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DiagrammaticReasoningTest1 Solutions (1)

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Solutions Booklet

AssessmentDay

Practice Aptitude Tests

Q1

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

From the key we see that the given operator changes the shading of all hourglass items. In the input

diagram there are two hourglasses, items 1 and 3. 1 is unshaded, while 3 is shaded. In the output

diagram, therefore, item 1must be shaded and 3 unshaded. Solutions C and D both fulfil this criteria.

As the operator effects only hourglasses, item 2, the square, must remain unchanged. The missing

diagram can therefore only be D.

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Q2

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

rd

From the key we see that the first operator mirrors the 3 item in the x axis, while the second swaps

st

rd

the 1 and 3 items. Working in reverse from the output diagram, the crescent has been swapped

with the slash, making the slash the third item, and therefore the item mirrored in the x axis. C shows

the items in the right order with the slash mirrored, and is therefore the correct solution.

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Q3

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

rd

The easiest approach here is to work backwards. The final operator mirrors the 3 item, but we can

see this has not happened, and further that the item is different compared to the input diagram, so we

st

st

rd

consider the previous operators. The 1 operator switches the 1 and 3 items, which has been done.

st

rd

We can see that the 1 item, which should be a slash mirrored in the x axis by the 3 operator, is now

rd

an hourglass, which is symmetrical and therefore not visibly affected by the 3 operator. The only

operator in the key which replaces slashes with hourglasses is the one shown in A, which is therefore

the correct solution.

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Q4

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: B

st

st

From the key we see that the 1 operator shades the 1 item; this has no visible effect, because the

st

st

1 item is already shaded. The second operator makes the 1 item half-size. Solution B is the only

one in which the square is half-size and shaded while the other items remain unchanged; it is

therefore the correct solution.

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Q5

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

The 1st operator makes all items half size, but in the output diagram, none of the items have been

changed. Therefore the missing operator must cancel or reverse the effect of the 1st . The only

possibility is the one shown in D, which changes the size of all triangles, thereby restoring them to full

size. The correct answer is therefore D.

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Q6

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

st

rd

The 1 and 3 operators have clearly had an effect, as the only top-shaded square has moved 2

nd

positions left, and not been mirrored in the y axis, as it would have been in 2 position when this

nd

operator came into effect. The 2 operator, which mirrors items in the y axis, has also been effective,

st

rd

since the original 1 and 3 items have both been mirrored. The answer is therefore A.

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Q7

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution D:

st

rd

nd

nd

In the output diagram, the 1 and 3 items have been changed by the 2 operator, but the 2 item

has also changed, from shaded to unshaded. The only operator, shown in D, which affects shading of

nd

st

the the 2 item, also removes shading from the 1 item, which has already occurred. The solution is

therefore D.

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Q8

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

The 1st operator swaps the 1st and 2nd items, moving the hourglass to 2nd and the semicircle to 1st

position. The 2nd operator then shades the (new) 2nd item, resulting in a shaded hourglass in 2nd

position. The 3rd operator replaces the 1st and 3rd items with a copy of the now-shaded hourglass,

resulting in 3 shaded hourglasses in the output diagram, as shown in D.

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Q9

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: B

nd

Working in reverse, the 2 operator mirrors the sequence in the y axis; in the input diagram the items

st

should be in reverse order, with the slash and square inverted. The 1 operator removes shading

st

nd

entirely from the 1 and 2 items, which are the circle and slash, so this operator gives no further

clue. The only solution in which the items are in the correct order and configuration is B.

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Q10

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: B

nd

nd

Working in reverse, we know that the 2 operator mirrors the 2 item, so we are looking for a

nd

st

st

mirrored crescent as the 2 item. The 1 operator replaces the 1 item with a square, but does not

st

change size or shading, so we are looking for any full-size, unshaded item in the 1 position. The only

solution fitting both criteria is B.

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Q11

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

st

rd

The 1 operator rotates the 3 item 90 degrees clockwise, so we are looking for a small square with

nd

st

the bottom left corner shaded. The 2 operator mirrors the 1 item in the x axis, so we are looking for

a large square with the top right corner shaded. C is the only solution to fit both criteria.

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Q12

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

st

nd

The 1 operator replaces the slash with a square; the 2 has no effect on the circle. There are no

further changes to the output diagram, so the operator must be ineffective. Mirroring the arrow will

st

have no effect. The 1 item is already a square. Rotating the circle has no effect. Mirroring the square

has no effect. None of the operators would have any effect on the output diagram, and the correct

solution is therefore D.

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Q13

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: B

st

rd

nd

The 1 operator makes the 3 item full size, which should result in a full-size shaded triangle. The 2

however changes the size of all items, returning the triangle to half-size, and also reducing the square

to half-size and increasing the crescent to full size. B is therefore the correct solution.

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Q14

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

The 1st operator swaps the 1st and 2nd items, moving the hourglass to 2nd and the semicircle to 1st

position. The 2nd operator then shades the (new) 2nd item, resulting in a shaded hourglass in 2nd

position. The 3rd operator replaces the 1st and 3rd items with a copy of the now-shaded hourglass,

resulting in 3 shaded hourglasses in the output diagram, as shown in D

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Q15

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

st

rd

The 1 operator changes the size of all items, which has occurred in the output diagram. The 3

nd

rotates the 2 item 180 degrees; however, the square in the output diagram is unchanged compared

rd

to the input diagram, indicating that the 3 operator restored the square to its original state; it must

nd

nd

rd

already have been rotated by the 2 operator. The 2 operator must therefore be identical the 3

operator the answer is A.

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Q16

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

Working in reverse, the 2nd operator has shaded the 2nd item, indicating either an unshaded or

already-shaded slash in the input diagram. The 1st operator has replaced shaded items with squares,

so the 1st and 3rd items could have been either shaded squares already, or any other shaded item,

ruling out A; B is ruled out because the 1st item is the wrong size. The order of operators is crucial: if

the slash had been shaded in the input, it, too, would be a square in the output; thus C must be ruled

out. D is therefore the correct answer.

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Q17

What operator can be removed from the process without changing the output?

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

st

nd

The 1 operator has no effect on the triangle due to its symmetry in the y axis. The 2 operator has

rd

changed the shading of the arrow. The 3 operator has no effect on the arrow, which is already full

size. The two operators which have no effect are therefore shown in C.

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Q18

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

rd

st

Working in reverse, the 3 operator rotates the 1 item clockwise, so we are looking for an upright

nd

st

st

triangle. The 2 operator makes the 1 item full size, so the triangle could be half or full size. The 1

st

operator mirrors all triangles in the y axis, so we are still looking for an upright triangle in the 1

rd

position, and the same in the 3 position, since upright triangles have symmetry in the y axis. The

square is unchanged. This configuration is shown in solution A.

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Q19

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

st

rd

nd

In the output diagram, the 1 and 3 items are unchanged while the 2 item has been mirrored in the

y axis. As mirroring in the y axis has no effect on the symmetrical hourglass, the missing operator is

st

nd

the one in solution A, which mirrors the 1 and 2 items in the y axis.

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Q20

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

nd

nd

rd

Working in reverse, the 2 operator swaps the 2 and 3 items, so we are looking for a triangle in 2

rd

st

rd

position and a square in 3 . The 1 operator shades the original 3 item, the square, which could

nd

already have been shaded; therefore the correct solution has a shaded triangle in 2 position and a

full-size square of any shading in 3rd. This configuration is shown in D.

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nd

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Q21

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

st

nd

nd

The 1 operator results in a downward-pointing triangle in 2 position. The 2 operator swaps this

rd

st

nd

triangle with the square. The 3 mirrors the 1 item, still the crescent, and the new 2 item, now the

square, in the y axis. So we are looking for a mirrored crescent, followed by a square shaded in the

bottom left corner, followed by a downward-pointing triangle. This configuration is shown in solution D.

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Q22

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: B

The 1st operator swaps the 1st and 2nd items, resulting in a semicircle in 1st position and an

hourglass in 2nd . The 3rd operator replaces shaded items with squares, which would result in an

unshaded semicircle followed by 2 shaded squares, as shown in the output diagram; therefore the

missing operator must have had no other effect. The operator in A would satisfy this, as would the

additional operator in B. The additional operator in C would have resulted in 3 hourglasses, which

would have become 3 squares in the output. The answer in therefore B.

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Q23

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

rd

Working in reverse, the 3 operator rotates crescents anticlockwise, so we are looking for a crescent

nd

nd

nd

pointing downwards in 2 position. The 2 operator removes shading from the 2 item, so the

st

crescent could be either shaded or unshaded in the input diagram. The 1 operator shades squares,

so the square in the input diagram could have any shading. The only solution with the crescent in the

correct rotation is C.

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Q24

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

st

nd

The 1 operator results in fully shaded squares in all positions. The 2 operator then unshades the

rd

rd

nd

square in 3 position. The 3 operator results in an unshaded square in 2 position. The correct

solution is therefore C.

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Q25

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: B

st

nd

nd

The 1 operator results in a right-pointing triangle in 2 position; the 2 operator results in the slash

and triangle being rotated anticlockwise, which rotates the triangle back to its original upward position.

This configuration is shown in B.

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Q26

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

Working in reverse, the 2nd operator has mirrored the 2nd and 3rd items in the x axis, so we would

expect a downward-pointing semicircle in 2nd position (ruling out answers C and D), while the

operator has no effect on the square in 3rd position. The 1st operator has made the 1st and 2nd items

full size; therefore those items could have been either half or full size in the input diagram. No

operators effect shading, ruling out answer B. A is therefore the correct answer.

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Q27

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

The 1st operator replaces the two triangles with crescents. The 2nd operator then mirrors the

crescents in the x axis, which has no effect, as the crescents have symmetry in the x axis. The final

operator replaces the 1st and 3rd items with hourglasses. No operators change rotation or shading,

so the correct configuration is a shaded hourglass followed by an unshaded crescent, then another

shaded hourglass. This configuration is shown in C.

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Q28

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: D

nd

nd

Working in reverse, the 2 operator should have changed the size of the two squares, so the 2 item

rd

in the input diagram would be a full-size partly-shaded square, and the 3 item a half-size shaded

st

nd

nd

square. However, the 1 operator makes the 2 item full size, so the 2 item could be either a fullnd

size square, in which case the operator had no effect, or a half-size square, in which case the 2

operator changed it back again. The arrow is unchanged. The only solution with a partly-shaded

nd

rd

square in 2 and a half-size shaded square in 3 position is D, which is the correct answer.

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Q29

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: C

st

st

nd

The 1 operator changes the size of squares, resulting in half-sized squares in the 1 and 2 position

rd

rd

and a full-sized square in 3 . The 3 operator has changed all the squares to crescents, without

altering their size or configuration. The missing operator must therefore have changed the size of the

nd

st

2 item, which is the operator given in C. A repeat of the 1 operator would also have changed the

rd

st

rd

size of the 2nd item, but as all items were squares prior to the effect of the 3 operator, the 1 and 3

items would also have been returned to their original state, which has not happened. Therefore the

solution is C.

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Q30

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

(E) E

Solution: A

st

nd

nd

The 1 operator makes the 2 item a full-size unshaded square. The 2 operator results in a halfnd

rd

size slash in the 1st, and a full-sized slash in the 2 positions. The 3 operator changes the size of

rd

the only remaining square, resulting in a half-size square in 3 position. The solution matching this

configuration in shown in A, which is the correct answer.

-- End of Test --

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