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First Edition

GATE
INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING
in 3 Volumes

NODIA & COMPANY

GATE Instrumentation Engineering, 1e


by Team NODIA
Copyright By NODIA & COMPANY
Information contained in this book has been obtained by author, from sources believes to be reliable. However,
neither NODIA & COMPANY nor its author guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein,
and NODIA & COMPANY nor its author shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of
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are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services.

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Syllabus
GENERAL ABILITY
Verbal Ability : English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability : Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and
data interpretation.

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and
improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series.
Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss
and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchys
and Eulers equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and
variable separable method. 48
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula,
Taylors and Laurent series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode
and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,
Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods
for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.
INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING
Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems: Kirchoffs laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit
theorems. One-port and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of
Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve
fitting.
Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation: Resistive, Capacitive,

Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of


displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque, vibration
and shock.Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level.Measurement of pH,
conductivity, viscosity and humidity.
Analog Electronics: Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits.
Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage.Feedbackamplifiers.
Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations.Instrumentationamplifier.
Precisionrectifier.V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op-Amp based active filters. Oscillators and
signal generators.
Digital Electronics: Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC
families, TTL, MOS and CMOS.Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and
mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer,
S/H circuit.Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters.Basics of number system.
Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing. Microcontrollers.
Signals, Systems and Communications: Periodic and aperiodic signals. Impulse response,
transfer function and frequency response of first- and second order systems. Convolution,
correlation and characteristics of linear time invariant systems. Discrete time system, impulse
and frequency response. Pulse transfer function. IIR and FIR filters. Amplitude and frequency
modulation and demodulation. Sampling theorem, pulse code modulation. Frequency and time
division multiplexing. Amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying and pulse shift keying for
digital modulation.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R,L
and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current
probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Q-meter and waveform analyzer.Digital voltmeter
and multi-meter.Time, phase and frequency measurements.Cathode ray oscilloscope.Serial and
parallel communication.Shielding and grounding. 49
Control Systems and Process Control: Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient
Response, steady-state-errors.Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay
systems.Phase and gain margin.State space representation of systems.Mechanical, hydraulic
and pneumatic system components.Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P,
P-I, P-I-D, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers.
Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation: Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR
spectrometry.X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED,
laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics.Interferometers, applications in
metrology. Basics of fiber optics. Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG. Clinical
measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of Computer Assisted
Tomography.

***********

Preface
This book doesnt make promise but provides complete satisfaction to the readers. The market
scenario is confusing and readers dont find the optimum quality books. This book provides
complete set of problems appeared in competition exams as well as fresh set of problems.
The book is categorized into units which are then sub-divided into chapters and the concepts
of the problems are addressed in the relevant chapters. The aim of the book is to avoid the
unnecessary elaboration and highlights only those concepts and techniques which are absolutely
necessary. Again time is a critical factor both from the point of view of preparation duration
and time taken for solving each problem in the examination. So the problems solving methods
in the books are those which take the least distance to the solution.
For a wide collection of problems, for a variety of problems and the efficient way of solving
them, brief theory and problem solving methodology what one needs to go through is there
in the book. Each unit (e.g. electrical and electronic measurement) is subdivided into average
seven number of chapters on an average each of which contains 40 problems which are selected
so as to avoid unnecessary redundancy and highly needed completeness. As well as, a brief
theory with problem solving methodology and some important points has been introduced at
the starting of each chapter, which helps in solving the problems.
We shall appreciate and greatly acknowledge the comments and suggestion from the users of
this book.
Team NODIA

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CHAP 3
Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion

3.1

Introduction

Instrumental techniques are available for the measurement of linear as well


as rotational displacements. In this chapter, we will deal with the electrical
transducers that is used to measure the translational and rotational motion.
Following topics are covered in the chapter:
Measurement of translational displacement using resistive potentiometer,
LVDT, capacitive displacement transducer
Different methods of measurement of translational velocity and
acceleration
Measurement of rotational displacement using RVDT
Different methods of measurement of rotational velocity and acceleration
Digital and analogue tachometers
Vibration and shock measurement
3.2

Measurement of Translational displacement

Translational displacement transducers are instruments that measure the


motion of a body in a straight line between two points. Many different types
of translational displacement transducer exist and these, along with their
relative merits and characteristics, are discussed in the following sections.

3.2.1 Resistive Potentiometer


Figure 3.1 shows the different types of potentiometer circuits. Circuit (a)
provides dc output currents of range 420 mA or any other desired range;
Circuit (c) is the usual variable potential divider, also known as singleended potentiometer circuit, Circuit (d) is a push-pull potentiometer circuit.
Circuits (b) and (d) develop bipolar outputs for bidirectional motion about
the central point.

GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


in 3 Volumes

by NODIA Publication
PE 3
3 Page 8
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

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Figure 3.1: Different Circuits of Resistance Displacement Transducer

Loading Effect

If the voltmeter is electronic in nature, and has high input impedance, the
loading effect will be negligible, with the ratio of Vo /Ei of Figure 1.1(c)
being the same as Rx /R p . For a linear transducer, Rx /R p is the same as
the fractional value x , which is the ratio of the displacement given to the
contactor, to its full-scale value. Hence under no-load conditions,

x = Rx = Vo
Rp
Ei
For the same position of contactor, the output voltage will be lower if RL , the
resistance of voltmeter forming the load, is finite and this new value of Vol, if
taken to represent the displacement, is given by
Vol = xl

Ei
With the true value being x , the error is given by
error
= xl x
Representing R p /RL by m , the percentage error can be obtained as
100 ^xl - x h
= 6 mx ^1 x h@100

xl

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3.2.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)


LVDT is a passive inductive transformer. It works on the principle of variableinductance.
Construction of LVDT

Figure 3.2 shows the basic construction of an LVDT. The transformer


consists of a single primary winding P1 and two secondary windings S1 and
S2 wound on a hollow cylindrical former. The secondary windings have an
equal number of turns and are identically placed on either side of the primary
windings. The primary winding is connected to an ac source.

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PE
Chapter
3
EF
88

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 9
9 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE 933
Page
EF

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Figure 3.2: Construction of LVDT

A movable soft iron core slides within the hollow former and therefore
affects the magnetic coupling between the primary and the two secondaries.
The displacement to be measured is applied to an arm attached to the soft
iron core. The whole assembly is placed in a stainless steel housing and the
end lids provide electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding. The frequency of
the ac applied to the primary winding ranges from 50 Hz to 20 kHz.

Operation of LVDT

i. n

Since the primary winding is excited by an ac source, it produces an


alternating magnetic field which in turn induces ac voltages in the two
secondary windings. In order to convert the output from S1 to S2 into a
single voltage signal, the two secondaries S1 and S2 are connected in series
opposition, as shown in Figure 3.3. Let the output voltage of the secondary
winding S1 is VS1 and that of secondary winding S2 is VS2 . Hence the output
voltage of the transducer is the difference of the two voltages. i.e.

Vo = VS1 VS2

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Figure 3.3: Measurement of Translational Motion using LVDT

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GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


in 3 Volumes

by NODIA Publication
PE 3
3 Page 10
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
10
Chapter
3
EF
10

Advantages of LVDT

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1. Linearity: The output voltage of this transducer is practically linear


for displacement upto 5 mm.
2. High output: It gives a high output, and therefore intermediate
amplification devices are not required.
3. Infinite resolution: The change in output voltage is stepless. The
effective resolution depends more on the test equipment than on the
transducer.
4. Ruggedness: These transducers can usually tolerate a high degree of
vibration and shock.
5. Less friction: There are no sliding contacts.
6. High sensitivity: The transducer possesses a sensitivity as high as 40
V/mm.
7. Low power consumption: Most LVDTs consume less than 1 W of
power.
8. Low hysteresis: This transducer has a low hysteresis, hence repeatability
is excellent under all conditions.

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Disadvantages of LVDT

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1. Large displacements are required for appreciable differential output.


2. They are sensitive to stray magnetic fields.
3. The receiving instrument must be selected to operate on ac signals, or
a demodulator network must be used if a dc output is required.
4. The dynamic response is limited mechanically by the mass of the core
and electrically by the applied voltage.
5. Temperature also affects the transducer.

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3.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Transducers

The capacitive displacement transducer is fundamentally a proximity


transducer, in the sense that the movable plate or electrode may be the
conducting surface of any object in the vicinity of the fixed plate. If the
transducer has a solid insulating material of dielectric constant , as shown
in Figure 3.4(a), the capacitance is given by

C 0 = 0 At
x0 +

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When the core slides within the hollow former, the output voltage Vo will also
change. The amount of voltage change will be proportional to the amount of
linear motion.

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 11
11 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE1133
Page
EF

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Figure 3.4: Capacitive displacement transducer

If the air gap is decreased by Tx , the capacitance increases by C which is


given by
0A

C 0 + TC =
x 0 Tx + t
So, the fractional change in capacitance is
N
TC = Tx

x
x 0 + t 1 ^xNT
C0
+ th
where N is the sensitivity factor given as
1+ t
x0

N =
1+ t
x0

3.3

Measurement of Translational Velocity

i. n

Translational velocity cannot be measured directly and therefore must be


calculated indirectly by other means as described below.

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3.3.1 Differentiation of Displacement Measurements

a
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d

Differentiation of position measurements obtained from any of the


translational displacement transducers described in previous section can be
used to produce a translational velocity signal. Unfortunately, the process of
differentiation always amplifies noise in a measurement system. Therefore,
if this method has to be used, a low-noise instrument such as a d.c. excited
carbon film potentiometer or laser interferometer should be chosen. In the
case of potentiometers, a.c. excitation must be avoided because of the problem
that harmonics in the power supply would cause.

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3.3.2 Integration of the Output of an Accelerometer


Where an accelerometer is already included within a system, integration
of its output can be performed to yield a velocity signal. The process of
integration attenuates rather than amplifies measurement noise and this is
therefore an acceptable technique.

3.4

Measurement of Translational Acceleration

The only class of device available for measuring acceleration is the


accelerometer. Most forms of accelerometer consist of a mass suspended by a
spring and damper inside a housing, as shown in Figure 3.5. The accelerometer
is rigidly fastened to the body undergoing acceleration. Any acceleration of
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GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


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PE 3
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EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
12
Chapter
3
EF
12

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Figure 3.5: Structure of an Accelerometer

In steady state, when the mass inside is accelerating at the same rate as
the case of the accelerometer, then we have

Fa = Fs
or
Kx = Mxp
or
xp = Kx (3.1)
M
This is the equation of motion of a second order system, and in the absence
of damping, the output of the accelerometer would consist of non-decaying
oscillations. A damper is therefore included within the instrument, which
produces a damping force, Fd , proportional to the velocity of the mass M
given by

Fd = Bxo
This modifies the equation (3.1) to

Kx + Bxo = Mxp

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3.5

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Measurement of Rotational Displacement

Rotational displacement transducers measure the angular motion of a body


about some rotation axis. The various devices available for measuring
rotational displacements are described in following sections.
NOTE
Rotational transducers are important not only for measuring the rotation of bodies such as
shafts, but also as part of systems that measure translational displacement by converting the
translational motion to a rotary form.

3.5.1 Rotary Variable Differential Transformer


A Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT) is an electromechanical
transducer used for measuring angular displacement and operates on the
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the body causes a force, Fa , on the mass, M , given by



Fa = Mxp
This force is opposed by the restraining effect, Fs , of a spring with spring
constant K , and the net result is that the mass is displaced by a distance x
from its starting position such that

Fs = Kx

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PE 13
13 3
Chapter
EF

Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE1333
Page
EF

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

same principle as LVDT. It provides a variable ac output voltage that is


linearly proportional to the angular displacement of its input shaft. When
energized with a fixed ac source, the output signal is linear within a specified
range over the angular displacement.

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Construction of RVDT

The RVDT is similar in construction to the LVDT, except that a cam-shaped


core replaces the core in the LVDT as shown in Figure 3.6. Most RVDTs are
composed of a wound, laminated stator and a salient two-pole rotor (core).
The stator, containing four slots, contains both the primary winding and the
two secondary windings. Some secondary windings may also be connected
together.

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Figure 3.6: Construction of RVDT

RVDTs utilize brushless, non-contacting technology to ensure long life


and reliable, repeatable position sensing with infinite resolution. Such reliable
and repeatable performance assures accurate position sensing under the most
extreme operating conditions.

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Operation of RVDT

Basic RVDT operation is provided by rotating an iron-core bearing supported


within a housed stator assembly. A fixed alternating current excitation is
applied to the primary stator coil that is electromagnetically coupled to the
secondary coils. This coupling is proportional to the angle of the input shaft.
The output pair is structured so that one coil is in-phase with the excitation
coil, and the second is 180c out-of-phase with the excitation coil. Now, we
consider the following cases to understand the operation of RVDT:

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CASE
I

When the rotor is in a position that directs the available flux equally in both
the in-phase and out-of-phase coils, the output voltages cancel and result in
a zero values signal. This is referred to as the null position.


CASE
II

If the core is turned anticlockwise, the flux linking with one winding S1 ,
increases while the other S2 decreases. Hence the output can be considered
as a positive value.

CASE
III

If the core is turned in clockwise direction, the flux linking with winding S1
reduces, while that linked with winding S2 increases, hence producing an out
of phase output that is in the opposite direction that is a negative value.
3.6

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems

Measurement of Rotational velocity

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GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


in 3 Volumes

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PE 3
3 Page 14
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
14
Chapter
3
EF
14

3.6.1 Digital Tachometers

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Digital tachometers are usually non-contact instruments that sense the


passage of equally spaced marks on the surface of a rotating disc or shaft.
As each mark is sensed, a pulse is generated and input to an electronic
pulse counter. Instantaneous velocity can be calculated at each instant of
time that an output pulse occurs, using the scheme shown in Figure 3.7. In
this circuit, the pulses from the transducer gate the train of pulses from a
1 MHz clock into a counter. Control logic resets the counter and updates
the digital output value after receipt of each pulse from the transducer. The
measurement resolution of this system is highest when the speed of rotation
is low.

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Figure 3.6: Scheme to Measure Instantaneous Angular Velocities

d
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In digital tachometers, various types of sensor are used, such as optical,


inductive and magnetic ones.

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Optical Tachometers

Digital tachometers with optical sensors are often known as optical


tachometers. Optical pulses can be generated by photoelectric techniques
Optical tachometers yield better accuracy than other forms of digital
tachometer but are not as reliable because dust and dirt can block light
paths.

Induction Tachometers
Induction tachometers are a form of digital tachometer that use inductive
sensing. They are widely used in the automotive industry within anti-skid
devices, anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and traction control.

Magnetostricitive Tachometers
The rotating element in magnetostrictive tachometers has a very simple
design in the form of a toothed metal gearwheel. The sensor is a solid-state,
Hall-effect device that is placed between the gear wheel and a permanent
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The main application of rotational velocity transducers is in speed control


systems. They also provide the usual means of measuring translational
velocities, which are transformed into rotational motions for measurement
purposes by suitable gearing. Many different instruments and techniques are
available for measuring rotational velocity as presented below.

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 15
15 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE1533
Page
EF

magnet. When an inter-tooth gap on the gear wheel is adjacent to the sensor,
the full magnetic field from the magnet passes through it. Later, as a tooth
approaches the sensor, the tooth diverts some of the magnetic field, and so
the field through the sensor is reduced. This causes the sensor to produce an
output voltage that is proportional to the rotational speed of the gear wheel.

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3.6.2 Analogue Tachometers

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Analogue tachometers are less accurate than digital tachometers but are
nevertheless still used successfully in many applications. The a.c. tachometer
has an output approximately proportional to rotational speed like, the d.c.
tachogenerator. Mechanical structure of an analogue tachometer takes the
form of a two-phase induction motor, with two stator windings and (usually)
a drag-cup rotor, as shown in Figure 3.7.

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Figure 3.7: Working of AC Tachometer

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One of the stator windings is excited with an a.c. voltage and the
measurement signal is taken from the output voltage induced in the second
winding. The magnitude of this output voltage is zero when the rotor is
stationary, and otherwise proportional to the angular velocity of the rotor.
The direction of rotation is determined by the phase of the output voltage,
which switches by 180 as the direction reverses. Therefore, both the phase
and magnitude of the output voltage have to be measured.

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3.6.3 Differentiation of Angular Displacement Measurements


Angular velocity measurements can be obtained by differentiating the output
signal from angular displacement transducers. Unfortunately, the process of
differentiation amplifies any noise in the measurement signal.

3.6.4 Integration of the Output From an Accelerometer


In measurement systems that already contain an angular acceleration
transducer, it is possible to obtain a velocity measurement by integrating
the acceleration measurement signal. This produces a signal of acceptable
quality, as the process of integration attenuates any measurement noise.

3.7

Measurement of rotational acceleration

Rotational accelerometers work on very similar principles to translational

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GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


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by NODIA Publication
PE 3
3 Page 16
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
16
Chapter
3
EF
16

i. n

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p = K
J
A damper is usually included in the systems to avoid undying oscillations in
the instrument. This adds an additional backward torque Bo to the system
and the equation of motion becomes

Jp = Bqo + Kq

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or

3.8

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Measurement of vibration

Vibrations are very commonly encountered in machinery operation, and


therefore measurement of the accelerations associated with such vibrations is
extremely important in industrial environments. Vibrations normally consist
of linear harmonic motion that can be expressed mathematically as

X = X 0 sin (t)

where X is the displacement from the equilibrium position at any general


point in time, X 0 is the peak displacement from the equilibrium position, and
is the angular frequency of the oscillations. The velocity v of the vibrating
body can be obtained as

v = wX 0 cos (wt)

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and expression for the acceleration can be given as



= w20 sin (wt)
It is apparent that the intensity of vibration can be measured in terms of
either displacement, velocity or acceleration. Acceleration is clearly the best
parameter to measure at high frequencies. However, because displacements
are large at low frequencies, it would seem that measuring either displacement
or velocity would be best at low frequencies. In next section, we will learn the
technique of vibration measurement.

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3.8.1 Vibration Measurement

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A vibration measurement system requires other elements, as shown in Figure


3.8, to translate the accelerometer output into a recorded signal. The three
other necessary elements are
1. Signal-conditioning element: It amplifies the relatively weak output signal
from the accelerometer and also transforms the high output impedance
of the accelerometer to a lower impedance value.
2. Signal analyser: It converts the signal into the form required for
output. The output parameter may be either displacement, velocity or
acceleration and this may be expresses as either the peak value, r.m.s.
value or average absolute values.
3. Signal recorder: It must be chosen very carefully to avoid distortion of
the vibration waveform.

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motion accelerometers. They consist of a rotatable mass mounted inside


a housing that is attached to the accelerating, rotating body. Rotation of
the mass is opposed by a torsional spring and damping. Any acceleration
of the housing causes a torque Jp on the mass. This torque is opposed by a
backward torque due to the torsional spring and in equilibrium

Jp = K

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 17
17 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

i. n

Figure 3.8: Vibration Measurement System

3.8.2 Seismic Device

PE1733
Page
EF

o
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In these devices the base of the device or transducer is attached to the object
whose motion or vibration is to be measured, as shown in Figure 3.9. Inside
the transducer, is a mass m supported on a spring of stiffness k and viscous
damper, with damping coefficient c . The motion of the mass relative to the
frame or base, gives an indication of the motion of the object and is the
output of the instrument.

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Figure 3.9: Seismic Device

i. n

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a
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The acceleration response of seismic transducer is given by the equation,

o
n

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w
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where

n2 z 0 =
A0

1
(1 r2) 2 + (2r) 2

A 0 = 2 x 0 , acceleration amplitude of the object


r = w/w n , frequency ratio
k , undamped natural frequency
n =
m
= c , damping ratio
2 km
= circular frequency of motion of the moving object

3.8.3 Force Balance Type Seismic Device


These are similar to seismic devices except that there is no mechanical spring
used here and the restoring force is provided by a feedback arrangement, as
shown in Figure 3.10.

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PE 3
3 Page 18
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

o
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Figure 3.10: Force Balance Type Seismic Device

These types of motion measuring devices are used in inertial navigation


systems. It is possible to get higher accuracy and increased stability as
effects like hysteresis, non-linearity, temperature effects, etc. associated with
mechanical springs are absent here.

3.9

Shock

in
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Shock describes a type of motion where a moving body is brought suddenly


to rest, often because of a collision. This is very common in industrial
situations and usually involves a body being dropped and hitting the floor.
An instrument having a very high-frequency response is required for shock
measurement, and for this reason, piezoelectric crystal-based accelerometers
are commonly used.

**********

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i. n

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PE
18
Chapter
3
EF
18

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 19
19 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE1933
Page
EF

EXERCISE 3.1
MCQ 3.1.1

MCQ 3.1.2

MCQ 3.1.3

MCQ 3.1.4

i. n

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An LVDT produces an output voltage of 2.6 V for displacement 0.4 mm. The
sensitivity of LVDT is
(A) 0.15 mm/V
(B) 0.15 m/V
(C) 6.5 V/mm
(D) 6.5 V/m

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The output of LVDT is 1.25 V at maximum displacement. At a load of


0.75 m , the deviation of linearity is maximum and it is ! 0.0025 V. The
linearity at the given load is
(A) 0.5%
(B) 0.025V
(C) 0.2%V
(D) 1.25%

.
w
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An LVDT has a secondary voltage of 5 V for a displacement of ! 12.5 mm.


What is the output voltage for a displacement of 8 mm from its central
position ?
(A) 0.2 V
(B) 0.4 V
(C) 0.32 V
(D) 3.2 V
In a linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) the output voltage is 1.8
V at maximum displacement. At a certain load the deviation from linearity
is maximum and it is ! 0.0045 V from a straight line through the origin. The
linearity at the given load is
(A) ! 25% (B) ! 40%
(C) ! 0.25% (D) ! 0.4%

i. n

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MCQ 3.1.5

The output of an LVDT is connected to a 4 V voltmeter through an amplifier


whose amplification factor is 500. An output of 1.8 mV appears across the
terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance of 0.6 mm. If
the millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions and the scale can be read to 14 of a
division, then the resolution of instrument will be _______mm.

MCQ 3.1.6

An LVDT is used for measuring the deflection of a bellows. The sensitivity of


LVDT is 40 V per mm. The bellows is deflected by 0.125 mm by a pressure
of 0.8 # 106 N/m2 . The sensitivity of the LVDT in V per N/m2 is
(A) 4 # 10-6 (B) 6.25 # 10-6
(C) 5 # 10-6 (D) 1.25 # 10-6

MCQ 3.1.7

MCQ 3.1.8

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The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5V voltmeter through an amplifier


with a gain of 250. The voltmeter scale has 100 divisions and the scale can
be read upto 1/5th of a division. An output of 2 mV appears across the
terminals of the LVDT, when core is displaced through a distance of 0.5 mm.
The resolution of instrument is ______mm

The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5 V voltmeter through an amplifier


whose amplification factor is 250. An output of 2 mV appears across the
terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance of 0.5 mm.
The millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions. The scale can be read to 15 of a
division. The resolution of the instrument in mm is
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Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
20
Chapter
3
EF
20

i. n

MCQ 3.1.9

An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.05 kg and a spring constant of


3 # 103 N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.02 m (before the mass
hits the stop). The maximum measurable acceleration is ______

MCQ 3.1.10

A seismic instrument has a natural frequency of 4 Hz and a damping ratio


of 0.66. If the system is excited by a frequency 6 Hz, the error due to the
proximity of excited frequency with natural frequency of the instrument will
be _______ %

MCQ 3.1.11

A steel cantilever is 0.25 m long, 15 mm wide, and 3 mm thick. The modulus


of elasticity for steel is 200 GN/m2 . When a force of 22 N is applied at the
free end, the value of deflection at the end will be
(A) 16.975
(B) 9.21
(C) 0.0589
(D) 33.75

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MCQ 3.1.12

A body is dropped from a height of 10 m and suffers a shock when it hits the
ground. If the duration of the shock is 5 ms, the magnitude of the shock will
be (g is acceleration due to gravity)
(A) 7g (B) 200g
(C) 286g
(D) None of these

MCQ 3.1.13

A variable reluctance type tachometer has 120 teeth on rotor. The speed
of the shaft on which the rotor is mounted is 1500 rpm. What will be the
frequency of the output pulses ?
(A) 25 pulse per second
(B) 3000 pulses per second
(C) 2 pulses per second
(D) None of these

MCQ 3.1.14

MCQ 3.1.15

in
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A toothed rotor tachometer is used with a digital counter for measuring


speed of rotation of the shaft on which the wheel is mounted. The gating
period is 103 s and a reading of 0004 is obtained on the four digit display. If
the number of teeth on rotor is 150, then the speed of shaft is
(A) 150
(B) 4000
(C) 1600
(D) 100

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The frequency of the flashes of a stroboscope is adjusted such that a disc


with 20 points mounted on the shaft of the machine seems to be at standstill.
If the adjusted frequency of the flashes is 5000 per minute and approximate
speed of the machine is 765 rpm given by the other method, then the correct
speed of the machine is_______rpm

MCQ 3.1.16

The speed of a 6-pole induction motor supplied at 50 Hz is measured by a


stroboscopic method. The neon lamp is supplied from the same source to
which the induction motor is connected. The stroboscopic disc has six black
and six white sectors. What will be the speed of the induction motor when
the sector appears to be moving at 50 rpm ?
(A) 1000 rpm
(B) 50 rpm
(C) 950 rpm
(D) 1050 rpm

MCQ 3.1.17

An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.06 kg and a spring constant of 4500


N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.025 m (before the mass hits the
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(A) 10-3 (B) 10-4


(C) 10-2
(D) None of these

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PE 21
21 3
Chapter
EF

Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE2133
Page
EF

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

top). The maximum measurable acceleration is _______ m/s2

MCQ 3.1.18

In an LVDT accelerometer the outputs are 0.4 mV/mm with a ! 25 mm core


displacement. The spring constant is 300 N/m and the mass of the core is
50g. What is sensitivity of the accelerometer ?
(A) 15 ms-2 /mV (B) 150 ms-2 /mV
(C) 0.66 ms-2 /mV
(D) None of these

MCQ 3.1.19

A variable reluctance type tachometer has 60 rotor teeth. The counter records
3600 counts per second. The speed in rpm is ______

MCQ 3.1.20

An inductive pickoff operating from a 120 tooth wheel is used with a digital
frequency meter to measure the speed of rotation of the shaft on which the
wheel is mounted. The gating period is set to 10 4 s , and a reading of 0030
is obtained on the four digit display. If the available gating periods are 102 ,
103 , 10 4 , 105 , 106 , 107 s respectively, what would be the optimum setting of
gating period for making this measurement ?
(A) 10 4 s (B) 105 s
(C) 106 s (D) 102 s

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MCQ 3.1.21

While measuring speed of a steam turbine with stroboscope single line images
were observed for stroboscope setting of 3000, 4000 and 5230 rpm. What is
the speed of the turbine ?
(A) 6000 rpm
(B) 700 rpm
(C) 12000 rpm
(D) 14000 rpm

MCQ 3.1.22

A disc mounted on the shaft of a machine has 12 pattern points. The number
of flashes projected on the disc by a stroboscope is 6000 in a minute. If the
disc appears to move forward in the direction of rotation at 10 rpm, the
speed of the disc is
(A) 500 rpm
(B) 490 rpm
(C) 510 rpm
(D) 5000 rpm

MCQ 3.1.23

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A displacement transducer with a shaft stroke of 3.0 inch is applied to the


circuit shown in figure below. The total resistance of the potentiometer is
5 k . The applied voltage Vt is 5.0 V. When the wiper is 0.9 inch from B ,
what will be the value of the output voltage ?
(A) 0.66 V
(B) 1500 V
(C) 1.5 V
(D) 66.6 V

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MCQ 3.1.24

A resistive transducer with a resistance of 5 k and a shaft stroke of 3.0 cm


is used in the arrangement shown below. Potentiometer R 3 -R 4 is also 5 k and
Vt is 5.0 V. The initial position to be used as a reference point is such that
R1 = R2 (i.e. the shaft is at the centre) At the start of the test, potentiometer
R 3 -R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is balanced ^Ve = 0h. If we assume that
the object being monitored moves a maximum resistance of 0.5 cm towards
A, then what will be the new value of Vc ? (shaft distance is 5 cm)
(A) 0.5 V
(B) 2.5 V
(C) 3 V
(D) 5.5 V

MCQ 3.1.25

A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly wound with


a wire of total resistance 5000 . Under normal conditions the slider is at
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EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
22
Chapter
3
EF
22

MCQ 3.1.26

MCQ 3.1.27

i. n

A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly wound with


a wire of total resistance 5, 000 . Under normal conditions, the slider is at
the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of the potentiometer,
as measured by the Wheatstone bridge, is 1850 , the linear displacement is
______ mm.

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A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly wound with


a wire having a resistance of 10000 . Under normal conditions, the slider
is at the centre of the potentiometer. For the linear displacements x and y
the resistance of the potentiometer as measured by a Wheatstone bridge are
respectively 3850 and 7560 . Which of the following is/are correct ?
(A) x = 5.75 m
(B) y = 12.8 m
(C) Displacements x and y are in opposite direction
(D) All of the above

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MCQ 3.1.28

A resistive potential divider R1 R2 with a resistance of 5000 and a shaft stroke


of 125 mm is used in the arrangement shown in figure below. Potentiometer
R 3 R 4 has a resistance of 5000 and ei = 5.0 V . The initial position to be
used as reference point is such that R1 = R2 i.e. the wiper is at midstroke.
At the start of the test potentiometer R 3 R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is
balanced and e 0 = 0 . Assuming that the displacement being measured will
move a maximum distance of 12.5 mm towards A, the value of e 0 will be
______ volt

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**********

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the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of the potentiometer is


1850 , the linear displacement will be________mm.

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PE 23
23 3
Chapter
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* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
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Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE2333
Page
EF

solutions 3.1
SOL 3.1.1

Correct option is (C).


Sensitivity is given by

i. n

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p

RMS value of voltage


Displacement

= 2.6 = 6.5 V/mm
0. 4
S =

SOL 3.1.2

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Correct option is (C).


Maximum deviation of linearity is

D max = 0.0025 V

V0 = 1.25 V
So, Linearity
= D max # 100
v0

= 0.0025
1.25


= 0.2%

SOL 3.1.3

Correct option is (D).


s = 5 = 0.4 V/mm
12.5
So, the output voltage is

= 0.4 # 8 = 3.2 V

SOL 3.1.4

SOL 3.1.5

i. n

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Correct option is (C).


The output voltage of LVDT at maximum displacement is

= 1.8 V
The deviation from a straight line through the origin is

= ! 0.0045 V
Hence, percentage linearity is

= ! 0.0045 # 100 = ! 0.25%
1.8
Correct answer is 0.0067
The sensitivity of LVDT is
Output voltage

=
Displacement

= 1.8 = 3 mV/mm
0.6

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Sensitivity of measurement = (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)



= 500 # 3 = 1500 mV/mm
Also, we have

1 scale division = 4 V = 40 mV
100
So, minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is

= 1 # 40 = 10 mV
4
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Measurement
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Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

PE
24
Chapter
3
EF
24

Hence, resolution of the instrument is

SOL 3.1.7

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Correct answer is 0.01


The output voltage of LVDT is

Vout = 2 mV
and Displacement
= 0.5 mm
So, the sensitivity of LVDT is
Vout

=
= 2 mV
0.5 mm
Displacement


= 4 mV/mm
Sensitivity of the entire set up is

= (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)

= 250 # 4 mV/mm

= 1000 mV/mm or 1 V/mm
Again, full-scale of voltmeter is

=5V
and number of divisions on voltmeter scale is

= 100

1 scale division = 5 = 0.05 V or 50 mV
100
Minimum voltage that can be read on voltmeter is

= 50 mV = 10 mV
5
Hence, resolution of instrument is
10 mV

=
= 0.01 mm
1000 mV/mm

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SOL 3.1.8

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Correct option is (A)


Sensitivity of LVDT =

3
output voltage
= 2 # 10
0.5
displacement


= 4 # 103 V/mm = 4 mV/mm
Sensitivity of instrument = (amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)

= ^250h # ^4 # 103h = 1 V/mm

= 1000 mV/mm

1 scale division = 5 V = 50 mV
100
Minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is
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SOL 3.1.6


= 10 # b 1 l = 0.0067 mm.
1500
Correct option is (B)
We have LVDT sensitivity,

s = 40 V/mm
Output voltage for a deflection of 0.125 mm,

v out = 40 # 0.125 = 5 V
Hence the sensitivity of LVDT is
5

= v out =
p
0.8 # 106

= 6.25 # 106 V per N/m2

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Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

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25 3
Chapter
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SOL 3.1.9

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
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Motion
Measurement
Measurement
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Translational
and
Rotational
Motion


= b 1 l # 50 = 1 mV
5
Hence, resolution of instrument is

= 1 # b 1 l = 1 # 103 mm
1000
Correct answer is 1200.
Given natural frequency is

PE2533
Page
EF

i. n

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K = 3 # 103 = 245 rad/s.


0.05
M
So, maximum acceleration is

am = 2 xm = ^245h2 # ^0.02h

= 1200 m/s2
n =

SOL 3.1.10

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Correct answer is - 3.9 .


The ratio of output displacement to input displacement is given by
^x2 - x1hm
u2

=
2
xm1
^1 u2h + ^2u h2

Now, normalized frequency is



u = 6 = 1.5
4
So, we get
^x2 - x1hm
^1.5h2

=
1
xm1
2
8^1 1.52h + ^2 # 0.66 # 1.5h2B2

SOL 3.1.11


= 0.961
Hence, percentage error is obtained as

= ^0.961 1h # 100% = 3.9%

a
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d


= 33.75 # 1012 m2
So, deflection is obtained as
3

= FL
3EM

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Correct option is (A).


Moment of inertia of the cantilever is
M = 1 bt3 = 1 # ^0.15h # ^.003h3
12
12

22 # ^0.25h3

=
3 # 200 # 109 # 33.75 # 1012

= 16.975

SOL 3.1.12

Correct option is (C).


The equation of motion for a body falling under gravity gives the following
expression for the terminal velocity

v = 2gx
where x is the height through which the body falls. So the average deceleration
during the collision can be obtained as

= v
t
where t is the time duration of the shock. Substituting the appropriate
numerical values into these expressions, we obtain
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Measurement
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Rotational
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Measurement
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Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion


v = ^2 # 9.81 # 10h = 14.0 m/s
Hence, the magnitude of shock is

= 14.0 = 2801 m/s = 286 g
0.005
Correct option is (B).
Given
Speed of shaft,
N = 1500 rpm
Number of teeth on rotor,
T = 120
So, frequency of output pulses is

f = N # T
60

= 1500 # 120
60

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= 3000 pulses per second

SOL 3.1.14

SOL 3.1.15

Correct option is (C).


Given

Digital counter reading = 0004

Gating period = 103 s = 0.001 s

Number of teeth on rotor, T = 150
So, number of pulses per second is
Digital counter reading

f =
Gating period

= 0004 = 4000
0.001
Hence, rotational speed is
f

N = # 60
T

= 4000 # 60 = 1600
150
Correct answer is 750
Given
Number of points on the disk, n = 20
Number of flashes per minute, K = 5000
Prime speed of the machine, N = K = 5000 = 250 rpm
n
20

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But the apparent speed,


Na = 765 rpm
So, the multiplying factor is 3. Hence, the correct speed is

= N#3

= 250 # 3 = 750 rpm

SOL 3.1.16

Correct option is (C).


Given
Supply frequency,
f = 50 Hz
Number of poles on induction motor, P = 6
So, synchronous speed of motor is
120f

N s =
p

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SOL 3.1.13

PE
26
Chapter
3
EF
26

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Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 27
27 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
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Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
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and
Rotational
Motion

PE2733
Page
EF


= 120 # 50 = 1000 rpm
6
Therefore, slip of induction motor is

s = RPM at which the sector appears to be rotating

= 50 rpm
Hence, speed of induction motor is

N = N s s

= 1000 50 = 950 rpm
SOL 3.1.17

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Correct answer is 1875


Given
Seismic mass,
M = 0.06 kg
Spring constant,
K = 4500 N/m
So, the natural angular velocity is
0 = K
M

= 4500 = 273.86 rad/s
0.06
Since, maximum mass displacement is

= 0.025 m
Hence, maximum acceleration is

= 20 # (Maximum mass displacement)

= ^273.86h2 # 0.025

= 1875 m/s2

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SOL 3.1.18

Correct option is (A).


Given
Core mass,
M = 50 g = 0.05 kg
Spring constant, K = 300 N/m
So, natural angular frequency is

0 = K
M
300 = 77.46 rad/s

=
0.05
Also, maximum mass displacement is

A = 25 mm = 0.025 m
Therefore, maximum measurable acceleration is

= 2 A

= ^77.46h2 # 0.025

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SOL 3.1.19


= 150 m/s2
Hence, accelerometer sensitivity is obtained as

s = Maximum measurable acceleration
Maximum core displacement # output

= 15 ms2 /mV
= 150
25 # 0.4
Correct answer is 3600
pulses per second
Speed
=
number of teeth
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GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


in 3 Volumes

by NODIA Publication
PE 3
3 Page 28
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion

SOL 3.1.21


= 3600 rps = 3600 rpm
60
Correct option is (C).
The setting of the gating period for this measurement is 10 4 s and this gives
a reading of 0030 on a four digit display. It is seen that out of four digit
places only two are utilized. For optimum setting of gating period, all the
four digits places should be utilized. This requires that the gating time be
increased by a factor 102 , i.e.

Optimum gating time setting = 10 4 # 102 = 106 s

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Correct option is (D).


For m different flashing rates f1 , f2 .......... fm , the speed of system is given by
fm f1 ^m 1h

n =
^ fm f1h
Here, we have

fm = 5250 rpm

f1 = 3000 rpm
and
m = 3
Hence, speed of steam turbine is
5250 # 3000 ^3 1h

=
^5250 3000h

= 14000 rpm

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SOL 3.1.22

SOL 3.1.23

Correct option is (C).


Speed of machine when patterns appear stationary is
f

n =
m

= 6000 = 500 rpm
12
When the patterns move in the direction of rotation at a speed of 10 rpm,
the speed of machine in this case is

n = 500 + 10 = 510 rpm

c
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Correct option is (C)


We draw the transducer circuit as

n
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From the given circuit, we have



R2 = 0.9 in # 5 k = 9 # 5 k = 1500
30
3.0 in
So, we get
V0 = R2

R1 + R 2
Vt
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Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

SOL 3.1.20

PE
28
Chapter
3
EF
28

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering


PE 29
29 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

R2
V
R1 + R 2 # t
Hence,
V0 = 1500 # 5 V = 1500 = 1.5 V
5k
1k
Correct option is (A).
V0 =

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

or

SOL 3.1.24

PE2933
Page
EF

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If the wiper moves 0.5 cm towards A from the centre, it will have moved
3 cm from B . So,

R2 = 3.0 # 5 k = 3 k
5.0
Ve = VR2 VR 4

= c R2 m # Vt c R 4 m # Vt
R1 + R 2
R3 + R4

= b 3 k l # 5 V b 2.5 k l # 5 V
5k
5k


= 3 V 2.5 V = 0.5 V
SOL 3.1.25

Correct answer is 6.5 .



Total resistance = 5000

L = 50 mm
Rt = 5000 = 100
So,
50
L
Resistance of normal position is

= 5000 = 2500
50
Change in resistance is

= 2500 1850 = 650
Hence, the displacement is

y = 650 = 6.5 mm
100
Correct answer is 6.5 .
Total resistance of the potentiometer wire is

Rt = 5, 000
Total length of the potentiometer wire is

L = 50 mm
Resistance per mm length of potentiometer wire,
Rt = 5000 = 100

50
L

SOL 3.1.26

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Resistance of potentiometer at normal position is

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GATE Instrumentation Engineering-2016


in 3 Volumes

by NODIA Publication
PE 3
3 Page 30
EF

Measurement
of Translational
Translational
and Rotational
Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of Translational
and Rotational
Motion
Measurement
of
and
Motion


= 5000 = 2500
2
Change in resistance of potentiometer from its normal position is

= 2500 1850 = 650
Hence, linear displacement is

y = 650 = 6.5 mm
100
Correct option is (D).
The resistance of the potentiometer at its normal position is

= 1000 = 5000
2
Resistance of potentiometer per unit length is

= 1000 = 200 /mm
50
For first case, change of resistance from its normal position is

= 5000 3850 = 1150
So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is

x = 1150 = 5.75 mm
200
For second case, change of resistance from its normal position is

= 7569 5000 = 2560
So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is

y = 2560 = 12.80 mm
200
Since, one of the displacements represent a decrease and other represents an
increase in resistance of potentiometer from its value at the normal position,
the two displacements are in the opposite direction.

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SOL 3.1.28

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Correct answer is 0.5 .


Given

Total length of AB = 125 mm

Midpoint of AB = 62.5 mm from either A or B
If the wiper moves 12.5 inward towards A from midstroke, its distance from
B becomes

= 62.5 + 12.5 = 75 mm
So,
R2 = b 75 l # 5000 = 3000
125
Hence, output voltage is

e 0 = c R 2 R 4 m e i
R1 + R 2 R 3 + R 4

= ; 3000 2500 E # 5 = 0.5 V
5000 5000

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**********

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Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

SOL 3.1.27

PE
30
Chapter
3
EF
30

Complete GATE Study Package for Instrumentation Engineering

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering

PE 31
31 3
Chapter
EF

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *


*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions *
Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problems
Measurement of
of Translational
Translational and
and Rotational
Rotational Motion
Motion
Measurement
Measurement
of
Translational
and
Rotational
Motion

PE3133
Page
EF

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