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117312,1", ,

9.

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ISBN, 2001 .:

2007

ISBN 978-5-484-01021-9
. lO- ISBN,

2007 .:

ISBN 5-484-01021-7
I1\IE1

~~I ~,URSSOURSS.,"

l(ar 38 111 ~ :

http://URSS.ru
.lIC: 7

UASS

en.llCC:

(495) 135-42-16
7 (495) 135-42-46

4550 ' 53964

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, :
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, ,

(S) ().
:

- ;
G - ;
h =h /2 - ,

:
(,

G, ) ~ (, , ) -+ (, G, ) ~ (, , ) -+ (, G, ),

: (o~ )

) -

( , ,
; .
"( , G, ) - ;
(] OJ ) - ;
( ~ G ) - .

1905

s3

' :

N:

;;;;

S~ 1

(1)

- ,
:

5
(2)

1
R 4 -- 83 omu

(3)

; :arqI


- ,

, , ,

. ,
~

- ()

S7J .

, (

,

(

1979 ).

(, ,
) , , ,
.

-.

, ,

1i -,

.,

np .

: ,

, 70-

, -,

-

(4)

(5)

+1

M:

mtl


..

+ 1

, - , 3
, , ..:

n = -00, ... - 2,-1,0,1,2,... + >

(6)

, , -
,
, .
,

. ,

1925

1907

,
,
.

ro

( 3).

llJ
.

( 1).

,
.

,
(, G, h ~

) . (
), ( ),
( )
.

t G, h

-,

, .

) . -

- .

()

() ,
.
-, , G

. -

( 4)

..

(7)

2=const

( 6)

. , 8
:

dc
dt

=8'-G=

(8)

: - .

npo

,
,
.

,
.

1.

(.l)
. 1<

(1.1)
(1.2)
: ,

(1.1) (1.2)
, , (1.1)
, (1.2) , . , L2
(1.2) - ,
.
,

3.


-, ,

- .

-
, :

, ,
;

1. ,. :

.
-

, .

.

,
( )

.
.
:

- , ;

- ;
G - .
:

..,

: , z

G,

L
",-'

'

1. OJ1

11

,
:
1+3x-3+z=
y-::=

-2-z=

- -- "

z=-l,

='(- p)~ '-1


;

vG:P

(1.3)

(1.3)

=.

(1.3)

. ,

(1.3)

(1.3) :

12

1.


, , , _L5

, , ,

,
:

(1.4)
(1.5)


:

cmo =( 1-

:2

)1/2

(1.5), :

R~K

(1.6)

(1.6)
-

ymo.
moy ,
,

1. i

13

(1.8)

, , ,

, ,

,
-

,
,

2.


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, :

1000

. :

,
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,
::
, . eyro
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,

2.

15

np

()

I(

ro


, ,

1961

, ,

1, 2' 3 ~

(2.1)

1 1
1, 4' 9'

(2.2)

...

( )
:

1,

1,

1,

, ,
..,

, ,
.
, ,

(2.1) > (2.2).

1/2

111
2' 2' 2'

(2.3)

, ,

(2.1).

16

2.

(2.1)

. ,
.

,
.

, ,

. ,
,

() .

.
, , ,


.
.

:
,

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, .

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,

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,

2.

17

,
.


.
- ,

-
.

3.

,
, , .

;
..

- ,
.

, -
. ro ,

...

. ,

, .


,
,

"

= SfJ . " = const

(3.1)

n.

() .

19

.1. pocrpa

, , .
()
. ,

; -

, ,

() 3 =

z (.) Az (.l .),

!13 =

20

3.

= -flty !:li z


. V < (. 1,) 11

M~

I1tx

( 2/ 2)tl2

== 1- V

, , :

= 8tx / ' -

(3.1)

(.! .)

,
,

, ,

.
.

4,

/12 =
, ,
-

21

.
, cmo
u

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1(

-.


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..,

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( )
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3 .

...

22


, ,

10 ,

.
, .

,
, :

' I

, -

V,

2 )1/2 ;

=(

x-Vt

z=z;

==;

l-W2

=(

V 2)1/2

(3.2)

l-W2

t-W-x
2

(3.2)

, ,

W =1

(3.2)

W ==0

(3.2)

.


,

23

. ~

m.

V
(3.3)

nJl/n

(l-~n

(3.3)

, .
,

+ 1

-] .

. z.
V < (. 1.) Az z ~ mn &,

Mz

V=

(.l ,)

. ,

=2, (3.3)

nn

2 J]/2

1-~2

,
, ,
,

.

.


. .

1YR (
) .

82 , t

Z , , -

S1 ~ t , z .

24

pocrpacr


- .:

, ,

, ,

V;::;;

;::: ' = 2 = ~3 ,

, 8
, , ,

.
, -

, ;
, ;
,
.

- . == 80 .
. , <

= 800 .

. . -

- {r;I) ,
- .
,

, .

= 83 . , -

3.

25

> 3.

, .
:

",
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,

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..

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. .

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,

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no ,

-. , ~

,

.

80 (
- )
,
x i' - x i :::: dxJ
:

26

(3.4)

, :

N -

,
,
:

" gi/, . dr' .dr


dS:; L..
.

(3.5)

i.l,:1

(3.4) dr i ,

, :

lim dr = S;in

N~r:LJ

S~

. S:N

. S~
. -

, )

),

81'1

;; 2 . . " ,. . Ln

(3.6)

27

3.

S:"." -

, -

~ 1

(3.6)

);

=2

(
);
yroro

==3

m.n

:;; 2" .3. r3 = 68 r 3 ~ L3

= s2rn;;;;;; ,
. , SO

. (] s2
1:8,

, L =1.
<
(, < ), , ,
82 S-2 ; 82
, 8-2 -
.

()
n>:

S:

=:=:

Is:;;;~ .dr + const

(3.7)

= 1 (3.7) S~c = r + const , r - ,

4
3

-7(

- .

n=

2
2
S
= 1r . r + const,

- r

4
3
Sa&.=-tr-r +const,
3

28

erp~ ieO

,
:

SO - , s2 = const .
(3.7) ,
S~

(3.8)

> const ~ S::UN

(3.8)

4 (.2).

.
; 80
. ro ,
,

(3.7).
,
:

(sn )'r == Sn-l

(3.9)


-:

Sn . Sm =
:

Sn+m

(3.10)

;
-
:

29

fR -

J/11 dt :;;; /,,-1 + const

(3.11)

fn' . [ = n ~ '"

(3.13)

(3.7), (3.9) (3.10).

(3.11), (3.12)

(3.13),

.
.
,

, ,
.

,
.

- )

, {().
,

300

20

. -
,
.

1921

30

,
, (
); ,

.
, (

) ,

(3.14)
,

,
: : ..... L7

t 4. Dencr
ro

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1933

1Ic

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my: , ,
,

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-

() .


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.

32

4.

ar

, , ,
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,
.
.
,

,
.

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,
.

1(

.
, -

, = 3108 we.
3 ,


- .
,

, ,

=3 108 !. , -


. , , -

, , = 3 108
, .

1n = ( G/

mn

)L/3

~ 1,6 10-

112

= (h I G )

35

= 2 1-8

4.

...

tM == ( 1t. G/

)1/2 = 5 1 --44

- , ,

~ .Jl1t .

~ amro~ .
) , 26
18

prox.: 1.. . . 10-

bl,

t ..... l0-

c. ,

, ,

. ,
18 ,

(1.7)

(1.8)

(3.14),

8.,

( , 2
, np.
), 1'0

h/c

,
v

, :

-=8
2
rmn ..... L

(4.1)

(4.1)


; -

4.

34

(4.2)

s~ S~ J

, ,
:

811

min -

(4.3)

(5-n }/2

(4.3)

=5

(4.4)
:

AV -

()

,
. , v

, , -

(4.3) -

, .

()
:

S::NN

-=--=-=

SI3:1

-1/2

(4.5)

(4.5)

+ 1

(4.3).

4.

35

coo,l( ,

(e&J;U)

~) Q.Q :

..

(4.6)

-.
_

(4.5) (4.6) ,
* =3 108 :
r:,,+l

v.."

==

(4.7)

S"'t1 . .".
JD

mm

.m
-:- S"m
..
1

(4.7)

, (4.7) ,

,
.

()

..

("
lmiD.;;;O;
Smin

)l/n

(4.8)

(4.8) ,
- 7,37 10-51 ; - 1,13 .] 0-23 ;
- 1,30 -} 0-14 .
-
:

l~

(4.9)

4.

(4.9)

2,45 10~S9 ; -3,76.10-32 ;

-4,341 0-2 .
( )
(.6):

r.

min -

(4.10)

lJ n

(21r'n J
m

(4.10)

,
-.

(N)

Sn
= SN.

::: 21f . n r

(h)-l (5-n)/2
.

(4.11)

(4.3) (4.11)

, ,

- :

(4.12)
-

8" ---)- 811+1 + n


, ,

. , ,

h/

S-1 =~

S:: ,

S:: .

4.
,

S:.ax

37

(5+ n)/2

'

(4.13)

.,

(4.13)


'.

(4.3)

(4.13)

>ss
->~=h

(4.14)

- ro ,

=I

2 - , = 3 -

l1:O' .

"

5.

r cr


. ? ,
;
,

. ,
,
v

, ,
. ,

,,=2

(4.12) :

=2

2 2 -2

<-

(5.1)
..

(5. 1)

(1.2).

(5.1)

. ,
( )
( ) .

(5.1)

6.

5.

f ;'39

r~ ~

(5.2)

. .'

V4;

~llJl .2 , min

=s~ =

== 1~28 10-46 ,
:

_
1'.--

~t1Inn
4n

_
-

1,2810--46 _ 3, 19 _10-24
4Jr

ero

, 2,69 -} 0-16 . ,
nee , .

: ,

. . . . De'pOU .
-~ (aor, ,
1.

_~ca .

(4..12) :

.
25
II --1 =2tr'r'C'
=hv,

hv

........
2 . 2 ,5 - 2 ,5

=--

(5.3)

-,

(5.3) 2 10-34 ,
210-40 .

40

5~ ~HOOMepHe

l~

=1,30.10-14


- :

..
, rn

, ,
.

, .

( ),

( ).

np .

, , , -

- 81 ~ S2 ,

(3.12):

(q)~ = J

(5.4)

, ,
. ,

,
. ),
1

5.

(5.4)

41

. ,
: .

;>~hIX

20

1.

~Jl ,

1'0

8 , ,

10

~ca, .


.
8 . ,

YJI ,


~rre , ,
.
,- -

(5.5)
, .~ .
M~Y, 3' --

. , ., 11 V = 2 ,
~ V -

, 2 2 = 3 108 . , (Jc).
(5.5) , = 3 108 . ,
= ~,

(5.6)

42

s.

,
,
( ), :

= 2 r.

(5.7)

(5.7)

,
- ,

, ,
. ,
,
. -

tcrp

J2

, ,

,
1920-
.

- , ,
,

,
.

6.

.
.

'8 ,
,

~~O . rp


, .

,
.
'1 '

;. " <<.) ~, .
t .1. '

..

~
ar, ~l , ,

.~ . ,

~~ ,

~ :~0CtyX . ,

4~a , .
ipeyer, .

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,

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44

MHoroMepHbIe

: ,

.
-

: .
-

,
.

....

, ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,

..

.
,

(3.11), (3.12) (3.13).

, ,
(.2)
,

, ,
:
.

01 (, ) -

, :

01

45'

. 2.
(

~ anee ,

:fI't,ryte .
Ji~fl8lmju , ,
diif-p8biJqjJleClI :
2

==

'
r

(6.1)

Orporo

. 2 min ::: 1,28 10-46 /. , -

46

MHoroMepHbIe 8i10

=3 .} 08

, .
,

, pa~c

1/RBC -

,
.

, ,
, -
, -
:

v;

2
=-=--=-dt RBC
dc

RBe -

(6.2)

, .

,
.


;
. , ,

400

/,

600

!.

47

. pocr

l m 2 ( )

r.

m1

2 11 :

.F1

F2

- r 2 :

Fi .F2 = m1 m2
2

. r 2

(6.3)

(6.3)

.
, .

.

. ~

48

(6.4)

m1 =""l = ,

r =RBC "

mu ;::.

(6.4) :

(6.5)

(6.5)

2
=4n .RBe
,

(6.6)
,

= 8' . G ,

(6~3) 1/~ .
Jl
:

clo -

...

Ql -

;
2 -

..

..

F = m flo

, .,

F=

=(llo +01)' 01 + 2 + = ~ .. F = ( + ) .

1 2

+ + ...

(6.2)

(6.6)

49

(6.7)

8 G/ 2

1916 . ,


, 8 ,

(6.7),

0,05

(6.2)

/ .

1,2 /.

25 .

(6.7) 5, 35 1025 ,

(6.1)

(6.6):

V,. =+,J8Gr

(6.8)

(6.8)

,
, .

( ) .

1924 .

1922

1929

v;.

.6

36

. ,

.
.

500 /( ),

50

=50....100 I(CuIC).

(6.6)

, . .
- , ,

88.
,

1/ == r/v,.

10...20

. . ,
,

, .
(
) ~
, ,

( ) u

. rn ,
. -

,.

= S" . " = const .



, , ,
:

(6.9)

':1

'
.

510=28 / 3 t

51

. :; in ::;:

50 /(]()

(6.9) == 4,69 10-27 / 3 . ,


.
, () .


, .

, .

RJJ .
,
.
,
,

. ,

,
.

.
,
:

-, , ~
)

-,

= 4 Jr . ~ ,

<<

v;

4 1r RBC
4
- n R 3 C
3

- ,

;::

3 = 5 61. 10-26 / 3
R'
,

(6.10)

S2
.

5 10-28 / 3,
99%.

,
. ..

. -
.

Rac .

.
,

,
, , . .

, .,
,
.

, .

-. ,



- RBc (.2).

:

53

8 . Jr G . R _ 8 Jr G

2 _

R~c

(6.11)

(6.9)

pJ(p

(6.11)

- -R--

BC

381l'G
8~GRBC

---

(6.12)

(6.10)

(6.9)

. , .

3.


, ,

. :
,

. ,
.

(6.9)

(6.10)

= '

,
.
=
, .

,
(WAP)

2003 ,

1,02 0,02.

S4

,
,
.

(6.11)

,
. ,

(6.11) :

=~8'7!"

G = 173 /()
R

(6.13)

=

27,5 /().

(6.1)

.
,
. , ,

(6.13)

, 3273 (

, )

5)27

3,631024 1,911025 (620 ),


,

r~

~ ) ~ , 8:

.. ,
,

-.

.2

np, 1,2810--46

7,061062 . , , -

55

1%

, .

(4.12)

380

. -
,

99%

(
) ,

(6.8)

, .

(4.1) h 1i =/21! ,
:

(J)

(6.14)

J1/3

= ( 2

1,05 10-17 /

(6.14)

= 2 ::: 5,98 .1017 =

18,9

S6

G 10-9 ~ / 2

l08 ~

wc

R'1026 ,

"

_ .'\

v.

/
~

/
I

-2

t----~_t--~~~-- -._-

- J I----~----

,-

~T
Ij

*4fflf?

!'q".t?itl

i~l1

8 (''!

~N()ii
... - . _ - _ . - - _...---...

: 18~
,

18

.. (6),
(It) ~

("

,
.

= ,

,
.

const =

(.),

..

, .

9,3 . .
143 . .

57

,
,

. ,
,

S~c ---). S;H' , ,


.
.
, ,

, S;mll -) S;'
,
.


, , .
.
, , .
, }> ,

- .

. .

, :

_2
-

(6.15)

(6.15) :;

= 4n . R~c. , ,
,

. ,

,
, .

. MHQrOMepHbIe re

58

R = R

,
~

L,

, !

(6.] 6)

F -+ 00

r ----) R.

~ ,

(6.16)

RJ
,
-

RBc , ,

KmAfn = ,

(6.8),

Vr

F=

l1It ''''z ~1
72

80, r =

1IJl 'z
r2

1-

1r ~ RBc

(6.17)

(6.17)

59

=:

1t . Rnc

F = .

,
,

(5.2).

(5.2) (6.17) .


, ,

:

=m-R

RBc

(6.7) :

(6.17),

. ,

"

(4.7) :


. -

,
,

RJJC = 5,35 1025 .

7.

n
, , :

,
.
,


- . ,

.....

. ,
. , ~

, .

, .
,

. ,
, ,
, .

, ,
.

, ,
. ,

1/Rc .

, ,

,
, ,

.
,

7.

ocr

,
.

; ,
:

~ :

M=S><T
,
. ,

(),
()
;

=
,
,

.
()
.
,
(),

()~ :

=
,
. ,
.
,

, v

, -

: .

- .

- ,

..,

,
8 ,
: . ,

()
. v

, .

.
,

h/

, -, ,

63



- , :

.
. ,

,
.
,

. .

, -

h/

..

- ,

0,05

/ ,

2,431042 /. , yr
( )
.

l10

6ll

cr cre ()
()

t1l

L2

L- i

L2

L2

LS

2. i

L-1L

LQ

L-1L

LO

3.1..

crp-

65

.:'

Lr2

L3

r- 1

:'

- 1

- 2

L2

3.2.

bJ

[-3

L- 1

L4

J3M

[. -

L4

. - 1

L.M -2

L5

L2.M -2

--:'

L- 1 . -2

-:"

L4

L2.M -2

L2.M -

L'

L-1.M - 1

L2

an-

L2 . T- 1

L3

3.3. hl

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h/c 2,21.10--42 .
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