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GRASS 6.

1.2

2004-2005 GDF Hannover bR


.

, ,
. GRASS GIS GNU General Public License.
GRASS [12].
, ,
.
.
.
.
.
LATEX .
LATEX, HTML GDF Hannover bR [9].

, GNU General Public License
.
, GRASS
- GRASS User-Association e.V. (GAV) [14], FreeGIS [16] Free
Software Foundation Europe [10].
: July 2005
Copyright 2004-2005 GDF Hannover bR

:
Otto Dassau
Stephan Holl
Markus Neteler
Dr. Manfred Redslob
(): (1,2,3,16,17,20,21), (4),
(13,14), (8), (5,9), (6),
(7,15), (10,11,12), John Doe (18) http://gislab.info/docs/grass
: http://www.gdf-hannover.de
: info@gdf-hannover.de
, GNU
Free Documentation License, 1.1
Free Software Foundation; . 20.

ii


.................................................................................................................... ii
............................................................................................................... vi
................................................................................................ vii
........................................................................................................... viii
1 .................................................................................................................... 1
2 ............................................................................................................... 2
2.1 ......................................................................................................... 2
2.2 ....................................................................................................... 4
2.3 GRASS............................................................................................................... 4
2.3.1 PERMANENT ........................................................................................................ 5
2.3.2 ........................................................................................................... 6
2.4 GRASS ...................................................................................................... 7
2.5 GRASS ................................................................................................. 8
2.6 GRASS............................................................................................................... 8

3 GRASS ..................................................................................................... 9
3.1 ....................................................................................... 9
3.1.1 GRASS 5.4 ........................................................................................................................ 9
3.1.2 GRASS 6.0 ...................................................................................................................... 10
3.2 ............................................................................................... 10
3.3 CVS ................................................................................................................. 11

4 GRASS................................................................................ 12
4.1 GRASS.......................................................................................................... 12
4.2 ............................................................................................................................... 15
4.2.1 .............................................................................................................................. 15
4.2.2 ...................................................................................................................... 15
4.2.3 .............................................................................................................................. 16
4.2.4 ................................................................................ 16
4.2.5 .................................................................................................... 17
4.3 ................................................................................ 17
4.3.1 ................................................................................................ 17
4.4 .............................................................................................................. 18
4.4.1 ................................................................................... 18
4.4.2 2- 3- ................................................................................ 19
4.5 GRASS .............................................................. 20
4.5.1 : ............................................................. 20
4.5.2 - ..................................................... 20
4.5.3 ...................................................... 22
4.5.4 UTM................................................................ 22
4.5.5 ..................................................... 23
4.6 .................................................................................................... 24

5 ....................................................................................................... 25
5.1 .............................................................................................. 25
5.2 ................................................................................................... 26
5.3 ..................................................................................................... 28

6 ..................................................................................... 30
6.1 .............................................................................. 30
6.1.1 .............................................. 30
6.1.2 ............................................................................ 31
6.2 .................................................................................. 31
6.2.1 ............................................................................................. 32
6.2.2 ........................................................................ 33

iii

7 ...................................................................................................... 35
7.1 .............................................................................................. 35
7.2 .................................................................................................. 36
7.3 .................................................................................................... 36

8 ....................................................................................... 37
8.1 ...................................................................................................................... 37

9 ........................................................................... 40
9.1 .......................................................................................................... 41
9.2 .................................................................................. 41
9.3 ............................................................................................................ 43
9.3.1 ................................................................................................... 43
9.3.2 ............................................................................................... 44
9.3.3 ............................................................................................................. 44
9.3.4 .................................................................................................... 44
9.4 .................................................................... 45
9.5 ............................................................................................................................. 46
9.6 ............................................................................................. 47
9.6.1 ...................................................................................................... 47
9.6.2 ............................................................................................................. 48
9.7 ........................................................................................ 49

10 ..................................................... 50
10.1 GRASS 6.0 ........................................................................................ 50
10.2 ................................................................................... 51
10.2.1 OGR .......................................................................................... 51
10.2.2 .................................................................................. 52
10.2.3 XY / XYZ ......................... 52
10.3 ......................................................................... 53
10.3.1 ............................................................................... 54
10.3.2 ................................................................................................ 54
10.3.3 .................................................. 55

11 ......................................................................... 56
11.1 ................................................................................................................... 56
11.1.1 ............................................................................................. 56
11.1.2 ................................................................................... 57
11.1.3 .............................................................. 57
11.1.4 ................................................................................................. 57
11.1.5 .................................................................................................... 57
11.2 , , ........................................................... 58
11.2.1 .................................................................................................. 58
11.2.2 ................................................................................................... 59
11.2.3 ....................................................................................................... 59
11.2.4 ...................................................................................................... 59
11.3 ........................................................................................... 59
11.4 ............................................................................................................................... 59
11.5 ...................................................................................................... 59
11.6 GRASS ...................................................................................................... 60

12 :
.................................................................................................... 68
12.1 .................................................................................................... 68
12.2 ..................................................................... 69
12.3 ............................................................... 70
12.4 ....................................................................... 71

13 ............................................................................................ 73
13.1 ...................................................................................... 73
13.2 ................................................................... 75

iv

14 ......................................................................................... 76
14.1 ..................................................................... 76
14.1.1 ................................................................................................................... 76
14.1.2 .............................................................................. 76
14.2 ................................................. 77

15 r.mapcalc .................................................................... 78
15.1 r.mapcalc ....................................................................................................... 78
15.2 r.mapcalc ............................................................................................................ 79
15.3 r.mapcalc................................................................................. 81
15.4 ..................................................................................................................... 81

16 3D ............................................................................. 83
16.1 3D NVIZ ......................................................................... 83
16.2 (VOXEL) ....................................................... 84
16.3 ............................................................................................................ 86

17 ........................................... 88
17.1 .................................................................................................. 88
17.2 PNG-........................................................................... 90
17.3 ............................................................................................. 90
17.4 Xfig......................................................................................... 91
17.5 Skencil ................................................................................... 95

18 QGIS ........................................................................................................................ 96
18.1 ................................................................. 96
18.2 ........................................................................................ 98
18.3 .................................................................................................................. 99
18.3.1 GRASS ......................................................................................... 99
18.3.2 Shape- ................................................................................................................ 100
18.4 GRASS .................................................................................................. 101
18.5 GPS .................................................................................................... 101
18.6 ............................................................................................ 102
18.7 ..................................................................................................... 102

19 ............................... 104
20 GNU ................................................ 106
0. ............................................................................................................................. 106
1. , .................................................................... 106
2. ................................................................................ 108
3. ..................................................................................................................... 108
4. ............................................................................................................ 109
5. .................................................................................................... 111
6. ........................................................................................................... 111
7. ................................................... 111
8. ................................................................................................................................. 112
9. ......................................................................................................... 112
10. ............................................................................................ 112
: 112

21 .................................................................................................... 114
................................................................................................................ 134
- ..................................................................................................... 134


GDF Hannover bR (9)
. ,
,
.
GDF Hannover bR :


GRASS 6.0

GRASS.

, .
, GNU Free Document License
GDF Hannover bR [9].

. ,
GRASS -
GRASS GDF Hannover bR.
GRASS 6.0
. ,
.

GDF Hannover - Solutions for spatial data analysis and remote sensing
, 2005

vi


1: GRASS 2001 ( 1/2005)....................... 1
2: ................................................ 3
3: ............. 4
4: ......................................................................................... 4
5: GRASS 6.0 ................................................................. 5
6: GRASS 5.4 6.0 .................................................................................. 9
7: GRASS (Tcl/Tk) .......................................................................... 12
8: GRASS ....................................................... 13
9: EPSG ................................................................................. 14
10: [7]...................... 15
11: (, , )... 16
12: .............. 21
13: GRASS .................................................................... 30
14:
i.points. ......................................................................................................................................... 32
15: d.m GRASS 6.0 FRIDA ................................................ 37
16:
d.profile ........................................................................................................................... 43
17: r.buffer............................ 45
18: GRASS 6.0 ....................................................................................... 51
19: VMAP0 ............................................................................... 58
20: v.digit ....................................... 60
21: Spearfish
..................................................................................................................................................... 63
22: ............................. 64
23: .......................................... 65
24: .. 66
25: : .......................... 69
26: .......................................... 72
27: ........................................ 73
28: .......................................................................... 74
29: (5) ............................... 75
30: NVIZ.......................................................................................... 83
31: Volume-panel .................................................... 85
32: ........................................................ 86
33: NVIZ.................................................................... 87
34: . (
Spearfish)........................................................................................................................ 90
35: d.his .................................... 91
36: Xfig ............................................................................. 92
37: Xfig ............................. 93
38: Spearfish
Xfig. ................................................................................................ 94
39: Skencil Geo-Object FRIDA
..................................................................................................................................... 95
40: QGIS FRIDA ............................................. 96
41: - . ................................ 97
42: ................................................................................................... 97
43: .............................................................................. 98
44: .................................................................................... 98
45: GRASS QGIS .............................................. 99
46: ...................................................................................... 100
47: QGIS ............................................................................................. 101
48: QGIS-GPS............................................................................................... 102
49: .................................................................. 102
50: "" - QGIS, ................................. 103

vii


1: GRASS ..................................................................... 7
2: ( ),
[7] ............................ 15
3: .................................................... 16
4: ......................................... 17
5: .............................................. 18
6: ...................................... 18
7: GRASS ................................................. 25
8: GRASS ................................................. 27
9: ....................................................................... 33
10: ............................................................ 35
11: ............................................................ 36
12: r.mapcalc ......................................................................................... 78
13: r.mapcalc .......................................................................................... 79
14: r.mapcalc .................................................................. 81
15: GRASS ( [8])............................................. 99

viii

1
, .
,

.

.
() GRASS,
([5],[6])
GRASS 6.0.
,
GRASS ( 1).
GRASS 2001 .

1: GRASS 2001 ( 1/2005)

2
GRASS - ,
. GRASS . ,
GRASS .
,
.

2.1
([1]):

: ,
:

.
,

. ()
(/, , ) (. 2).

. ,
- ( ).
.

/.
-,
. -
( )
.
.
,
.

2:


( ). () .
, ().
GRASS dBase.
, , PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle .
,
.
, ,
.

. GRASS
6.0, 5.4 .
. ,
, DBMI (
).
,
(, ..).
:

->

->

, , ,
, .
GRASS .

. ,

(. 3).

3:

2.2
, (2D) ,
( ), (2.5D).
( )
(3D) (. 4).

4:

2.3 GRASS
GRASS ,
GRASS.
Home ( grassdata/):
cd
# Linux

mkdir grassdata
#
GRASS

(location)
GRASS.
. ,
(mapsets). GRASS
( 2.3.1 2.3.2).

5: GRASS 6.0
, (,
) ,
GRASS,
(, , )
GRASS (g.copy, g.remove, g.rename)

2.3.1 PERMANENT
,
, PERMANENT
GRASS. , - ( )
,
. ,
.
GRASS PERMANENT
, ,
PERMANENT .

PERMANENT
GRASS .
PERMANENT ,
:

DEFAULT_WIND

PERMANENT

MYNAME

-> : hanover

PROJ_INFO

-> tmerc
( ), bessel
(), potsdam ()

PROJ_UNITS

: :

WIND

(REGION)
(MAPSET)

VAR

2.3.2
GRASS
.
.

, .

.
GRASS.

Cats/

(
) ()

cell/

cellhd/

cell_misc/

colr/

dbf/


DBASE

fcell/

hist/

''

vector/

( , ,
..)

WIND

GRASS 6.0 GRASS.

2.4 GRASS
GRASS .
().
GRASS. . , ,
r.digit,
v.to.rast. 1
GRASS.
GRASS
GRASS, Unix/Linux,
.
, GRASS.
, , GRASS
.
Unix .

1: GRASS

d.*

r.*

i.*

v.*

g.*

p.*

ps.*

postscript

db.*

r3.*

3D

3D

2.5 GRASS
400 GRASS
. help.
d.rast -help

,
GRASS,
g.manual .
g.manual d.rast

.
, 21.

2.6 GRASS
GRASS .
g.gisenv.
, GRASS :
g.gisenv
GISDBASE=/home/holl/grassdata
GRASS_DB_ENCODING=utf-8
MAPSET=PERMANENT
LOCATION_NAME=spearfish
GRASS_GUI=tcltk


'MAPSET': g.gisenv MAPSET

,
g.gisenv set='OVERWRITE=1'

OVERWRITE ,
.
GRASS
g.manual:
g.manual variables

: 'OVERWRITE'
-o -overwrite ( ).
, .

3 GRASS
GRASS.
GRASS 6.0, 5.4.
, .
GRASS:

GRASS 5.4: GRASS 5.x


.
. GRASS 5.4
, GRASS 6.0.0,
. ,
GRASS 5.4 .

GRASS 6.0: GRASS 2005 .


5.7
5.4 .
GRASS GRASS 6.0,
.

6: GRASS 5.4 6.0


GRASS GNU/Linux.
, .
.

3.1
GRASS 5.4 6.0 [12]
. , GDF Hannover,
RPM- GNU/Linux.

3.1.1 GRASS 5.4


, GRASS 5.4 5 2004 .
5.0
.
GRASS 6.0.
() GRASS 5.4
.
, GRASS
.
.

GRASS 5.4,
GNU/Linux.
GNU/Linux .
.
GRASS (root),

su
*****
sh grass5.4.0_i686-pc-linux-gnu_install.sh \
grass5.4.0_i686-pc-linux-gnu_bin.tar.gz

, GRASS, ,
GRASS 5.4 .
,
( ).
GRASS 5.
GRASS [12].

3.1.2 GRASS 6.0


5.4.
, ,
:
su
*****
sh grass6.0.0_i686-pc-linux-gnu_install.sh \
grass6.0.0_i686-pc-linux-gnu_bin.tar.gz

GRASS ,
GRASS 6.0 .
,
( ).
GRASS 6.0 grass60.

3.2
GRASS 5.4 6.0
. ,

.
rule of proportion,
Unix .
./configure [...]
make
make install

, ./configure,
. ,
GDAL PostgreSQL:
./configure --with-gdal=/usr/local/bin/gdal-config \
--with-postgres-includes='/usr/include/pgsql /usr/include/pgsql/server/' \
--with-postgres-libs=/usr/lib

10

make
make install


'./configure -help'.
GDF Hannover [9] http://www.gdfhannover.de/download GRASS [12].

3.3 CVS
GRASS
5.4, 6.0 CVS GRASS [12] CVS.
, CVSROOT.
CVS,
, ,
3.2.
bash:
export CVSROOT=:pserver:grass-guest@intevation.de:\
/home/grass/grassrepository
cvs login
PW is "grass"

,
:
cvs -z3 co grass
cvs -z3 co grass51

# CVS GRASS 5.4


# CVS GRASS 6.0 ( 5.1
# )

(. 3.2).
./configure [...]
make
make install

grass grass51
, ,
:
make distclean
cvs up -dP

#
# CVS

11

4 GRASS
GRASS (
) .
(, -, UTM ..) , .
: ,
, GRASS .
: , ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
.
:
. ,
, . ,
.
. ,
.
, ,
GRASS. grassdata (.
2.3).

4.1 GRASS
, GRASS 6.0
$PATH, GRASS (X-Terminal) grass60.
3.

. , -gui
-text GRASS (. . 8 7).
grass60 -text
grass60 -gui

#
#

7: GRASS (Tcl/Tk)

12

(location) (mapset)
.
[] ,
, 'Create New mapset'
( ) 'Create ...' (. . 7).
.
(A) . , ,
, .
(B) EPSG (.
http://www.epsg.org). ,
. (. . 9)
.
(C) ,
r.in.gdal v.in.ogr.
(A): , 'Create New Location'. GRASS
,
-text (. . 8). ,
4.5.1.

8: GRASS
(B): EPSG ,
. 'Create Location from EPSG'
(. . 9). 'EPSG Codes'
.

13

9: EPSG
(C): .
GRASS,
, . ,
SHAPE- GeoTIFF,
(.prj) ( , ).
: (.prj) SHAPE-
PROJCS["Transverse Mercator",GEOGCS["bessel",
DATUM["Deutsches_Hauptdreiecksnetz",
SPHEROID["bessel",6377397.155,299.1528128],
TOWGS84[590.5,69.5,411.6,-0.796,-0.052,-3.601,8.30]],
PRIMEM["Greenwich",0],UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]],
PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"],PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin",0],
PARAMETER["central_meridian",9],PARAMETER["scale_factor",1],
PARAMETER["false_easting",3500000],PARAMETER["false_northing",0],
UNIT["meter",1]]

: (GeoTiff)
Driver: GTiff/GeoTIFF Size is 3570, 3753 Coordinate System is:
PROJCS["Transverse Mercator",
GEOGCS["Deutsches_Hauptdreiecksnetz",
DATUM["Deutsches_Hauptdreiecksnetz",
SPHEROID["bessel",6377397.155,299.1528128000033],
TOWGS84[590.5,69.5,411.6,-0.796,-0.052,-3.601,8.3]],
PRIMEM["Greenwich",0],
UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]],
PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"],
PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin",0],
PARAMETER["central_meridian",9],
PARAMETER["scale_factor",1],
PARAMETER["false_easting",3500000],
PARAMETER["false_northing",0],
UNIT["meters",1]]
Origin = (3368561.280000,5928333.120000)
Pixel Size = (0.32000000,-0.32000000)
Corner Coordinates:
Upper Left ( 3368561.280, 5928333.120) ( 7d 1'12.86"E, 53d28'18.24"N)
Lower Left ( 3368561.280, 5927132.160) ( 7d 1'14.67"E, 53d27'39.41"N)
Upper Right ( 3369703.680, 5928333.120) ( 7d 2'14.77"E, 53d28'19.26"N)
Lower Right ( 3369703.680, 5927132.160) ( 7d 2'16.56"E, 53d27'40.43"N)
Center
( 3369132.480, 5927732.640) ( 7d 1'44.71"E, 53d27'59.33"N)

.
. , DATUM SPHEROID,
.

14

4.2
(Location) ,
.
, .
10
.

10: [7]

4.2.1
, , .
. -
,
. , .
, . 10 .
,
.

4.2.2

1:2 000 000.
.
, (. . 10).
, . ,
,
.

2: ( ),
[7]
,


()


()

Bessel 1841

6377397

6356079

,
,
, .

Clarke 1880

6378249

6356515

15

Hayford 1909

6378388

6356912

,
,
, ...

WGS 1984

6378137

6356752

4.2.3
, ,
. 3
. GRASS 5.4, 6.0 (.
. 6).

3:

WGS 84

WGS 84

NAD 1983

GRS 80

European 1950

International
()

4.2.4
, 3- 2-
().

11: (, ,
)

16

, (. . 11),
.
: . ,
, , .
, .
.
.
:
, .
, ,
. ,
.
1-2 .
.
: .
,

.
, ,
. (0 ),
(45) (90).

4.2.5
, .
(, ,
, , ),

.
: .
90. ,
. ,
. , , .
:
. , .
,
.
,
.
: .
.

4.3
4, 5
6. [2] [3].

4.3.1
4:

17

,
,

,
,



,
,

4.3.2
5:


, ;

.

4.3.3
6:

,
90


( G-K
UTM)

4.4
, ,
, 2- 3- . ,
2- / 3- .

4.4.1
(Longitude-Latitude, lon/lat):
, , (: ).
. ,

18

180 () 180 ()
. ,
.

(::, , ) (+/-
) .

4.4.2 2- 3-
()
, , . (
) GRASS, ,
. ,
(,
). ,
, , .
,
. GRASS (r.proj and
v.proj). UTM, .

-
1927 .
, (Potsdam).
,
( ) 6, 9, 12 15.
12 / ,
.
100 . -
23 .
.
+500000 . ,
, 500000 .
3 .
, .
Lneburg 9 . 3593000/5902000
(x/y) 4392753/5902298 (x/y) - 12 ..

UTM
UTM ( )
WGS84. 84
80 . 6 .
, . ,
( 0,9996).
-
. ,
10000 . ,
500 , -, .
E () and N ().
3, 9, 15 .. / .
8 , .
. UTM
, /
.

19

4.5 GRASS
,
,
(Location) GRASS (. 4.1).
, :

( xy , )

( )

(, )

4.5.1 :
GRASS (. 4.1) Create New Location,
. (. . 8). GRASS
grass60 -text. ,
. , grass60 -gui -text.
, .
LOCATION: (, Hanover).
MAPSET: , (,
Kronsberg).
DATABASE: GRASS, mkdir
grassdata, (, /home/user/grassdata).
: GRASS PERMANENT,
(. 2.3) ,
mapset.
, <ESC><ENTER>, GRASS,
. -
4.5.2. .
:
g.region -d. GRASS g.region -p
.

4.5.2 -
- .
, 90 - .
( 12 / 2).
, -
, .
, . , -
, 'other'. :
-:
- coordinate system for location: other (D)
:
- one line description for location: , Hanover

20

:
- specify projection name: tmerc ( )
- specify ellipsoid name: bessel ( )
- Do you want to specify a map datum for this location? potsdam
- Enter Central Parallel [lat_0] (23N): 0N
- Enter Central Meridian [lon] (96W): 9E
- Enter Scale Factor at the Central Meridian: 1
- Enter False Easting: 3500000 (3, 9E )
- Enter plural form of units: meters
, GRASS
list.
, : North =
5801000, South = 5787000, West = 3427000, East = 3445000. -
( ) 3 .
(. . 12).
( ) - -
. ( )
.
. ,
.

12:
, <ESC><ENTER> .
, "yes", .
.
. , GRASS
. g.region -p .

21

-:
projection:

99 (Transverse Mercator)

zone:

datum:

potsdam

ellipsoid:

bessel

north:

5801000

south:

5787000

west:

3427000

east:

3445000

nsres:

2.5

ewres:

2.5

rows:

5600

cols:

7200

4.5.3
xy-, , ,
,
. 'A'
- coordinate system for location: x,y (A)
( , ).

. , , xv (Windows -> Image Info).

.
1.

(. . 6).
(g.region -p):
projection:

0 (x,y)

zone:

north:

8000

south:

west:

east:

8000

nsres:

ewres:

rows:

8000

cols:

8000

4.5.4 UTM
22

UTM ( )
- ( ).
,
WGS 84. ,
-:
-

coordinate system for location: UTM (C)


specify ellipsoid name: wgs84 (world geodetic system 1984)
do you want to specify a map datum for this location? wgs84
Enter Zone: 32 ( UTM )
Is this South Hemisphere? n

, . ,
7- 6- .
UTM (g.region -p):
projection:

1 (UTM)

zone:

32

datum:

potsdam

ellipsoid:

wgs84

north:

6100000

south:

5880000

west:

500000

east:

630000

nsres:

12.5

ewres:

12.5

rows:

17600

cols:

10400

4.5.5
(0-90
, 0-180 ),
(::, , ) (+/ ).
.
- coordinate system for location: latitude - longitude (B)

(g.region -p):
projection:

3 (Latitude-Longitude)

zone:

datum:

unknown (default: WGS84)

ellipsoid:

unknown (default: WGS84)

north:

90N

south:

90S

west:

180W

east:

180E

23

nsres:

0:04:48

ewres:

0:04:48

rows:

2250

cols:

4500

4.6
GRASS,
g.remove !
GRASS
. g.mremove,
.
: (mapset) (location).
GRASS exit. rm -r (,
konqueror) (mapset) / (location) GRASS.
: (location, mapset...) (,
...) !
: rm -rf ~/grassdata/Hanover
Hanover .

24

5
, ,
GRASS GIS, , . 2.3.
, ,
,
. GRASS
, .
-help g.manual.
v.in.ogr -help
g.manual v.in.ogr &
r.in.gdal -help

5.1
GRASS .
, :
(image): ,
, PPM, PNG, JPEG GIF.
ASCII: ASCII ,
, c . ASCII-GRID
Arcinfo .
(binary):

.
(Geo)TIFF ERDAS/IMG.
GRASS,
:
,
( 7.1).
:

, ,
,
(GRID RESOLUTION).

,
( ) .

7 ,
, .. ,
, .

7: GRASS
GRASS

r.in.ascii

GRASS ASCII

r.in.bin

BIL, GMT binary files, LANDSAT TM5

25

r.in.gdal

ARC/INFO ASCII/Binary GRID, BIL, ERDAS (LAN,


IMG),
USGS DOQ, JPEG, SAR CEOS, EOSAT, GeoTIFF,
PPM/PNM, SDTS DEM,
GIF, PNG
( http://www.gdal.org/formats_list.html)

GeoTiff
r.in.gdal.
7,
(r.out.gdal). ,
ERDAS IMG. ASTER
30 (Osnabrueck), GDF
Hannover (http://www.gdf-hannover.de/download).
r.in.gdal in=asterdem30m.img out=asterdem30m
Projection of input dataset and current location appear to match.
Proceeding with import...
100%
CREATING SUPPORT FILES FOR asterdem30m
COPYING COLOR TABLE FOR asterdem30m

-e
.
# :
g.region rast=asterdem30m -p

, Display Manager d.m


d.rast. , d.mon x0 GRASS.
# Display Manager
d.m&
# :
d.mon x0
d.rast asterdem30m

5.2
GRASS 6.0
. , GRASS 5.4
.
GRASS 6.0.
10.
,
. ,
, .
8 , GRASS, ,
ESRI SHAPE.

GRASS. , GRASS.
.
v.info.
, 10.

26

8: GRASS
GRASS

v.in.ogr

SHAPE, UK.NTF, SDTS, TIGER, S57, MapInfo


DGN, VRT, AVCBin, REC, Memory, GML, ODBC
( :
http://www.gdal.org/ogr/ogr_formats.html)

v.in.ascii GRASS ASCII


v.in.e00

ArcInfo-E00

v.in.db


x|y|z

SHAPE
SHAPE GRASS v.in.ogr. , SHAPE
; -
. ,
() .
, , GRASS .
FRIDA (17),
(Osnabrueck),
Intevation GmbH (13).
v.in.ogr -o dsn=./frida-1.1-shp-joined/streets-joined.shp out=streets
12323 primitives registered
0 areas built
0 isles built
Number of nodes
:
8937
Number of primitives:
12323
Number of points
:
0
Number of lines
:
12323
Number of boundaries:
0
Number of centroids :
0
Number of areas
:
0
Number of isles
:
0

, GRASS ($GISDBASE/$LOCATION/$MAPSET)
vector. (topo),
(head), (coor), (hist),
(sidx) (cidx),
(dbln).
GRASS
dbf DBASE. ,
(streets.dbf) .
GNU/Linux OpenOffice, Gnumeric
Koffice.
,
PostgreSQL PostGIS 10.
,
GRASS , .

27

, SHAPE ,
.prj.
:
v.in.ogr dsn=./frida-1.1-shp-joined/streets-joined.shp \
out=streets location=osnabrueck

5.3
GRASS 6.0 site_lists,
.
, , , SHAPE ,
v.in.ogr, :
v.in.ogr -o dsn=./frida-1.1-shp-joined/poi-joined.shp out=poi
268 primitives registered
0 areas built
0 isles built
Number of nodes
:
268
Number of primitives:
268
Number of points
:
268
Number of lines
:
0
Number of boundaries:
0
Number of centroids :
0
Number of areas
:
0
Number of isles
:
0

(X|Y)
ASCII , , (
), GRASS v.in.ascii. ASCII
, , .
. , (coord.txt),
:
1664619|5103481
1664473|5095782
1664273|5101919
cat coords.txt | v.in.ascii out=points

(IDs) ,
v.category. .. ,
:
v.category in=punkte out=points2 op=add
v.category points2 op=report

GRASS
vector GRASS.
(X|Y|Z).
,
v.in.ascii -z:
1664619|5103481|101.2
1664473|5095782|102.2
1664273|5101919|101.7

28

cat coords3d.txt | v.in.ascii -z out=elevation


v.category in=elevation out=elevation2 op=add
v.category elevation2 op=report

, , 10.

29

6
, .
,
. XY ( ),
.

13: GRASS

6.1

. , ,
GRASS. .
,
,
( ). , ,

( ).

6.1.1
, GRASS ,
.
, ,
( ) ( )
. , ,
( ).
a) , 300dpi:
300dpi = 300 /2.54 = 118.11 /

b) 1:25000:
/- = 25000 /118.11 = 2.12
/

30

,
.
, (5).

6.1.2
XY,
. , ,
-(, ) Y-(, ) ( Linux
xv). ,
, . GRASS
, , , ,
. ,
,
GRASS. (, )
, , XY, ,
. , ,
( ).
, .
, ,
. ,
. 4.5.1.
.
,
XY, . ,

GRASS , .
,
. ,
.

6.2
XY
, :

1. ,
.
i.group

, "map".

"x".

2. ( -),
:
i.target

,
, GRASS .
( ),
: g.region -dp

31

3. GRASS: d.mon start=x0


4. -
, ,
(. : 6.2.1).
i.points ( )
i.vpoints ( )

, ( map).

6.2.1
/ .
: () , ()
.

14: i.points.

() , ,
,
. X
( ).
(B) ,
, , ,

32

,
PLOT RASTER. ,
. ZOOM (. 14.
. RMS,
,
ANALYSE. RMS . , ,

ANALYSE. RMS
.
RMS
, RMS.
i.points
. .
i.points.
.

i.rectify,
.
. , :
1.
(
);
2. (GRASS ).
1 , ,
(, ) .
, , i.rectify
GRASS, ,
XY i.rectify.

6.2.2
().
(,
), .
,
(. . 9). ,
.
, (,
) ,
, . ,
(, )
, , .

9:

33

10

15

i.rectify

, GRASS
. ,
. 9.

34

7
5.
C
,
, Xfig Skencil. GRASS
, (sites).
'-help'.

7.1
10
. ,
.
10:
GRASS


r.out.arc

ARC/INFO ASCII GRID1

r.out.ascii

ASCII

r.out.mpeg

MPEG

r.out.png

PNG (. d.mon/PNG DRIVER c


True Color)

r.out.pov

POV

r.out.ppm

PPM/PNM

r.out.tiff

TIFF/TFW

r.out.bin

Binary Array

r.out.gridatb

GRIDATB.FOR (TOPMODEL)

r.out.gdal

20

: ASCII GRID
Arc Toolbox ArcGIS: Import to Raster -> ASCII to Grid.
, Spatial Analyst .
5.1,
GRASS ,
. , , ,
g.region p,
.
GDAL
r.out.gdal GRASS
. r.out.gdal -l.
GDAL GRASS
. ,
.

35

7.2
11 GRASS,
GRASS .

11:
GRASS


v.out.ascii

GRASS ASCII

v.out.ogr

SHAPE, TIGER, S57, MapInfo, DGN, Memory,


CSV,
GML, ODBC and PostgreSQL

v.out.pov

Povray

7.3
GRASS 6.0 .
GRASS 5.4 s.out.ascii.
v.in.sites ,
.

xyz
. , X, Y Z
ASCII .
g.region rast=elevation.dem -p
r.stats -1 -g input=elevation.dem > spearfish_elevation.txt

36

8
, ,
. ,
GRASS GIS,

.

8.1
GRASS .
- , ,
GRASS.
, GRASS .
, (. . 15). ,
TclTkGRASS 4.0.

15: d.m GRASS 6.0 FRIDA


d.m&. ,
,
TclTkGRASS 4.0. ,
, , .
.
( )
200 400 GRASS GIS .
.
:
File / : , .

37

GIS / : ,
.
Display / : ,
.
Raster / : .
Vector / : .
Image / : .
Grid3D / : (3D ).
Databases / : .
Help / : .
( )
,
. :
Display selected layers (current region) / (
): (
) .
Display selected layers (default region) / (
):
( g. region d).
Display from saved region settings / ,
:
( g. region help).
Erase to white / :
( d.erase -help).
Zoom / : / .
.
Return to previous zoom / :
.
Pan and recenter: / :
. , .
Query map / : .
,
.
.
Add group / :
. , .
.
Add raster / : .
Add vector / : .

38

Add paint label / : ,


( v.label)
Create new command / :
, .

Digitize vector map / :


d.m. v.digit.
.
Cut selection / :
. .
g.remove.
Create new workspace file / : ,
, , ..
Open an existing workspace file / :
.
Save workspace file / :
, , , ..
Print map / : .
, Postscript, PDF PNG.
.

39

9
GRASS
.
( 100),
.
, ,
.
,
.
8, ,
Tcl/Tk GRASS (GIS Manager).
, , ,
. GRASS
,
.

(
) z, ,
, ,
. ,
:

, - ( )

(
)

GRASS,
, , ,
r.mapcalc ( 15).

,
, .
, r.support (GRASS 5.0
5.3) . ,
r.support r ,
.
GRASS
400 GRASS (help-).
.
help- help
:
d.rast -help

help- , help-
GRASS g.manual
,
help-:

40

g.manual d.rast &

9.1
-
d.rast. GRASS (x0,x1,x2,..,x6):
d.mon x0
d.rast

,
d.zoom
d.zoom

,
g.region. , 10
:
g.region -d res=10.0 -pa
d.erase
d.rast rastermap

, , , g.region
, d.erase.
:
g.region rast=rastermap -p
d.redraw


d.rast rastermap1
d.rast -o rastermap2

- rastermap1 ,
rastermap2 NULL- ,
. d.his ,
24 Spearfish.
d.his -n h_map=roads i_map=tk24


:
d.rast.leg rastermap

9.2
,
d.what.rast:
d.what.rast

,
:
d.what.rast map=elevation.dem,geology,soils

- ,

41

. ,
, .
.
r.info
r.info .
,
.
r.info landuse
r.info -r landuse

r.cats
,
, r.cats:
r.cats map=landuse
1
residential
2
commercial and services
3
industrial
4
other urban
5
reservoirs
6
bare exposed rock
7
quarries, strip mines and gravel pits
8
transportation and utilities

r.report
, ,
Spearfish, r.report ( r.stats).
,
. , ,
:
g.region rast=geology -p
r.report -h geology units=h
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
Category Information
|
|
|#|description
| hectares|
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|
|1|metamorphic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 1051.000|
|2|transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
13.000|
|3|igneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 3285.000|
|4|sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 6755.000|
|5|limestone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 5537.000|
|6|shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 4170.000|
|7|sandy shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 1019.000|
|8|claysand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 1307.000|
|9|sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 3295.000|
|*|no data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
168.000|
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|
|TOTAL
|26,600.000|
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+

r.timestamp

( , ..).
r.timestamp, ,
:

42

r.timestamp landuse date="27 Sep 2003"


r.timestamp landuse date="27 Sep 2003/20 Feb 2004"


help- g.manual r.timestamp.

9.3
GRASS .
GRASS
. , ,
, .

9.3.1
d.profile,
( . 16)
d.profile

, ,
ASCII, r.profile.

( -i). r.transect
r.profile.
.
.
r.profile
r.transect

16:

43

d.profile

9.3.2
r.los , . ,
, ,
,
.
, elevation.10m Spearfish.
, d.where:
# 20
g.region rast=elevation.10m res=20 -pa
# 15
# ( 10 )
r.los in=elevation.10m out=visibility coord=593670,4926877 \
obs=15 max=30000
#
d.erase
r.shaded.relief elevation.10m units=meters
d.rast elevation.10m_shade
d.rast -o roads
d.rast -o visibility

9.3.3
, ,
r.patch . ,
, :
r.patch in=map1,map2,map3,map4 out=total map

,
, NULL- ( ).
, Spearfish
. , GRASS
. ,
.
g.region rast=geology,roads -p [res=12.5] [-a]
r.patch in=roads,geology out=roads.on.geol

,
geology.

9.3.4
r.buffer ,
.
roads. Spearfish,
:
# ?
g.region rast=roads -p
r.report -h roads
|1|interstate
|2|primary highway, hard surface

44

|3|secondary highway, hard surface


|4|light-duty road, improved surface
|5|unimproved road
|*|no data

: 100, 250 500


(interstate). 30 ,
:
# 'interstate' r.reclass
r.reclass roads out=interstate << EOF
1 = 1 interstate
EOF
# 'interstate' r.mapcalc
r.mapcalc "interstate=if(roads==1,roads,zero())"
#
r.buffer in=interstate out=interstate.buf dist=100,250,500
#
d.rast.leg interstate.buf

17: r.buffer

.
, ( )
(, ), .
GRASS g.proj -p:
g.proj -p
...
-PROJ_UNITS-----------------------------------------------unit
: meter
units
: meters
meters
: 1.0

,
13.1.

9.4
GRASS .

. .
r.colors:
r.colors map=raster map color=standard table
r.colors map=raster map color=special table

45

color options: aspect,grey,grey.eq,grey.log,byg,byr,gyr,rainbow,ramp,


random,ryg,wave,rules
rules options: aspect,bcyr,byg,byr,elevation,evi,grey,gyr,rainbow,ramp,
ryg,slope,srtm,terrain,wave

rules,
:
r.colors map=geology color=rules << EOF
4 100 200 0
5 255 130 7
6 100 129 187
7 222 180 39
9 43 18 200
EOF

,
r.colors "rast":
r.colors rastermap rast=orig_rastermap

d.colortable:
d.colortable rastermap

9.5
GRASS .
R ,
( ).



( ,
..). d.histogram:
d.histogram rastermap

, .
.
r.stats .
.
, , . ,
:
r.stats rastermap

r.report,
r.stats. ,
, .. . , ,
.
g.region rast=landuse -p
r.report -hen landuse,geology units=h
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
Category Information
|
|
|#|description
| hectares|
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|
|1|residential
| 676.00000|

46

| |--------------------------------------------------------|----------|
| |1|metamorphic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 23.00000|
| |3|igneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 18.00000|
| |4|sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 125.00000|
| |5|limestone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 70.00000|
| |6|shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 125.00000|
| |7|sandy shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 29.00000|
| |8|claysand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 14.00000|
| |9|sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 272.00000|
|----------------------------------------------------------|----------|
|2|commercial and services
| 115.00000|
| |--------------------------------------------------------|----------|
| |1|metamorphic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 16.00000|
| |4|sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 19.00000|
[...]
|----------------------------------------------------------|----------|
|8|transportation and utilities
| 400.00000|
| |--------------------------------------------------------|----------|
| |4|sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 34.00000|
| |5|limestone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
8.00000|
| |6|shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 104.00000|
| |7|sandy shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 26.00000|
| |8|claysand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
4.00000|
| |9|sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| 224.00000|
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|
|TOTAL
|1519.00000|
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+

r.univar.
, , , , , ,
,
:
g.region rast=elevation.10m -p
r.univar -g elevation.10m
n=2654802
min=1061.06
max=1846.74
range=785.679
mean=1348.37
stddev=175.494
variance=30798.3
coeff_var=13.0153

9.6
9.6.1
.
, , , ..
.
.
r.reclass ,
. ,
.
,
g.manual r.reclass. , ,
roads Spearfish, :
("good") ("bad").

47

# :
r.report roads
|1|interstate
|2|primary highway, hard surface
|3|secondary highway, hard surface
|4|light-duty road, improved surface
|5|unimproved road
|*|no data
# :
r.reclass in=roads out=roads.rcl
Enter rule(s), "end" when done, "help" if you need it
Data range is 1 to 5
> 1 2 3 = 1 good condition
> 4 5 = 2 bad condition
> end
# :
r.report roads.rcl
|1|good condition
|2|bad condition
|*|no data

r.mapcalc .
g.region rast=roads.rcl -p
r.mapcalc "newmap=roads.rcl"

9.6.2
- .

.
MASK ( )
.
, NoData (NULL-)
MASK. .
. ,
.
g.copy rast=Mask,MASK
g.rename rast=Mask,MASK

r.mapcalc .
, (
15).

Spearfish
landuse
, 1200 . ,
elevation.10m,
r.mapcalc. :
g.region rast=elevation.10m -p
r.mapcalc "mask1200=if(elevation.10m > 1200.0,1,null())"
g.copy rast=mask1200,MASK

, MASK 1, MASK

48

. :
d.rast elevation.10m
d.rast -o roads

,
, [Raster MASK present].
g.remove,
.
g.remove rast=MASK

, , ,
, .
g.rename rast=MASK,Mask

9.7
GRASS ,
r.digit. :
r.digit
Please choose one of the following
A define an area
C define a circle
L define a line
Q quit (and create map)

, , , .

49

10
GRASS 6.0 .
, , 5.4.
.

10.1 GRASS 6.0


:

, SHAPE PostGIS
( v.external
);

GRASS OGR;

(,
v.build (, v.support
5.4);

( SQL dBase
, PostgreSQL, MySQL and ODBC);

dBase- ;

3D (, TIN, CAD)
NVIZ

SQL-/ , , d.vect, v.extract v.surf.rst;

(,
, d.what.vect)

, DGLIB (Directed Graph Library);

v.digit ;

SHAPE, DGN, TIGER, MapInfo and GML2


OGR;

(d.m);


GRASS 6.0,
.

50

10.2
GRASS 6.0 .
GRASS (
GRASS). ,
PostGIS, SHAPE
OGR.

18: GRASS 6.0



.
FRIDA (. [17]).

10.2.1 OGR
OGR
. OGR- . 8
OGR [15].
SHAPE- ESRI GRASS .
v.external, GRASS
OGR.
GRASS, ,
. , v.external GRASS
, ,
:
# SHAPE-
v.external dsn=./gdf/shapes/layer=frida_stras out=frida_stras_ext
# SHAPE-
d.vect frida_stras_ext
# SHAPE-

51

d.what.vect frida_stras_ext

, OGR GRASS:
g.copy vect=frida_stras_ext,frida_stras_int
v.digit frida_stras_int

g.copy
v.in.ogr ( 5.2).
, OGR /
GRASS.
UMN Mapserver PostGIS. ,
GRASS UMN Mapserver PostGIS.

10.2.2
GRASS (X/Y)
DBF, CSV, MS-Excel, PostgreSQL ... ,
'mydb' PostgreSQL:
v.in.db driver=pg database="host=localhost,dbname=mydb,user=postgres" \
table=stations x=east y=north z=quota key=ID output=stations

dBase ID, ID
, Openoffice.org.

10.2.3 XY / XYZ
2D 3D XY XYZ ASCII
'coords.txt':
) 2D :
1664619|5103481
1664473|5095782
1664273|5101919
1663427|5105234
1663709|5102614
# GRASS:
cat coords.txt | v.in.ascii out=my2dmap
#
v.category in=my2dmap out=my2dmap_final op=add
v.category my2dmap_final op=report

) 3D :
1664619|5103481|445.1
1664473|5095782|534.2
1664273|5101919|532.9
1663427|5105234|454.4
1663709|5102614|525.7
# GRASS:
cat coords.txt | v.in.ascii -z out=my3dmap
#
v.category in=my3dmap out=my3dmap_final op=add

52

v.category my3dmap_final op=report

v.db.connect.

10.3
GRASS 6.0 .
dig_cats GRASS 5.4 .
DBMI (
). DBMI:

DBF ( )

PostgreSQL

MySQL

ODBC (Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL ..)

GRASS dbln. ASCII .


, GRASS. ,
, v.db.connect.
v.db.connect -p vectormap.
v.db.connect
, ,
.
v.db.connect map=vectormap table=attribute1 layer=2
v.db.connect map=vectormap table=attribute2 layer=3
v.db.connect -p vectormap

11.2.2.
:
,
, dbln , ,
. ,
, :
db.copy from_driver=dbf from_table=origtable to_driver=dbf \
to_table=copytable

DBF: driver=dbf database='$GISDBASE/$LOCATION_NAME/$MAPSET/dbf'

ODBC: driver=odbc database=grass60test

PostgreSQL: driver=pg
database='host=pgserver.itc.it,dbname=grass60test,user=name'

mySQL: driver=mysql database=grass60test

GRASS db.*- v.*


. .dbf.
:

53

db.connect driver=dbf database='$GISDBASE/$LOCATION_NAME/$MAPSET/dbf/'

(/).

, PostgreSQL. db.login
$HOME/.grasslogin6.
. :
Location -> database
Mapset -> database-scheme
UNIX-User -> database-user
UNIX-Group -> database-group

,
. GRASS g.access.
, , Unix-
. Unix-,
.

10.3.1
v.db.select.
,
# -
v.db.select map=roads fs="|"
cat|label
0|no data
1|interstate
2|primary highway, hard surface
3|secondary highway, hard surface
4|light-duty road, improved surface
5|unimproved road

10.3.2
v.to.db:

(cat, means IDs)

(coords)

(area)

(length)

(count)

(sides)

(query)


( 2 ). ,
OpenOffice, GRASS:

54

# ( dBASE):
echo "ALTER TABLE <vectormap> ADD COLUMN <column> integer" | db.execute
# :
v.to.db map=<vectormap> option=length units=meters col1=<column>
# :
echo "SELECT * FROM <vectormap>" | db.select

10.3.3
GRASS .
SQL- 'UPDATE':
# 200:
echo "UPDATE <table> SET attribute1 = 2 WHERE
area > 200"|
db.execute

PostgreSQL,
SQL-.
, .
:
# 200
# :
echo "UPDATE <table> SET area = (area*1000) WHERE \
area > 200"| psql -d <PG-database>

.
d.what.vect.
,
.
GRASS QGIS (19)
.
18.

55

11
5.4. 6.0
( 5 2.3).
/. ,
GRASS 5.4 GRASS 6.0.
v.convert GRASS 5.4
:
v.convert in=grass5old_vector out=grass60_vector
g.region -p vect=grass60_vector
v.info grass60_vector
v.db.connect -p grass60_vector
d.vect grass60_vector

, - GRASS 6.0
ASCII SHAPE ( ). ,
GRASS 5.4 .
v.in.shape GRASS
5.4 -d:
# GRASS SHAPE-
v.out.ogr in=grassnew_vector dsn=. layer=vector_areas type=area
# SHAPE- GRASS 5.0/5.4
v.in.shape -d in=vector_areas.shp
Attribute layers available in vector_areas.shp (
vector_areas.shp):
1: ShapeID [int4:4]
2: TypID [int4:2]
3: Name [text:50]
4: TypName [text:50]
v.in.shape in=vector_areas.shp out=vector attr=TypID label=TypName
...

11.1
, . GRASS
DGLib (Directed Graph Library)
:

(d.path v.net.path)

(v.net.alloc)

(v.net.salesman)

(v.net.salesman)

(v.net.iso)

12 .

11.1.1

. , .
,

56

, .
. ,
(, ). d.path
GRASS.

.
.
, /
, v.net.path. v.net.path
d.path, . ,
. ,
.
.
FRIDA .
40 71.
echo "1 40 71" | v.net.path mygraph out=mypath


, . mypath,
.

11.1.2
v.net.alloc . ,
.
. 12
.

11.1.3
.
:
, ,
.
.
, , ,
.
GRASS v.net.steiner.

11.1.4
.
,
. GRASS v.net.salesman
, .
v.net.salesman in=hospital_net out=pharmarepresentative ccats=40-215

11.1.5
GRASS v.net.iso .
, .
, ,
(, ).

57

11.2 , ,
, GRASS
v.overlay.

19: VMAP0

VMAP0 .

GDF
Hannover , , - ,
( :
http://www.gdf-hannover.de/download)
-, SHAPE- GRASS.
Shape-, .
# GRASS:
v.in.ogr pol_borders.shp out=pol_borders location=germany
exit
# - :
grass60 /home/user/grassdata/germany/PERMANENT
v.in.ogr -e dsn=./inlandwaterways .shp out=inlandwaterways
v.in.ogr -e dsn=./roads.shp out=roads
v.in.ogr -e dsn=./railways.shp out=railways
v.in.ogr -e dsn=./heightpoints.shp out=heightpoints

11.2.1
GRASS ,
( ainput, binput). ,
:
v.overlay ainput=pol_borders binput=inlandwaterways \
output=lakeinborders operator=or

58

(a_ b_), .

11.2.2
,
. :
v.overlay ainput=pol_borders binput=inlandwaterways \
output=borderswherelakes operator=and

,
.

11.2.3

ainput, binput:
v.overlay ainput=pol_borders binput=inlandwaterways \
output=borderswherenolakes operator=not

11.2.4
ainput binput ainput
binput. , inlandwaterways
pol_borders
bordersoverlakes, inlandwaterways
pol_borders.
v.overlay ainput=inlandwaterways binput=pol_borders \
output=bordersoverlakes operator=xor

11.3
v.extract
. pol_borders
:
v.extract in=pol_borders out=pol_borders_nds type=area new=-1 \
where="nam='NIEDERSACHSEN'"

11.4
roads . ,
. ,
, v.select
roads, ( pol_borders_nds):
v.select ain=roads bin=pol_borders_nds out=nds_roads

11.5
, :
v.build v.clean.
v.build
v.build v.support GRASS 5.4.
. ,
DUMP,

59

.
v.clean
v.clean /
. 12 :
break:
.
rmdupl: .

rmdangle: .
.
chdangle: .
.
rmbridge:
.
chbridge:
.
snap: ,
.
rmdac: .
bpol: ,
(, SHAPE-).
-.
prune: ,
.
rmarea:
.
rmsa: .

11.6 GRASS

v.digit. ,
.

20: v.digit
,
20 :
Digitize new point ( ):
. :
. : '
', ' ' '.

60

,
(. . 23).
, .
Digitize new line ( ): .
Digitize new boundary ( ):
( ).
, .
,
, . ,
(. ). ,
,
' '.
Digitize new centroid ( ):
.
, .
.
Move vertex ( ): .
. ,
.
.
, .
Add vertex ( ): .
Remove vertex ( ): .
Split line ( ): .

.
Move point, line, boundary or centroid ( , ,
): ,
. ,
, .
Delete point, line, boundary or centroid ( , , ):
, .
,
, .
Zoom in by window ( ): ,
. , ,
, .
d.zoom.
Zoom out ():
.
Pan (): .
.
.
,
, .
Zoom to default region ( ):
(g.region -d) .
Zoom to region ( ):
.
g.region save=.
Redraw (): .
, , .

61

Display categories ( ): ,
layer (, ,
).
Display attributes ( ): ,
(,
, ). layer ,
.
utf-8, ascii, iso8859-1
koi8-r.
Open settings ( ):
,
(symbology).
(settings).
(Table). ,
,
(background).
Exit (): , v.digit
Exit. ,
.

TK
1:24000 (. . 21) Spearfish. 'Spearfish'
South Dakota Geological Survey (SDGS)
GRASS.
http://grass.itc.it/download/data.php.
TK24 Spearfish
# Spearfish TK24
wget http://grass.itc.it/sampledata/spearfish_grass57data.tar.gz
wget http://grass.itc.it/sampledata/spearfish_toposheet.tar.gz
# Spearfish GRASS GRASS
tar xvzf spearfish_grass57data.tar.gz /home/user/grassdata/
grass60 /home/user/grassdata/spearfish57/PERMANENT
# TK24 (GeoTiff)
tar xvzf spearfish_toposheet.tar.gz
r.in.gdal -e in=spearfish_topo24.tif out=tk24
#
g.region rast=tk24 -ap
d.mon x0 d.rast tk24

'Lookout
Peak' Spearfish. ,
'Lookout Peak',
(. . 21).

62

21: Spearfish

GRASS ( PERMANENT)
:
# GRASS
exit
# GRASS
grass60 (
)
[STRG][ESC]

'Lookout Peak'
'Lookout Peak' v.digit
-n lookout.
tk24:
#
d.mon x0
g.region rast=tk24
v.digit -n map=lookout bgcmd="d.rast tk24"

, (GUI) v.digit (.
. 20) TK24 GRASS x0 . v.digit
Name,
settings -> Table (. . 22).

63

22:
, Spearfish ,
'Lookout Peak' (. . 21). ,
digitize new point, .
,
.
.
'Lookout Peak' Name,
submit, .
Record successfully updated.
v.digit Exit. ,
lookout :
Building topology ...
1 primitives registered
0 areas built
0%
0 isles built
Topology was built.
Number of nodes
:
Number of primitives:
Number of points
:
Number of lines
:
Number of boundaries:
Number of centroids :
Number of areas
:
Number of isles
:

1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

#
#
# 0
# 0
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#


100 ,
. , v.digit
-n contour_lines.
tk24:
#
d.mon x0
g.region rast=tk24
v.digit -n map=contour_lines bgcmd="d.rast tk24"

(GUI) v.digit (. .
20) TK24 GRASS x0 . v.digit
height,
settings -> Table (. . 22).

64

Spearfish (. . 21)
, digitize new line.
, .
.
layer .

23:
,
(. . 23).
.
, 4200, height,
submit, .
Record successfully updated.
v.digit Exit.
, contour_lines :
Building topology ...
825 primitives registered
0 areas built
0 isles built
Topology was built.
Number of nodes
:
203
Number of primitives:
249
Number of points
:
0
Number of lines
:
249
Number of boundaries:
0
Number of centroids :
0
Number of areas
:
0
Number of isles
:
0

Spearfish
, ,

65

. v.digit -n
forest.
tk24:
#
g.region rast=tk24
d.mon x0
v.digit -n map=forest bgcmd="d.rast tk24"

(GUI) v.digit (. .
20) TK24 GRASS x0 . v.digit
Name,
settings -> Table (. . 22).
Spearfish (. . 21)
, digitize new boundary
. .
layer .
.
, ,
.
,
.
10 ,
settings -> settings (. . 24) .

24:
, ,
.
,

.
, ,
(. . 23).
.
forest Name. submit,
.
Record successfully updated.
v.digit Exit. ,
forest :
Building topology ...
478 primitives registered
46 areas built
isles built
Topology was built.
Number of nodes
:
357
Number of primitives:
478

66

Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number

of
of
of
of
of
of

points
:
lines
:
boundaries:
centroids :
areas
:
isles
:

0
0
367
46
46
0

67

12 :


v.net.alloc, .
, ,
,
(). ( )
,
(, , ).
, .

12.1

FRIDA

():
http://frida.intevation.org/.
, (, ..).
Shape- ESRI.
FRIDA GRASS
- (. 5.2).
SHAPE- v.in.ogr (,
Spearfish):
# GRASS (, Spearfish):
grass60 ~/grassdata/spearfish60/user1/
# :
v.in.ogr dsn=frida-1.0.1-shp-joined/strassen-joined.shp \
output=strassen loc=frida
exit
# :
grass60 ~/grassdata/frida/PERMANENT
# (, ...):
v.in.ogr dsn=frida-1.0.1-shp-joined/poi-joined.shp output=points

68

25: :
, ,
v.in.ogr. , ,
(FRIDA V1.0.1),
v.clean (. 11.5).
,
layer.
:
# :
v.category points out=points_2f layer=2 op=add
# :
v.category points_2f layer=1,2 op=print # -> layer 1 == layer 2

12.2
points_2f ,
:
# :
v.extract in=points_2f out=hospitals_pre type=point\
where="poiTypName='Klinik/Hospital'"

69

v.select ainput=points_2f binput=hospitals_pre out=hospitals


# :
v.info hospitals # -> one dblink
v.category hospitals layer=1,2 op=print # -> 2 layers
d.erase
d.vect roads
d.vect hospitals disp=attr attr=poiNameID bgcolor=white bcolor=black
d.vect hospitals col=red icon=basic/diamond

12.3
25 .
,
. ,
layer 2 .
.
() hospitals roads ()
roads_hospitals, layer.
# :
v.patch in=roads,hospitals out=roads_hospitals
# :
v.info roads_hospitals # -> dblinks = 0
d.erase
d.vect roads_hospitals
d.vect roads_hospitals type=point col=red
# ( )
db.connect dr=dbf database='$GISDBASE/$LOCATION_NAME/$MAPSET/dbf/'
#
db.describe -c roads
ncols:7
Column 1: cat
Column 2: strShapeID
Column 3: strID
Column 4: strTypID
Column 5: strSpuren
Column 6: strEbene
Column 7: strName
# -> 'cat' 'v.in.ogr'.
#
v.db.connect roads_hospitals dr=dbf \
data='$GISDBASE/$LOCATION_NAME/$MAPSET/dbf/' \
table=roads layer=1 key=cat
#
v.db.connect roads_hospitals dr=dbf \
data='$GISDBASE/$LOCATION_NAME/$MAPSET/dbf/' \
table=hospitals layer=2 key=cat
# :
v.db.connect -p roads_hospital

70

, roads_hospitals ,
hospitals roads (. 10.3).
, .

roads_hospitals:
# :
v.distance -p from=hospitals to=roads output=roads_hospitals_connect\
upload=dist column=dist
# :
v.patch in=roads_hospitals,roads_hospitals_connect out=hospitals_net_pre
#
v.clean in=hospitals_net_pre out=hospitals_net tool=break,snap
#
g.remove vect=hospitals_net_pre,hospitals_pre

, hospitals_net, ,
. , layer 2 .
.

12.4
, ,
.
.
,
,
. ,
v.net.alloc :
v.net.alloc input=hospitals_net output=hospitals_alloc ccats=40-215

,
. ,
, , .
, ,
.

71

26:
26 .
d.m d.vect:
d.vect
d.vect
d.vect
...
d.vect

map=hospitals_alloc color=red cats=40


map=hospitals_alloc color=green cats=41
map=hospitals_alloc color=blue cats=69
map=hospitals_alloc color=black cats=215

, GRASS ,
11.1. ,
v.net.x.

72

13

. ,
. , ,
.

. GRASS
.

13.1
GRASS
.
, . ,
.

27:


GRASS
. .
. :
r.to.vect r.contour.
r.to.vect.
, .
. ,
( ), r.thin.
, :
r.thin in=raster out=raster_thin
r.to.vect in=raster_thin out=raster_vect feature=line

, ,
r.contour. ,
( ), .
, ,
-

73

, ,
r.to.vect, feature=area
r.to.vect in=raster_thin out=raster_vect feature=area


,
.
. GRASS
- v.clean .
prune, .

28:

.
, , ,
.
28 .
, .
, v.clean,

()
. , ,
.
,
. ,
. , .

GRASS 5.4

74

(sites-format) .
.
r.to.vect

feature=point.

13.2
(, )
v.to.rast.
, .

29: (5)

:
attr ->
cat ->
val ->
z

-> Z- ( )

,
, attr ,
.
( ).
g.region
GRASS
. , ,
14.1.

75

14

. ,
. , ,
.
,
.

14.1
:
1. ()
2. ( )
GRASS () :
1.
2. - (Regularized Splines with Tension, RST)
:
1. - ()
2. - (Regularized Splines with Tension, RST)

14.1.1
.
, ,
, ,
.
.
, , (
1/d, d ). ,
(1/d2 or
1/d3).
.
.
.
GRASS -:
v.surf.idw ( : )
r.surf.idw ( : )

GRASS 5.4 s.surf.idw v.surf.idw ,


GRASS 6.0.

14.1.2
.
,
, .
, ,
, . ,

76

, ,
. ,
7.
Splines-with-Tension
.
GRASS RST-
v.surf.rst
v.vol.rst ( )

,
GRASS, RST- v.surf.rst
GRASS :
r.surf.area
r.surf.contour
r.surf.fractal
r.surf.gauss
r.surf.random

14.2
(, )
.

,
Z () .
g.region
v.surf.idw in=[point file] out=[output file(Thiessen)] npoints=1

, .
(g.manual v.surf.idw).

77

15 r.mapcalc
r.mapcalc ,
.
GRASS. ,
( ), .
GRASS
:
NULL = NoData,
Zero = 0 (, )

r.mapcalc ,
(region).
,
.

15.1 r.mapcalc

12: r.mapcalc

(
)

==

!=

>

>=

<

<=

&&

||

, a
.

- .

78

15.2 r.mapcalc
13: r.mapcalc

abs(x)

*1

atan(x)

x (
)

F2

atan(x,y)

y/x (
)

cos(x)

x (x )

double(x)

eval([x,y,...,]z)

,
z

exp(x)

exp(x,y)

x y

float(x)

graph(x,x1,y1[x2,y2..])

x y

if

if(x)

1 x , 0

if(x,a)

a x , 0

if(x,a,b)

a x , b

if(x,a,b,c)

a x > 0, b x = 0, c

79

x<0
int(x)

x
[]

isnull(x)

x = NULL

log(x)

log(x,b)

x b

max(x,y[,z...])

median(x,y[,z...])

min(x,y[,z...])

mode(x,y[,z...])

not(x)

1 if x is zero, 0 otherwise

rand(a,b)

a b

round(x)

sin(x)

x (x )

sqrt(x)

tan(x)

x (x )

I3

- , a
.

- .

- .

80

15.3 r.mapcalc
14: r.mapcalc

row()

col()

x()

y()

current y-coordinate of

ewres()

nsres()

null()

NULL

r.mapcalc :
# reclass 2
New map = soils-reclass * 2
# reclass, 2
New map = "soils-reclass" * 2

15.4

. g.copy
. , ,
MASK ( ). ,
NoData (NULL).
r.mapcalc:
# :
r.mapcalc "MASK=map"
# ,
# 1 3:
r.mapcalc "MASK=if(map==1 || map==3,null(),map)"

, Spearfish,
geology, - :
# :
r.mapcalc "mask_map=if(fields,1,null())"
g.copy rast=mask_map,MASK
# :
d.rast geology

, -

81

(.. ).
,
, .
, MASK (. 9.6.2).
, [Raster MASK present]
.

82

16 3D
, GRASS 3D
. NVIZ
Vis5D Vis5D+.

16.1 3D NVIZ
NVIZ SG3d 3-
, , 3D .

30: NVIZ
,
GRASS, NVIZ.
, , 1000 x 1000 (, )
NVIZ.
, :
nviz elev=elevation_map -q.

:
-q

elevation

() GRASS
(z)

83

vector

() GRASS

NVIZ
, .
(: , ).
:
Auto Clear

,
.

Clear:

Surface:

Vectors:

Sites:

Volumes:

(
) .

Cancel:

.
XY position:
.
Height:

look here:

,

.

look cancel:

zexag:

.
x, y, z 1.
,
, zexag .305
.
zexag > 1.0,
,
, .

Perspective: .
Twist:

Reset:

,
, .
. 'help'
NVIZ.

16.2 (VOXEL)
NVIZ .
'Volumes'. 'Panel' -> 'Volumes' ( 31).

84

31: Volume-panel
:
c 3D
. v.in.ascii GRASS 3D 3D
GRASS -z.
'Add' . ,
,
'Isosurface Attributes'.
('Polygon Resolution') (<3),
.

85

32:
[4] GRASS
GDF Hannover bR (. [9]).

16.3
NVIZ
. . NVIZ

.
.

86

33: NVIZ
"Panel" -> "Animation" (. 33).
.
100
.
. 'Add' ()
. , 'Key Frames'
(. 30).
'Add'. ,
. , ,
'Run and Save' ( ).
GIF mpeg, (6).

87

17

, 3D .

.
GRASS c. -,
ps.map . -,

.
.

17.1
ps.map.
.
,
. , 34
(. g.manual ps.map):
raster soils
outline
color black
width 1
end
comments soil.cmt
where 1 6
font Helvetica
end
colortable y
where 1 6.5
cols 4
width 4
font Helvetica
end
setcolor 6,8,9 white
setcolor 10 green
vlines roads
width 2
style 0111
color grey
masked n
end
vlegend
where 4.5 0
font Courier
fontsize 8
end
text 30% 100% SPEARFISH SOILS MAP
color red
width 1
hcolor black
hwidth 1
background white
border red
size 500
ref lower left
end
line 606969.73 3423092.91 616969.73 3423092.91
color yellow

88

width 2
end
point 40% 60%
color purple
symbol basic/diamond
size 25
masked n
end
scale 1:125000
scalebar f
where 4.5 6.5
length 5000
height 0.05
segment 5
numbers 5
end
geogrid 60 s
color blue
numbers 2 yellow
end
paper a4
end
end

89

34: . (
Spearfish)

17.2 PNG-
GRASS . PNG-
(24 bit) .
PNG-
GRASS.
Spearfish:
d.mon start=PNG
d.mon select=PNG

:
d.rast soils
d.vect roads col=black

PNG- GRASS:
d.mon stop=PNG
d.mon select=x0

map.png ,
. PNG
:
export
export
export
export

GRASS_WIDTH=<width>
GRASS_HEIGHT=<height>
GRASS_PNGFILE=<name of the resulting file>
GRASS_TRUECOLOR=[TRUE|FALSE]

Unix, Xfig Skencil. 38 Xfig.


d.out.png X- PNG.
,
PNG.

17.3

, .
d.his:
d.his h_map=tk24 i_map=aspect


(. . 35).

90

35: d.his

17.4 Xfig
Xfig ([23])
Skencil ([22]).
TIFF, PPM PNG. , Latex, PDF .
Xfig Skencil GRASS
Linux.
Xfig (. . 38).
.
Xfig ,
. ,
,
(. . 36).

91

36: Xfig

,
. (A4, A3
...). Spearfish 19.02 , 14.31
. g.region:
g.region -d res=1 -p

(-p) (-d)
1 (res=1, ).
DIN A4, 1:100000. DIN
A4 19,02 x 14,31 :
19.02 = 1902000 / 100000 = 19.02
14.31 = 1431000 / 100000 = 14.31

, Xfig ,
(.
. 37).

92

37: Xfig
GRASS PNG- ,
17.2. GRASS_WIDTH GRASS_HEIGHT
PNG- .

93

38: Spearfish
Xfig.

94

17.5 Skencil
Skencil [22]. python GeoObject shape-.
, SHAPElib [21]
python [18].

39: Skencil Geo-Object FRIDA


.
Skencil Xfig.

95

18 QGIS
QGIS [19]
GRASS,
.
QGIS GDAL [11]. ,
OGR GDAL,
QGIS. GRASS
QGIS.
QGIS GRASS.

40: QGIS FRIDA

18.1
QGIS .

.
( GRASS) GDAL.

.
. ,
.

.

96

41: -
.
QGIS
.
QGIS .
QGIS .
(. 18.3).
,
.

42:
42 .

97

, (. . 43).

43:
, QGIS
WGS84 (/).

18.2
.

, . .

44:

98

:
, , , .

18.3
QGIS
.
GRASS. QGIS shape-.

45: GRASS QGIS

18.3.1 GRASS
. 45

GRASS v.digit.
.
QGIS 2002 ,
. (
, 0.7,
0.9)
, QGIS ,
GPS .
GRASS .
GRASS:

15: GRASS ( [8])

99

New point

New line

( ,
)

New boundary

( ,
)

New centroid

(
)

Move node

New node

Delete node

(
)

Displace line

Divide line

Delete line

(
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Edit attributes

(
)

Red button

18.3.2 Shape-
shape- GRASS.
shape- ,
. shape-
Layer
New vector layer. .
.
Start editing Stop editing ( . 46).

.

46:
, shape , GRASS
( 15) .

100

18.4 GRASS
QGIS 0.7 GRASS GRASS
Tools. GRASS QGIS.
GRASS.
.

47: QGIS
XML-
GRASS. v.overlay, v.select, v.extract
r.slope.aspect .
GRASS
.
GRASS- ,
,
QGIS Wiki [20].

18.5 GPS
QGIS-GPS - GPS GPS
eXchange.

101

48: QGIS-GPS
() GPS
GRASS.

18.6
QGIS 0.7
.

49:
, ,
.

18.7
17 ,
. 0.7 QGIS
.

102

50: "" - QGIS,



File Print.

, , , ..
,
.
4, 300 dpi. postscript,
PNG SVG.
, QGIS .
,
[19].

103

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Copyright (C) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110, USA.
2000 : <svk@lib.ru>.

, , .
Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice
is preserved.

105

20 GNU
1.2, 2002
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston,
MA 02111-1307, USA
.
(, )
GNU
1.1 [ tiapkina@hotmail.com ], 9 2001,
http://www.infolex.narod.ru/gpl_gnu/gfdlrus.html
1.2 ( 1.1)
[http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Drbug ], 7 2003, http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_FDL
This is an unofficial translation of the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) into Russian. It was
not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does not legally state the distribution terms for
works that uses the GFDL - only the original English text of the GFDL does that. However, we hope
that this translation will help Russian speakers understand the GFDL better.
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113

21
GRASS GRASS
(http://grass.itc.it).
d.*:

d.ask

,
GRASS
.

d.barscale

d.colorlist

(
- )

d.colors

d.colortable

d.erase

d.extend

d.font.freetype

d.font

d.frame

d.geodesic


( )
.

d.graph

d.grid

114

.
d.his

, ,
.

d.histogram

d.info

d.legend

d.linegraph

d.m

d.mapgraph

d.measure

d.mon

d.monsize

d.nviz

NVIZ

d.out.png

PNG

d.paint.labels

GRASS
paint (p.labels, p.map) .

d.path

d.profile

d.rast.arrow

115

d.rast.edit

d.rast.edit

d.rast

d.rast.leg

d.rast.num

d.redraw

d.redraw

d.resize

d.rgb

,
.

d.rhumbline

d.save

d.slide.show

- GRASS

d.split

2 ,
, .

d.text.freetype

TrueType
.

d.text

d.title


d.text.

d.vect.chart

d.vect

d.what.rast

116

.
d.what.vect

d.where

d.zoom

db.*:

db.columns

db.connect

DBMI.

db.copy

, from_table
( where) select, .

db.describe

db.drivers

db.droptable
db.execute

SQL .

db.login

/ / .

db.select

db.tables

db.test

,
db.connect.

g.*:

117

g.access
g.ask

GRASS.

g.copy

g.filename

GRASS.

g.findfile

GRASS
.

g.gisenv


GRASS.

g.list

GRASS
.

g.manual

HTML GRASS

g.mapset

g.mapsets

(
).

g.mlist

g.list

g.mremove


g.remove

g.parser

g.parser

g.proj

GRASS.

g.region

g.remove

118

g.rename

g.setproj

g.setproj

g.tempfile

g.version

i.*:

i.cca

i.class

i.class

i.cluster


.
i.maxlik
.

i.fft

(FFT) .

i.fusion.brovey

i.gensig

i.maxlik.

i.gensigset

i.smap.

i.group

i.his.rgb


, (his) -- (rgb).

i.ifft

(ifft)

i.image.mosaic

(cca)

119

, *.mosaic

i.maxlik


i.cluster, i.class,
i.gensig.

i.oif

Optimum-Index-Factor 1-5, & 7 LANDSAT


TM

i.ortho.photo

i.ortho.photo

i.pca

(pca)

i.points

i.rectify

i.rgb.his

- (rgb) , , (his).

i.smap


sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP).

i.spectral

i.target

GRASS

i.vpoints

i.vpoints

i.zc

p.*:

p.out.vrml

GRASS Virtual Reality Modeling Language


(VRML)

pg.*:

120

pg.postgisdb

pg.postgisdb

photo.*:

photo.2image

photo.2image

photo.2target

photo.2target

photo.camera
photo.init

photo.init

photo.rectify

photo.rectify

ps.*:

ps.map

PostScript

r.*:

r.average

r.basins.fill

r.bilinear

r.blend

121

r.buffer


NULL.

r.cats

r.circle

r.clump

r.coin

r.colors

r.composite

,
.

r.compress

r.contour

r.cost



, .

r.covar

/
.

r.cross

-
.

r.describe

r.digit

r.digit

r.distance

122

r.drain


().

r.fill.dir

r.fillnulls


v.surf.rst splines

r.flow

( ),
( ) .

r.grow

,
.

r.his

RGB
, .

r.in.arc

ASCII ESRI ARC/INFO (GRID)


.

r.in.ascii

ASCII
.

r.in.bin

GRASS.

r.in.gdal

GDAL
..

r.in.gridatb

GRIDATB.FOR (TOPMODEL) GRASS.

r.in.mat

MAT- (v4) GRASS.

r.in.poly

/
ASCII
.

r.in.srtm

SRTM90 HGT GRASS.

123

r.info

r.kappa

r.le.pixel
r.le.setup

r.le.setup

r.le.trace
r.los

r.mapcalc

r.mapcalc

r.mapcalculator

r.mapcalc

r.median

r.mfilter

r.mode

r.neighbors


, .

r.null

NULL-bitmap
file

r.out.arc

ESRI ARCGRID.

r.out.ascii

ASCII.

r.out.bin

GRASS .

r.out.gdal

GRASS GDAL (GDAL


)

r.out.gridatb

GRASS GRIDATB.FOR (TOP MODEL)

124

r.out.mat

GRASS MAT-.

r.out.mpeg

MPEG.

r.out.png

GRASS PNG.

r.out.pov

GRASS POVRAY.

r.out.ppm

GRASS PPM
.

r.out.ppm3

GRASS (R,G,B) PPM


.

r.out.tiff

GRASS
.

8/24bit TIFF

r.param.scale


( )

r.patch

r.plane

,
.

r.profile

r.proj

r.quant

r.random.cells

r.random


().

r.random.surfac
e

125

r.reclass.area

r.reclass

r.recode

r.region

r.regression.line

: y
= a + b*x

r.report

r.resamp.rst

r.resample

r.rescale.eq

r.rescale

r.ros

1)
(ROS), 2)
,
3)

4)
.

r.series

r.shaded.relief

(DEM).

r.slope.aspect

,
.
.

r.spread



,
, (ROS) .
UTM

126

.
r.spreadpath


, .

r.statistics

r.stats

r.sum

r.sun

,
, , .
( , ,
, ) .
,


. .

r.sunmask


.
/ .

r.surf.area

r.surf.contour

r.surf.fractal



.

(. Saupe, .106-107).
.

r.surf.gauss


,
.

r.surf.idw

r.surf.random


, .

r.terraflow

(
).

127

r.texture

r.thin

r.timestamp

// .

r.to.vect

r.topidx

ln(a/tan(beta))

r.topmodel

TOPMODEL

r.transect

r.univar

r.univar.sh

GRASS

r.water.outlet

r.watershed

r.what

r3.*:

r3.in.ascii

3D ASCII
3D

r3.in.v5d

3D Vis5D ( v5d 1 1
)

r3.info

3D .

128

r3.mapcalc

r3.mapcalc

r3.mask

3D .

r3.mkdspf
r3.null

3D NULL-.

r3.out.ascii

3D ASCII .

r3.out.v5d

3D GRASS 3D Vis5D.

r3.timestamp

// 3D .

v.*:

v.buffer

(
).

v.build.all

v.build.all

v.build

GRASS.

v.build.polylines

v.category

,
.

v.clean

v.convert.all
v.convert

GRASS.

v.db.connect

129

v.db.select

v.delaunay

v.digit
v.external

OGR
.

v.extract


. list, file where ,

.

v.hull

v.in.ascii

ASCII GRASS .

v.in.db

v.in.e00

E00 .

v.in.garmin

, Garmin GPS
.

v.in.ogr

OGR GRASS.

v.in.region

v.in.sites.all
v.in.sites

GRASS .

v.info

v.kcv

/ .

v.kernel


2D

130

1D
v.label


GRASS.

v.mkgrid

GRASS
.

v.neighbors


,
.

v.net.alloc

(
). ( >=
0). .

v.net

v.net.iso

(
). ( >=
0). .

v.net.path

.
/

v.net.salesman

(
) (
).

v.net.steiner

)..

v.normal

v.out.ascii

GRASS ASCII
GRASS

v.out.dxf

GRASS DXF .

v.out.ogr

OGR.

v.out.pov

POV-Ray, GRASS x,y,z -> POV-Ray x,z,y

131

v.overlay

v.patch

v.perturb

GRASS.

v.proj

v.qcount

v.random

v.reclass


SQL- .

v.sample

v.segment

/ ,
.

v.select

v.surf.idw

v.surf.rst

v.to.db

.
-1
.

v.to.points

\.

v.to.rast

v.transform

v.type

132

v.univar


.
.

v.vol.rst

G3D
(RST)

v.voronoi

v.what.rast

133


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und Daten. Wichmann, Karlsruhe, 1991.
[2] G. Hake and D. Grunreich. Kartographie. Berlin, 1994.
[3] H. Kamen. Vermessungskunde. Berlin, 1986.
[4] H. Mitasova and J. Hofierka. 3D Precipitation Example Dataset Slovakia, 2004.
[5] M. Neteler. GRASS-Handbuch. Der praktische Leitfaden zum Geographischen
Informationssystem GRASS Geosynthesis 11, Geographisches Institut der Universitat
Hannover, 2000.
[6] Neteler and H. Mitasova. Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Boston, 2002.
[7] M. Neteler and H. Mitasova. Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach 2nd edition...
Kluwer Academic Publishers/Springer, Boston, 2004.
[8] G. Sherman, T. Sutton, R. Blazek, and L. Luthmann. Quantum GIS User Manual, Version 0.6,
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-
[9] GDF Hannover bR. http://www.gdf-hannover.de, 2005.
[10] Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE). http://www.fsfeurope.org, 2005.
[11] GDAL-Software-Suite. http://www.gdal.org, 2004.
[12] GRASS GIS. http://grass.itc.it, 2005.
[13] Intevation GmbH. http://www.intevation.de, 2005.
[14] GRASS Anwender-Vereinigung Heimatseite. http://www.grass-verein.de, 2005.
[15] OGR-Software-Suite. http://www.gdal.org/ogr/, 2004.
[16] FreeGIS Project. http://www.freegis.org, 2005.
[17] FRIDA Projekt. http://frida.intevation.org, 2005.
[18] pyshapelib bindings. ftp://intevation.de/users/bh/pyshapelib/, 2004.
[19] QGIS-Development-Team. http://www.qgis.org, 2004.
[20] QGIS-Wiki. http://wiki.qgis.org/qgiswiki/, 2005.
[21] Shapelib-Software-Suite. http://shapelib.maptools.org, 2004.
[22] Skencil. http://www.skencil.org, 2004.
[23] X_g-Software-Suite. http://www.xfig.org, 2004.

134