstroke, its distance from

B becomes

= 62.5 + 12.5 = 75 mm

So,

R2 = b 75 l # 5000 = 3000

125

Hence, output voltage is

e 0 = c R 2 R 4 m e i

R1 + R 2 R 3 + R 4

= ; 3000 2500 E # 5 = 0.5 V

5000 5000

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Measurement of

of Translational

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