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WiMAX

4G

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WiMAX
4G

2009

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WiMAX
4G
:
, 2009. - 472 . I S B N 978-5-94836-223-6
.
WiMAX Forum.
,
/ .
IEEE 802.11, mesh-.
Wi.MAX- ( |,
IEEE 802.16, < IEEE 802.16).
3G LTE (
). - (DYB
DAB). .
Wi.MAX-.
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in
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2009. . .. . .. . .
2009. , -, .
ISBN

978-5-94836-223-6

14
19

1
.

22

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

22
29
32
35
37
43

2
.... 44
2.1.

2.2.
,
2.2.1.

2.2.2.

2.2.3.
, -
2.3.

2.4.

2.4.1.
-
2.4.2.
'
2.4.3.
) ,

2.4.4.
2.4.5.
2.4.6.
2.4.7.
2.4.8.
2.4.9.





,

2.4.10.
2.1.11.
2.4.12.
2.4.13.
2.5.

( www.turbobest.com)
2.5.1.

IEEE 802.3
2.5.2.

IEEE 8()2.11
2.5.3.

IEEE 802.16

44
48
48
49
51
57
59
59
62
63

69
71
75
77
79
81
83
89
93
97
99
99
100
100

2.5.4.


IEEE 802.16
2.5.5.
3GPP
LTE
. [

3
-

101
101
104

105

3.1.

105

3.2.

106

3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.83.9.

- ()


()
....


(OFDM)

107
110
111
112
115
119

120

123

4
-

121

4.1.
-

4.1.1.
ATSC
4.1.2.
DVB
4.2.

1.2.1.
Eureka-147
4.2.2.

4.2.3.
(DRM)

124
126
128
143
143
151
154
156

5

I E E E 8021

157

5.1.
IEEE 802.11
5.2.
IEEE 802.11
5.3.
- IEEE 802.11
.4.
IEEE 802.lib
5.5.
IEEE 802.11b
5.6.
IEEE 802.11
5.6.1. OFDM-
5.6.2.

5.7.
IEEE 802.1 lg
5.8.
IEEE 802.llg
5.9.
IEEE 802.1 In
5.10.
5.10.1.
5.10.2. MIMO-OFDM

157
160
162
165
170
173
173
176
179
184
185
187
187
188


5.10.3.
191
5.10.4. -
193
5.10.5. 802.11
197
5.11. mesh- IEEE 802.11s .... 200
5.11.1. 802.lis
200
5.11.2. MDA- ...202
5.11.3. IEEE 802.11s
203
5.11.4. IEEE 802.11s
205
5.11.5. mesli-
IEEE 802.lis
206
5.11.6. mesli- IEEE 802.11.s
212
5.12. - IEEE 802.11
214
5.12.1. IEEE 802.

214
5.12.2. IEEE 802.11!
219
5.12.3.
VPN
228

236

239

6.1.
6.2.

< > > '


241
242

6.3.

CDMA (cdmaOne)

6.4.

6.4.1.

6.5.
UMTS/HSPA
6.5.1.

6.5.2.
UMTS/HSPA
6.5.3.
UMTS/HSPA
6.5.4.
UMTS/HSPA
6.6.
TD-SCDMA
6.7.
cdma2000
6.7.1.

6.7.2.
cdma2000
6.8.
LTE
6.8.1.
LTE
6.8.2.
LTE
6.8.3.

6.8.4.

6.8.5.

6.8.6.

6.8.7.

6.8.8.
S
6.8.9.
LTE

244
249
249
249
249
251
254
255
258
259
259
262
263
264
265
269
271
271
275
276
277
279
280

7

I E E E 802.16
7.1.
IEEE 802.1
7.1.1.
MMDS LMDS/MVDS
7.1.2.

IEEE 802.16-2004
7.2.
IEEE 802.16-2004
7.3.
-.' IEEE 802.16
7.3.1. -
7.3.2.

7.3.3.
-
7.3.4.
IEEE 802.16
7.3.5.

7.3.6.
(ARQ)
7.4.
IEEE 802.10. WirelessMAN-SC
7.4.1.
7.4.2.

7.5.
WireleseMAN-OFDM
7.5.1.
7.5.2.

~.'>:.

7.
.
4.
Mcsli-
7.6.
OFDMA
7.6.1. 1>
7.0.2.
,
7.6.3.
! DMA-
7.6.4.

7.6.5.

7.7.

7.7.1.

A
AS
7.7.2.
-
7.8.
JEEE 802.16
7.9.

1802.16
7.9.1. -
7.9.2.

7.9.3.

IEEE
802.1

7.10. 802.16
7.10.1. IEEE802.16J
7.10.2. IEEE 802.16m

282
282
282
284
285
287
287
288
289
290
291
293
294
294
296
299
301
304
305
306
309
309
310
312
314
315
316
316
318
320
322
323
332
338
343
343
346
351

8
WiMAX

353

8.1.
8.2.

353
353

WiMAX


8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.
8.7.

ASN



9
- W i M A X

357
357
362
364
365
367

369

9.1.
WiMAX
369
9.2.
WiMAX
372
9.2.1.

372
9.2.2.
.
376
9.3.
WiMAX BreezeMAX 4Motion...388
9.3.1. ASN-
389
9.3.2.

389
9.3.3.
397
9.3.4.

398
9.4.

401
9.4.1.

402
9.4.2.

404

408

10
WiMAX

409

10.1. WiMAX
10.2. WiMAX
10.2.1.
10.2.2.
10.2.3. Lythgoe

409
422
424
429
435

11

437

11.1.
11.2. WiMAX HSPA L I E
11.3. 4G?
11.4. WiMAX

437
439
443
450
154

455


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WiMAX. 4G.
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Address to the readers


by the W i M A X Forum
president Ron Resnick

P
Dear readers! Let me congratulate you
on the new book WiMAX encyclopedia.
Way to 1;, appearance. Why is it so im
portant nowadays?
The world population is 6.75 billion
people, 4.05 of which use various types
of telephone communication cellular net
works. 3.5 billion use the Internet and
only half of a billion use a broadband
wireless access to diverse networks. Mod
ern technologies and progress in general
causes the rapid growth of broadband
wireless access. However, the growth is
restricted by various factors including ne
cessity of large financial expenditures on
the global networks infrastructure. It took
mankind more than a century to develop
a global telephone network: this very net
work was used for the Internet access at
the first stage of its development. Howev-

WiMAX-

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WiMAX. 4;>.
?

6.75 . 4.05

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poet - ,



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100

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100 .

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er. ii rapidly became apparent that novel
networks are absolutely necessary for the
b r o a d b a n d access. Not to spend another
hundred of years on global network de
velopment it is natural to use the mobile
radio communication technology.
T h u s broadband wireless communica
tion networks became one of the main
directions of telecommunication industry
development. For t h e countries with vast
territories and low density of population,
wireless networks have special significance
since they make it possible to develop a
large scale telecommunication infrastruc
ture effectively and efficiently.
Even if WiMAX is not t h e only broad
band wireless communication technology.
it took in all the best from the borderline
technologies like 3 G . I E E E 802.11. DVB.
DAB etc. That is why from our point of
view it is WiMAX that is the best solution
for broadband wireless internet access un
people in both developing and developed
countries. WiMAX technology enables
both mobile and fixed line providers, in
cluding absolutely new ones starting from
scratch, to progress rapidly. More Thau
475 WiMAX networks in 140 countries
are developed already. There are numer
ous WiMAX providers in Russia and CIS.
.Nearly half of a billion people live in the
regions where WiMAX providers o p e r a t e
or WiMAX licenses have effect. A year
later the a m o u n t of people will reach
the number of 800 million. Internation
al nonprofit association WiMAX Forum
includes more than 400 companies
hardware components developers. O E M
companies, all kinds of telecoms operators

and WiMAX ecosystem.


T h a t is why the book in your h a n d s is
so highly important and timely. WiMAX
is a bunch of thriving technologies con
nected to almost all of t h e telecommu
nication areas. Most of the technologies
from indispensable basics of communica
tion theory to description of specific tech-

17




.
WiMAX.

,
,
3 G .
802.11. DVB, D A B . ,
,
(

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WiMAX
,
,

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. 475
WiMAX 140 .

.

WiMAX .
WiMAX.
800
.
WiMAX-
400
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WiMAX.
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. WiMAX
.

.



,
.

WiMAX.

18

nologies. equipment, and network archi


tecture are fully represented in this mono
graph. Thai is why this hook is rightly
called .WiMAX encyclopedia. I believe it
is vital that authors didn't confine them
selves to the only technology. There are
descriptions nf related and rival standards
in the hook as well, which make it possi
ble for a thoughtful reader to arrive at a
conclusion himself ahout the future of the
global mobile telecommunications.
All stated above makes this hook a
unique and actual publication which will
surely make a contrihution to the devel
opment of the 4G networks. This hook
is equally useful for everyone who deals
with development, using or adjusting of
the broadband wireless systems, hut first
of all for those who deals with WiMAX.
Go for it!

/ 2 ^ /f+o+t+cjL

WiMAX Forum President


R n Resnick

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WiMAX. !

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(1948) ..
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Bell Laboratories . .
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1950-
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. . 10 13
1962 .. Telstar I Relay-1
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2 . 19 1964 .
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(International Telecommunications Satellite Organization),
.
200 , 2001 . 2/3
Intelsat. 23

1.

1965 .
- ( ) .
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Douglas Aircraft, 1948 . - )
( N P L ) .

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(Information Flow in Communication Nets. 19G1). 1964 .
RAND
(On Distributed Communications).

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Q-32 .
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1962 . - (.V 12)


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1967 1968 . XPL
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1970- . 200
250 / ) . 1968- . IBM
Token Ring.

MIL-STD-1553 (

(
26765.52 87).
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1967 .
A R P A N E T ,

1.1.

I P T O (Information Processing Techniques Office)


ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency!
. 15 1968 . ri>ynna
Bolt. Beranek Newman (BBN) ARPA
(Interface Message Processor).
1969 . A R P A N E T
. [- -
A R P A N E T

BBN
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(SRI).
A R P A N E T -
. .
1970 . (
)
ALOHA (aloha

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) .
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A R P A N E T . I) ALOHA
(ARQ).
CSMA. <*
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1972 . BBN
.
A R P A N E T . 1974 .
( )
(CerfV.G., Kabn R.E. A protocol for packet network interconnection //
Trans. C o m m . Tech. Vol. COM-22. V. 5. May 1974. P. 627 641).
T C P / I P .
BBN (
A R P A N E T )
Telnet.
1973 . Xerox -
. Xerox M I T

it A R P A N E T ,
, Ethernet ( ) .
E t h e r n e t - .
2.944 / .
Ethernet C S M A / C D
. , 1979 .. .

Xerox. Intel Digital Equip
ment ( D E C )
Ethernet,
. 1979 . D E C
) 3 C O M Ethernet- .
1976 . .25.
-

1.

(Interface between D T E and DC'E for Terminal Operations in


Packet Mode and Connected to Public Data Networks by Dedicated Circuit).
.
1977 . - Sony

Ethernet
(Acknowledging E t h e r n e t ) .
( I E E E 802.11 I E E E 802.15).
1978 . Batelco (Bahrain Telephone Com
pany)
, .
20 10(1 250 .
Matsushita Electric Industrial.
& Advanced
Mobile P h o n e Service (AMPS), 800 . 10
54 . *.
1977 . ! Mayes Microcomputer P r o d u c t s
Mieroiuodeni II
(Apple II). /.100 / 280
. 1979 . '
V.21. 300 / .
1980 .. >< > I ( ' P / I P
.
- . 198.1 . A R P A N E T
T C P / I P N C P . A R P A N E T .
, M I L N E T ,
.
1960-
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Ethernet-Fast Ethernet-Gigabit E t h e r n e t ,
10/100/1000 /.
.25 Frame Relay, T C P / I P .
A T M Gigabit E t h e r n e t .
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(Licklidcr J.C.R. // On-Line Computer Communication. August 1962).
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1989 IEEE 802.11
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1990- . IEEE 802.11
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wireless local area network]

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(ITU - - International
Telecommunications Union), .
1 1993 .
. (ITU-R. ITU Radiocommunication
Sector)
(CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee)
(IFRB International Frequency Registration
Board).
. ,
.
ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector)

(
Consultative Committee for International Telephone and Telegraphy).

. ITU
ITU-D 1989 .
(Telecommunication Development Bureau TDB).
, ITU
.
.
ITU (!) . 17
1865 . 20

International Telegraph Union (ITU). ,
! 1885 . ITU
. 1906 . ITU
,
, ,
.
1920-
(The International Telephone Consultative Cominittw
CCIF, 1924), (The International Telegraph Consultative Com
mittee -- CCIT, 1925) (CCIR, 1927). 1932 .
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
((
1 1934 .). 15 1947 .
- ITU .

IFRB. 1956 . CCIT CCIF CCITT.
1 1993 . ,
ITU . , ITU
:
2-4156

1.
,
.

ISO (International Organization
for Standardization). 148 .
ISO ( IOS).
isos (). ITU. .
, ISO

. ISO ,
. ISO 1906 .
(. - Inter
national Electrotechnical Commission),
. 1926 . ISA (Internatio
nal Federation National Standardizing Associations)

.
ISA , ISO
(25 ),
14 26 1946 . ((
ISO - 23 1947 .). ISO
1944 . (United
Nations Standards Coordinating Commit -). ISO. ISO
,
IEC. , IEC ISO
: IEC
, ISO
. ,
, ISO/IEC 8802-3.
, ITU, ISO, 1
. ,

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ETSI (European Tele
communications Standards Institute),
(
Conference of European Postal and
Ti-'communication Administrations), .
ANSI,
JESA (Japanese Engineering Standards Association).

(MP
Ministry
of Posts and Telecommunications).
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EIA (Electronics Industries Association)
IEEE (). ,
,
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(Institute of Electrical and

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Electronics Engineers). , IEEE ANSI
ISO. IEEE ,
. , ISO / ITU.
.
, IEEE .
,
,
. IEEE . 13
1884 . 25 -
, . , . . ,
- AIEE (American Institute of
Electrical Engineers).
. AIEE
. 1907 .
(Society
of Wireless Telegraph Engineers
SWTE). -
(The Wireless Institute - TWI). 1912 r.
.
IRE (Institute of Radio Engineers).
, .
1963 . AIEE. 1 1963 . IEEE. , ,
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1. . ,
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Here it Comes. Data Communications, 1999. * 9, p. 42-68.
3. . . .:
, 2004.
4. Wideband wireless digital communications/ Ed. Andreas F. Molisch. Prentice Hall
PTR, 2001.
5. . / . . .: .
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0 = [, la-lilt
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,
= 0 0 = ,
.. .
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j-u . ,
= (xi, , , )
:

, Xi,%,...,* GF(q) ,
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. ,
( ) .
.

(,) = [,1-\- Go = [Ir - ]


.
.
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, d
.
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.
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2-4-
, :
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mod ;

mod ,

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mod ,

mod ;

= z

mod .


,
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q"~k.
g .
() .
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=

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1
1
1

2.

(
):

1 1 1 1 0 (1
1 0 1 1 0 1 0
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1
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. . 8 .
.
2 . 1 2 . 7

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100
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1000000 0000011 00101 0100110
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0010110 1010101 0110011 1 I 10000


1010110 0010101 1110011 0110000

0110110 1110101 0010011 1010000


0000110 1000101 0100011 1100000
1101110 0011110 1011101 0111011 1111000
1100010 0010010 1010001 0110111 1110100

0001000 1001011 0101101


0000100 1000111 Hi 00001
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001111)101
1000010 0100100 1100111 0010111 1010100 0110010 1110001
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1001111 0001100 1101010
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12-

13-

14-

15-

16-

1101001 0011001 1011010 0111100 1111111


0101001 1011001 0011010 1111100
1001001 0111001 100 I0IMM
1111001 0001001 1001010 0101100

1100001 0010001 1010010 01L0100 1110111


1001000 0101110 1101101 0011101 101II10 0111000
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, .
() 1
. ,
.

,

2-4-
.
,
. ,
.
().

= 0,
= 2 1 ^ ( 1 - ) 5 + 30 3 (1 - ) 4 + 35 4 (1 - ) 3 + 26 5 (1 - ) 2 + 7 (1 - ) + 7 .
,
, .. .
, ,
,

= 7 3 (1 - ) 4 + 7 4 (1 - ) 3 + .

= 21 2 (1 - ) 5 + 23 3 (1 - ) 4 + 28 4 (1 - ) 3 + 26 5 (1 - ) 2 + 7 (1 - ).
2 - 1 . 2 -1.
3 .
.
1 . . .
.
:
2r-

^ Q , _ , = 2 2 ""- 1 W ^ _ , = 2 => 1 + 2 - 1 = 2 .
1=0

1=0

2.4.6.
,
.

, ,
. ,
, - , -
.
</- (,) .
= (ao.eti,... ,a_i)
= (a-i,ao,ai,...,an-a), .
() = + aix + ^2 41
-I
+ <i- \x"~ GF(q). = (a n -i,ao-Oi,
-)
() -\(" 1).
, "
.
{) () 1
" 1. " 1.
(), (()).

76

2.

(()) = ()(()).
1
Rn-
(
), R
.
/ R,,, -4, :
/ = {() 6 Rn <=> }.
(6()) 6
(()()) /, .. / ,,.
()
, , (()) /. () ,
/. , ()
() (),

() = ()() + ()

() = (()) - (())({)).

, () 6 /.
() , .. () ().
, .
.4 (, ) / = {() <=> -4}.
{) , 1,
() = 0 mod () -
, () /. ()
.
{) = + \
+ ,?_*~* - -
. G :

9\

9\

9
.

G =
0
0

0
9-

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9

.
9i

!1

9-

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, .4. ()
. () = ( - 1)/()
. AQ,
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() = + h\X
+ hfcX*. .
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_|
. ' * ( ) ,
() .
,
.4 AQ:
hk

In- i
*

hk-i

*
0

=
(I

*-!
*

.
.
.

*-[

0
hi

2-4-
() = x"~kbo(x) + r(x), () .
,
(). ,
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.
( ).
(
). ,
.
[3 7].
.
.

(, ) dm\n ( , )
dm\n-
.
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.

2.4.7.
--
-- ()
, t,
.

qm - 1. GF(qm)
.
. , '
( ^ i < ) . [3-6] .
() .4
' + , , ' + 2 , . . . ,1+ (1 ^ < ), I ( ^ / < )
, + 1.
+ 1, ,
-.
t , = 2t.
dL.it, ^ 2t + 1.
. . .
2mt.
q = 2, = 2 1, / = 0, = 2t -
- . t = 1
.

. dm,,, = 2t + 1 6, 2 ,...,^ 1 1
() d n i j n = 2t + 2 1, , 2 , . . . , 2*
{). {)
,() [3-6].
.
,
2

6. . . * \ (), ().

78

2.

10 $() .. ,
:
9W-\

()3()... _ , (*)), \ = 2t + 1.
HOK(m0(x)m1(x)m3(z)...m2t-1(x)),dmia
= 2t +

2.

1
/'

, -
.
<imin = 2t + 1 dmj = 2t + 2
t.
-l (), i = 1,..., t.
<?(),
.
k - n - r - 2 m - l deg ().
, () ni2i+i {). ,
. ,
.. , dmi.
-
- (PC)
. , ,
() I = 0 = 1.
, = q 1 ()
GF(q)
b.lr.b*,
*"" 1 " 1 , b GF(q).
:

() =

( + V).
i-\

,
dmin 1, = \\ + 1.
,
1 ( ).
, ,
+1. ,
+1. PC-
. ,
, . .
.
PC
PC ,
[7, 8]:
1) <1 1 .
, ;
2) ;
3) ;
li :

2.4-
5)
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[7. 8];
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7) .
t ,
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(, ) - PC-
.
-
- () ,
.
, .
.
.
, < , -,
=2 ,

= 1 4- + + ,

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- = 1 + ^ + + ~

+1

* ' ^

'

"--

dmin = 2"* .

- - .

= (00000000...00000000),
, = (01010101...01010101).
2 = (00110011... 00110011),
3 = (00001111...00001111),
4 = (00000000...11111111)

..

,
ao,ai,U2,

. , m 1
. . . , - ( = 0)
, - (. 1.). ( 1)-
(, 1,2)- .
m
m_1
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) -,
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.

2.4.8.
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[9] .
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,
:
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2.4-

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2.50

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.

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3 .

2.4.10.
: 1960 [11]
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.
.
,
.


, . J > J
. .
.
. J '
.
.
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j.
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\. 2
.
.

. Ekl - , 2 ,
, Ekl.
,
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2-i.
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Q
.
L(Q,N) < QNJ(A -R) + NJ = QNJ{4 -R- 1/Q).
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Q &1 -

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.
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< QJ(4 -R- 1/Q).


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Q
Q
.
,
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log. '.

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+ J 2.
.
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L * (Q,N) s$ J log, N + QJ(iK + J - 2) + Qlog 2 N,
L*(Q)< ((J + Q) log, N + QJ(3K + .1- 2))/N.
N = 4112,
R = 0.75, J = 4, ' = 16. ""
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126
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,

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3,10
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336

6255

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0,75036

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48,79684

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125.9856

0.242042

L'(N)

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1.0000E+00
1.0000E-01
1.0000E-02
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1.0000E-04
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1.0000E-06
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(8336.6255.2081 )(seed = 1237 shuffles = 4000)

2.4.11.
1955
. . [12]. 4 ( 1959 )
[6]. /, , 6* ,
^ ^ ^
><**.&*.*+*+1

,
/ = /- a*++i (mod 2). s
, ( = 0,1.2). ,
bi
i = .
,
. /,
.
, 2 + 1. <,~,+\
. ,
1/2. , s = 0, ,

.
.
, ,
. j - r o (mod 2)
j- jf, = (ffjo.Pii
Jfcim-ii)-

2. .
1 = 1.
it. m
,
.
: * , = 1.2,...,8; R = / = 1/4
7/8; = 2 . . . . . 10 [13].
R = 1/2.
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#, = (flio.ffii- fli(m-n)- ,
.
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.
,
,
.
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L
di.
L , dm\a.
,
, .
R = k/
, .
R 1/
.
R = /. .

: [14].
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[17].
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.
,
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, ()
.

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. ,
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1 ,
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SISO- 1


SISO- 2

SISO
2

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SISO).
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,
1 .
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2 .
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2/3 16
33 31. . 2.12
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2
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. . 32
(4096 128) 2
( = - 5 ) .
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0.1-0.2
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0

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20
25
30
Eb/No.

35

40

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50

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2.4-

97

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1.000-04

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1.0000-08

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Eb/No.

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2.4.13.
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[22]. .. ..
.
5
aj, j = 1,...,;2. Ri, .. = (ai,<i2,.-- < a n 9 ).
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J

- -2 H0 , j = 1,... ,, ;
- m + 1 GF(2ai),
i = l , . . . , m + 1 (.-
\ + 2 + + o m + a m + i = .
(2,,) GF(2a%)
.
af

} = (7ij,72j,---.7m+i.j),
i = l--..ni
7jj (. 7^
GF(2"'). 7i = (7i.7i2
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i = l , . . . , m + 1.
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4-4156

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1- . .
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, (^.;,<*?,),
GF(2"), t = l , . . . , m + l.
2 + 1

( n i , ( i +a2 + ai),du)
(2,*,1) GF(2"') (
), i =
= 1,... ,m + 1.
.
,
:
m+i
i=l
dm\n = miHi=l

m+l(dli4ji)



, ..
(ni.oi.di,,) (i,(oi +aa)rdi,a) (ri,(i + -2 + ... + o m ) , d , m )
( n b ( a i + . . . + a r n + a m + i),rfi,m+i),
d\,\ > d\,2 ~Z ~2 &l,m "& *k,m+t-

d- , dm\n =
dlid-21 = d\idi2 = * = dj,m+ld2,m+l-

+1 .
i-u , -
.
i 1 , i = +1,..., 1.
+ 1
. d-
. ,

d\,m+\d-2,m+\ > di_,nd-2,m > ^ d\ido-> ^ dud%\.

1 [23].
-.
- ( + 1)- .
, , -

2.5.

.
- .

2.5.
(
www.turbobest.com)

,

:
1)
:
2) ;
3) .

.
.

2.5.1.
IEEE 802.
(LDPC)
10GBit Ethernet (10GBASE-T)
802.3
( 2006 ).


6 6 (
F) 55 (
) 100 .
.
IP.
500 . 128-

- 1 3 .

I 800
-450

.
V

2
10 4 - 5 4 ^
10
10 6
10

\
\ 1\

110

\
\

1'2
21

21,5

22
22.5
23
Eb/No.

23.5

24


. 2.15.
Turbobest
( - 1 3 ) . ( 450 800 * RS-LDPC 0.32
*; - 2048
1723. ,
, - 6 32 ,
64 64.
LDPC
. -

tw
I 100 2.
. . 2.15
Turbobest
450 800 0,32 .

2.5.2.
IEEE 802.1 In
= 7
1/2.
. 540 /.
. 2.16.
. 2 . 1 6 .

= 7, 2048

3
Eb/No,

IEEE 802.15, IEEE 802.16


3GPP LTE.
LDPC-
:
- 648.1296. 1944;
- 1/2, 2/3, 3/3, 5/6 ;
;
- 360 /;

2.5.3.
IEEE 802.16
LDPC-. 1802.16.
1/2, 2/3,3/3 5/6 19
576 2304. ,

2.5. 101
. , . 2.17
50 .

* LDPC, 1/2
-*- LDPC, 2/3
-- , 2/3
-- LDPC, 3/4
-- , 3/4
-# LDPC, 5/6
, 1/2 . =7

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

Eb/No.
. 2.17. IEEE 802.16.
2301, 50

2.5.4.
IEEE 802.16
:
64 4 ;
- 64 ;
- ,
;
- .
. 2.18
.

2.5.5.
3 G P P LTE
3GPP LTE
.
:
' = 4, 8 :
- R = 1/3,
;
- 40-5114.

102
,

2.

10
-*
-^
-~
~-

, BPSK
(32,26)(32,26)
(64,57)(32,26)
(64,57)(64,57)
(64,57)(64,63)
(64,63)(64,63)

.-3

10

-4

i\
\\\

\
\

Id

'
\

"
5

10

Eb/No,
. 2.18. ,
IEEE 802.16

. 2.19 2.20
5114,
R = 1/3 .

R = 1/2
R = 1/3 = 7 ' = 9. . 2.21
R = 1/3 = 9.
-

|
1

SISO 1

SISO 2

*^ ) . -

2
. 2.19.

2.5.

103

1
2 -0.5
3 - 1
4 1.5
5 - 2
6
-2.5
7 3
8 -3.5
9 - 4
10 - 4 . 5
115
12 5,5
13 - 6
14 6.5
15-7
16 - 7 . 5
17-8
19 - 8 , 5

4
5
Eb/No,

10

. 2.20.
-1

10

. BPSK
1/3
12

10 3

10

10

IQ-6

10
,-8

10

10

Eb/No,
. 2.21. = 9. = 1/3

104

1. . / . . .
. . . .
.: . 1974.
2. . . . .:
, 1963.
3. - ... ... , . .:
, 1979.
4. ., . . . 1, 2. .: , 1988.
5. ., ., .. . . .: .
1978.
6. ., . , . .: , 1976.
7. . . - .: . 1971.
8. . ., . . . .: , 1976.
9. . //
. .: , 1957, . 114-138.
10. . . . .: , 1970.
11. . //
. I L : . 1966, . 139 165.
12. . . . .: .
1963.
13. ., .
. .: , 1987.
14. . . .: , 1966.
15. . . . .: .
1974.
16. .. . . .:
. 1963.
17. . .. . . . .:
. 1982.
18. . ., . . . .:
. 1988.
19. Berrou , Glavieux A., Thitimajshima P. Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding
and decoding: Turbo-codes. ICC'93, Geneva, Switzerland. May 93, p. 1064-1070.
20. www.turbocodes.ru.
21. AHA. www.aha.com.
22. . ., . ., . .
. .: ,
1987.
23. . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1990.

3

-

3.1.


.
-

rffP

, , , ,

, .

. ,
. 3 . 1 . -}
, !
. .
.


. . 3.1
= cos(u>oi + ^) AU cos(iit + f).
= AU/UQ . ,
< < 1.
:
V(t) [UQ + AUcos{Qt + ip)] cos(w0< + <po) :
U(t) =U0 cos(w0 + ) + cos[(u>o + ) + (v% + )]+
AU
+ c o e [ ( w o - n ) + (v9o-/>..
. 3.2
,
. . 3.2 ,
/
, +11 Si.

106

3. -.


,
, ,
.
. 3.2


.
,

(AM)
-

>+
.

5
(
).
- -,
,

.
0
, AM.
)

.
- (),
- (), ->0-,
> 0 - , fi0a>0-fi, tu0 -,
() -
. 3.2. ()

(),
() ()
.
,

-rfli .

U(t) = (*)(+ >())


, ..
<g UJQ. , ,
.4(t)e j v '' t \ ,
.

.

3.2.
U(t) = A(t)eos(u0t + <p(t))
Q = 2 .
Q 2 .
.
.

: R = q/2. q .

3.3. - () 107
.
".
().

. ,
2 = 4 sin (/2). ,
8 2 = 0,576. .
,
.

,
.
- ().

(),
. q .
q
q q, .


_ / 6/(2 - 1),
' \ 6/(2 - 1/2),

<- ,
\
q - / '

, , 16 = 0,4.

2 - 2 / 2 2 ' ' - " . 2 3 / 2 ' * - " . .

, . . 6 ,
, . . 3 .
.

,
, 1.
, .
.

3.3. - ()


().
. [/]
. []
, /No []
. [1]
> = R/Aui [//].

198 3. -

= R/C, ,
(. . 2.6):
C = Aw\og2(l + Pc/Pm),
/ /,
/, = (*/)(/>) = i(Eb/N0).
:
,, = /( lofefl + /)) = 7 / b g 2 ( l + /).

jmax = 1. (
) :
7 = log 2 (l + -/No) 21 = 1 + -yEb/N0.
/No (
) f (
). ,
:
/No = ( 2 1 - 1 ) / 7 .
,
/No 7> .
, .
,
.

. ,
7 1 //
3 . ,
(
),
- .
,

,
, .

, .

?
. ,

.
, N . /
, TV-
. ,
-
.

3.4- - () 0
,
(.V, . Dfnill), N . = log 2 / . , D 2 l i n
.
R = K/N [/.].
24
(2,q, 2 ) . ,
, .
dmm D^iD
. ,

.Dmin' .
,
.
4 (2,2,2).
R = 1 /. 4
:
*2 (*) = { ( + 1 . 0 ) , ( 0 , + 1 ) . ( - 1 , 0 ) , ( 0 , - 1 ) } .
4 2
{(+1,0), (-1.0)}

4 ( 0 , +1), ( 0 , - 1 ) } .

4 = {\,,,)
4.
. , .
:

/ (+1,0,+1,0),(+1,0,-1,0), (0,+1,0,+1),(0.+1,0,-1), 1
\ ( - 1 . 0 , + 1 , 0 ) , ( - 1 , 0 , - 1 . 0 ) , ( 0 . - 1 . 0 , + 1 ) , ( 0 , - 1 , 0 . - 1 ) /'

,
4 ,
.
(4,3,2), R = 0,75 /.
2,
. ,
.
, ,
'-
.
, ,
-
.
,
N -
().
,
, - [2-5].
, .

110 3. -.

3.4.
,
.

[3].
1
. 2
2
(, ) (2,q, ) .

(N/2. fc,dmin) GF{24).


: N
, = q

. D^iD = 2&2dmin/N ,
.
,
</- ,
.

.
2
.
. 1.
(qN/2,k,dm\n). [3] ,
: " . = - .
D^ia = 2A"dmin/A' ,
.

.
. , .
, ]> 2 .

,
.

.
,

.
3 (q 1)-
q .
.
2 4
8 2 .
.
:
(2)' (4)' (8)' 2.
-.

3.5. 111
. ,
, ,
.
(N/2,ki,di), i = l,q.

: N - . = ^t
i=I

. D,2in = min (2?di/N) , , ?


- .

q . i-
2 , + 1 ~ ' , -
(
2~' ).
, 3 i-
<fr 1
2.
.

16.
= 32, ,
. Dm i n = 0,2.
1 PC GF(16)
(16,9,8). 4 9 = 36
II 1,125 /.
2 3-
(64,42,8). 42
R = 1,3125 /.
3 (16,5,8). (16.11.4). (16.15.2)
(16,16,1). 5+11 + 15+16 = 47
R = 1.46875 /.
,
. 2 3.
1 . [2]
.

3.5.

. .
.

,
. , ,
,
. [6].

112 3. -
. , ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
( ).
5-6 , .

3.6.
()
-
(), .

. - , ,
,
, .
, .
, . . ,
.
().
,
[7, 8].
,
- ,
[3. 9].

, .. .

/. 90-

Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM).

,
[7, 8].

Z(t)=

fh(T)Z(t-T)aT

+ Mt).

() ( ^-). ~/()

. ,
Z(t) . h{t)
K(JJ)
00

h(t) = m J

I ()^'.

3.6. 113
, , . . '(;)
,
= 0.
.
, . . : \h(t)\ = , V* < 0.
h(t) (0, ),
.
trp(e), ,

\h () Yat < ,

> 0.

trp(5)

, h(t) = 0, Vi > trp.



Z(t) = Z48(1 - qT),

q = =5oT3o\

Zq , S(t) .
.

Z(t)

YtZqh(t-qT)+'y(t).

/ = 1/
kT+Q, Q .
:

Z{kT + Q) = Yi Zqh(kT + Q-qT) + i(kT + Q).


q

Zk = Z(kT + Q), k-q = nJin = h{kT+Q-qT), -,k = ~.(kT +


Q). ,
Zk, = . :

Zk = 2 hnZh-n + 7*.

,
(). , 7* : -v* = Sk+jtk ( 7 * ) = 0,
( 2 ) = 4,

Vfc,

;) = 0,

VA- # /,

E(c.kik) = Q,

Vfc.

? .

[8].
{h} ,
. h 0, hi-\ # 0
h(t).
L ,
L .

114 3. -

{/in }=<)

:
-1


. h ,
, .

{}=' :

,() = hne~^T ml * L^&

=0

>

(
) K3(ij) [ - 7 . 7 ] ,
.
(hn = , V 0, = 1) :
q

'


,
, (N ),
,
.
.
( ) L0
L 1, . ,
LQ^ L .
, , No = N + L 1.


. ZN (ZQ,Z\,...,ZN-\)
, ZNo = (ZQ,Z\, ...,Zn0i)

, ANQ = (70 > 7 .7/v0-i) .


1tNo=:KNaNZN+~KNo,

(3.1)

KN0N ( N),
{hn}tl~0

S.7. , 115

hi
'/0 =

ho
/i

. .
. . .
. . .

ho
h\

hi-i
/.-1

. . .

hL-x

KN0N
.
N.
()
,
(3.1). (
): Lo ^ L 1.

:
/

1-1

l*nl = ^ J |A-flM|2d" = 1.

= 0

_ _ IT

,
.
NQ/N .
N

* "

l+Lo/N'

N ,
, .

, .

(

-rrSp{ZNZ'N),

()* , S p ( )
.
Pi ^

/ S/Nu, = Pi/<?%,-

3.7.


,
().

4 S. -

.

, ;
,
[3, 9].
,
= + , ,
. = c + j t
. t, N(0, //2).
.


[3. 9] .
N- No-
N ,

Zi = sffiiZi + et, i = O . J V - 1 ,
ej i , pi
,, (
KmNoNKNoN).

A'.v0,v :
KN0N

= ^2ry/piq%i\ =

QNNRN2TN,

QN0N (N0 x N): QN0N = (9- .<uv-i), TN


(' x N): = {tp,ti,... ,ts-i), RN : RN =
diag {PO.PI,---,PN}\ pt, i = 0, - 1
KN0N, K^,BNKIV0N
KS0NK^,ON.
rank KNON

nmkKHoNKNoN
Pi > 0,

rankKN(lNK'NoN

N,

V, = 0 , i V - l .


. Zs
/, Zs
. ZN0
Q'NoN, ,
2,
:
Z/v = R^2ZN + EN,

ZN = Q'NoNZy

. ,
yfpi . ,
K'NIINKN0N , /><
.

3.1. 117

y/pi , , /.
Qs0N
,\ ,
. ,

QN0N T/v yfp\.
,
. -,
.


, ,

{/*}'= [3, 9]. '-
'-, NQ = N + LQ, LQ ^ L - 1, 20 = 02 PN0N

(' 0 N) Pv 0 .v =

, "
*.v

a / t 0 < IN .
, L0 2^0 LQ
2N
: 2J,Q
= {ZN-L0,ZN-L0+V,ZN-I,Z0,ZI
Z.v-i)

2N0+L-\

K(N0+1.-\)N2N0

AjVo+i-l-

A'(/v0+-i)/v (No + L1)NQ.


2N0+L-\, LQ-K 2N = S^NO+L_1)N2H0-+I,-I. 0 ( _ 1 ) OlL_i)N -- IN
L 0{L-\)N J
. ,

S((N +L-1)N
B

SINO+L_1)NKINO+L-I)NPN0N2N

S(No+L_1)NANo+L-i,

,
CN

(N N) :

S(No+L-l)Nh(N0+L-l)NPNoN

I 18 3. .-.

ho

hi,i

. . .

ho

ho

hi-\

/it-i

hi-i

hL-i

h0

, ZN =
= CHZN + A/v, AN = SfNn+L_1)N&N0+i<-i ~~
.
, ,
2 LQ > L 1 N .
Lo, ZS0+L-I
\0 .
,
.
,
.
PL0 , Z,v
. 0 ^ -^ .
N ^. .
.

(-). CN , ',
iV- :
L-1

Ki = ] hnfi~*bU,

= 0,-1.

=0

, - ' ,
:
Z, = h'iZt + ei,

i = 0,-1,

ei i , A'j
CN ,
, -. - , -,
- ,
, , -, , rankCyv < .V,
rank ' = N.

.
:

S.8. 119
-
LQ ^ L \.
UN Us , . .
;

.
O(logJV)
, -.
,

-

, (LQ)
.
",
Cs
:

*, = *>,) =4 -,
, = 2ni/NT, i = 0, iV 1, K(u)
, () .

3.8.

Z.v,
:

'*,
Pi,
"* , ^ pi ^ ^ Ps-i > 0.

< 1 ,
_ N
1
(N
1^1
l'\'
2
= A V7 + ^
X - V
> 0.

>
\
^
)
,
-. .

, .
.
-U .

120 3. -
Pi, -,
|'| ^ |A'i| ^ - ^ |A;v_i|,

-Msb ^+

LPI

< N 1 ,

,
1/- ,
1/,
. -
.
,
[7] .
' -
,
{ZK}K__OC,

(;

3.9.
(OFDM)
-
,
:
Zt = KiZi + ei,

i = 0,JV-l.

!> - ,
.
.
- [9].
.
-
[9].
, ,
\KQ\ ^ |A"i| ^ ^ \Ks-i\- Mi , |A' M ,-i| > 0, |'/,| =
= /. . , ! = = |A;v-i| = 0, 0 < /i < " - 1. : ,- =
\ -. , < i < /j - 1 Z, = ^''
Kj = b,Zi, bi = e~J " *

, t<i = i^i -+- ei, ei = e _ - , a r g K ' e < .



,

3.9. 121
} arg '< ( 1 , <
,. :

. = Ni + ;,

i = 0, Afi - 1.

.
Z, = n^r^i N, = b, Z,
, -, \
. \ = rankC/v, Cs
-.
,
. ,
AM,
. i.

- .
0 < /ii < 2 < /* < < PQ ^ \ -
. , iij_i
= 0 ) 2> , 1 < j < Q,
01 > 92 > > 0Q ^ 1- ,
/ , ,
A'j.
j'- :
/ = , I \Kif ,
2

fij-i < I < /<j - 1,

1 = 1(2 ')
/*,_i /i, 1,
( ) = (2<~1/2)/6, = -\.
1
VW \ (21 - 1)/6,
q = 2. = 1,2,... /
- P i :
.

j*

Mi-J

Y , Phxi^Pii~0

,
Q
,-\
J

<Pi.

1 1&

^'^-/*(/**-*)>

) = (1/N) gj 1/ IKJf;
Q
2

V v(2J) [/-(/) - / v ( ^ - . ) ] < Pi-

J 2 2 3. -
qj
:

**

%' AV(2'-'')/4)-

-U :
.

i/j = ,} fij-i, = 0 AM.




,
. ,
.
, -
,
,
:
=

max

A > 0 i ' J = l , 2 , . . . 9 > = l,2,...

\^(,^
''

*,

, ,
-, a vj = fij ftfi. /io = 0,0 < /*i < /* < < PQ < Mi Uj ,
TQT
Pqj = V ( 2 " ) .
,

' , //]
2. /i> 1. //;(
8 .. /ig 2^.

.
, .. .
,
.
,
.
. .
. .
,
.

OFDM-
. , .

3.9. 123
.
.
, .
OFDM,
, .
(OFDM),
, IEEE 802.16.
: , .

1. . ., . . . 1:
, 1988.
2. . ., . ., . 31.
. .: .
1987.
. . .. . ., . .
. - .: , 1990.
4. . . . -
, 1984, . 21, " 1, . 14-27,
5. . .
.
, 1985, . 20, J* 1, 28-46.
6. Ungerboeck G. Channel coding with multilevel phase signals. - IEEE Trans. Inform
Theory. July, 1999, vol. 45, p. 1456-1467.
7. P. / . . .
. . . . . .: , 1974.
8. . ., . . . .:
, 1982.
9. . ., . .. . .
. .:
, 1988.



. , .
, , -
.
4G.
, , ,

.
.

4.1. -

. -


1927 , Bell System.
-
, .
. ,
- 1884
1895-
,
. 1920- 1930-
,
, .

.
() , ,
. -
, ,
.
?
, ,
.
(, HDTV) 720,

4-1. -
1080 ( 9 : 16)
480-625 ( 3 : 4 ) .
-
. ,
-
,
-. ,

, ,
, .
-
- , , ( )
.
: MMDS (Multichannel Microwave Dis
tribution System). LMDS (Local Microwave Distribution System). MWS (Multi
media Wireless System), ( ) 2.5-2,7; 27.5-29.5
40,5-43,5 .
,
.

. .
.
: ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee, ) DVB (Digi
tal Video Broadcasting, ). ISDB
(Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting).
, , ,
DVB , , .
, , MPEG-2 [2].
, Dolby -3.

, .

.
.
DVB
,
, -
MAC (Multiplexed analog components).
.
(
400 600 .) .
,
,
, .
ATSC .
ATSC 6 (
NTSC)

126 4. -
19,28 /
. DVB : 8
4,98 31,67 / (
6 7 ).
- 16 2,
,
.
DVB ,
300 / , ,
( , ) . .
,
ATSC DVB. ATSC 8-VSB
(vestigal-sideband modulation system for broadcast). 8-VSB

. DVB
, , .
.

4.1.1. ATSC
ATSC , -
ATSC.
NTSC. NTSC ,
.
ATSC. NTSC .
ATSC
NTSC (,
). /. ,
NTSC-.
VSB, ATSC. VSB

. 2 (2-VSB) 16
(16-VSB), 0. ,
8-VSB , -7 7
2. 16-VSB,
8T-VSB ()
2/3 ( - trellis, ).
VSB- MPEG-2 188 (. 4.1).
, 187
20 - .
8T-YSB 2
207- 3 , . . . ,

( ), ,
. VSB
10,76 .
16-VSB, 4 .

4-1. -
(38,6 /), 8T-VSB (19,3 /),
.
/ 28.3
14,9 .

DD

188
187
)

MPEG-2

(187, 207)

207

VSB

44

. 4 . 1 . 8T-VSB

8T-VSB 4 . 207
828 . MPEG-2
( 5 5)
0.37 . 4 . 828 + 4 = 832
. 312 , (626
).
, (
8T-VSB) 12 .
-
.
2
.
16 ,
.
F180i.
.
.
.
:
0,
, 0.

. / 0 .
0.
.

128 4- -
-
,
1,25 .
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. DVB-T [8].
.
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DVB 8-VSB.
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:

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()
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PLP).
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134 4- -
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,
64 .

(TS);

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66

64

64

60

60

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131

129

123

121

111

276

270

262

259

247

242

223

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62
52
11.27054
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12,53733
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20,10732
60
101
22,6198
24.13628
25.16224
22,51994
27,06206
30.11257
33,87524
36.1463
37,68277
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116

68

229

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. , ,
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.
Eureka-147. IBOC
( 30 ) DRM.

4.2.1. Eureka-147
(Digital Audio Broadcast
ing DAB) 1987

Eureka-147. , ,
,
IRT (Institut fur Rudfunktechnik) 1981 . 1988
|> (WARC World
Administrative Radio Conference) . 1995
ETS 300 401. 1997 .
Knivka-1 17. . 2000 2001 *
. ETS 300 401 . 1995

144 4- -
, 1997
DAB-.
Eureka-147? [5] :
Musicam (MPEG Audio Layer 2,
MPEG 1 2)
(OFDM),
DVB [6]. , 2007
DAB+, +.

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, ..
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ETS 300 401). OFDM-
,
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(joint stereo).
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MPEG Audio Layer 2
: 24 48 ( 8 160 32 384 /).

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a (. 4.16).
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PAD. E-PAD). E-PAD,
.
ETS 300 401
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;
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;
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, , ,
).
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108 . :
.
, .
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120 . FCC

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20 , 10
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10,2

20

10,2

20

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, AM-,
, . IBOC
(Perceptual Audio Coding)
Lucent Technologies. .
: .
,
.
, . -
128-96 /
CD- (16 ,
44.1 ).
FM-. - 48 /
FM-.

4-2.

20(1(1 iBiquity Digital.
USADR (USA
Digital Radio) Lucent Digital Radio. USDAR 1991
CBS, Gannett Westinghouse Electric. 1998
.
I B 0 C . Lucent Digital Radio 1998
Lucent Technologies Pequot Capital Management.
DAB .
-

. ,
.
-,

. iBiquity,
, -
85%.
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C0FDM.
. 4.24.
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, OFDM.
OFDM. -
.
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. 4.24.

1-

154 4- -

, .
DAB- Eurcka-147 1000 .,
- 100 .
, Eureka-147
30 .

4.2.3. ( D R M )
DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale, )

, 70 ,
.
1996
30 . ,
,
( ) .
DRM
,
. DRM ITC (
- R BS.1514), (
ETSI ES 201 980).
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16- 64-
(16- 64-QAM). . (Advanced
Audio Codiug) ,
MPEG-4 ( MPEG-2).
, CELP.
Spectral Band Replication (SBR)
Coding Technologies (),
.

- - . SBR

.
. ,
6 , SBR 15 .
DRM (. 4.25): Main Service
Channel (MSC). Fast Access Channel (FAC) Service Description Channel (SDC).
MSC
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. SDC 1>
. MSC FAC
0,4 . SDC
1,2 [7].
, .
, Eureka-147

, DRM IBOC

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. Eureka-147
(. )
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,
.
, , CD,
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SDC

FAC

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MSC

FAC

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OFDM

DRM
. 4.25. DRM


WACR-92 1452-1492
( . . ).
.
. Eureka-147
, . .
500 .
DAB-. ,
DAB Eureka-147 ,
(MPEG-2),
(,
), .
,
,
, . DAB
, DAB
. DAB-, ,
( 50 . 2005 ),
- .

1. Frame structure channel coding and modulation for a second generation digital terres
trial television broadcasting system (DVB-T2). DVB Document A122, June 2008.
2. M. MPEG .

: . 2001. 4.
3. .. .
.
-, 1999.
J* 11.
4. . DVB-T
. www.nat.ru.
5. ETS 300 401. Radio Broadcasting Systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to
mobile, portable and fixed receivers. European Telecommunications Standards In
stitute. 2001.
6. .
:
,' 2001, 1,. 17-19.
7. Draft New Recommendation ITU-R BS. System for Digital Sound Broadcasting in the
Broadcasting Bands Below 30 Mhz. ITU, Document 6/63-E, 25 October 2000.
8. ETSI EN 300 744 Vl.6.1 (2009-01). Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Framing struc
ture, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television.
European
Telecommunications Standards Institute, 2009.


IEEE802.il
5.1. IEEE 802.11
22 1973 . ,
Xerox -, ,
ethernet
, IEEE 802.3.
Ethernet'oM. ,
. ether net

, , Ethernet ?
(WLAN)
15 .

( , ).
. ,
WLAX
.
. ,
.
, , .

.
WLAN" .
1990- .
1999 WLAN 600-770 .
., 2004 , 2,2-3 . . (
802.11b).
, 2003 , 20 . (. 5.1).

1-2 54 /. 100 /.
,
. .
: 2002
471 . ., 2006 . 2008
3 . . ,
, Wi-Fi (,
). ABI Research , 2011
Wi-Fi, 2013

158

5. IEEE 802.11

1.6 . . Wi-Fi 2008 ,


In-Stat. 4.83 . . % , 2007 ,
.

1989 ,
. .
100

11- IEEE 802. 1997 gQ .

IEEE 802.11

60

(Wireless
LAN Medium Access Control and Physi
40
cal Layer Specifications).

,
20
,
,
.


-
,
. 5.1.
:
IEEE 802.11.
.
1 Insights
, 2,400-2,4835
(FHSS)
(DSSS).
1 2 /.
, , IEEE 802.11,
. Ethernet
, 2 /,
IEEE 802.11. .
() 802.11b, 802.11 802.11g.
16 1999 IEEE 802.1 lb.
-
2,4 . 1 2 /
DSSS.
11 / ( 33 /).
5.5 11 / ]> ( ). .
22 33 /
().
IEEE 802.11. 5 .
IEEE 802.11b. ,
IEEE 802.11b. /,
(OFDM).

5.1. IW
, ,
DVB. 1999
5- HiperLan2 (HiperLan type 2), .
2003 ( 54 /)
2,4 802.1 lg.
IEEE 802.1 In,
100 /
MIMO. ( 802.lip)
,
(QoS), - I E E E 802.11.
2007 802.11-2007 [1],
, 2007
802.1 la,b,g,
802.1 le/h/i/j.
802.11
,
. 2009
, 2003 2004 .
802.11 [2. 3] 802.11s [4-6J.
,
,

.
, 2009 , :
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[12].
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2007 .
, , ,
. . [13].
,
. .,
.

6fc
160 5. IEEE 80S.

LTE IEEE 802.1 In ( 300 /)
IEEE 802.11
. 2007 IEEE 802.11 VNT (Very High
Throughput),

500 / .
2012 .

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( IEEE 802.11)
80 20 .
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, IEEE 802.16.
.
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mesh-,
60 [14]. mesh-

1000 /. ,
. .

5.2. IEEE 802.11


, 802.11 [17]
.
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layer). . Logi
cal Link Control (LLC) i 802.2. 802.11
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,
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48- , Ethernet.
802
. 802
.
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.
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141

sin(.r)/x).
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.
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Access Point), ,
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. Ethernet.

. 802.11
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.


.

. -
,
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162 5. IEEE 802.11


.
, Ethernet, WEP (Wired
Equivalent Privacy
).

IEEE 802.11.
802.11
IEEE 802.Hi ( 2004 .).
8.
, ,
IEEE 802.11. . ,
, IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11b. , .

5.3. - IEEE 802.11


IEEE 802.11 :
802.11
DCF (Distributed coordination function),
- PCF (Point co
ordination function). DCF
, . . .
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.
8 ()

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PCF

PCF

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PCF
, (PC),
, .
PCF. ,
,
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, PC
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5.3. - IEEE 802.11 163


, . . .
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), ..
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,
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.
,
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.
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, .
, .
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,

164 5. IEEE 802.11


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.
, . ,

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. .
,
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).

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). , ,
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CTS.

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( ): .

.
,
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. , ..
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-,
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.
.
- : ,
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5.4- IEEE 802.lib


(Frame Body) CRC.
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2
2
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ID
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5.4. IEEE 802.1 lb


- (1)
, PLCP- (. 5.7).
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56 ), , ,
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1 /,
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166 5. , IEEE 802.11


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1, 2, 5,5, 11
/

>
SYNC
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LENGTH
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. 5.8. 802.11b

IEEE 802.11 ,
, Ethernet.
.
,
.
IEEE 802.11b.
IEEE 802.11 DSSS
(Barker)
11 : \ = 10110111000.
2 ( )
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\.
11 . (DBPSK DQPSK.
). 11
1 2 /.
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ris Semiconductor) Agere Systems ( ,
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5-4- IEEE 802-lib 167


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168 5. IEEE 80S. 11

2 = a r g f n r j + 3.; + * + | } ,
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Texas Instruments. 802.11b
5,5; 11 22 /.
, .
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(. 5.10, ).
.

5.4- IEEE 802.1 lb


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(, )). 11 / ] QPSK-. 5,5 /
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170 5. IEEE 802.11


, -.
/
, (. 5.11).
. .
- Texas Instruments
.
. 5.11.


(
Texas Instruments
100)

11 /
11 /
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5,5 /

50

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450


,

5.5. IEEE 802.11 b


IEEE 802.11b .
Texas Instruments,
PRISM Intersil.

. PRISM 2
. PRISM 2 (. 5.12)
: - HFA3841, baseband- HFA3861B.
/ () HFA3783
/- HFA3683A. ,
, HFA3963.
PRISM 2,5. - baseband (ISL3873B).
PCMCIA USB.
2001 PRISM 3
0 ZIF (Zero IF,
) .
Philips Semiconductors,
SA2400 2,4

5.5. IEEE 802.11

. 6.12. PRISM 2
2001 .
( ) ,
. /, !>
fract ional-.N-.
. -
, ,

5. IEEE 802.11
, base
band- .. SA2440

baseband- -.
Am 1772 Alchemy, 1770
baseband/MAC- 1771. AMD.
2002 Agere Systems
, :
-. WL1141 -
, baseband-, -
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22
HOST
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0

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. 5.13. Agere Systems

,
Texas Instruments. , ,
100 - baseband-.
. IEEE 802.11b ,
- 5,5; 11 22 /.
32- CardBus PCI,
USB 1.1, Ethernet.
,
(PER = - 2 ) 11 /
/ 8,5 .
4,5 .
, Texas Instruments, 22 /
802.11b, IEEE 802.11+
100 .
D-Link NDC. 22 /.
, . ,

, .

Intersil Texas Instruments.


,
-.

5.6. IEEE 802.1 la


, 22 /
, IEEE 802.11 g
54 /.

5.6. IEEE 802.1 la


IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11b, 1999 .
5 OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex
ing

5.6.1. OFDM-
OFDM ,
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6-1. ,
/ = 20 /64 = 312,5 ,
/*(/) = at sin[27r(/o + k&f)t + ]. = -26
26.
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IEEE
802. (. 5.15). ()
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175

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.

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*.
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IEEE 802.11 (. 5.1).

176

5- IEEE 802.11

5.1. OF'DM-
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9
12
18
21
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LENGTH
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, (PLCP-) ,

5.6. IEEE 802.11


(Tail, )
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(),
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GI = 0,8 .
OFDM-, 53 , / 0 .
BPSK.

3.2 . .
.
, 16 .
PLCP- .

SIGNAL SERVICE. SIGNAL
OFDM- BPSK-
1/2, .. . . SIGNAL (
RATE) (LENGTH).
(Parity). (Tail), ,
SIGNAL.
SERVICE (16 ) ,
.
7 SERVICE (
), .
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6 (Tail).

178 5. IEEE 802.11


,
. ,
Pad ( ),
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5,1-5,9 , i v .
5,15-5,35 5,725-5,825 300
83 2.4 .
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5150

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5180 5200 5220 5240 5260 5280 5300 5320

i.

5350

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, Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1).
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. ,

5.7.

IEEE 802.1 lg

179

IEEE 802.11
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IEEE 802.11. .
,
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,
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bo. baseband-
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tersil PRISM Duette
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ISL3690.
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,
802.11 802.11b (
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). ,
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IEEE 802.llg. 54 /.
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5.7. IEEE 802.1 lg


IEEE 802.1 lg 2000 .

20 / 2,4 .
2000 ,
G. ,
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IEEE 802.1 la
OFDM.
IEEE 802.llg
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OFDM, 802.11, 5
2.4 . , 802.11
2,4 5
22 30 20
. , 28 IEEE 802.11 -

5. IEEE 802.11
40 , ,
, .
802.llg
802.11b.
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mentary Code Keying),
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,

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OFDM
OFDM

:
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- ,
, .

OFDM
.
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(

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DSSS
.
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802.llg DSSS-OFDM).

OFDM.
, 802.11b, ,
,
802.1 lg. . ,
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/

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, 802.11b,
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, .
PBSS 22
33 /. 802.llg
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. 5.21.

5.7.

IEEE

802.Ug

5.2. IEEE hu"2.1 lg


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lonyi ! HMO

DSSS ( )
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2

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18

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33

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40

60

80

100

120

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140

160

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182 5. . IEEE 802.11


802.11 , .
802.lib 802.1 lg OFDM-
. :
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.
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(RTS) (CTS).
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.
. , 54 /
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) 32 /, -
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CTS, OFDM-.

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,
( ).
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,
. , Atheros 802.11 g
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108 /
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AR5001X+. AR5001X AR5212.
Intersil .
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,
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PHISM Nilrn

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1500
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lib

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1500
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183

- 11 / .
OFDM- 54 / (
). 802.1 lb g
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, 802.llg (9000 )
10500 3683 .
11.2 /, 22,8 /: .
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,
CTS .
(. 5.23).

. 5.24.

PRISM Duette

PRISM Nitro
.
PRISM Duette GT (. 5.24). ,

184 5. IEEE 802.11


IEEE 802.1 lg. PRISM
Nit , , CONNECT2AIR
Fujitsu Siemens Computers. ,
Intersil
/ ISL3893. ,
ARM9,
eei . Ethernet.
PRISM GT PRISM Duette.

5.8. IEEE 802.1 Ig


IEEE 802.llg 2002 , Buffalo
Technologies. Linksys ( Cisco Systems), D-Link, Apple.
Netgear. Belkin. Actiontec, Proxim .
802.1 lg
( Intersil. Atheros Communications. Broadcom).
Intersil, 2002
WLAN 106 . .

Broadcom: 802.111
2002 , 802.llg.
2003 Broadcom 1,3 . .
IEEE 802.llg Broadcom
94306.
AirForce.
- baseband/MAC-npoucccop 4306 2050 (. 5.25).
1
SPROM
2050
IEEE 802.11 /
4306
IEEE 802 11 /
Baseband/MAC

3,3

Radio

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= 3IC '

1.8
/

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PCT/PCMCIA.
,
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Broadcom ). ,
AirForce

(. 5.26) (CardBus. Mini PCI. USB .),

5.9. IEEE 802.tin

185

/
[29].
Broadcom
802.1 lg Intersil Atheros Communica
tions. Intersil PRISM Duette (802.11a/b/g) (. . 24
PRISM GT (802.1 lb/g). Atheros
AR5001X Combo 802.Ha/b/g. 2002
(. 5.27), PRISM Duette
Intersil 2002 .

. 5.2. 9406 802.1 lb/g


CardBus Broadcom


OEM-
IEEE
802.11b/g, IEEE 802.11a/b/g.
108 /
MIMO IEEE 802.1 In.
DWL-G650M Wireless Cardbus
D-Link. AGN300 Airgo Net
works, MAC- baseband-
(AGN303BB) (2,4/5 )
(AGN301RF AGN302RF).

5.9. IEEE 802.1 In


IEEE 802.1 In
100 / .
() IEEE 802.11.
OFDM.
IEEE 802.1 In -
, 20 4(1 .
- (
MIMO).

f 186

5. , IEEE 802.11

PCI.
Host-
Mini PCI,
CardBus

<--

tj'

RLC-

2.4/5

Baseband
(PHY)

MAC

S*AS

. 5.27. AR5001X Combo 802.1 la/b/g Atheros


IEEE 802.lln
. IEEE 802.1 hi
11 2002 , TGn.
2005 .
TGn
WWiSE (World-W'ide Spectrum Efficiency) TGn Sync (
MITMOT).
75% (,
). 2005
,

5.10. Ii7_
. 2006
[30, 31] (
'- ), (draft)
IEEE 802.1 In. , 2007
. - . , .
2008 . ,
2009 .
,
.
IEEE 802.1 In, .

5.10.
5.10.1.
IEEE 802.1 In
20 ( IEEE 802.11.
IEEE 802.11). 40 .
40 ,
,
() . ,
40-
WWiSF. TGn Sync.
IEEE 802.11
( IEEE 802.11),
(
High Throughput). (L - Legacy)
. - : 20- 56.
52
4 . -
8%.
5/6 (.. 5
6 ).
GI
OFDM- 0,8 0,4 . 65
72.2 () /.
20 ,
(. 5.3). 40- 114. 108
6 .
125%.
, (
) .
(40 )

IEEE 802.1 la. 52 2 = 104 ( 128
-5 5).

188 5. IEEE 802.11


5.3. IEEE 802.1 In

-

G1 =

G1 =
0,1

BPSK

1/2

52

26

0,8
6,5

QPSK

1/2

101

52

13,0

14.4

7,2

QPSK

' 1

101

7*

19,5

21.7

16-QAM

1/2

208

101

26,0

28.9

16-QAM

3-1

>{)?,

1 56

39,0

43.3

64-QAM

2/3

31 2

208

52,0

57.8

64-QAM

3/4

312

23 1

58,5

65,0

64-QAM

5/6

3! 2

260

65.0

72,2

5.10.2. MIMO-OFDM
IEEE 802.1 In

.

() ()
. ,
-.
IEEE 802.1 In ,
- (. 5.28).
( IEEE 802.11).
300 /, . IEEE 802.11,
5/6. , ()
LDPCC (Low density parity check
codes).
.
(-)
(spatial streams). Nss ,
N/x-

Nss-\

S= Y, "(iss),
iss=0

s(i"ss) = max(l, Nepsc(iss)/2)


,

. Nnpsc{iss) OFDM-.

, 5 = Nss max(l. Ngpsc/2) 5 ( ) Nss
. -

5.10.

|
-

~1


|-

1ZZ

~~1

"

"

STBC

QAM-

QAM-

QAM-

QAM-

"
FEC-

FEC-

. 6.28. IEEE 802.1 In


, 802.11 (
13 ANgpsc 20-
18 ANBPSC " 40- ).
,
.
:
= {j - [2i.s.,mod3 + 3 floor(isf/3)] Nrot NBpsc} NCBPS,

190 5. IEEE 802.11


j - - : iss
. Nro/ 11 29 20 40- .
MIMO
/
(SDM
Spatial Division Multiplexing).
- (STBC
Space Time
Block Code),
. SDM

.
- [32]
OFDM- rf, -
(. 5.4, * : = + jb,
' = jb). IEEE 802.lln -
NSTS Nss-
- rs Nss, NSTS > Nss 5.4. -

rfl.i

<*2.. + |

-<*:>.,+,

1)- ( STBC
, , -
, NSTS = Nss)
. 802.1 In
.

(direct mapping)
, Nrx = NSTS \\ > NSTS,
. :
]
=

Xj
= [ Q ] X * = [Q]X


, ( Nrx)\ X
- NSTS'- Q
' NSTS . Q
.
-
,
1 0
.. Q =
0 1 , NTX = 3 NSTS = 1 Q =
. ,
1 0
Q (,
).

5.10.
, Q
: NTX = 3 NSTS 2:

1 1
0 0
0 1

[10]
0 1
0 0

2. 3 4
( 1) 400. 200 600 .
,
,
, , .
IEEE 802.lln
(bcamforming). Q

.
= [\,..., J/RX]
= [\,..., ]- = xr + ,
;
( NRX.NTX) .
= Q , y = HxQxx +.
, ,
. >
Q. -
. Q.
( )
(

, HT-LTF)
, .

5.10.3.
IEEE 802.1 In
- ( IEEE 802.11a/g),
(Green Field) (. 5.29). .
.
().
( mixed mode)
IEEE 802.1 la/g IEEE 802.1 In

(, ),
, .

(L-STF L-LTF) SIGNAL (L-SIGl.
, -.
HT-SIGNAL (HT-SIG),
(HT-STF HT-LTF).
-.
(GF) (
, )
. GF-

192 5. IEEE 802.11


-. IEEE 802.11
. ,
IEEE 802.1 In.

L-STF

L-LTF

L-SIG

L-STF
(Mixed Mode) I 8


(Green Field)

L-STF

L-LTF

i HT-LTS 1

4 8

L-SIG

4
4 LTF

HT-SIG

HT-SIG

HT- HT-
STF LTS_nl

4
LTF

HT-
LTS n

. 5.29. IEEE 802.1 In

HT-SIGNAL 24 .
( 1/2).
, IEEE 8021.
BPSK, 90
( . 5.14), ..
0 1 1 1 () Q.
HT-SIGNAL OFDM-.
, HT-SIGNAL,
/
(MCS), (20/40 ), .
smoothing (
), (sounding),
'- (aggregation), STBC-.
(BCC/LDPCC).
OFDM- (short GI),
(N HT-LTF), CRC
6 (Tail) (. 5.30).
(
).
(
), , NSTS. , HT-LTF

, HT-LTF,
(.. ,
- ).

5.10. 192
,
. ,
, , 1 2,
HT-LTF1 HT-LTF2,
3 4
HT-LTF3 HT-LTF4
. HT-LTF
4 , GF HT-LTF
.
/

MSB
1

LSB
| 9 | 1| 1111 g | 13| u | 15J16 | 17"| 1| 19 | 20J 21 [2223

2I3I4I5I6

LSB

>

11
Q-

1 2

\ 5

MSB

HT-SIGNAL 1

LL

Tail
(000000)

| 9 | 1l|l2| 13| 14| 1[ 16 [ 17 1 | 191 2| 2l[22|23


HT-SIGNAL 2

. .30. SIGNAL IEEE 802.1 In

, 20 40-
/
(. . 5.3).
( ), (
). 32
20- 40- ( -) 44
. 20- 288,9
600 / 40- .

5.10.4. -

. - 802.1 In .
802.11
() - (MPDU)
PSDU (A-MPDU) (. 5.31).
.
, (7-4156

194

5. IEEE SII2.II

).

, MPDI . (). .
, MPDI' M8DU (MAC
service data unit), (
)
(QoS). .
- A-MSDl [at. . ">.:tl I.
PSDU

MPDU

. 5.31. i rainapia ll-' 802.11B


PSDI
(Block Acknowledge
).
IEEE 8(12. ( QoS). IK1.I.
802.1 in

IEEE 802. 128 8 ,
I "1 ! MSDI (. 5.32).
, (

request) ,
. ,

5.10. 195
. 5.32 ( )
2,5 , .

i
1

<
5

PPDU ()

PPDU(HT)

RTS/CTS

II

la

I8

. 5.32.
1F.EE 802.11 - PSMP (Power Save
Multi-Poll)
.
PCF

PSMP.
( . PSMP)
( -

196

5. IEEE 80S. 11

) ( -).

. PSMP
(),
. ,
, ,
.
. PSMP
PSMP (subPSMPl PSMP. ? .
-
(. 5.33).
( RR) .
, eub-PSMP,
. . .

sub-PSMP.


A-MPDU

i%

,
1/5
.

<^->
A-MPDU

<*
\ /

>

A-MBDU
^

A-MPDU

. 5.33.
PSMP

5.10.
IEEE 802.1 In
. .
, . .
. .
.
, , -
IEEE 802.lln .
,
. .
. .
2 (RIFS) . .

5.10.5. 802.lln
Wi-Fi-
IEEE 802.1 In.
Airgo Networks (www.airgonetworks.com),
AG N300 - IEEE 802.11 a/b/g
( 802.1 In). MAC- baseband (AGN303BB) (2,4/5 )
(AGN301RF AGN302RF).
-802.11
Metalink Broadband (www.MetalinkBB.com),
WLANPlus Mt\V8150 MAC- baseband Mt,W8170 (. 5.34). MtW8150
4.9 5.9
20/40 (. 5.35).
(.. ),
-. ,
64-QAM. MtW8150
(, 4 x 4 ) . 11x11
Si-Ge-, 3 .
MtW8170 - .
802.11,
243 135 / 40- 20- .
MtW8170 MIMO- 2 x 2
2 3.
,
IEEE 802.lln , Atheros Communi
cations ( AR5008) Broadcom ( INTENSI-FI).
MAC- baseband- 4321 2055 (. 5.36).
2,4-2,5 4,9-5,85 .

198

5.

. 5.34.

- AVI \NPUis

\ SIIJ.II

. *

IW

s
s

Base
band l/Q

Base
band l/Q

i/.jat;l)dl)d-

Base
band I/O

Base
band i Q

ii
z

I 2. >4


()

*
. 6.36. M I W M T O
Melalink

BCM432I
basetxir id-

2.5

1.8

JTAG
lutensi-fi
draft 802. U n
MAC

( I
V23
USB I I
HoS
GPIO

Inlenst-fi

draft

rr

BCM2055
-^.

J
J

be-ionaCMt*. i

~n~

. 6.36. ' [ INTENS1 11 ( basebaiid-) Hum

200 5. IEEE 802.11

5.11. mesh-
IEEE 802.1 Is
Mesh-
,
,
. .
mesh- - .
,
; ;
,
. 1>. ] . .
Mesh- .
.
.
.

5.11.1. IEEE 802.11s


Mesh- 802.11s, , .
. (draft)
IEEE P802.11s/D2.0 2008 .
draft-
P802.11s/D1.08 ( 2008) [15]. ,
D1.07 ( 2007), D1.06 ( 2007) D1.00
( 2006).
802.11 (,
) (STA) (Access Point
)
. (.
Ethernet), (. 5.37, ).
mesh-, ,
mesh- (Mesh Point MP),
mesh- (. 5.37. ).
. , mesh-,
, mesh- (Mesh
Access Point. MAP). mesh- (Mesh Point Portal, MPP), MP,
mesh- . , mesh-
,
Ethernet-,
.
, 802.11s
. -.
, IEEE 802.11s
mesh- (
OSI), 802.11.
- mesh- (. 5.38)
802.11 [1]. -
mesh- - , -

5.11. mesh-cemu IEEE 802.11s 201


IEEE 802.11 ( Control (High
Throughput Control),
IEEE 802.1 In). FCS
-.
. 6.37. )
802.11: ) , ) mesh^

ft

-4

STA
STA

"'

'

STA

STA

STA

* v~] Me
Mesh-

Mesh-

<

* ' Mesh.

""-]
1

STA]

MP
,

MP

mesh-

.
STA

STA
.
mesh

STA

()
2

0-7955

0.6. 12 18
()
. 5.38. - mesh-

202

5.

///>'

Wi.ll

(11 - 802.1 le mesh-


" . . 01 mesb- meah-yaoy liMiHUimj " . \ :


(Muhibop Vrtkm) .
Meeh . &- iiwaji . ,
| HI ! > mosh-a.ipoca. - -^ (Mesh 1 in' I" Live M III
. , * iuesu-. - .
* .
1< (Mesh Sequence Nniuher]
.
mesh (Meoli \c|c|icss Extension) ( 4. 5 (>. *> ) ,
manll 11 ! G . 4
Miiltiliop Action inesli-cein).
MAC 4

S G
. MP > i " ,
mesh-. ,
- mesh-eeiH. i.e. mesh- ( or
).
I E E E 802.11s
( *.

' (
. MP
. MP \

( ).
\ ,

* .

5.11.2.
MDA-
niesli-ce i iMcv-li Detenninistic Access
MDAi
,
.
, , (- .
<" . . ) .
MDA- ,
. MDA- ,
MDA- .
.
MDA- -,
- . MDA-

ill. ! !> i /! mi >/(- ri mu IEEE '. lla 2 0 3 Jj


p o m i . 1)-< . 0 .
( MDA-i< fM
in vi ipoiu iiihiubiuiu-ii ui .
\-
\..i> --1 v. \ .
. ! -
1H..IIII in 1 i>i
.. . >.-
MDA-. .
.11 i H o l l u . n ,. ! - -

. 1)-( i i,ii ( M D A O P Set Jeanlown m i n i m a l

element).
. i ( 1)-..
0 ( , ! 1| <
i . ( M D A O P A I I M I I I M an iii> mfoinia
lion element), ,
(MDA action frame). V : u u . .IM MDA. i
.

( )
, -
! \ i

. ., |<

, - , IH ..
. <
(Enhanced Distributed Channel Access, EDCA)
5.11.3. I E E E 8 0 2 . 1 1 s
CiiiH.iapi HIKE 802.11
hoi spot ad hoc |lti| hoi spol i laHimii ! i i i in- IU'IKII ryna
ipyi in i laHiiiiHMii ri iii ad hoc >
1.

hoi spol iiiMhii jni


ilieaconi.
i |||) . a a i i im . ! TillleM,!,|, ,. . .
, ) m p i ... 'pijieiii . uu I
117|. \ |
! . ,
(FHSS) , ( .
.
ad hoc , hot spot.
, . .
. , ad hoc. -

204 5. IEEE 802.11


, (Target
Beacon Transmission Time, TBTT).
- -.
- (Announcement Traffic
Indication Message ),
- (
),
.

, .

(
802.11).
(2 aCWmin).
, .
,
DIFS. , . .
, DIFS
EIFS. ,
.
.
. 10
IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11s.
,
,
.
mesh- MP ,
. ,
MP. MP
hot spot.
.
MP Mesh TSF.
MP ,
ad hoc, . MP mesh-,
, , ad hoc-. mesh-
MP .
ad hoc, mesh-
mesh-, . ,
MDA
MDAOP Advertisements MDA-pe.
mesh- ,
ad hoc, ( -.
, -
ad hoc). , MP
.

5.11. mesh- IEEE 802.11s 205


, hot spot
<1 hoc, 802.11s/D1.00
( )
Beacon Broadcaster (). ,
MP .
MP . mesh- .
,
. mesh-
.
IEEE 802.11s [15]
mesh-. , mesh : -
ad hoc,
MP.
MP . . MP
,
ATIM-. , . -.
:
, ,
.
IEEE 802.11s .
, mesh-.
. mosh- .
ad hoc.
(QoS) mesh-,
, ,
. . QoS
, .

MP.
IEEE802.11s/D1.00[18].

5.11.4. I E E E 802.11s
mesh- . . -
, .
802.11s .
( , .
..) .

() .
(capability information field) .
,
, . .
, ,
,
, ,
.
( ), , -

206

5.

IEEE 802.11

, .
.
(mill-data frame).
,
.
DTIM- (delivery traffic indication message
) ATIM (Announcement Traffic Indication Message

) . mesh-cent.
, ,
( )
.
- Mesh 1JM
ATIM-. DTIM-.. ,
, , . < <
, - . ui. i
, i
, , ( 1 Data In-idi
. , Mesh TIM
.
, <
. . ,
, i .
M l '
. M l ' 1 D11M.
, ,
. M l ' , < .
1 D T I M , ,
, bfcjf .

5.11.5.
mesh-
I E E E 802.11s
, niesh-.
- 211/ I i . E E 802.1 Is.
, ,
mesli-c,

, .

( ) . .
( ) , , , ,
, .
.
( )
.
,
() ().

5.11.

tnesh-cemu IEEE 80211'

207


(.
! .
1 . ipHKoii
. , .
.
H I
.

, . . ,
. .
,
, ,
,
, .

. ,
.
, ,

. ,
. ,
11 >. < ,
> .

.
, ,
.
(
) . ])
.
,
.
. ,
(,
I! .).
I E E E 8(12.lis ;
(Airtime Link Metric).
.
= [ + - ^ ) / ( 1 ef).
Hi
,
\?2.1 la. 412.1 II): *
(8192).

,
, . . :

(/): < j
(
/)-
( ) B t
. /
, '.
II, = !)2 .

| f 2 0 1 5. , IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11s
.
,
, . - -
' ) ( )
( ).
,
. HWMP Airtime Link Metric.

, .

mesh-.
HWMP (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Proto
col) ,
, -
(Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector, AODV) [19].
HWMP -
. ,
, ,
:
-
mesh-
( ):

.
, ()
.
HWMP PREQ-na (Path Request). ,

.
, -.
.
- . -
PREP (Path Reply),
. , .
, mesh-
.
(),
- . ,
. IEEE 802.11s
(Destination Sequence Number), . DSN. DSN (
)
Originator's DSN (OSN).
. mesh-

5.11. , me.sh-. IEEE 802.11s 209


DSN. DSN
1 Originator's DSN PREQ.
, ( ). v.i mesh- mesh-.
( ,
, ).
, PREQ. OSN
( ). .
PREQ. OSN
,
, (..
).
P R E P ,
, PREQ (
).
,
(Time to Live, TTL)
, .
, . TTL = ,
.
,
(). PREQ.
. ,
PREQ. - (
), PREQ
( TTL) PREP ( .
).
PREQ/PREP.

RANN (Root Announcement).
.

HWMP. ,
HWMP, -
.
HWMP
IEEE 802.11s .
HWMP. IEEE 802.11s
RA-OLSR (Radio Aware. OLSR)
,
OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing). OLSR --
IETF RFC 3626 [20] ad
hoc-.
.
.
OLSR MPR (Multipoint Relay).
m (. . -

210

i i

//

.. < j ). n o w <
'- MI'Hini) . .
i 2 "I \ ( ),
11 Mi'1 in .' MPR i i \< 2 . \IIMi , ia
( I 2.

i . -
.,.,,.. Fopokn? Control I I
PR- '. j
! v 1'|;<> I ;i - . >- in' iii -i" i ,
' irnn oi- > "i " |\ " -

< MPR MPR Saleetan (MPRS). a MI'Hs


BELLO-, '- m '-

,
* MPR 4- i"'" >
. '
20, 21].
ni
OLSR
m
DSN HWMP). .
)

.,, , !'!

, , ni>HiiLT(i
>I SR
- . ) . ;1*
. i .-''.'

(

RA-Ol.su OLSfl [20'.
i 01 Mi. RA-<l_sR

i
MPR
1 -1 ('
|
Bag-"

.07 -
ton RA-QLSR HKuiioiiaibwiri MWMP. - !
MK.ni . \

RA-OLSR <

ni u OIIIII . , *
I :
i 1'. I ]|.!.| I 4S 2J(i i I !
1LLL 802.11 .... 'I ( 22!. 1.
!. H I K ; I . I i 1( I l l . S I I

[23. 21J: I

\ (>1.
-

(. .39) ^.
GPSS World General Purpose Simtilaiion SyaWm).
;< i*':\ ), ]> IEEE 802.11a

IF!i I- i02.11a 54 /

'II. /'-

211

Hieah-i III.

( :>n.ii 11
1..1 I l_'i. -odpai 1

>;,

14 j

<7

4,

*^|

4 1 " 42

li
^

ifArt

52*

15

I '19

(J ^

4
,

8
*

'i
5.:i!>. [bw .HI !

.*

'

**** .
-'

. ,

.1

. i.ti.i.i . 11. IJOHOI I I - !.....,. HVii ii i l l ) O l K. ih- 'iHUX X U i "
ra&i 5.3) [ . - apai
nj LI | a i . i i
.
tnai i i I 20, j
IIH , ,
'$" 4li.
5.5. < |i

-
ll|n'lwKn|

< J" IHHX

' .1|.|

IIDdliHH

I l l ' l l . i I I I . UIHI " I i


. . . [ ,

RA-OLSR

, i

- i . i .. i* iiiiij.'-t

5,7
<u

1,4
!..
i 1
Jri

i. H W M P li\ ill i i a i i i i D H i n i II".


ii , n u , i , H.I i.i...... .,.. . a i.i i..i.
Co
-1,3 ;
RA-OLSR.
10'/.
2096.
. ,
.
., ,
. 802.11s.

212 5. , IEEE 802.11


, ,

, .
,

(. 5.6). RA-OLSR
, a HWMP,
, 16%
. .
.

HWMP , RA-OLSR.
, RA-OLSR 1,5
( ),
.
5.6. ,

RA-OLSR

HWMP

3,0

3.5

, /

16,7

11.8

5,2

5.1

30

25

HWMP .
. ,
mesh-.
PREQ-, DSN
. . PREQ-,
, (
), .
. RA-OLSR ,
( ) ,
.
,
, . ;,
,
.
, ,
RA-OLSR.

5.11.6. mesh-
I E E E 802.11.S
802.11s ,
,
mesh-
.

Cisco Systems. Cisco Aironet 1520 Se-

5.11. mesh-cemu IEEE 802.11s 213


ries. mesh- Cisco
Aironet 1522, mesh-,
Adaptive Wireless Path Protocol
(AWPP). ,
, HWMP.
.
Cisco Wireless
LAN Controller. mesh-
4400.
, RADIUS-
.
Lightweight Access Point Pro
tocol (LWAPP).
IETF (Internet Engineering Task
Force).
Tropos Networks
mesh-.
Google
WiFi, 400 ,
30 " 15 . 25 . .

Predictive Wireless Routing Protocol (PWRP),
. PWRP
, .
, -

-,
. , ,
,
.

Microsoft.
,
DSR (Dynamic Source Routing]. Ad Hoc On De
mand Distance Vector (.. HWMP), ,
,
.
Microsoft
(Link Quality Source Routing, LQSR),
DSR 2.5- OSI.
,
,
. }
: ;
(Round Trip Time. RTT):
(Packet Pair); (Expected
Transmission Time. )
(Weighted Cumulative .. WCETT). LQSR,
LQSR (MR-LQSR
Multi-Radio Link Quality Source

214

I ....

,.,.....,>*.,.

'

HiiiHilupmnti

IEEE fiOS. Ii

Etoutiac,). M ' L . U . I H . I'm UH*H


|i,i.'n n IJI.M. a a e i tvUH
, i i i , > t 1 .
i 1 iii'- ',1- u I i I.I.III ii . .. i vwnii' luoi -in Li, \\ , h">- .! Mobile Communication^)
Foi
LAw
,
I I, AME).

' WJ LQSR. * FLAME *-,

. LQSR. . .
3|>>! |,
..
IN i.t I
I I I >.( . F L A M E
i o r
.
! . , ' ' ! . ; i ).
1(

.
- i.ii.ui i.iiin- 1. .
rivTb .
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KoBi'>
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HI an .
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rue n|Hvnnii'.iK.i . i. , ! inn

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.

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226 5. IEEE 802.11


. ,
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. 5.47. RADIUS

RADIUS (. 5.47)
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.
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, ,
.

5.12.3.
VPN
VPN ,
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.

230 5. IEEE 802.11

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5.12. 231
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1
2

VPN
IP see.


VPN. IPSec ,
IP.
OSI .
IP.
, , IPSec
IP-. "
2 ,
, IP.

-. (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
)
Microsoft.
Windows.

, MS-CHAP, CHAP, SPAP .
YPN.
.
:
-. -
;
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:
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.

MD4 DES.
GRE
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Cisco

. -IP ,

232 5- IEEE 802.11


. , ,
. GRE
,
: -IP ,
GRE. , , . IPSec.
L2TP
(RFC 2661), Cisco, Mi
crosoft 3Com,
. , L2TP
Cisco Layer Two Forwarding (L2F). L2TP
- IP-.

CHAP. , L2TP
. L2TP 2,
-IP . L2TP
, ATM, Frame Relay IEEE 802.11.
,
.
VPN
. .
cIPe
, cIPe
, IPSec. IP (, ICMP, TCP, UDP).
, cIPe IP-
UDP-. cIPe
,
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, IPSec. cIPe UDP-
,
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UNIX, Windows. ,
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.
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Open VPN - ,
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OpenSSL,
, AES 256- . ,
OpenSSL PKI
, TLS ,
EVP -

5.12. 233
. clPe, UDP-
NAT
.
VTun
VTun , TUN/TAP
IP-.
3, IPX AppleTalk,
SLIP, ,
UNIX.
,
. , VTun
,
, .
, Blowfish 128-
MD5 128- .
Windows , UNIX-
, TUN/TAP.
IPSec
IPSec ,
IETF. IPSec ,
( ESP):
(Authentication Header
)
,
;
- ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload
. , ,
,
;
IKE (Internet Key Exchange
)

, ESP.
IP
(. 5.52) [40].
. SCI
.
.

.
(- MD5 SHA-1).
ESP [41]
. ,
.
,
ESP ESP (. 5.53).

234

5. IEEE 802.11

IP
IP TCP

IP

TCP


SPI

. 5.52. , IPSec

ESP
( security associa
tion, SA) IKE. SA ,
VPN.
,
IPSec.
IP
IP ^


ESP-


SPI
. 5.53. ESP,
IPSec

SA:
. , ,
, SA (SA bundle). SA
ESP. IP-
IP- 32-

5.12. 235
SPI. SA .
,
SA .
, :
SA.
SA: .
, SA ,
SA .
- SA
(SA Database - SAD). IPSec
(Security Policy Database SPD),
, . SPD , .
, ,
. , SPD
: ,
IPSec. SPD, SAD
.
,
, , SAD
( D?Sec, - SPI). ,
ESP. ,
.
IPSec DES 3DES. DES
,
. 3DES ,
.
. .
Rijndael.
-
, . . .
ESP 300 ,
. IPSec
IP-
(IPComp), DEFLATE
LZS.DEFLATE. IPSec
.
, ,
IP-.
IKE. .
,

.
IPSec (IPSec Key Exchange and
Management Protocol - ISAKMP) [42] IPSec
, , SA,
. ,
.


. ISAKMP
.
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
, .
IPSec,
(SA) [42].
IPSec ,
,
SA. , , , -

- .
(Dead Peer Discovery
DPD). , ,

.
.
, ,
IP- DHCP-.
. IP-
, .
,
.509.

1. IEEE Std 802.11-2007. IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommuni


cations and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area
networks Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.
Revision of IEEE Std 802.11-1999.
IEEE. 2007.
2. IEEE P802.11n/D6.0. Draft Standard for Information Technology Telecommuni
cations and information exchange between systems
Local and metropolitan area
networks
Specific requirements
Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Amendment 5: Enhancements for
Higher Throughput / IEEE Standards Activities Department. IEEE. 2008.
3. . . . - .: .
2006.
4. IEEE P802.11s/D2.0. Draft Standard for Information Technology
Telecommuni
cations and information exchange between systems - - Local and metropolitan area
networks Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Con
trol (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications Amendment: Mesh Networking /
IEEE Standards Activities Department. IEEE. 2008.
. . M., . ., . ., . . Mesh-.
IEEE 802.11s.
: , 2008, .V 3, . 98 106.
. . ., . .. . ., . .
mesh- IEEE 802.11s.
: , 2008, 6, . 64 69.

5.12.

237

7. IEEE P802.11u/D3.0. Draft Amendment to Standard for Information Technolo


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Interworking with External Networks / IEEE Standards Activities Department. IEEE.
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networks
Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
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IEEE Standards Activities Department. IEEE, 2008.
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Local and metropolitan area
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10. IEEE P802.11v/D3.0. Draft Standard for Information Technology
Telecommuni
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Local and metropolitan area
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Management / IEEE Standards Activities Department. IEEE, 2008.
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Telecommuni
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IEEE Standards Activities Department. IEEE, 2008.
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29. AirForce-BRlOO-R-ll.14.02.
Broadcom, 2002.
30. Joint Proposal: High throughput extension to the IEEE 802.11 Standard: PHY. IEEE
802.11-05/1102r4.
31. Joint Proposal: High throughput extension to the IEEE 802.11 Standard: MAC. IEEE
802.11-05/I095r5.
32. . . MIMO:
, , 2005. 8, . 52-58.
33. Martin Beck, Erik Tews. Practical attacks against W E P and WPA. http://dl.aircrack-ng.org/breakingwepandwpa.pdf, November 8, 2008.
34. IEEE Std IEEE 802.1X-2004 (Revision of IEEE Std IEEE 802.1X-2001). Port-Based
Network Access Control.
IEEE, 13 December 2004.
35. RFC 3748. EAP Key Management Framework. IETF, August 2008.
36. RFC 1661. The Point-to-Point Protocol ( P P P ) . I E T F , July 1994.
37. RFC 2138. Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS). IETF, April
1997.
38. R F C 1321. The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm.
IETF. April 1992.
39. . ., . ., . . .
V\ i-Fi/Kypc . - www.intuit.ru/department/network/wifi.
40. RFC 2402. IP Authentication Header. IETF, November 1998.
41. RFC 2406. IP Encapsulating Security Payload. - IETF, November 1998.
42. B F C 2407. IP Security Domain of Interpretation. - IETF. November 1998.
43. Joshua Wright. Layer 2 Analysis of WLAN Discovery Applications for Intrusion Detectkm. www.rootsecarr.net/content/downloads/pdf/wlanJds.pdf. 8.11.2002.
44. Joshua Wright. Detecting Wireless LAN MAC Address Spoofing. wwwjootsecure-net/content/downloads/pdf/wlan jnacspooof_detection.pdf, 21.01.2003.
45. www.nwih.ru.
46. . ., . .
802.1 la/b/g.
www.arhont .coru/digitalAssets/197-.moscow_wireless.pdf.
47. . .
802.11//. - http://2006.edu-it.ni/dcKs/4/04-16-Vladimirov.doc.
48. www.securitylab.ru.


, .
1990- , 1980-.
,
(
).

- , ,
. . ,

,
(3G). 4G.
.
2009 ( SIM-)
4 . ,
, . 2008 .
, 1,18 . ,
700 . .
2001 600 . ( 430 .
GSM. 65 . CDMA. 47.1 .
DAMPS, 58 . [23]).
2009 190.8 .
, ( SIM- )
131.4%. , www.mforum.ru.
112.4 . SIM- (. .
- ) 96.4 . .
, 1 2001 3.4 .
152% [24]! 2004
10 , 42.37 . . 2005
( SIM-) 51.9 .
125,8 . [1]. -
2005 41 .
,
.
-
, , . .
(. .

240 .
(2G) 9.6 14,4 /)
.
1992 (ITU)
IMT-2000.
, 2000 ,
2000
2 /.

.
, , ,
. ,
.
3G. .
(lG-first generation)
1980- ( - 1970-: 1978 . ,
1979 ). 1G ,
,
.
2G 90- .
,
( 14,4 /). , 2G
. 2G

GSM (Global System for mobile communication)
2004 .

cdmaOne (IS-95), CDMA.



GPRS (General Paket Radio
Service). GSM,
, GPRS
( 50 /),
. GPRS 2,5G,
2G 3G.
3G
,
,
. 3G
UMTS
< Universal Mobile Telecommunication System).
cdina2000.
IS-95 cdmaOne. , 3G

UMTS cdma20D0. UMTS
GSM GPRS:
( )
( ) : HSDPA
HSUPA. .
2009 UMTS
Super 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE), -

6.1. 241
3.9G.
LTE (LTE Advanced, 3GPP Release 10).
,
1000 /,
500 /. ,
4G.
,
CDMA IS-95a IS-95b,
cdnmOue.
cdma2000, 3G 2
(3G Partnership Project 2). cdma2000 :
cdma2000 lxRTT ( 1) cdma2000 EV-DO. EV-DO (Evolu
tion Data Optimized), lxRTT,
Qualcomm 1999 .
EV-DO: Rev.A, RevB RevC. EV-DO RevC
(UMB Ultra Mobile Broadband) 4G,
300 /
100 / .
3G
, . 2005
cdma2000 lx EV-DO
450 -. 2009
31
. 2008 -
45
UMTS/HSPA.
3G .

6.1.
70-
.
1978 (
Batelco) Matsushita Electric Industri
al. 20 400 250 .
AT&T
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), 800 .
2
10 54 . . 1980-
[25].

NMT-450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone
tent) 1981 . . ,
. 453-457,5 ( )
463-467,5 ( ).
. < 25 (20) 10 .
.
NMT -

242 .
FFSK (fast frequency shift keying)
1200 , 1800 . 1200 /.
NMT 900- .
, NMT-450/900
. .
, 1985-1987 ,
.
. -450 (), TACS/ETACS (), RTMS-101H (
) Radiocom-200 ().
, . AMPS.
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
13 1983 . ,
, . AMPS
824-840 869-894 . 45 ,
30 . AMPS ,
Digital AMPS (DAMPS).
1988 .
DAMPS ,
, . DAMPS 30 ,

. VCELP, 8 /.
, ANSI-41.
20 .
DAMPS AMPS, ,
,
,
.
. , . DAMPS
.

6.2. GSM
GSM.
1982 ,
() GSM (Group Special
Mobile) .
1989 GSM (ETSI), 1990
. 1993 22 36
GSM. 1995 5 . ,
Global System for Mobile Communications.
84 ,
70% .
GS.M 900 1800 ( - 19(H) ).
900 (
) 890-915 . ( ) 935
960 ( GSM-1800
1710 1785 18(15 1880 . ).

6.2. GSM

200 GSM-900 124


(124 124 ),
45/95 ( 900/1800 , ).
1 16 . , GSM
(FDD).
, GSM
TDMA.
8 ( ) 577 .

. , ()
() 577 4615 .
.
( 45 ), .
.
GSM ,
, , .
. 6.1.
57 .
26 , (Pointer
Bit). (Border Bit) 3
. 148
ST (Shield Time)
30,44 , 8,25 .
, 120

-f-

10 11 12 13 141516 1718 19202^2223 2 4 1



, 4,615 (120/26)


3 4
5


6
7

, 577

3 |

57

26

57

**"

8,25

. 6.1. GSM
26 120 .
13- ,
26- .

244 .
, GSM
/ .
45 .

.
GMSK ( ).
GSM 35
, TDMA.
GSM/MAP 7
(SS7) [26]. VCELP
RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excitation-Long Term Prediction) 13 /.
9.6 / ( ).

6.3. CDMA (cdmaOne)


CDMA
(Code-Division Multiple Access). :
..
1935 .
. . CDMA
-
. ,
, .

CDMA.
Qualcomm. IS-95 (cdmaOne).
CDMA ,
.
CDMA.

(DS). (FH) () [27].
DS,
(). CDMA-DS

-- . , ,
.
().
. (
).

. ,
(
). .
, .
.
, - .

6.3. CDMA (cdmaOne) 245


,
.
.

, .
CDMA.
,
IS-95 . .
IS-95 ,
AMPS: 824 840 869-894 . ( )
45 .
1,25 .
1890 1930 1950-1990 .
80 . 900
,
1,5 : 14,4 /.
64 .

(Walsh). 64
(Hadamar). ,
( ) .
.
Ai = [1].
2 =

An

- , **

,
, =

11
1
1 -1


4 =

2
2

1
1
1
1 - 1
1
1
1 -1
1 --1 -1

1 1
-1
-1
1

IS-95 64- .
,
1 0.
(. 6.2).
(, ) (1,2-9,6 /) 1/2 ,

. ,
. ,
, .
42- ,
,

( ,
). .

<

246 .
, (
64- ). 64
.
.

S<t)j

+.
* *
P N 0

1.2288-
Mcps

800 /

I 1#6

19.2
Kjps



1,2288 / (
. ,
,

).

128
.
/
101g 128 = 21 .
,
/
3 ,
18
.
,


(
2 1 5 1)
.

QPSK.

,

.
20 .

2 4 2 - 1
.

2,4-19,2
42-
.


'
-1.2-9,6
( ).
/
42-
. . 2 . - (. 6.3).
1 cdmaOne

0.

6.3. CDMA () 247


2m 1. m-
2 ( ) -
, , ,
M(t/T) M{t/T + tpi) = M(t/T + ^)-

(. 6.4).
,
() ,
.
, .
. 6 . 3 . (m-):
() {)

-|-|;

^}<^-2-?

&

v 2 --


(. 6.5). (
1/3),
, 6
64- .
( ).
.

2' - 1. .
. 6.4.

cdmaOne

nPA"ififi
40
42-

-&


2, 1,2288 /
3700 . .
( -QPSK (. . 6.5).
.
.
256
.

244 6.

S(t)

* *

1/2

('.2288'
Mens

PN

1.2288
Mcps

307.2
Ksps

64 -

28.8
Ksps

42

28,8
Ksps

3,6-28.8
Ksps

1.2-9.6
/

. .5.
! rdrnaOne


.
,

( )
m- ()
.

.
,

, ,
. ,

,
.
IS-95
.


.

80
1 1,25 . ,
IS-95
, GSM.
8
1,2 /.
.
.
64
.
:
, , .
.

40 45. - - 25
.
! CDMA ,
, .

GPS.
20 . ANSI-41.

6.5. UMTS/HSPA 249

6.4.
6.4.1.


9,6-14,4 /. IMT-2000
3G 2 /
384 /
.
, 3G,
3GPP 3GPP2
(3G Partnership Project). ETSI (), 1
ANSI (), ARIB (), SVVTS ()
( ). 3GPP
CDMA (W-CDMA)
(FDD) (TDD) , ITU -DS
IMT-TC, . UTRA
(UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access,
UMTS) UTRA FDD UTRA TDD.
3GPP2
DAMPS (UWC-136) cdniaOne
(cdnia2000). ITU -SC
IMT-MC. . ,
3G
W-CDMA cdma2000.
.
. W-CDMA
( GSM).
.
, IMT-2000
DECT ( IMT-FT). 2007
IMT-2000 WiMAX.

6.5. UMTS/HSPA
6.5.1.
19% () Ericsson
W-CDMA.

UMTS. W-CDMA -
(FDD W-CDMA TDD W-CDMA)
(2110 2170 19201980 ) .

5 .
4.096 /
3.84 /. , 2 /
384 / .
(Smart-
). FDD W-CDMA cdmaOne (. W-CDMA

250 6.
). FDD W-CDMA
( ).
W-CDMA (UMTS) GSM
.
MAP/GSM. ,
(IP. .25). W-CDMA
, .
W-CDMA GSM.
W-CDMA (

NTT DoCoMo) 2002 , GSM .


W-CDMA - .
3GPP ,
, . 3GPP
, .
Release 98 ( 1998 )
GSM. GPRS EDGE.
Release 99 (I 2000 )
UMTS,
W-CDMA.
UMTS (UTRAN) : FDD TDD
, ,
.

3,84 /
5 . 10 15 .
UMTS Rel'99 384 / (

1920 /). W-CDMA FOMA


NTT DoCoMo 4.096 / 16
. FOMA. 2001 ,
W-CDMA. UMTS GSM
.
Release 4 ( 2001 ). , ,
-IP .
Release 5 (I 2002 ). HSDPA (
3.5G) ()
W-CDMA. 14,4 /.
2,0 /. HSDPA
2006 (SK Telecom, ). 2008 100
HSDPA. 2009
300.
14.4 / :
1,8: 3.6 7.2 /.
Release 6 (\' 2004 ). HSUPA (
3.75G)
W-CDMA.
5.76 /.
HSUPA 2007 .
HSDPA HSPA.
Release 7 (2007 ).
, HSPA (HSPA+ HSPA Evolution) EDGE

6.5. UMTS/HSPA

251

(EDGE Evolution); 42 /
/ .
UMTS . 2009
UMTS
Super 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE).
3.9G. LTE
(LTE Advanced).
UMTS;
3GPP [6 9] [10-12].

6.5.2. UMTS/HSPA
UMTS
GSM GPRS. GSM
(. 6.6): (Mobile Station, MS),
(base station subsystem, BSS), (Network and
Switching Subsystem, NSS).
. . .
GSM

BSS MS.
,
. :
(Base Transceiver Station, BTS)
,
, .
(Base Station Controller, BSC)
BTS.
.
NSS . :
(Mobile Switching Center, MSC) ~ ,
MSC BSC. MCS

(Public Switched Telecommu
nications Network. PSTN).
- (Equipment Identity Register. EIR
(international mobile equipment
identities. IMET) MS .
(, ).

252 6. ,
(Authentication Center, AuC),
.
- (Home Location Register, HLR).
(Visitor Location Register, VLR) ,
MS
, YLR.
GSM , ,

GPRS.
GPRS GSM
. (2.5G)
2G (GSM) 3G (L'MTS).
GSM GPRS
(. 6.7):
- GPRS (Serving GPRS Support Node, SGSN) - -
,
HLR, ,
, .
GPRS (Gateway GPRS Support Node, GGSN).
GGSN SGSN.
GGSN ,
IP-,
( , ).
(Packet Control Unit, PCU)
BSC
BSC SGSN.
. . 7 .
GPRS

GPRS GSM

BTS. BSC. (HLR, VLR)
( GSM).
UMTS GSM/GPRS
.
UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access Network). UTRAN

6.5. UMTS/HSPA


RNC
Node . W-CDMA
(FDD), (TDD).
, (. 6.8)
UTRAN (Core Network, ).
,
. ,
(UE).
Uu

Node

RNS
luCS
RNC

Node

Node
RNC

UTRAN

MSC/
(-GMSC
VLR

lur

lub

Node

RNS

HLR

SGSN - GGSN
luPS
CN

. 6.8. UMTS
UTRAN (Radio Net
work Subsystem, RNS), (. . 6.8).
RNS RNC (Node ).
Node (
, / /
, / .), ,
(
. ).
FDD, TDD (dual-mode) .
RNC
MSC/VLR.
RNC , .
, ,
.
,
, ATM-,
.
MSC/VLR
. Node
,
. MSC/VLR UMTS,
, ,
RNS. MSC/VLR MSC, ,

254 6.
GMSC .
(VLR)
,
.
(GMSC) UMTS CS-.
HLR
.
, .
, .
SGSN
, IP-
. Node UE,
( ).
GGSN [
GPRS , . ,
,
. GGSN
.
UMTS ,
.
UTRAN :
Iu
RNC ;
Uu Node ;
- Iur RNC;
Iub Nocle RNC.
Uu Iu :
( ,
) (

, ,
, ..).
,
.

6.5.3. UMTS/HSPA
UTRAN OSI:
(L1). (L2) (L3).
.
.
: .
,
.. FDD ,
TDD. :
- Random Access Channel (RACH)

,
;

6.5. UMTS/HSPA

255

- Forward Access Channel (FACH)



,
. , FACH
;
- Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) ,

( TDD);
- Uplink Shared Channel (USCH)
,

( TDD);
- Broadcast Channel ()
:
- Paging Channel ()
,
;
High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) - ,

CDMA- , .
HDSPA.
:
Dedicated Channel (DCH) ,
;
- Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH) ,
. HUSPA.
(Trans
port Format) (Transport Format Set) , ,
.
(UE) :
.
, . UTRAN
, ,
: , ,
.
UE . UE
RNC, UE
(U-RNTI). U-RNTI UE CTRAN,
. UE
.

6.5.4.
UMTS/HSPA
UTRA : FDD TDD
, ,
.

256 6.
I'TRA TDD : 7,68 /; 3,84 / 1,28 /.
TDD DS-CDMA
(TDMA, Time Division Multiple
Access). TDMA/CDMA.

(Direct-Sequence Code Division Multi
ple Access, DS-CDMA). 5 FDD
3.84 / TDD ( CDMA),
1,6 1,28 / TDD ( CDMA),
10 7,68 /.
W-CDMA FDD 5 ,
.
W-CDMA
,
TDMA CDMA.
,
.
. , W-CDM
10 . - ,
(
, -,
/ ..).

DPCHH
DPOCHs

HS-DPCCH

-
E-DPOCHs

COS(ult)

Re<S>

lm(S)

. .9.

W-CDMA CDMA-
. ( W-CDMA
)
.
CDMA- ( ) ,
(. 6.9).
. , ,

, .
, (
CDMA TDMA).
.
-
( 1> -

6.5. UMTS/HSPA

257

) , 3.84 /.
15 (). - 2560 .
SF. FDD
256 2, - 512 4.
SF
. ,
SF
3840/SF [/].
W-CDMA ( 4)
BPSK, 4 ( ), 1 2 , .
QPSK, 2 . ,
1,92 /
(SF = 4) 960 / (SF = 4. BPSK).
, ,
W-CDMA 384 /
128 / .
HSPDA

.
HS-PDSCH .
16-QAM ( - 64-QAM). HS-PDSCH
.
.
5 2 ( - ).
,

. ,
-,
(HARQ) .
HS-PDSCH 16. ,
HS-PDSCH 240 /. 64-QAM
1440 / (960 480 /
16-QAM QPSK ).
,
(.. /).
W-CDMA
3/4, .
, HS-PDSCH
.

HS-PDSCH ,
CDMA. 5, 10 15
. 10 /,
14,4 / (10 ).

. HSUPA (
9-4156

258

6.

). )*,
E-DCH
. QPSK.
-- 16-QAM. E-DCH
QPSK 2 3,84 /.
E-DCH
5.76 /. 16-QAM
11.5 /. ,
HSUPA. HSDPA.
HSPA,
HSPA+.
, 2009 , GSM (iispa.gsmworld.coin).
300 HSPA ,
107 . 245 HSDPA, 53 HSUPA 4
HSPA+. 21 /.
14.4 /
11 , 7.2 /
G0 .
1.8 3,6 / 76 78 , .
,

5 ,
W-CDMA
TDD .
.
( )

. ,
, .
/

.
(, ). FDD W-CDMA
TDD ,
.

6.6. TD-SCDMA
W-CDMA TDD TD-SCDMA.
Siemens
(China Academy of Telecommunications Technology
( IT).
3G. ITU
3GPP UMTS.
TD-SCDMA ( CDMA
)

,
( , ).
:
(TDD).
(TDMA) (CDMA).
5 .
(-). ,
- 16 CDMA-
16 .
-

6.7. cdma2000 259


-
. , ( )
-, .
TD-SCDMA 1.6 .
1,28 /. . -
, ,
: 1,2 / 2 /.
40 ,
120 /.
TD-SCDMA
.
/
.
, 45-220 .
( I
.
- :
. TD-SCDMA ,
/
.
, TD-SCDMA
GSM-. W-CDMA-
GSM.
W-CDMA. , TD-SCDMA
, GSM-
TD-SCDMA.

6.7. cdma2000
6.7.1.
cdiua2()0() 3GPP2 (The Third
Generation Partnership Project 2) IMT-2000.
cdma2000
.
cdmaOne. IS-95
ANSI-41
.

(CDMA).
; IMT-20U0.
(:. 6.10):
cdma2000 lxRTT ( 1. IS-2000);
< <12000 EY-DO ( : Rev.O, Rev.A. Rev.B. Rev.C).
cdnia2000 DC. W-CDMA.
.

6. , ,

cdma2000 1
Advanced

cdma2000 1

,cdma2000
Rev.A

cdma2000
Rev.O
3,1 /
1,8 /

2000

2002

3,1 /
1,8 /

2006

cdma2000
Rev.
14,7 /
5,4 /
3 ()

2009

UBW
32 /
12,4 /
(4, MIMO 2x2)

2012

. .10. cdma2000
cdma2000 1
1.25 (FDD). 144 / (
153 /), 50-100 /.
CDMA- (. .
. 4 256) , W-CDMA ( , W-CDMA
cdma2000). lxRTT
3G, -
2.5G. , IS-95,
lxRTT .
. cdma2000 1 ,
, .
,
.
cdma2000
cdma2000 EV-DO ( Evo
lution -- Data Optimized). ,
( VoIP).
EV-DV.
(cdnia2000 1)
. 2005 Qualcomm
.
EV-DO (Rev.O) Qual
comm 1999 . () .
HDR (High Data Rate).


() , ,
. CDMA (QPSK)
. (8PSK) 16
(16-QAM). , , .
, ,
(.. ).
.

26.6 , 16

6.7. cAmaZOOO 1^
1,67 . ,
. . ,
TDMA. 16 CDMA-
.
.
cdma2000 EV-DO Rev.O
2.4 / 1.25 (
400 700 /), 144 / (50-100 /). .
HSDPA. CDMA
TDMA. ( cdma2000
1,2288 /) IS-95.
, HSDPA,
.
2002 (SK Telecom. ).
, cdma2000 1 .
:
- TDM.
:
;
() / ;
- (HARQ);
- ;
- (handoff)
.
cdma2000 EV-DO Rev. ( 2004
). 2006 (KDDI. Sprint.
). cdma2000 EV-DO Rev. HSITA
(W-CDMA 6, 2006 ). Rev.O.
4 10

1,8 / , 300
400 /.
, 3,1 / ( 450 800 /).
EV-DO Rev.O

-. HARQ, .
(6,67 ). EV-DO Rev.
(, VoIP ).
2006 cdma2000 EV-DO Rev.B.
1,25- ( 15),
4,9 /
1,25 , 1,8 / .
, 64-QAM .
, 15
73 / 27 / .
20
, , . 5- ( W-CDMA)
, (cdma2000

262 6.
EY-DO Rev. ()). cdma'2000 EV-DO Rev .
.
EV-DO Rev. (UMB, Ultra Mobile Broadband)
4G. 275 /
. 75 / .
OFDMA. 1.25-20 , FDD,
cdma2000
MIMO.
2010 . UMB
LTE, 3GPP.
, , . ,
cdma2000 ,
( ).
, 2006 ,
cdma2000 450 .
71 .
EV-DO Rev.A,
.

6.7.2. cdma2000
cdma2000
, ,
. cdma2000
CDMA. , cdma2000
cdma2000. IS-95.
,
. .


.
cdma2000 (. 6.11). IS-95A,
:

HLR

AAA

zrz
PCF

PDSN

VLR

. 6 . 1 1 . <12000

6.8. LTE 263


- PCF (Packet Control Function)
;
PDSN (Packet Data Service Node) ,
;
AAA (Accounting. Authentication, Authorization) .

:
;
- , (Base Transceiver System.
BTS) (Base Station Controller, BSC);
:
HLR (Home Location Register)
;
VLR (Visitor Location Register) --
.
edma2000 . 6.8 ,

PDSN GPRS-SGSN UMTS.
UMTS,
HLR. cdma2000

Mobile IP. ,
, ,
, Mobile IP (
IP) cdma2000.
, UMTS cdma2000
.
cdma2000
3G 2 [2 5].

6.8. LTE
.
(3G)
(. 6.12).
HSPA [13].
. 6.12.
W-CDMA [15]

11

6% 2

,
-"
1
06 06

07

07 07

264 . ,
, . .
, , (4G) (
)
.
. WiMAX ( IEEE 802)
3G.
[28].

(. 6.13) .
, , .
.

3GPP (3G Partnership Project) LTE.

350 /
>200
5


> 100 /

-VoIP
-
-
-

. . 1 3 . ,
3G

6.8.1. LTE
LTE 2004
(. 6.14).
,
. :
W-CDMA ( HSPA)
OFDM.
OFDM,
2006 3GPP !> Evolved
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). ,
LTE 3GPP Release 7.
2008 3GPP (Release 8),
LTE. 2009
LTE, 2010 2011
.
3G. LTE
. , LTE -

6.8. LTE 265


1,4 20 (
1,25 ),
, .
LTE 200
(.. 200 ) 5- .
, LTE
, .. ,
. LTE
50 / (
) 100 / (
) ( 20 ).
, 350 /.
30 ,
100 . MIMO.

E-UTRA

E-UTRA
E-UTRA
E-UTRA

. 6.14. LTE

LTE ,
3GPP
3GPP2 [16 19],
4G. LTE
, 4G.
3.9G.
LTE .
, LTE-Advanced.
.

6.8.2.
LTE
LTE :
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplex
ing). MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
(System Architecture Evolution).
,
(FDD), (TDD).
.
, . .
FDD ,

266 6.

. FDD
,
TDD. ( , . .).
() ()
' ( LTE
) [20]. - 10 .
LTE = 1/(2048 / ) ,
/ , 15 . .
- 307200.,.
30,72 , - (W-CDMA
5 ) 3.84 (8 3.84 = 30,72).
LTE . 1
1 ,
. 20 ( 0,5 ),
0 19. (. 6.15).

. .
. 6.15.
LTE

1 , 10
1 .
0.5

\ #1

" . 1

#3
1

#19

18
:

2 (. 6.16)
. 5 .
5 1 .

5 10 . 1- 6-
DwPTS. UpPTS
GP. 10- TDD 6-
. 0 5, DwPTS
, 2 UpPTS .
. 6.1.
DwPTS, UpPTS GP, 1 .
6.1. 2

T D D ,

1)

II

1)

1"

5
10

1)

0
!)

10

D S
D S
D -

1
5
'

1:1

1)

. S

1'

1)

^
D S

1)

1)

li

|)

D |)

11

II

1)

1)

I)

1)

6.8. LTE

267

= 10

1
DwPTS \ UpPTS

GP

DwPTS GP

UpPTS

. 6.16. LTB

, LTE OFDM,
DVB. Wi-Fi WiMAX [13]. , OFDM

S*(f) = a*-sin[27r(/o+kA/)],
/ . OFDM-
. OFDM-
( )
(Cyclic Prefix)
(. 6.17).
.
, ,
. LTE
/ = 15 , OFDM- 66.7 .
()


- (. 6.18)
. . 6.17. OFDM-


OFDM -- .
.
12 (.. 180 ) OFDM-,
(. 6.2) .
0,5 . NRB
110 (
/ LTE
1,4 20 ).

,
.
.
1.7 i , I. I ,

268 6.
.
. ,
120 .

(MBMS), -. (
) , 7.5 33,4 . (-
OFDM-.
MBSFN (
). MBSFN-
.
. . 18. LTE
/ = 15

7 (6) OFDM

,
12
7(6)

it

\
>.

(,/)

/ = 0
;=0

1
' = 6(5)

. 2 . / = 15


, OFDM-

:

160
6 144

5,2
4,7

16.7

512

4-, 16- 64-


- (QPSK, 16-QAM 64-QAM).
. 2, 4 6 .

6.8. LTE 269


14000 /,
. FDD-, 28 84 /
. 20 100
1200 . 33.6
100.8 /.
LTE
( E-1'TRA)
(. 6.3). OFDM
().
N = 2" (. . 128, 256, . . . , 2048).
F, = /-*.
3,84
W-CDMA. .
W-CDMA, LTE. ,
(
) .
..

1.4

10

\-,

20

15

25

50

75

100

72

180

300

600

900

1200

128

256

512

1021

1536

2018

1.92

.4.8-1 7,68

15,36 23.04 30,72

6.8.3.
OFDM
.
, (OFDMA) - ..
.

. .


.

.
, LTE ,
.

.
,
(Cell-specific), ,
,
MBSFN.
(
).

.

270

6.

cell-spedfic-

( MBSFN-).

( -),

(Cell ID).

(. 6.19). ,
0- 4- OFDM.

6 I 0- 3- OFDM-.
6
. 6.19.
(cell-specific) ,
LTE ,

6.

,
.
Cell ID. LTE ,
W-CDMA. ,
504 Cell . 168 ID-,
. N\ (0-167)
.4*2 (0-2) ID .

.
62- , - N-2-
62 ,
, 1
OFDM- 0 10 ( 0 5). 2
OFDM-
1 6. ID- |.
0 10 1 ( OFDM-
) 1 11 2 ( OFDM-
).

(. 6.20).
, ,
,
OFDM-.
(CRC-24) ,
-.
1/3. LTE
, .
() (
{*(')} dsrr{i) = x(i) + <(') c(i) ).
(QPSK, 16- 64-QAM)

6.8. LTE 271


. OFDM-,
, -
.
.


(
)

ODFM-

ODFM-

!(
-

. 6.20.

6.8.4.
OFDM
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
OFDM
(PAR). ,
OFDM- ,
. , OFDMA.

I"

272

6. ,


,
. ,

|
(.. ).

, ,
.
LTE
SC-FDMA (Single-Carrier Frequency-Division Multiple Access).
: OFDMA
, SC-FDMA
, .
OFDMA , SC-FDMA
.
OFDM,

(
).
SC-FDMA- OFDM.
,
/ . .
, . .
(. 6.21).
QPSK-

15
OFDMA

^
<>'

60

*=>

SC-FDMA

. 6.21. OFDMA SC-FDMA QPSK

.
, ,
12 / = 15 ( 180 !")

6.8. LTE 273


0,5 . 7 SC-FDMA-
6
.
SC-FDMA- ( ) OFDMA-
66,7 (
). 6 ,
2, 3 5, . 64-QAM
.


.
.
OFDMA (QPSK, 16-
64-QAM) OFDM- (15 . 66.7 ).
SC-OFDMA .
(
). SC-FDMA-
( , ),
OFDMA,
-.
0
0
0
- 0

'

I' 1
1

* '

'
-

J
JSM-I

'-1

-* 0

fc-i

0
-* 0

'N-1
. 6.22. SC-FDMA

SC-FD.MA-
OFDMA. ,
--
SC-FDMA (. 6.22). ,
15
N
, N
. .
( < N),
- - (), ..
.
'- - ,
,
-.

w
274

6.

OFDMA- SC-FDMA-
(. . 6.20 6.22).
,
( , .. ).

(FH).
.

,
.
(. 6.23),
- . ,
,

. ,

.
.

1
2
3

. 6.23.
SC-FDMA

, ,
.
. ,
,
.
(sounding). .
. .

SC-FDMA- . .
, .

6.8.5.

. ,
.


iPl'SCH). (PUCCH) (Pl.'RCH).
.

6.8. LTE 275


,
, (ACK/NACK)
( ).
.

. PUCCH
(. 6.24), .


, ,
..

( ).
.
-
, -

= 1

I =2

=2

[^

=
1

^J

. .24.
PLCCH

64
. . ,
( ) .
, .
.
(Physical Downlink Shared Channel PDSCH);
(Physical Downlink Control Channel
PDCCH); (Phys
ical Multicast Channel PMCH); (Physical Broadcast
Channel PBCH); (Physical Con
trol Format Indicator Channel
PCFICH)
(HARQ) Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
(PHICH). -
. PDCCH

, . PCFICH,
, OFDM-,
PDCCH. PHICH
.
.

,
40 .
.

6.8.6.
, LTE
(MIMO).
, MIMO LTE

276 6.
. - ,
.
MIMO-
. ,
.
.
- (SU-MIMO)
(MU-MIMO).
.
, . MU-MIMO
-
I ).
,
(..
). ,
, MU-MIMO -
.
,
.

. ,
.

MU-MIMO. , .
- , .

6.8.7.


.
. LTE
.
.
(
, ,
),
.
,
.
,
(, IP-TV),
, ,
. LTE
.
LTE
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

6.8. LTE 277


(HARQ). LTE ,
( ) HARQ-. ().
HARQ-, ,
/ (ACK/NACK).
NACK .
( - )
,
,
. ,
, .
.
,
, ,
.
LTE ( 4 9),
, , TDD
.

6.8.8. SAE
LTE 3GPP
(SAE System Architecture Evolution). SAE
.
IP
,
3GPP (GSM, UMTS, W-CDMA ..) (. 6.25) [21].
SAE
(evolved Node , eNodcB) (Access Gateway.
AGW).
LTE/SAE, .
SAE :
(Mobility Management Entity. )
,

;
- (User Plane Entity, UPE) , ,
;
- - 2G/3G LTE:
- SAE-
,
3GPP, (WLAN ..).

(Evolved Packet Core)

.

278

6.

GPRS
>, Gb
,"- .
, u J y GPRS(SGSN)
>

(PCRF)

. 6.25. SAE [21]

6.8. LTE 279


-
. . - ( )
. , UPE
.
SAE

, .
( 2). .
. .
IP-.

, SAE mesh-.
3GPP Release 8
, .
, , ,
Wi-Fi ,
. . SAE
,
.
SAE,
,
, VoIP
. ,
10 (5 ?-
). , , 50%
3G.

6.8.9. LTE
3GPP Release 8,

, LTE. .
2007 Ericsson
LTE 14-1 /. 2007
NTT Docomo LTE 200 / 100 . 2008
LG Nortel
LTE 50 /
110 /. 18 2008 , T-Mobile Nortel Net
works 170 /
50 / .
67 / .
LTE
3GPP Release 10 (LTE Advanced).
, LTE
Advanced [22]. ,
(4G):

1 /.
500 / (

, LTE);


- 70 ,
40;
-
30 //, - 15 // ( ,
LTE):
- LTE 3GPP .

( 100 ),
;
;
OFDMA SC-FDMA ,
(MIMO).
,
LTE
. ,
, ,
. LTE
, , .
.
LTE .

3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/ftp.

1. . . 4Q05 2005 . www.sotovik.ru.


2. 3GPP2 C.S0001-D v2.0. Introduction to cdma2000 Standards for Spread Spectrum
Systems. 10.2005.
3. 3GPP2 S.R0005-B v2.0. Network Reference Model for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum
Systems Revision B. 06.2007.
4. 3GPP2 S.R0134-0 vl.O. Evolution of Ultra Mobile Broadband System Requirements
Document. 02.2009.
5. 3GPP2 C.S0084-000-A vl.O. Overview for Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) Air Inter
face Specification. 12.2008.
6. 3GPP TS 25.201 V6.2.0 Physical layer General description.
7. 3GPP TS 25.213 V6.5.0 Spreading and modulation (FDD).
8. 3GPP TS 25.301 V6.4.0 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture.
9. 3GPP TS 25.401 V6.9.0 UTRAN" Overall Description.
10. X. . UMTS. , , . .:
. 2007, 460 .
11. . SMS. EMS
MMS. .: . 2008. 543 .
12. . : ,
.
.: , 2009, 494 .
13. . ., . ., . ., . .
. - .: , 2005.

6.8. LTE

281

14. Andrews J. G., Ghosh A., Muhamed R. Fundamentals of WiMAX. Prentice Hall.
2008.
15. Long Term Evolution (LTE): an introduction. White Paper. Ericsson, October 2007.
16. Jim Zyren. Overview of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution Physical Layer. White Pa
per. - - www.freescale.com.
17. Moray Rumney. 3 G P P LTE: Introducing Single-Carrier FDMA. Agilent Measure
ment Journal, 2008, J* 4. p. 18-27.
18. ., ., . LTE .
, 2008, Jfr 9.
19. Tomislav Blaich. Evolution of radio access network in 3G mobile systems. Revija
19.2006.2. p. 54-68.
20. G P P TS 36.211. Physical Channels and Modulation (Release 8). 3GPP, 12.2008.
21. 3 G P P TR 23.882. 3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Report on Technical Options
and Conclusions (Release 8). 3GPP, 09.2008.
22. 3GPP TR 36.913 V8.0.0. Requirements for Further Advancements for E-CTRA
(LTE-Advanced). Release 8. - - 3GPP. 06.2008.
23.
www.sotovik.ru/library/statistika_world.htm.
24. www.sotovik.ru/ratings/niarket20010101 .htm.
25. . . . .:
-. 1997.
26. . . . . 1.
.: . 1998.
27. . CDMA: . . 2000. 6.
28. ., .. . LTE
4G. : , 2009, N* 1, . 62-72.

IEEE 802.16
7.1. IEEE 802.16
7.1.1. MMDS LMDS/MVDS
()
,
-
.
. 1970 . (FCC) , , MDS
I Multipoint Distribution System)-
30 2.1 2,7 .

.
MDS MMDS (Multichan
nel ( Microwave) Multipoint Distribution Service)
(
) .
2.5 2.7 35 (50 60

). ,
, 100 ( 1 )
10 50
.
MMDS - QPSK (2 ) 256- QAM
(8 ). MMDS
. .
8 64 /.
. , MMDS
, .
- .
( 4 8 ) ,
MMDS ( .
, ..).
MMDS
2000
20 . [10]. :

7.1. LTE 283


(
. xDSL- ..).
Local Multipoint Distribution Service
(LMDS) .
1992 -. 1998 FCC
LMDS. LMDS-
Cellular Vision - -
( ).
LMDS 27.5-29.5 ,
.
MVDS (Multipoint Video Distribution
Systems), 40,5 42,5 (,
-).
LMDS/MYDS ,
3-8 .
( 100 300 ). ,
. , .
,
,
.
LMDS/MVDS (QPSK. QAMi
(19.539 ), -.

, , 10.. 24, 31. 38 . 2
96 128 -.
LMDS/MVDS
, , .
() ,
. . ,

, .
( )
.
-
LMDS -
100 .
. 17 48 -
(NTSC) [11].
2001) LMDS ,
-
, ,
1
(Video on Demand).
.

,
,
. MMDS LMDS/MVDS

284 7. IEEE 802.16


,
. ( ,
. .) . .
(, Nortel. ADC)
.

IEEE 802.16.

7.1.2.
I E E E 802.16-2004
1998

(National Wireless Electronics Systems Test bed of the U.S. National
Institute of Standards and Technology) 802 IEEE
802.16. 1999
()
(MAN Metropolian Access Network) .
WirelessMAN.


1 0 ^ 6 ( 802.16.1) 2-11 (802.16.3).
,
(802.16.2).
2001 IEEE 802.16 Air Inter
face for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems
(
8 2002 ).

10-66 . , 15 2003
IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.16.
10-66 . 10 2001 IEEE 802.16.2
Coexistence of Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems (
).

IEEE 802.16 Medium Access Control Modifications and Additional Physical Layer
Specifications for 2-11 GHz (
2 11 ),
2-11 , 29
2003 , 1 .
, .
,
, .
802.16d IEEE.

11 2003 ( draft-
802.16REVd). . 24 2004 ,
- - 802.16-2004,
802.16-2001, 802.16-2002 802.16-2003.

7.2. IEEE 802.16-2004 285


ETSI
IEEE 802.16, ETSI
HIPERMAN. , HIPERMAN IEEE 802.16.
2 11
WirelessMAN-OFDM (. ).
IEEE 802.16 WiMax
(Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access).
WiMax Forum (www.wimaxforum.org),
(Airspan
Networks, Alvarion Ltd, Aperto Networks, Fujitsu Microelectronics America. Intel.
OFDM Forum, Proxim Corporation. Wi-LAN Inc .). .
WiMax, HIPERMAN.
WirelessMAN-OFDM.
WiMax Forum 11 2003 .

,
IEEE 802.16, ,
. WiMax

. , , Intel Fujitsu,
,

. , WiMax Forum
75%
. WiMax Forum 2005

Cetecom. WiMax
.

7.2. IEEE 802.16-2004


IEEE 802.16-2004 [4]
()
(WirelessMAN)
. --
IEEE 802.11, .

, .

,
(QoS)
.
IEEE 802.16-2004 66 , , MAC-
(, ,
, , -

286 7. IEEE 802.16


( ATM )
IEEE 802.16 .).
(. 7.1).
WirelessMAN-SC 10-66 .
(-, -),
(
), (bit stream)
120 / 25 .
7.1. IEEE 802.16-2004

WirelessMAN-SC

10-66

WireleaeMAN-SCa

< 11

AAS/ARQ/STC/256-QAM

TDD/FDD

WirelessMAN-OFDM

< 11 I T u

AAS/ARQ/STC/Mesn

TDD/FDD

WirelessMAN-OFDMA

< 11

AAS/ARQ/STC

TDD/FDD

< 11 *

DFS/AAS/ARQ/Mesh/STC

TDD

WirelessHUMAN

TDD/FDD

* ( ).

11 .
WirelessMAN-SCa WirelessMAN-SC
( ). WirelessMAN-OFDM
WirelessMAN-OFDMA ,
2003 , IEEE 802.16,
.
IEEE 802.16-2004
( ) WirelessHUMAN (High-speed Unlicensed Metropolitan
Area Network). WirelessMAN-OFDM
WirelessMAN-OFDMA 5-6 .
WirelessHUMAN ,
(DFS - dynamic frequency selection)
. ,

, .
, 11
(ARQ
automatic repeat request),
(AAS adaptive antenna system) -
(STC space time coding). ,
-, WirelessMAN-OFDM
mesh- (
,
, ). ,
IEEE 802.16 2-11 ,
802.16-2004 (,
. 1 ). ,

7.3. - IEEE 802.16 287


700
IEEE 802.16.

7.3. - IEEE 802.16


7.3.1. -

IEEE 802.16.
, ,
IEEE 802.16, -.
IEEE 802.16
(), , IEEE 802.16 .

-. .


WMAN
, .
( )
. (
)
,
IP, IP (VoIP) . . .
(QoS)
IEEE 802.16.
- .
- 802.16
(. 7.1) CS (Convergence Sublay
er), CPS (Common Part Sublayer) PS
(Privacy Sublayer).
/
.

.
() ()
, ()
().
'
IEEE 802.16.

.
802.16
ATM .

IP, Ethernet ( 802.3). . (VLAN. 802.1Q-1998).
CS-
.
, ,
/.
,
.

288 7. IEEE 802.16

ATM

IP

VoIP

Frame
Relay

DVB

CS
-

Frame - 2 I Frame - 1

Frame

Frame + 1 Frame /+ 2

. 7.1. - IEEE 802.16



PHS (Payload Header
Suppression). , ATM,

.
, , -
ATM (5 48 )
.
,
IEEE 802.16. PHS
:
-
IEEE 802.16, .

7.3.2.
IEEE 802.16
(CID).
IEEE 802.16 ,

(), , ,
-, IP-,
1 ..
, ( , QoS), ..
IEEE 802.16 .
.
-
. ()
.
SFID (32 ), ( )
,
.

7.3. - IEEE 802.16



, 1.
,
.
IEEE 802.16
-
. 16- ,
. ,
/
,
. .
) .
,
CID. ,
IEEE 802.16.
, ,
.. QoS
, . CID
, , .

7.3.3. -
802.16
.
MAC (MAC PDU MAC Protocol Data
Unit, -),
, .
MAC PDU ( PDU) (
), CRC (. 7.2).
PDU 6
. ,
.
(CID), ,
(. 7.2).
. 7.2. IEEE 802.16

j CRC

( 6 ) ,
.
CID ( ,
).
.
:
- MAC;
- :
10-4156

290 7. IEEE 802.16


,
CS-.
7.2. MAC PDU ( )

= 0

fi

, ()

11

16

(
U

/>" - /)-' - /) 1

- : , ,
, mesh-
Fast Feedback.
, P D F
;
, , P D F .
,

( ,
,
).
Fast Feedback
(,
).


IEEE 802.16. 256 ,
48.
(1 ) () .
, , . . . ,
,
. /
(FL-/DL-MAP) .

7.3.4. IEEE 802.16



IEEE 802.16 .

.
- ( )

7.3. - IEEE 80S.16

291^

( ).
(FDD frequency division duplex), (TDD time division
duplex) .

, (DL), (UL).

, .
DL- (
).
( ) .
, ,
.
.
,
(DL-MAP) (UL-MAP)
. .
,
(
), . ,
IEEE 802.16. , SC SCa
.
, .
FEC- ( ),
/ ,
.
/ DIUC/UIUC
(Downlink/Uplink Interval Usage Code),
.


(DCD/UCD) 10 .

( -
OFDMA OFDM)
-. UL-MAP. |> . UL-MAP DL-MAP
, - ,
. .
UL-MAP ,
.
- UL-
,

/ .

7.3.5.
IEEE 802.16
Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA). AC

292 7. IEEE 802.16


,
, , . .
UL-MAP.
,
.
IEEE 802.16

. , ,

.
,
. ,
,
. .
,
.
IEEE 802.11:
, / ,
.
(),
0 2" 1. , = 4, 0-15,
11. 11 ,
/ , 12- .
,
.
, .
, .

.

(polling)

. ,
/ ,
. . .
-
,
(, ).
, ,
(, -MPEG). >
.
, , , 1 .
, , - - FTP-.
,
(, 1),
(Unsolicited Grant Service UGS).

, .

7.3. - IEEE 80S. 16 293^


,
-
. ,
. ,

( ) (
PiggyBack Request).

, (slip).
, , .

7.3.6. (ARQ)

, MAC-
11

(ARQ), .
ARQ
.
.
.

.
,

. (.. ),
. , 0,5,
, , ,
.
,
( , ). ,

, ,
. ARQ -
.
ARQ, , .
, ARQ
. ,

- .
, ARQ.
.
,
, .

,
().
.

294 7. IEEE 802.16


(SCa. OFDM. OFDMA)
, .
IEEE 802.16
.
,
OFDMA
FAST FEEDBACK.
() .
4- ,
FAST
FEEDBACK. ()

,
AAS .
4- 24- :
(4 ) OFDMA- (3 1 , 6 ,
48
. 11.6), .. 4-
48
. FAST FEEDBACK- - QPSK, 2
,
24 .
.

7.4. IEEE 802.16.


WirelessMAN-SC
IEEE 802.16
- -
(SC
single carrier, 11 SCa),
OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multi
plexing) ( )
OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access)
(. . 7.1). , SCa
SC
( 256- 256-QAM).
WirelessMAN-SC 802.16
10-66 - (
).
, ..
. ( 25-28 ),
|> (. 120 /).

7.4.1.

IEEE 802.16
(. 7.3)
.

7.4-

(
)

IEEE

802.16.

FEC

WirelessMAN-SC

-*

F E C

295


. 7.3.

' <> WirelessMAN-SC


, . .
! (), ^
1 5
I 4
(. 7.4) ( <() = J + I + 1,

480).
(FEC-).
: -
GF(256), -
' = 7 (

2/3) ,

(8, 6, 2) .


QoS. , 6 255 ,

32 ( 255 ).
,
.

; 1 ;' 1 . 1 : :

13

14
I

15

00000011...

-> V
!

(
\:

10
f
m

11

12

/)


. 7.4.

WirelessMAN-SC, ,
.
: 4- QPSK 16- 16-QAM ( ), 64-QAM (-

2?6 7. IEEE 802.16


).
( 2/4/6 QPSK/16-QAM /64-QAM)

2/4/6
(/) (Q) .
I w Q (square-root raised cosine
filter) () .

1|/|<1-),
/) = | yi + i s i n [ ^ - ( Z ^ ) ] , 1 - | / | < . 1 + ) ,
(
0,
|/|>/(l + a),
( IEEE 802.16 = 0,25);
ff,- , .
I(t) Q(t)
,
5(t)

= I(t)cos(2nfet) - Q(t) sin(2irfct),

/,- . .
.

(. 7.3).
7.3.

,

20

. /
QPSK

16-QAM

64-QAM

16

32

64

96

25

20

40

80

120

28

22,4

44,8

89.6

134,4

7.4.2.

.
0,5; 1 2 ,
. ( 32 QPSK-),
(. 7.5).
DL/UL-MAP / .
QPSK.
802.16 .
. (FDD
frequency division duplex), (TDD - time division duplex)
.

7.4- IEEE 802.16. WxrelessMAN-SC 297



(

), (. 7.5. ).

(. 7.5, ).
)
-

"U

)
-

-fa

-fu

. 7.6. 802.16 fa)


()


( TDM
time division multiplex) (. 7.6).
, ..
. , ,
, (
)
DL-MAP.
( ).

DL-MAP

UL-MAP

. 7.6.


.
( Q P S K - M O ). , -

298 7. IEEE 802.16


, ,
.

DL-MAP.

(TDMA time division multiple access)
(. 7.7).

-.
-
UL-MAP, . UL-MAP
DL-MAP , .
.
. ( )
, . , .
TDM-,
16 32 QPSK-.

JO

TDMA-

. 7.7.


/
.
IEEE 802.16 ,
.
. FDD ,

. , FDD-
TDMA-
(. 7.8). ,
TDMA,
16 QPSK-,
.
, IEEE 802.16
TDM- TDMA- ,
. ,
IEEE 802.16-2001.
, TDM
, - .
, DL-
DL-MAP ( ).
TDM TDMA - TDM ,
, TDMA
, .

7.5.

WirelessMAN-OFDM

TDM

TDM

TDM

1
2

TDMA

TDM

TDMA

TDMA

DL-MAP

TDMA


-J

TDMA

UL-MAP

. 7.8. I'DD

7.5. WirelessMAN-OFDM
OFDM -
( 12 ) /<-. .
SC,
. ,
'
, / = / + kAf, ['/2, '/2] (
0).
/ = 1/,
OFDM- .
, OFDM-
, OFDM- , = + (. 7.9).
.
1/4, 1/8, 1/16 1/32 .
OFDM :

/ .
OFDM,
.
'
()

300 7. IEEE 802.16

N/2

(*) = Re

k=-N/
=-N/2

(QAM-). ,

a*(f) = /* cos(2nf)B- Qt sin(27r/), /* Qk
( ) , .
. 7.9. OFDM-

OFDM-

..
/ ,
2 .
Npn 2"\ N. OFDM IEEE 802.16
-V = 200, NFFT 256. 55 ( = - 1 2 8 . . . - 101 1 0 1 . . . 127)
.
( = 0)
(.. ). 200
.
OFDM,
,

. OFDM
( 88, 6 3 . 38, 13). 192
16 12 ,
. , 1
100, 99, 98, 37, 36, 35,1, 2, 3, 64, 65, 66.
, WirelessMAN-OFDM
() 16, , ,
OFDM .

( 0 31).
OFDM-
BW ( ):
F, = NFFT/- F,/BW =
86/75 (BW 1,5 ). 144/125 (BW

7.5. WireleasMAN-OFDM
1,25 ), 316/275 (BW 2.75 ). 57/50 (BW 2 )
8/7 (BW 1,75 ).

7.5.1.
-
, .
().
1 + 1* + 1 5
(. . 7.4).

4A80ie-

BSID, (. 7.10).
, ,
, . 7.10.
( DIUC
UIUC).
10
( 4 )
MSB b 3

b 2 b,

MSB

b,


DIUS/UIUC

b0

4<t<

b,: b,

b 3 b 2 ' b,

b0


b3

b 2 b,

b.

LSB

777777

t>7

a,

LSB


. 7.10.
OFDM

:
.
- , ,
GF (256).
239 , 255 (
16 ). 8
15 .
.
(239 - ') (
). .
, ,
2 .
IEEE 802.16 . .
- (. 7.11)
( ) G\ = 171s (
.Y) Go = 133 ( ) NASA [12].
1/2, ..
' . = 7.
( ) ',

302 7. IEEE 802.16


Yi, . , 2/3
(A'I l'i Y2). 3/4 (Xi \ Y-x '),
5/6
\ Yx Yt 9 Y4 6).
7.4. / O F D M

1 %

|1
1-

1 *

BPSK

12

(12,12,0)

1/2

:
1/2

QPSK
QPSK

24
36
18

(32,24,4)
(10,36,2)

2/3
5/6

1/2
3/4

48

72

(64.48,8)
(80,72,4)

2/3
5/6

1/2
3/4

96
96

96
108

(108.96,6)
(120.108.6)

3/4
5/6

2/3
3/4

144
141

16-QAM
Ifi-QAM
64-QAM

64-QAM

24
48

BPSK
(, ).
, OFDM.

(. . 7.4) (
, 16).

(
) .
*- X

. . .

*-

()

,
OFDM-. .

, .

. ,

7.5. WmlesaMAN-OFDM
() ,
.
:
mk = (Ncbp,/12) (

mod 12) + floor(fr/12):

jk8' floor(m*/s) + [m* + > - floor( 12?//)]

mod s;

(7.1)

= 0 , . . . , Ncbpe - 1,
mk J* - fc-ro . ; Ncbp, - OFDM- (
); s
1/2 (2/4/6
QPSK/16-QAM/64-QAM, , BPSK = 1). floor(x) , ; (i mod ) -

/.
.
(BPSK/QPSK/16-QAM/64-QAM).
,
( 1/2 /4/6 ). Q u i
(. 7.12).
.
Qui, ..
( QPSK = 1/>/2, .16-QAM = 1/%/, 64-QAM
=1/%/42).
QPSK

64-

2 , 0

= 1/V2

0 .1 +

Ob,

000

16-QAM

00

= 1/VTo

1

*+

-3
10
11
11

= \/\2

010

-1

,0

4 Q

001 .

-1
.1+

-3"
10
00

001
-I-7
101

-5.

-3

-*-+

-1
-1

100

*3

110

*5

111
111 110

100

-7
101

001

000 010

011 5 4

. 7.12. ( )
QPSK, 16-QAM 64-QAM

BPSK.
*
;11 + 9 + 1,
,

304 7. IEEE 802.16


(. 7.13).
(8FFie 555ie, ).
BPSK- _ 8 8 = _ = = eg* = 1 - 2w*; _ =
= c_j3 = 1 3 = = 1 - 2tF* _8 = _38 = = 3 =
= = egg = 1 2u>t; _ = _13 = 1 257* .
OFDM.
MSB
DL:

UL:

LSB

10

11

-7

>""

\~

\"

I.

. 7 . 1 3 .


.
.

7.5.2.
OFDM -

SC. ,
().
(. 7.14)
(DL - )
(UL ).
(TDD), (FDD). DL UL
, .
,
| FCH frame control header) .
OFDM- ( ),
. OFDM- , ,

QPSK).
!
OFDM-
BPSK (
1/2).
'DLFP Downlink Frame Prefix),
( ) DL-.
(
)
DL-MAP, UL-MAP,

7.5. WmlessMAN-OFDM 305


/ DCD/UCD, .
( , . .)
OFDM-.
, , DL-MAP.

-1

DL-

+1

-2

UL-

DL PHY PDU

DL-

| | DL- IIDL- 2

''

1 OFDM,
/
BPSK1/2 //

DL-MAP, UL-MAP,
DCD, UCD .

-/

. 7.14. OFDM-
,
( )
. ,
.
( ) UL-MAP.

( OFDM-, ).
, -.
OFDM 2,5; 4; 5; 8; 10; 12,5
20 . ,
, .

7.5.3.

IEEE 802.16, *
(Region-Focused). ,
.
( UL-MAP) 4-
48 , .
.
802.16. .

306 7. IEEE 802.16


,
(
). . , , UL-M
,
, , ,
. ,
.
4- ,
.
, OFDM
, (
). .

niesh-.

7.5.4. Mesh-
mesh-
IEEE 802.16 OFDM,
OFDM.
mesh-

,
. Mesh- ,

() .
mesh- .

-
, mesh-

. mesh-
802.16
. 7 . 1 5 . mesh-

IEEE 802.11.

,
,
.
.
, ( )
.


mesh- () .
,
mesh- (. 7.15).
mesh-,
mesh- .

7.5. WirelessMAN-OFDM 307


,
. .
mesh- .
,
. . ,
, .
. .
mesh- / .
.
(
), .
48- -. , mesh-
16- .
( ,
,
, ..)
.
.

mesh- (. 7.16).

, .
-,
, -
mesh-.
(network control)
(schedule control).
QPSK 1/2.

(Network entry )
.
.
.
.

, ,
, (
) ..
,
. ,
, ,
,
, , ,
. .
,
. . .
,
(NENX) (
-).

g.

7. IEEE 802.16

,
. .
, .
.
^
-1

+1

+2

" ' - -

AC

AC

~~~-__


NENT
OFDM-

AC

OFDM-
CSCF

. 7.16. mesh-


mesh-
(). ,
1 .
,
(.. ,
).

(distributed scheduling
DSCH). DSCH- -
() (
).
.
.
.

7.6. OFDMA
DSCH-
.
DSCH- .

.
CSCF
CSCH.
.
CSCH,
(.. / )
, .
, CSCH,
( /)
. , (
) ()
DSCH.
CSCF

. CSCF ,
,
. /
.

7.6. OFDMA
OFDMA
OFDM. .
OFDMA- ,
,
.
OFDM
16 .
(BW) ( 1 ),
5 .

7.6.1.

OFDMA 2048.
:
32 70, 24 48 .
8/7 BW.
, OFDM-
OFDMA OFDM.
, ,
. OFDM (
).
OFDMA
, OFDM,

7. IEEE 802.16
. - .
.
OFDM (7.1)
12 ( OFDM) 16.
OFDM,
. QPSK 16-QAM
1/2 3/4, 64-QAM
1/2, 2/3 3/4. OFDM
( )

;, . 7.13. -
1 2'* (. . >* = 0, 1 2>* = 1
; >* = 1. 1).
BPSK. ck = 1 2w>t-.
(
- ) 2.5
, *, 4/3.

7.6.2. ,

(. 7.17) OFDMA
,
. , . 2;
2.5: 4: 5; 8; 10; 12,5 20 . OFDMA-.
OFDMA- .
, OFDMA-.
OFDMA
.
OFDMA-.
FUSC, PUSC;
OFDMA-.
- ( OFDM).
, ,
.
IEEE 802.16
, . FUSC
(full usage of the subchannels)
PUSC (partial usage of subchannels)
(), .. .
PUSC, .
PUSC FUSC ( )
, .

. (Advanced modulation and coding).
.
2048 . 160 159
, -

7.6. OFDM
. 192 (
bin) 9 . ()
- . . -
OFDM-
. OFDM-. -
. (
).
OFDMA-
k

i k+1 k+3 k+5, k+7, k+9 k+11,k+l3,k+15

f
k*30,k+31 k+33

k+17,k+20,k+23,k+26

SJ
UL- 1
DL- 3

-j

UL- 2

DL- 1
l

DL- 4

UL- 3

DL- 5

UL- 4

DL- 2

1
UL- 5

s+lT
DL-

UL-

. 7.17. OFDMA-

,
FUSC. PUSC,
. . (
- permutation zone) (. 7.18).

. 7.18.

OFDMA-

DL-

UL-

,
I

312 7. IEEE 802.16

7.6.3. OFDMA-
(. . 7.17) .
BPSK
. ( PUSC)
. MAC-. = [ 0 . . . 2]
3 .
. .
, FCH
(DL-MAP).
QPSK 1/2.
(DL Frame prefix),
(,
), .
, ,

.
UL-MAP
.
FUSC ,
( ). 1702 , 173 172
.
1024 .
FUSC .
.
. ,
OFDMA-
802.16. 6 ( OFDM - 0). 166 , 24
. ,
, .
-
(STC).
1536
. NubchanneisB = 32
S,, = 48 .
1 :
SUbcarricr(k,s)

\,1,,,1,

{[{

+ *)

mod

Ntubchanneli]

+ IDcell] mod JV, u 6 c A a n n e , g ,

(7.2)

subcarrier(k, s) k .
= [ . .. N subchannel ~~ IJi = [ ( ) . . . JVeubcarritm "* IJi
=

(k + 13)

m o d Nlubcarrierf

roCell -
0 31). ()
- {/'}.
( = {3,18,2,8,16,10,11,15,26,22,6,9.27.20,25.1,29,7,21,5,28,31,23,17,4,24,0.
13,12.19,14,30}). mod /.

7.6. OFDM 31
,
,
0-1535 (
1702), .. , .
,
.
PUS
. .
12 . PUSC 60 .
. ( 0, 1 2),
12 (0 11, 20 31 40-51 , ).
PUSC .
2048 , ( 1024)
(184 183 ) . 1680
120 , 14 .
(PhysicalCluster)
:
LogiailCluster
=

=
RenumberingSequence((PhysicalCluster +

\ZIDcell)

mod

120),

RenumberingSequence(x)
IEEE 802.16 ; IDcell
- (
0-31).

. (0-23, 24 39.
40 63. 64 79. 80-103. 104-119) 24 16 .
( , 0 0,
2 1, 4 2).
: 5- 9- ,
1- 13- (. 7.19).

. 7.19.
(~}

^ ^ ^ ^ ^-^
^ ^ ^-^

OAAAAAAttAAAA
^ W w W W W W W W W W W

_/

,
, .
: (7.2)
24 .
, 8 12 . (7.2)
Neuhrhanneit = 12 8. Nubcarrirre = 24,
Pi 2 12 8
. .

314

7. IEEE 802.16

,
, optional FUSC.
.

7.6.4.

TTG.
/.
() OFDMA- .
IEEE 802.16 ( , tile).
0
l

t 1
, ,-.

v )
w


,
(. 7.20).


(_)
_,
. 7.20. socxo-

it ran

(1680 )
420 .^ <1
, . _
70 .
, ..

^ ^- .

.
420 70 .

:
Tile(n,s) = 70 + {[( + a) mod 70] + ULJDcell} mod 70,

Tilt(n.a) ; = [ 0 . . . 5]; = [ 0 . . . 69], ()


: ULJDcell - 0 69,
-.
.


48 .


, .

8ubcarrier(n,8)B = ( + 13e) mod 48,
: = [0...47] (..
13* ).
, IEEE 802.16 :
IEEE 802.16
, 24 .
, 48 ,
, .

7.6. OFDM 315

. (. . ) 24.
( OFDMA- ) 24
, Is .
,
(. 7.21), .
96 (1728 ).
. 7 . 2 1 .

7.6.5.

OFDMA
. OFDMA
.
, UL-MAP.
144- CDMA-. BPSK, .. 1
. (24 ).
15-
1 + ' 1 + "4 + X' + X15.
VLJDc.cU. .
(. .
) - 256 .
- .V
.
, L .
.
: .
UL-MAP. CDMA-
N .
OFDMA-.
,
CDMA- ,
(. . ).
CDMA- ( ,

), ,
. I L-MAP
CDMA-, , .

316 7. IEEE 802.16


, UL-MAP
( ,
) .
(
, -.
.). UL-MAP
.
OFDMA
, .
CDMA-
. (
) OFDMA-.
(
. UL-MAP). CDMA-, UL-MAP
,
.

7.7.
IEEE 802.16,
. , IEEE 802 a/b/g,
(AAS).
[3]. , AAS
. AAS

(
), .. .
AAS
802.16,
( OFDMA). ,
.
.

, -
() STC.
ASS IEEE 802.16
MAC-,
.

7.7.1. A AS
.
( AAS) (. 7.22).
-AAS AAS- .
AAS OFDM OFDMA. SCa, .
OFDMA,
. AAS
(Diversity-Map Scan) (Di
rect Signaling)

7.7. 31

UL-

DL-

AAS-

AAS
DL-

AAS
UL-

. 7.22. < AAS


Diversity-Map Scan
OFDMA AAS
(FUSC, PUSC) ().
AAS- OFDMA-
AAS- AAS-.
AAS- (
FUSC/PUSC
). .
, ,
, .
, ASS- (
), /
, AAS-. ,
, QPSK
1/2 ( ).

, UL/DL-
(,
).
AMC-AAS
20 .
,
DL/UL-.
.
Direct Signaling
(Direct Signaling Method)
.
,
.

AAS-
/ (BWAA - bandwidth alloca
tion/access). BWAA- ,

( BWAA- ,
). (
Direct Signaling Method), UL-MAP DL-MAP
.
AAS
.

() RLT (reverse link train-

318 7. IEEE 802.16


ing). RLA (reverse link access),
FLT (forward link training) FLI
(forward link initiation). .
.
RLA
BWAA.

. FLI
( , FLI). FLI
, .
.
,
( ) RLT,
.
, ,
, .
FLT ( )
RLT ( ).

7.7.2. -

-
(Space-Time Coding, STC)
. , ,
, .. .
(
) .

-
1


--

-*

. 7 . 2 3 . - MISO

IEEE 802.16 -
. [13].

(, ),
(. 7.23).
,
( ). ,

7.7. 319
MJSO (Multiple Input Single Output) -
( ).
0 So, 1 S i .
0 SJ, 1 SQ (S* S).
r i .
(/io hi),
So Si (,
So Si):
So = ftjro 4-ftirJ1;

Si = * - *.

, STC
. , STC, DL-MAP
.
STC OFDM
OFDMA STC.
, OFDMA-
. , OFDMA
-
(frequency hopping diversity coding - F H D O
: , X
So. X + 1 S\.
0. 1 ,
.Y S*. X + 1 SJ.
lie
STC.
, X X + 1 (..
). rj
X * +1 .
So S\.
, , ..
OFDMA- ('. X + 1: ) ' .
+ 1:...). 0 , 1
.
. 7.24. STC
-

STC-

1
Acre 1

,= e k P l

320 7. IEEE 802.16


:
=

So
Si

Si
So j

So
, , ,
S,
.
.
OFDMA STC/FHDC ,
. , STC
, .
0 1 (. 7.24) 0' 1'.
(, 0' S0 = So '"' 0 ).
:

7.8.
IEEE 802.16
IEEE 802.16
,
.
IEEE 802.16, , .
.
.
, Intel, Nokia, Analog Devices, Atheros Commu
nications, Fujitsu Microelectronics America .
,
802.16-2004 ( 11 ).
SDRAM

UART

RS-232

DB9


IBM 405GP

IX

Ethernet
RJ45
10/100 base-T
MAC

. 7 . 2 5 . OFDM- DM Wavesat

, Wavesat
(www.wavesat.com), 2003
() OFDM- DM (. 7.25).
ASIC, .. ,
BGA-1156. , -

7.8.

321

IEEE 802.16 ( - ). ,
4-, 16- 64-QAM, 1024- . .
OFDM- .
3 7 ,
35 /.
2,5 3 . .
200-1 Wavesat
OFDM- DM256.
PQFP-208 . DM256
(10 ). /
(/ Q).
10 . 2/4/16/64-QAM.

,
, .

1,75; 3; 7 10 .
1/4
1/32 OFDM-.
.
DM256 -
-. ,
. , DM256
IEEE 802.16 (
OFDM).

DMAREQ
INTR
ADD

, DATA

STC

* u.

2
5 t

||

5 :

. 7 . 2 6 . KN-2234 - Runcorn

Wavesat OFDM,
Runcorn Technologies (www.riincoin.coin) RN-2234
1

I .

322 7. IEEE 802.16


OFDMA IEEE 802.16 (. 7.26).
QPSK. 16- 64-QAM.
. ( ). (10 )
(12 ). 14 RN-2234
56 /.
A AS. STC .
- 0,18 304 LF BGA (19 19 1,5 ).
/
1,8/3.3 .

2 .

7.9.
IEEE 802.1
2004
802.16-2004 [4]. , - ,



. ,
.
, ,
,

.
, 802.16-2004

. 21 .
2005
IEEE Std 802.16-2005 ( 28 2006 ),
802.16. ,
802.16
802.16-2004
-
[5].
(- 802.16 WiMAX)
802.16 .

,
.
802.16?

() .
,
( )
,
, , ,
..
(
).
(
),
. ,
() ( -

7.9. 323
) , .
().
,

.
.

, (MIMO).
,
.
IEEE 802.16
(QoS). IEEE 802.16
,
. QoS
.
,
.
, (;
, ,
..
802.16 .
,
,
. .

, ,
( ) .
802.15
(Phy),
(Media Access Control
MAC) .
.

7.9.1. MAC-

- QoS.
. (
) ,
-. ,
SFID
CID.

, .
.
.
. , -
QoS /
.
( ) 32 (. 7.5).

324

7.

IEEE 802.16

7.5.

,
I
/
i
S
(1200 1021000
6
/)

I
1

(1200 1921000 )
6

R
(>
L
(1 10 )

S
/
1

1

:

1

. ,
- ,
.

. , .
:
(Unsolicited Grant Service
UGS);
(RT-VR);

(ERT-VR);
(NKF-VR);
- ' (Best Efforts B E ) .
U G S ,
.
,
. '- . L'GS
, .
( ) ,
. .
RT-YR ,
.
,
. ( )

.
, .
NRT-VR. ,
, .
.

0 () 7 (). , .
.

7.9. 325
BE .
.
ERT-YR
UGS RT-VR. ~
,
,
. IP-. ERT-VR. UGS,
( , ),

.
Crmvfuil
, IEEE 802.16

.
(sleep mode) ,
( - ), /.
,

* .
.

.
( ), . .
,
.
.
.

. ,
. , BE NRT-VR
. ,
UGS
. ,
, .

. /
/
(. 7.27). .

.
, .
, .

. (,
) .
,
(
, ..).
.
] BE NRT-VR.

326 7. IEEE 802.16


Sleep Win, 2:
SleepWin(i + 1) = min(2 SleepWin(i), 2).
SleepWin(0), , ,
,
. , .
,
*.



NRT-VB BE



UGC

|

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. 7.27.

I

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7.9. 327
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) .
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vertisement). .
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( OKDMA) (, .
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330 7. IEEE 802.16


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);
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7.9. 331
.

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.
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- .

,
.

802.1 IEEE 802.16
(, multicast) (broadcast) .
:
.
.
, Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS)
.
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( MBS).
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). MBS . ,
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CID MBS.
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.
.

332 7. IEEE 802.16


,
. .
, MBS- ,
, . ,
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.
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, .. IEEE 802.16,
WiMAX.

7.9.2.
IEEE 802.16 [5]
IEEE 802.16-2004 [4], .
,

.
.
,
20 .

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, OFDM
, OFDMA (OFDM
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4

3
5

6
8

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10

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. 7.29. O F D M

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.
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(. 7.29),
, .


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.
.
,
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control subchannel): .
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4/8/1G OFDM-) .
,

( .
).
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334 7. IEEE 802.16


(DL-MAP UL-MAP)
(, DLJ3UBCHJE ).
OFDM
OFDMA
. ,
. - . IEEE 802.16-2004
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IEEE 802.16 OFDMA (S-OFDMA).
1024, 512 128 . 256
, OFDMA
OFDM.
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, ,
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.
,
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.
,

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. , 20- 5-
2048 512 . ( )
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. ,
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,
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. 7.30.
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, PUSC)

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2
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6
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8
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,
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.
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(uplink channel sounding).

( ; ).
.
.
, .

336 7. IEEE 802.16



( ).

, 16-,
.

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- (STC),
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, , (Macro diversity handover
MDHO)
,
.
- (STC).
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) .
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.

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. LDPC
. . . IEEE 802.1
72 288 1/2 5/6.

(.. ).

, IEEE 802.16 HARQ


(Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request). ,
(ARQ)
:

7.9. 337
- (Stop and Wait);
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. ,
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. AC HARQ
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.
. , . ,

338 7. IEEE 802.16


,
, .

7.9.3. IEEE 802.16


.
IEEE 802.16.
,
,
.
\Vi.\fax [7] .. OFDMA IEEE 802.16 . Intel, Runcorn, Fujitsu,
Sequans. Beceem, GCT Semiconductor, Motorola . ,
In-Stat (www.instat.com), 2007
IEEE 802.16 27 . ., - 130 . .
2012 500
. 1.4 . . .
, Intel
WiMAX Connection,
WiMAX Connection 2400. WiMAX Connec
tion 2300R WiMAX Con
nection 2320R (. 7.31).
Intel Echo Peak, IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.11
( WiMAX 2,5 2,7 Wi-Fi 2.4-2,48
5,1-5,8 ).
WiMAX Connection 2400 -
IEEE 802.16. 2300R 2,4-2,4; 2,5-2,69 3,33,6 . 2320R 2,3-2,69 3,3-3,6 .
WiMAX Connection 2400 2320R
6 / * 2 /
(
20 5 /, ).
5: 7: 8.75; 10 .
5 . MIMO 2 x 2 ,

.
Runcorn ',
802.16 ( OFDMA), RNA200
(. 7.32).
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) . , RNA200
- ( SDRAM
). SIM-. -
USB SPI, Etheniet-.
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, . ARQ. .
1024 , .. OFDMA 1024 . ,
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. 7 . 3 1 . Intel WiMAX Connection: )


, )
Wi.MAX Connection 2320R

WiMAX
Fujitsu. 8621 (. 7.33)
512 1024 OFDMA. -5
10 , 242 ..
Sequans Communications
,
WiMAX. SQN2130.
SQN2110, Stratix 11
Altera IP-. SQN2130

. - IEEE 802.16
OFDMA 512 1024 .
, ,
35 /. MIMO 2 .

340

7.

IEEE 802.16

JTAG UART

PSS

JSM
.
Rash

so

PC-CARD PCI
(PCMCIA) 16/32

USB

Host

Host

USIM

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MAC
PHY

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5*

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m

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PCMCIA

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7.9. 341
280 .
10 .
30 /. OFDMA 512 1024 .
( SQN1110
4 ).
Ethernet

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(2Rx/2Tx)

S #- ~ <, *-

FLASH

SDRAM

SIM

SIM

DSP

. 7.34. SQN1130 (Sequans)

- SQN1130 -
SQN1140. ( MIMO)
, 2,3-2.7 .
290 (195 ).
MS 120 BCS200
.
WiMAX- [7]. .
-. , BCS20
BCSB120 - BCSR120.
2- 3-
, .
5; 7; 8,75 10 .
,
,
IEEE 802.16. DSP- Texas Instru
ments. Fm'.scale. PicoChip . PicoChip
( 300)
DSP- [8], WiMAX-.

- InfiNel Wireless (www.infiiiet.ru)

PicoCliip .

342

7. IEEE 802.16

I - ! -

1
. 7.S5. UXA234xx (NXP) (
)
, WiMAX, & -.

234 NXP (. 7.35).
2.3 3.8 .
,
. ( )
77
87 . 2.5 3.5 .
74 .
. , UXA234GC -

7.10. IEEE 802.16 343


2,3-2,7 , ,
2,7-2,9 /
81/182 . ,
Maxim, Analog Devices .
, ,
IEEE 802.16
(OFDM, OFDMA S-OFDMA ..),
VViMAX, . ,
WiMAX ,
, (, )
.
,
. , WiMAX
.

7.10. IEEE 802.16


802.16
802.16. ,
.
h
IEEE 802.16 ().
802.11.
j a m .

7.10.1. IEEE 802.16J


IEEE 802.16j 2006

802.16. mesh-.
802.16-2004. mesh . 802.16j
, .
. mesh-.
PC ( ).
, 802.16j

(, PC).
PC. PC
, , DL-MAP. UL-MAP .. (. 7.36).
.
PC ( ).
PC , )-.
.
, .
, PC
( )
( ). [9].

344 7. IEEE 802.16


PC
40% ( 6,2 8,8 / [9]).


-*
-

. 7.36.

IEEE 802.16j
IEEE 802.1 ( . IEEE 802.16j
). .
, -. ,
.
OFDMA . ,
(. 7.37).


.
OFDMA.
PC
PC.
. R-FCH (
),
( DL/1'L-MAP.
/ ).
PC (Relay Amble).
, -

7.10. IEEE 802.16 345


, 40 (8
5 ).
OFDMA

DL-


802.1

FCH


UL- UL-

DL-

TTG

802.16JFCH

FCH

R-FCH

Rx

Rx

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.

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Rx

Rx

1
5

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. 7.37. 802.16J

- IEEE 802.16j
, , . .
, PC , (
) . PC
().
PC . ,
PC (
) .

346

7.

IEEE 802.16

7.10.2. I E E E 802.16m
IEEE 802.16m.
< . IEEE 802.16
IMT-Advanced, ITU ..
. , ,
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* (Ad
vanced Air Interface), ,
,
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4G,

IMT-Advanced IMT-2000. ,
WiMAX.
6 .
, .
, IMT IMT-2000,
WARC-92. WRC-2000 WRC-07. : 450 470,
698-960, 1710 2025, 2110-2200. 2300-2400. 2500-2690 3400 3600 .
, ,
,
.
, IEEE 802.16m.
150 /
20 . 8,0
2,8 // , (. 7.6).
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MIMO , //

2x2
1 X-J

8,0
15.0

12

2.8

2 1

5,6

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3 802.16. .
5 .
30
.
100 (
). 350 /.
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50 150 .
m ,
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7.10. , IEEE 802.16 347


. , .
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e<y

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16m

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PC 16j

16

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7 . 7 . OFDMA IEEE 802.16m


,

10

20

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1024

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10

1024

1024

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-

348 7. IEEE 802.16


20 ( IEEE 802.16).
(. 7.39) 5 .
5. 10 20 . .
.
( )
()
(. . 7.7).
(TDD) .

( 1) ( 2) OFDM-.

. 7.39. IEEE 802.10m


IEEE 802.16,
, IMT-2000 -Ad
vanced (. LTE).
. .
IEEE 802.Hie
IEEE 802.16m (. 7.40). ,

( 802.16e/j IEEE 802.16m.
).
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< , 20 .
(. 7.41). ,
.
IEEE 802.16.
, IEEE 802.16m
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7.10.

IEEE 802.16

349

, .
, .
.
. IEEE 802.16m

. , . 7.42
LTE.
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IEEE 802.16eUL
802.16 m O L /

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I

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SF
SF
SF
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. 5
. 7.40. .Hill I " 80'2.1fim

5- 802.16


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5-
802.16


802.16
802.1
802.16
. 7.41.
'. 802.1
IEEE 802.16m . .
MIMO.

350 7. IEEE 802.16


( )
.
( DL-.
2 2, 4 2, 4 4, 8 2, 8 4, 8 8).
,
, . ,
MIMO. Multi-user MIMO,

.
,
.
LTE TDD 5-

LTE TDD 5-

1
IEEE 802.16 5-

UL

UL

UL

DL

DL

DL

DL \ UL

UL

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IEEE 802.16 5-

UL UL DL DL DL DL

UL UL UL ULi

UL-
. 7.42. IEEE 802.16m LTE

, 802.16

LTE-Advanced. 2010

LTE. , IEEE
802.16m,
,
4G.
: ,
IEEE 802.16,
.
ITU 19
2007 OFDMA TDD IEEE 802.16

7.10. IEEE 802.16

351

IMT-2000 (IMT-2U00 OFDMA TDD


WMAN). , WiMAX .
.
,
(, LTE). . ,
, .
, 802.16 .
, j .
, OFDM-
[14]. .
,
.
,
WiMax- ,
.

1. . . IEEE 802.16
!
: . 2003, 8, .50 56.
2. . IEEE 802.16
11 . : , 2005. * 1, . 8 14.
3. .., . .. . ., . .
. .: , 2005.
4. IEEE Std 802.16 2004. IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks.
Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems. IEEE. 1 Oc
tober 2004.
5. IEEE Std 802.16e-2005 and IEEE Std 802.16-2004/Cor 1-2005. Part 16: Air Interface
for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems. Amendment 2:Physical and
Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed
Bands.
IEEE, 28 February 2006.
fi. . IEEE 802.16-2004.
OFDMA .
: , 2005. .V 2.
. 46-52.
7. . .
.
. 2007, .V 2, . 8-11.
8. . SDK WiMAX. DSP '.'
: , 2007, .N* 2, . 76-80.
9. . Okuda et al. Multihop Relay Extension for WiMAX Networks Overview and
Benefits of IEEE IEEE 802.16J Standard.
FUJITSU Sci. Tech. Journal, 44. 3. July
2008. p. 292 302.
10. www.sotovik.ru/library/statistika-world.htm.
11. www.sotovik.ru/ratings/inarket20010101.htm.
12. - P. . ,
, . .: , 2005.

352
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Aiamouti, S. M. A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communicati


ons. - IEEE Journal on Select Areas in Communications. Oct. 1998. Vol. 16, N". 8,
p. 1451-1458.
14. / . . . , 1996.

WiMAX
8.1. WiMAX
WiMAX (
) . IEEE 802.16,
WiMAX-. .
, .. ,
( ) ..
IP- (IETF RFC) Ethernet
(IEEE 802.3-2005). ,
, . , . . ( ,
), WiMAX- Network
Architecture [1, 2].
WiMAX
. IP Ethernet, .
WiMAX-
, , IP-.
WiMAX ,
(..
, ).
,
, (
, ), ,
(, , mesh ..), (,
, ).

8.2.
WiMAX ()
WiMAX. ,

( ).

, ,
.
- ()
(). ( ASN)
(CSN). ,
(R1-R8),
(. 8.1). () ASN
12-4156

354

8. WiMAX

i NAP) ,
- WiMAX (NSP). , -
WiMAX , IP- WiMAX
. - WiMAX
-,
, . . -
,
CSN.

. 8.1. WiMAX-criH [I]

ASN ()
IEEE 802.16
- (. . )
(. 8.2). 802.16 IP-. ASN
ASN-.
, ASN ,
.

,
IEEE 802.16 .

, . ,
.
ASN ,
ASN CSN.
ASM ,
. ,
. ASN-
,
.
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Decision Point) -

8.2. 355
( Enforcement Point). ,
, DP , < (,
).
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. ,
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R7.
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(, ), .
. 8.2.
ASN

CSN WiMAX,
,
(AAA), WiMAX IP-,
, ?-.
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- WiMAX ( CSH

CSN
.
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^- .
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() ,
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CSN .
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-, / IP-.
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) ..
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-) //,
, . .

354 8. WiMAX
WiMAX
- H-CSP V-CSP,
(. 8.3). NSP ,
WiMAX. .
(
). - WiMAX
NSP.

. 8.3. WiMAX,

NSP (V-NSP) , WiMAX- . , V-NSP


AAA,
WiMAX-.

CSN-.
WiMAX
. ,
,
.
R1
ASN. ,
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.
R2 CSN.
, , LP-
.
,
CSN.

8-4-
R3 ASN CSN
AAA.
. (
) ASN CSN.

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-.
R6 ASN-.
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). R7. ,
( ).
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.
(
).

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ASN ASN-
. ASN-.

,
.
.

, (RRC)
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. , ,
, ,
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(. 8.4).
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,
.
. , ,
.

, WiMAX-.

8.4.
WiMAX, ,
WiMAX.
,

351

8. WiMAX

.
-.

. 8.4.
ASN- ASN-
:
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( ) CSN,
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.
, WiMAX-
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- ,
.
IP- (MIP). IP- -

8-4-

NSP ASN-

NSP, ASN-

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CSN
. 8.6. ASN- CSN-

JJ.

8. WiMAX

IP-
.
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IP- (), ,
(). ( ),
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DHCP).
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IP ( ,
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,
(FA, foregion agent). ,
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IP- IP-
.
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.
,
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CSN

.-Tunnel id

-
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. 8 . 8 . WiMAX- MIP.
NUP-

WiMAX- MIP.
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IP. IP-
DHCP (IETF RFC4361).
DHCP- , .
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.

8-4-

WiMAX- - . ASN (ASN-)


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ASN- (. 8.7).
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-). , ASN-
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1 ^ R 6
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ASN-.
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, FA
R4. , CSN
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-- ASN-
- CSN-

,
R3. ASN-,
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- . .
.. R3.
R 3-.

362

8. WiMAX
- ASN
NAP

^ ^ ^

ASN


IP,
WiMAX-
CSN-

1- (CMIP) - IP
(PMIP). 1-
,

ASN-,
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- MIP.

. 8.. CSN-

,

. ,
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, . 8.8 ASN-K CSN-,
.

TCP/D?-npoTOK(viOB
B?v4. IPv6.
,
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,
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,
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(AR
access router).
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( ASN-).
- ( ), (
CSN.)

8.5.
. IEEE 802.16
, -

8.5.


WiMAX-. ASN-.
( ), ASN- ( ).

(RRC Radio Resource Controller)
(RRA Radio Resource Agent). ( )
RRA. , RRC
, ASN-
ASN-. ASN- .
RRC .
RRC-.
ASN-
RRC- (. 8.10).
R6 R4. ,
R8, RRC-
.
ASN-1

. 8.10. ( ASN- )

1 , .

.
;) IEEE 802.16. . RR

364 8. WiMAX

. , -.
RRC
.
. ,
RRC
RRA RRC.
,
,
.
,
QoS .. /
,
, (
, 200 ,
). ,
, .
,
,
. ,


(TDD), /
(UCD/DCD) , .

8.6.
WiMAX
(idle mode) .
IEEE 802.16 [4, 5],
. ,
.
,
- .
,
- , ,
, .
,
, -
. , WiMAX-
, IEEE 802.16.
WiMAX-, -
.
, ASN- () .
WiMAX-ce (. 8.11). (PA
Paging Agent ),
(PC Paging Controller) (LR Loca
tion Register).
.

8.7. MS
(-
IEEE 802.16) WiMAX.
.
(ASN- ), ( ).
PC R6.
LR |

PC

6/ R9

1 1


. 8 . 1 1 .

(
) .
PC.
. ,
PC RC.
( ),
PC R4 (. . 8.11).
,
PC.
, ,
, PC.
LR (
IEEE 802.16) .
PC
,
.

8.7.
WiMAX
, QoS . 802.16

366 8. WiMAX
QoS .
, QoS.
WiMAX QoS-.
(,
AAA- ).
QoS,

. QoS,
,
. / .
, - CSN
. , WiMAX

, IEEE 802.16.
WiMAX. QoS.

(SFM - Service Flow Management)
(SFA Service Flow Authorization),
(. 8.12).
SFM . ,
, . SFM
( admission control)
.
- ,
.
SFA , SFM QoS- .
,
AAA- * CSN-
. ASN-.
, () SFA.
SFA
( ).
SFA QoS-
. ASN-,
SFA. SFA, ,
. SFA R4
SFA ( SFM .
, SFA ).
/ SFM
QoS ASN-,
.
WiMAX-ce. ,
AAA WiMAX-,
IP-, , . .
, WiMAX-ce. . , . WiMAX-

8.7. 347
,
WiMAX , .
NSP


NSP

QoS-

1 1

i R5

,R5

NSP

NSP

R1

R3

ASN

ASN- SFA
SFA

=1

R3

SFM

R4

SFA

. 8.12. QoS

|. WiMAX Forum Network Architecture. (Stage2: Azchitectan tenets, Refenaoa Modi I


and Reference Points). Release 1, Version 1.2.
WiMAX Forum, January 11, 2008.
2 WiMAX Forum Network Architecture. (Stage 3: Detailed Protocols and Procedures).

Release 1, Version 1.2. WiMAX Forum, January 11, 2008.


3. . . TCP/IP, . 1. , , 4-
. .: , 2003.
4. . : IEEE 802.16. 1: -. : , 2007, 2, . 18-27.
5. . : IEEE 802.16. 2:
. : , 2008, 1, . 98-104.

WiMAX
9.1. WiMAX
2001 IEEE 802.16-2001,
10-66 .

-
(WirelessMAN).
IEEE 802.16-2001 ,
WirelessMAN-SC (Single Carrier).
10-66
- .
-
. QPSK. 16-QAM.
64-QAM 32-134 /
20,25 28 2 5 . 2002
802.16-2002,
, 802.16-2001.

, 802.16
. , 2003 ,
802.16-2003.
2 11 .
.
.

, T l / E l , xDSL
. . , , 802.16
802.11b/g/a
.
802.16 .
.
,
802.16. 2-11

. 802.16 QPSK,
16-, 64- 256-QAM. 1-75 /

370 9. - WiMAX
<
1.5 20 6 9 ( 50 ).
.
(SCa),
, .

(OFDM) 256
(OFDM Orthog
onal Frequency Division Multiple Access) 2048 .
2004 IEEE
802.16-2004. ,
SC, SCa, OFDM OFDM , ,
FDD. TDD ,
. ,
, .
IEEE 802.16-2004 ( ), ..
.
.
HyperMAN (2-11 ,
256 OFDM) HyperACCESS (11-42 , SC TDM)
802.16-2004.
802.16 ( - IEEE 802.16-2005) 2005 .
,

. ,
,
802.11 802.16 .
802.16-2004 , 802.16
, ,
802.Ha/b/g. ,
, 802.16,
.
WiMAX 1000 .
, ,
, .
, 802.16
, ,
. , :
- 802.161-2005 (Management Information
Base);
- 802.16g-2007 (Management
Plane Procedures and Services):
- 802.16k-2007 - 802.16 (Bridging of 802.16).
:
- 802.16h
(unproved Coexistence Mechanisms for License-Exempt Operation);

9.1. 371
802.161 (Mobile
Management Information Base);
- 802.16j - . (Multihop Relay Specification);
- 802.16m (Advanced Air Interface).
IEEE 802.16 WiMAX. WiMAX

(Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access).
WiMAX- (www.wimaxforum.org),
(Airspan Net
works, Alvarion, Aperto Networks, Fujitsu Microelectronics America, Intel, Proxim
Corporation .). , WiMAX.
HIPERMAN,
IEEE 802.16.
WiMAX- 11 2003 .

,
IEEE 802.16, ,
.
WiMAX

. (Intel, Fujitsu .)
,
.
, WiMAX- 75%
.
2008 Alcatol-Luccnt, Cisco, Clearwire, Intel, Samsung
Electronics Sprint
Open Patent Alliance (),
WiMAX. Alvarion Huawei.
,
.

,
.
WiMAX.
,
.
, ,
.
802.16 WiMAX-:
2005 | I
wireless);
2005 PlugFest ( ,
, );
2006 WiMAX;
2007 WiMAX 1.0:

372 9. - WiMAX
- 2007 ITU-R IEEE
802.16 IMT-2000:
- 2008
2.5 :
WiMAX- 500 , 17
.
, WiMAX :

,
.
.

9.2. WiMAX
WiMAX- :
- , . .
;
- ,
;
- : ,
.
:

;
- (
);

.

. , .
,
, .
,
,
,
. .

WiMAX (. 9.1).

9.2.1.
.
,
.

9.2. WiMAX

373

(. 9.2) ,
. .
, WiMAX-.
9.1.

WiMAX

WiMAX

WiMAX

WiMAX
IEEE 802.16e-2005

IEEE 802.16-2004 I E E E 802.16e-2005

OFDM

OFDM

OFDMA

256

256

512, 1024

T D D , FDD,
IIFDD

T D D , FDD,
HFDD

TDD

BPSK, QPSK,
16-QAM.64-QAM

BPSK, QPSK,
QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM (
16-QAM, 64-QAM
)
()
QPSK

0 14

0-14

16 QAM

14 17

1 1 17

18 21

20-23

17 20

17 20

21-25

25-27

20-23
2.1

20 23
23

25 30
30

30

27-30

WiMAX-

http://members.wimaxforuin.org/members/certification.
9.2.

WiMAX-

4 Wireless (,
)

Bureau Veritas ADT


()

www.atlt.com.tw
No. 19, Hwa Ya 2nd Rd, Wen Hwa Tsuen, Kwei Shan
llsiang, Taoyuan Hsien 333, Taiwan

C C S / T T C ()

Compliance Certification Services (CCS)


www.ttc.org.tw
Wugong 6th Rd.. Wugu Industrial Park
Taipei County 248. Taiwan
Telecom Technology Center ( T T C )
www.ccsemc.com.tw
4 F , No.300. Yangguang St.
Neihu District. Taipei City 111. Taiwan

China Academy of
Telecommunication Research
()

www.catr.cn
52 Hua Yuan Bei Lu. Haidian District, Reijing
100083, China

TeliH-nminimiriitiiins
Technology Association
( )

www.tta.or.kr
267-2 Seohyun-dong, Bundang-gu, SeongnamCity, Gyeonggi-do, 163-824 Korea

www.at4wireless.com
I'arque Tecnologico de Andaliicia (Spain)
Calle Severo Ochoa 2 29590 Campanillas, Malaga. Spain
520B Huntmar Park Drive. Herndon, VA 20170 (USA)

WiMAX-
. ,
. .

9. - WiMAX

WiMAX WiMAX.

, :
- PHY-.
:

.
WiMAX- ,
WiMAX. WiMAX

, , .
,
,
(QoS). AES

(ARQ).
WiMAX
OFDMA. QoS, AES, H-ARQ
I ARQ),
(PKMv2),
, (sleep idle
mode) .
, QoS
, IPv6,
iMBS). , MIMO, ,
/ ( , )
.
WiMAX
. ,
WiMAX OFDMA,
.

. ,
.
- .
,
3-6
.

.
.

, ,

.

-

9.2. WxMAX 375


.

(, ,
).
WiMAX-, 2011
1000 (. 9.1).

. WiMAX- 2008

. IEEE
ETSI, 500 WiMAX-.
- , .

1000 2011

180

1080

290

'

'^^

2008

430

2009

2010

2011

. 9 . 1 . WiMAX-

(. 9.5):
- Radio Conformance Testing (RCT);
- MAC Protocol Conformance Testing (PCT).
, ;
- (),
();

Network Conformance Testing (NCT):


- 2009
Radiated Performance Testing (RPT):

376 9. - WiMAX
- 2009
WiMAX- Infrastructure Interoperability Testing ().
ASN- CSN- .
WiMAX-
(. 9.2).

9.2.2. .

, WiMAX-
. ,
, ,
. . .
WiMAX-

( ).
WiMAX- .. ,
.
2007 WiMAX-
WiMAX-
\\1\- (. 9.3).
.
9.S.

WiMAX

WiMAX

WiMAX (IEEE
802.16-2004, O F D M )

Air I

3,4 3,6

TDD

3,5

3,4 3,6

TDD

3,4-3,6

FDD

3,5

Airl

WiMAX (IEEE
802.16e-2005, OFDM)
WiMAX (IEEE
802.16e-2005, OFDMA)

3.4 3,6

FDD

5.725-5.850

TDD

10

ETG8

4,935-4.990

TDD

IB

2,3-2,4

TDD

5 10

1A

2,3-2,4

TDD

8,75

2,496-2,690

TDD

5 10

5AL

3,4 3,6

TDD

5BL

3,4 3,6

TDD

2007
WiMAX. 28
:
Alvarion AC: PRO-S CPE, BreezeMAX Si: : BreezeMAX Macro
Modular Base Station, BreezeMAX Micro Base Station:
Airspan - AC: EasyST, MicroMAX-SoC BSR: : MacroMAX:

9.2. WiMAX

377

- Axxcelera AC: ExcelMAX FD ;: ExcelMAX BS:


Aperto
AC: PacketMAX, ProST; : PacketMAX 5000;
- Proxim Tsunami MP16 3500;
- Redline AC: RedMAX Subscriber Station; : RedMAX Base Station:
- Siemens AC: Gigaset SE461 WiMAX; : WayMAXi&vantage;
Sequans AC: SQN 1010-RD (FDD); : SQN2010-RD;
- SR Telecom : Symmetry Base Station;
Selex AC: YSEMAX : YSEMAX;
- Telsima : StarMAX 2140-3.5G, StarMAX 4120-3.5G;
Wavesat - - AC: Wavesat miniMAX 3.5GHz (FDD), Wavesat miniMAX
3.5GHz (TDD).

. Airl
3.5 , 3.5
(TDD). Air2
(FDD).
2007 WiMAX Forum Plugfest.

( ).
WiMAX (. 9-4).
9.4.

WiMAX WiMAX
Forum Plugfest ()

2.3-2,4
2,-196 2,69

,4,7.-,

20

3
10

2.496 2.69

19

3,-1-3,8
3.4 3.6

10
5

24

2
7

1
6

5AL
5BL

3.-1-3,8

. 10.

.")
7
6 !

TDD

61

41

2008 2009
WiMAX 2,3, 2,5 3,5 1, 1. .
5AL, 5BL ETG8 (. . 9.3). 60
40
.
WiMAX- www.wimaxforum.org
www.wimaxforum.rii.
2008 WiMAX-
IEEE 802.16, Samsung.
Alvarion Motorola. , NEC
Alcatel-Lucent. ,
ASN- . 2008
,
(
, Nortel, Alvarion).

378 9. - WiMAX
WiMAX-
IEEE 802.16. . .
5-6 , ,
WiMAX. 5 WiMAX- ,
, .
;!:
WiMAX-, 160
WiMAX pre-WiMAX 50 . .
2009
1.0. IEEE 802.16-2005.
WiMAX

WiMAX (. 9.6). ,
.


.
2009 1.5 (. 9.2)
1.0 .
IEEE 802.16 Revision 2
WiMAX. 1.5 FDD-
,
.

10

2.3 2.5
(2. 2008 .)

1.5
WiMAX-
(2007)

WiMAX-
(3 . 2008)

2.3
+ 1
1

(. 2008)

I

(3-4 . 2009)

__


WiMAX
(2007)

802.16-2005 ( 2005)
2 (2 . 2007)

2.0

WiMAX-
(2010-2011)


(2010-2011)

Mj
WiMAX
WIMAX
! (2 . 2008)
(2010-2011)

802.16 Revision 2
(2 . 2008)

802.16m (4 . 2009)
(
IMT-Advanced)

- IEEE60.'
. 8 . 2 . W i M A X -

2 2010-2011 .
IEEE 802.16m.
IMT-Advanced.

9.2. WiMAX

379^

2009 WiMAX- 94
WiMAX- 36 (. 9.7)
(www.wimaxforum.org/productshowcase).
, WiMAX
. , .
. 9.7 ,
.
9 . 5 .
WiMAX-
OSI

WiMAX-

WiMAX-

NCT.



(I.LC)

-


WiMAX-
( 1
802.16)

, .
, , , R P T

WiMAX
Alvarion (BreezeOMAX IMotion), Alcatel-Lucent ( 97xx).
Cisco System (BWX 8305 BWX 2305), Huawei (DBTS 3900 WASN9970). Mo
torola (wi4 WiMAX), Samsung (mobile WiMAX Udicell). ZTE .
WiMAX-.
9.6. WiMAX 2009

.
.

RT01
1 102

3. 3,6

3,5

TDD

3,4 3.6

3,5

FDD

2.3 3,4

8.75

TDD

02 (2300-02)

2,3-2,-1

5 10

TDD

05 (2500-01)

2,196 2,69

5 10

TDD

3.4 3,6

TDD

01 (2300-01)

09 (3500-02)
\IP 10 (.-.00-0.)

3,4 3,6

TDD

MP 12 (3500-05)

3,4-3,6

10

TDD

0.7. , WiMAX- 2009

('-i
(|

2
SEQUANS
7(1 Communications
Redline Com
59
munications

SQN2010-RD

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

RedMAX Base
Station

AN-100U

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

SU-OIA 29-00018-00
(Integrated Antenna)
SU-ORF 29-00019-00
(External Antenna via
Type N connector)

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

Inn
(/)

Air 1

SQN2010-RD

Air 1

!. <'p

H.I.UMII.K

2006.01.17
2006.01.17

1..1

1111.'UK

i
10

57

Red line Com


munications

2006.01.30

Air 1

RedMAX
Subscriber
Station

71

SEQUANS
Communica
tions

2006.01.31

Air 1

SQN1010-RD

SQN1010-RD

AC

3,4 3,6

3,5

TDD

2006.02.17

Air 2

WayM AX vantage

WayMAXQvantage
1DU/3.5 GHz FDD
ODU

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

2006.03.17

Air 2

MarcoMax

MMAX-3.5

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

2006.03.17

Air 2

ExcelMAX BS

EMAXFDBTS-B3DC

3,4 3,6

3,5

FDD

47
1

Nokia
Siemens
Networks
Airspan
Networks
Axxcelera

SEQUANS

7-1

Communica
tions

2006.03.17

Air 2

SQN1010-RD

SQN1010-RD

AC

3,4 3,6

3,5

FDD

7*

Siemens

2006.03.17

Air 2

Gigaset SE461
WiMAX

Way MAX vantage


IDU/3.5 GHz FDD
ODU

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

Airspan
Networks

2006.03.17

Air 2

EasyST

EST350F

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

94

Wavesat Inc.

2006.03.17

Air 2

Wavesat
miniMAX
3.5GHz (FDD)

Subscriber Platform
ASIC Base

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

9.7 ()
1
2.0
21
70

2
Airspan
Networks
Axxcelera
Broadband
Wireless
Selex Com
munications

10

2006.04.05

Air 2

ProST

PST350F

EC

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

2006.04.20

Air 2

ExcelMAX FD
CPE

EMAXFD-CPE3200

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

2006.05.23

Air 2

YSEMAX

WRY035-B

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

WRY035-C

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

SSU5000

AC

3,4 3,6

3,5

FDD

YSEMAX
(subscriber
station)
SSU5000
Symmetry
Subscriber
Station

69

Selex Com
munications

2006.05.31

Air 1

81

SR Telecom

2006.06.05

Air 2

11

Alvarion

2006.06.14

MP05

BreezeMAX

12

Alvarion

2006.06.15

Air 2

BMAX PRO-S
CPE

13

Alvarion

2006.06.23

Air 2

BreezeMAX Si

16

Aperto
Networks

2006.07.06

Air 1

Packet MAX

10

Alvarion

2006.07.28

Air 2

11

Alvarion

2006.07.28

Air 2

84

IHsima
Airspan
Networks
IHsiina
Aperto
N'i't works

2006.08.31

Air 1

StarMAX

Air 2

MicroMAX-SoC
BSR

3
85
19

2006.09.21
20W"i Mi 'i
2006.12.17

Macro Modular
Has"' Slaiion
Micro Base

Station

BreezeMAX 802.16e
2.5 GHz
BMAX PRO-S
Outdoor C P E family
BreezeMAX Si C P E
family

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

AC-

3,4 3,6

3,5

FDD

AC

3.4-3,6

3,5

FDD

PM100 PM300

AC

3,4 3,6

3,5

TDD

BreezeMAX

3,1-3,6

3,5

FDD

3,4 3,6

3,5

FDD

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

BreezeMAX Micro
Base Station
StarMAX 2140-3.5G
BSR350LF-12V-1

Air 1

StarMAX

StarMAX 4120-3.5G

3,4-3,6

i, .

1 llll

Air 1

PacketMAX
)

PM 5000

3,4 3,6

3,5

1 I'll

0.7
2

Is

()
3

5
miniWIMAX 3.5
CM/
Symmetry Base
Station

|)

ii

Subscriber Platform
ASIC

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDI)

CHS5000

3,4 3,6

3,5

FDD

Apollo

3,4-3,6

3,5

1 DI)

Apollo-SU & Apollo


Max-SU

3,4-3,6

3,5

FDD

PM 30(H)

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

CBS5000
CBS5000

3,4 3,6
3,4-3,6

3,5
3,5

TDD
I 1)1)

88

Wavwat Inr.

2006.12.17

Air 1

80

SR Telecom

2007.06.08

Air 2

25

E.T.
Industries

2007.07.05

Air 2

26

E.T.
Industries

2007.07.05

Air 2

18

Aperto
Networks

2007.08.10

Air 1

2007.11.14
2007.11.14

Air 1
Air 1

Apollo
Subscriber
Station
PacketMAX
3000
S\ minetrvMX
SSU5000

2008.02.22

Air 1

RedMAX

AN-100 U

3,4-3,6

3,5; 7

TDD

2008.02.22

Air 1

RedMAX
Outdoor
Subscriber Unit
(SU-O)

U-OIA 29-00018-00
(Integrated Antenna)
SU-ORF 29-00019-00
(External Antenna via
Type N connector)

3,4 3,6

3,5; 7

TDD

Communica
tions
I'OSDATA
POSDATA
Runcorn
Technologies
Ltd.

2008.03.03

MP01

SEQUANS
Communications

SQN1110-RD

2,3-2,4

8,75

TDD

2008.04.03
2008.01.03

MP01
MP01

FLYVO
PLYVO

P-RAS 1002
U-100

2,3-2,4
2,3-2,4

8,75
8,75

TDD
TDD

2008.04.03

MP01

Runcorn Mobile
Base Station

RNU2000N

2,3-2,4

8,75

TDD

62

Samsung

2008.04.03

MP01

SAMSUNG
Mobile WiMAX

SWT-P230

2,3-2,4

8,75

TDD

77

SEQUANS
Communications

2008.04.03

MP01

SEQUANS
Communications

SQN2130-RD

2,3 2,4

8,75

TDD

82
83
56

58

si;

|I'lirniii

SR Telecom
Redline
Communications
Redline
Communica
tions

SEQUANS
75
51
52
61

9.7 ()
8

n:

2,3-2.4

8,75

TDD

WAP 25400

2,196 2,6!)

5; 10

TDD

WiMAX Wave2 Base


Station SP1-2211

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

SWC-E100

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

SEQUANS
Communications

SQN2130-RD

EC

2.496 2.69

5; 10

TDD

MP05

ZyXEL

MAX-206M2

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.06.17

MP05

Mi MAX

MiMAX-USB-Ql-1

AC

2,496 2.69

5; 10

TDD

2008.07.14

MP05

Intel
WiMAX/VViKi
Link 5350

Intel WiMAX/WiFi
Link 5350

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2.496-2,69

5; 10

1 1)1)

AC

. ' . I ' M , .'..,.

5; 10

1 1)1)

63

Samsung

2008.04.03

MP01

68

Samsung

2008.04.3

MP01

11

Motorola

2008.06.14

MP05

65

Samsung

2008.06.14

MP05

66

Samsung

2008.06.14

Mi'or>

72

SEQUANS
Communica
tions

2008.06.14

MP05

93

ZyXKI.
Communica
tions
Inc.

2008.06.14

Airs pan
Networks

37

Intel
Corporation

5
SAMSI'NG
Mobile WiMAX
Samsung Mobile
WiMAX Rase
Station
Motorola Inc.
SAMSUNG
ELECTRONICS
Co., Ltd.
SAMSUNG
Mobile WiMAX

SWT-P230

AC

SPI-21I0

46

NEC

2008.07.30

MP05

PasoWings HS

NWA-027932-001
(ODU) ii
NWA-024297-001
(IDU)

44

NICC

2008.08.04

MP05

WiMAX PC
Card

TRP-2GW-2A

9.7
1
87
91
28

67

8
31
32
55

()

2
Telsima
Corparrtion
ZTE
< Corporation
G O T Semi
conductor,
Inc

Samsung

AlcatelLucent
Huawei
Technologies
Huawei
Technologies
Redline
Communica
tions

2008.08.13

MPOS

StarMax 6400

2008.08.22

MP08

ZTI-.

2008.08.25

MP05

10

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TU25 USB Modem

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

Mobile WiMAX
Single Chip SoC

GDM7205K

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

StarMax

6022/8200-25

2008.09.03

MP05

SAMSUNG
Mobile WiMAX

SWC-U200
SWC-U201
SWC-U202
SWC-U203
SWC-U204
SWC-U205
SWC-U206
SWC-U207
SWC-U208
SWC-U209

2008.09.13

MP05

Alcatel-Lucent

9710 Compact Base


Station for WiMAX

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.09.15

MP05

Huawei EchoLife

BM625

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.09.15

MP05

Huawei EchoLife

BM325

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.09.17

MP05

RedMAX 4C
RPM

RPM2500M

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

DBS3900 WiMAX

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

FLYVO RAS6000

2,496-2,69

10

TDD

33

Huawei
Technologies

2008.09.25

MP05

53

POSDATA
Co., Ltd.

2008.09.25

MP05

Huawei WiMAX
Base Station
POSDATA
Mobile WiMAX
Wave 2 Base
Station

9.7
1

()

23

Cisco
Systems

2008.10.08

MP05

Cisco

24

Cisco
Systems

2008.10.15

MP05

Cisco

AlcatelLucent

2008.10.20

MP05

CARC

Cisco BWX 8305


Basestation + TTA
2196-2620 MHz
Cisco BWX 2305
Basestation + T T A
2496-2620 MHz

10

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

CARC 500 Series

;)

MODACOM
Co., Ltd.

2008.10.21

MP05

WiMAX USB
Modem

MW-U2500
MW-U2510
MW-U2520
MW-U2530
MW-U2540
MW-U2550

ID

Motorola

2008.10.30

MP05

WTM1000
Reference
Design

WTM1000 Reference
Design

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

AlcatelLucent

2008.11.13

MP05

Alcatel-Lucent

9715 Light Base


Station for WiMAX
(I.WBSA25)

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.11.24

Air 1

Tsunami MP16
3500

3500-B00

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

2008.11.24

MP05

Beceem

USB200

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

1 1)1)

2008.11.24

MP05

SEQUANS
Communications

SQN1130-RD

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

11)1)

2008.1 1.24

MP05

StarMAX 3160-25

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

5-1
22
73
86

Proxim
Wireless
Corporation
Beceem
SEQUANS
Communica
tions
Telsima
I 'oi'paifliuii

StarMAX

3160

AC

2.496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

9.7

()

92

/i
Corporation

2008.11.21

MP05

2008.11.24

MP01

2008.12.05

Runcorn
Technologies
Ltd.
SOMA
79
Networks,
Inc.

34
36
49
17
35

29

Iji

48

Intel
Corporation
Intel
Corporation
OKI
Networks
Co.. Ltd.
perto
Networks
Intel
Corporation
Gigaset
Communica
tions
GmbH

10

ZXMBW-A250

2,496 2,69

5; 10

i 1)1)

Tornado C P E

01-0000000038

AC

MP05

FlexMax Mobile
WiMAX System

FlexMAX ABS-1000
Base Station

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.12.09

MP05

Nortel WiMAX
BTS

WiMAX BTS 5020

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.12.1

MP05

2008.12.11

MP05

2008.12.17

5
ZTE Wimax
Base Station
System
(ZXMBWA250)

Intel
WiMAX/WiFi
Link 5350
Echo Peak
Volume

Echo Peak Prime

AC

2.496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

Intel WiMAX WiFi


Link 5150 MC

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

MP05

UD01OK

BR3001

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.12.2

3.5T2

PacketMAX

PM120 / PM320

AC

3,4-3,6

3,5

TDD

2008.12.4

MP05

Echo Peak
Volume

Intel WiMAX WiFi


Link 5150 HMC

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

2008.12.5

MP05

Gigaset

Gigaset
SE680/SE681/SX682
WiMAX

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

9.7 ()
1
27

2
Fujitsu Microelectronics
Limited

2008.12.9

MP05

5
Fujitsu Mobile
VViMAX SoC

10

MB86K21-UD1

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

90

ZTE Corporation

2009.01.15

MP09, MP 10
& MP12

ZXMBW

B9100(BBU),
R9100(RRU)

3,4-3,6

TDD

64

SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS
Co., Ltd.

2009.01.15

MP12

SAMSUNG
Mobile VViMAX
RAS SPI-2213

SPI-2213

3,47 3,49
3.568-3,578

10

TDD

Express Card
WiMAX Modem

MW-C2500E ;
MW-C2510E ;
MW-C2520E ;
MW-C2530E ;
MW-C2540E ;
MW-C2550E

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

AC

2,496-2,69

5; 10

11)1)

AC

2,496 2,69

5; 10

TDD

WBSD34

3,4-3,6

5; 7; 10

TDD

38

MODACOM Co., Ltd.

2009.01.21

MP05

43

NEC

2009.01.21

MP05

45

NEC

2009.01.21

MP05

Alcatel-Lucent

2009.02.17

MP09, MP 10,
MP12

15

Alvarion LTD.

2009.02.18

MP 12

BreezeMAX

BreezeMAX 802.16e
3.5 GHz

3,4-3,6

10

TDD

5(1

PointRed Telecom
Pvt Ltd

2009.03.07

M2500T-01

YVimax BS

Point MAX 10000

2,496-2,69

5; 10

TDD

Huawei WiMAX
Si. inn
NWA-027932-001
(<>DU) /
NWA-024297-001
(1)
\Vi\7225 2

3,4-3,6

5; 7; 10

1 1)1)

3,4-3,6

7; 10

1 1)1)

-,, II)

11)1)

Aterm
WM 32001
Aterm
WM3200C
Alcatel-Lucent
9710 Compact
Base Station for
WiMAX (9710
CWBS)

1(1

lluawei Technologies

2009.03.09

MP09, MP10,
MP12

DBS3900
WiMAX

12

NEC

2009.03.12

M3500T-03 ti
M3500T 06

PonoWingH

M2S0OT-01

pBST

X'l

\ViNrtw..ikf

IKl 12

PA-WM3200U;
UD01NA
PA-WM3200C;
UD02NA

WBSA34.

.'.I'".

2.1.9

9. - WiMAX

9.3. WiMAX
BreezeMAX 4Motion
WiMAX
BreezeMAX -(Morion
Alyarion. 4Moliou

WiMAX , ,
.
, ,
ASN- .

IP-

WiMAX


NPU

ASN-

IP-

IP-

(ti

IP-
!

. 9 . 3 . l a i i n u x W i M A X I M o l i o n Alvarion

, WiMAX
() (), (
. ASN) (CSN).
AS.N (ASN-).
CSN
IP- WiMAX.
AAA-.
BreezeMAX IMotion
, , (ASN-)
,
(AAA-).
(, AAA-,
Bridgewater Cisco),
,

9.3. WiMAX 4Motion 3W


- .
(
. IP- ..) (. 9.3).
9.3.1. A S N -
BreezeMAX 4Motion ASN-: .
ASN- (
NPU) (. 9.4, ).
: 3 . 200 /
ASN-.
ASN GW WiMAX-.
( ). ASN-

(. 9.4, ). .
, Cisco
7600 (. 9.5).
ASN-
. Cisco blade- SAMI (Service and Application Module for IP). SAMl-
100 .
5 /. blade- SAMI ,
600 . 30 / .
, , ASN-
. VPN QoS.

9.3.2.


GB Ethernet .
IEEE 802.16
WiMAX.
OFDMA, .. 20, 10 5 (2048. 1024
512 , ).
(PUSC-) .
BreezeMAX ,

(. 9.6). Compact PCI 81*
(. 9.7), 19- 22-
. (6U) (3U)
. ,
, .
N + 1, . .
.

(PUT, Power Interface Units) ( )
(PSU. Power Supply Unit).
14-4156

g.

9. - WiMAX

31"-, 48 .
PSU-.
( 4 AU) . PSU
.

. 9.4. WiMAX- () () ASN-uuio.ia\iH

9.S.

WiMAX BreezeMAX iMotion

391

. 9.5.
Cisco 7600


1 2 3

CS/MAC-

RF ODU 1

RF OOU 2

RF ODU

RF ODU =4
19"

. 9.6. -zcM \\

3W

9.

-, WiMAX

. 9.7. 19- BreezeMAX

PIU (Power Interface Module )


, .
( ,
. , ).
1. .
PIU. PIU
,
.
PIU 58 , 20 . PIU
-.
(AVtJ, Air Ventilation Unit). 10 .
.
61-.

( ) (AU, Access Unit) ( ).


(. 9.8).
, (Gigabit/Fast
Ethernet) ( ).

9.3.

WiMAX {Motion

3f3

AU

R1

. 9.8.
WiMAX

(NPU, Network Processing Unit) (. 9.9)



, . NPU
IP-
Gigabit/Fast Ethernet. Ethernet-
. NPU ,
AU. ,
.
:
CLI
(telnet, SSH) SNMP. ;
,
1 ,
;

GPS/

1}


(GB Ethernet)

(GB Ethernet)

(GB Ethernet)

GMI -..-
GMI - ;_PCI kjr

If
.
GMII ()

GMII(B)
60x <
GMII

GMII
-


. 9.9.

GMII
||

CPLD/FPGA

GB Ethernet

1-60!

7
AU
(Fast Ethernet)

9. - WiMAX

, AU,
(GPS/)
;
- : ,
.
NPU

ASN-. ,
NPU /
.
, ASN-,
Gigabit/Fast Ethernet (
) ( R6). , NPU
, -,
YLAN- ,
QoS.
ASN- NPU. ,
, :

(, Extensible Authentication Protocol -


):
AAA RADIUS-;
AAA- ;
;
QoS;
GRE / (Generic Routing Encapsulation

);
IP-in-IP /;
;
DHCP-:
;
/ ;
R1. R6, R3.

NPU.
(Master), (Slave).
Master- Slave .
NPU Fast
Ethernet. ,
MAC- NPU. NPU
GB Ethernet. NPU.
.
NPU .
NPU .
, WiMAX
.

.

9.S. WiMAX ?- iMotion 3W


.
BreezeMAX 4Motion
GPS. GPS- NPU RS-422 100 .
(AU. Access Unit) ()
(ODU) . (. . 9.8)
ASN- .
802.16
WiMAX. -
-, ,
( 20 ), (
, ,
, ), (
), .
. -ib
.
.
,
81. .
Rl, R6 R8. 512 .

, . .
IDU - NPU
Fast Ethernet.
IEEE 802.16
() 240 .
IDU 1-1 140 ,
-.

ODU ().
MIMO !> .
.
14
. -
(48 ) 64- .

150 .
.
- ,
( 5 ). 2.3:
2,5 3,5; 3,6 3,8 (
). ODU (TDD).
1.5
( LMR-400.
).
ODU

/ ( 1 x 1 ) . / (2 1)

396 9. -, WiMAX

. 9.10. AU: ) 1 1. ) 4 2

/ (4 2) (. 9.10).
ODU IDU. , IDU
ODU 1 x 1 ( 4 4 !)
ODU 2 4 (2 4 ) (. 9.11).
IDU

,
,
-

ODU 1x1

- ! I

1 i J

4 / 4

,

,
- llllliil:;," I

2 / 4

IDU

,
,
-

ODU2X1

1 / 2

. 0.11. 1- .\!

9.3.

WiMAX BrteztMAX {Motion

397

9.3.3.
MIMO (-

) 4Motion
. ,

: (
90".
45).
10 (). ,
90.
. 45
, .
-
- .
20 .
)- .
. 9.12.
-

-
)

-
)
,

-
( )

398 9. - WiMAX
- (
). 10.
,
65 7 -
( 3 ), 30
17 .


(. 9.12. ). (
MIMO) . .
. 9.12. 6-.
, . -. .

9.3.4.
BreezeMAX 4Motion
(),

(. 9-13). :
BreezeMAX PRO ( ),

BreezeMAX 4Motiou Si, PC Card USB Dangle.

. 9 . 1 3 . WiMAX- Alvarion

BreezeMAX j Motion PRO CPE


(IDU) (ODU) . (. 9.14)

.
Intel (RD2) .
Ethernet- 5 . Ethernet-.
, IDU,
(54 ). 2.3; 2.5 3.5 .
.
PRO
.

9.3. WiMAX BreezeMAX iMotutn 399


IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10/100-BaseT (RJ 45) .
IDU () (RJ-11)
VoIP. Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g)
.

. 9.14.
PRO C P E

. 9.15.
Si:
) Beceem, 6) Intel

Bree.ze.MAX ^Motion Si (. 9.15) - ,


, .
(plug and play) SIM-
. .
PRO.
Intel RD2 Beceem.
, .
Beceem .

BreezeMAX 4Motion Si
2.3: 2,5 3.5 .
802.3 Ethernet
/100-BaseT ( 1 4 RJ-45).

8()2.11b/g
,
VoIP.
BreezeMAX J,Motio PC Card (. 9.16)
Beceem,
WiMAX
.
. 9.16.
2.3; 2,5 3.5 s PC card
10
20 /, 7 /.
5: 7; 8.75
10 . ,
, , .
.

400 9. - WiMAX
2009 USB- ().
BreezeMAX 4Motion.

US210 AWB WU211 Quanta com
puters (. 9.17).

. 9.17. b'SB- 8210 AWB () VVI'211 Quanta comput


ers ()

VITDOHCTBO US210 WiMAX USB- .


802.16
130 /.
,
33 /. 7 /. 2.3;
2,5 3,5 .
23 . - 2
.
US210 MIMO-. 2,4
23 .
WiMAX- WU211 Quanta computers
. 2.496 2,69 .
: 231 .
2
.

iL<5b>:
\r
\+

% !

\*0

. 9 . 1 8 .

(. 9.18)
, ,

9.4-

401

( ).
.
54 .
3 / 30 Kit

.
4Motion WiMAX
,
WiMAX USB- 300-1500 .
6 .
:
(15-17 )
5 ,
3 . - 200 .
,
. ,
. .

9.4.

- .
WiMAX-, 2007 ,
30 40 .
30 (TDD) 2x30
(FDD). ,
10 . ,
WiMAX, 20 ,
30 60 .
-
, , , 15 20 .
-
. ,
, .
65 75% WiMAX.
5 , ,
30 , 7 .
, (2-3 ),
( WiMAX, LTE
..),
. ,

20 ,
. LTE IEEE 802.16m
, ,

.

402 9. - WiMAX
4G.
,

.
450- 900 .
. ,
.
CDMA-450 (450 ) UMTS (850 ).
700 790
.

770-862 ,
-.
2007 GSM-
900 , ,
EVDO HSPA, WiMAX.
GSM
.
, , ,
4G 700-790 , .
,
(20-
0,9 , 3,5 ).


. ,
, , ,
. , .
.
1999 . [1].
,

.
( )
, , ,
( ) .

, .
pecvpi ;i
.

9.4.1.

, , ,
, ..
.

. .

9.4-

403

,
.
.

. (). () .
. .
, . . .
. . .
.
()
() ,
(). ,

(41,85%), (58.15%).
.

.

.
,
.

:
- ,
, ,
.
,
;
,
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, ,
,
:
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,
, ,
;


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.


.

404 9. -, WiMAX

.
.

.

.


.
.

.
,
,
, .

,
,
.
/ -
.
- ()
.
- . .
,
().
.

9.4.2.


.
. , ,
, .
, .

- Radionet.
.
Radionet [2, 3]
. 1996

. 1658- 25
1996
.

9.4. 405
2400 2483,5 ,
.
( 2001
)
.
. 27 1998 Radionet

(JV* 07-5-18/00781).
.

. ,
Radionet
*',
.

,
,
, .
,

,
. ,
.
, .
. 1998
( .V' 7/6 29.06.98.)
2400 2483,5 .
.

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.
, , .
2003
,


,
, .
4 5 6 18
.
, , .

406

9. -, WiMAX

9.8. ,

,
1787.5 -1802,5

.
15

2400 2483,5

83,5

2500-2530,
2560-2570,
2620-2630,
2660-2670,
2680 2690

70

3400-3450.
3500-3550

100

5150-5350.
5650 6425

975


(>i 23.10.2006 .\ 06-17-03-001

6.12.2004 04-03-04-003:
28.11.2005 -V 05-10-01-001

4.09.2006 06-16-03-001

23.12.2002 J*i 23/3;


1.12.2003 30/4;
28.11.2005 .V 05-10-01-001
23.12.2002 X 23/5:
28.11.2005 W 0.5-10-01-001

1160

,
, . 9.8.
- ,
.
(
WiMAX) 19 2009 ( * 09-02)
:
1.
2.5 3,5 .
2. -

2.5 -,
, 30
,
40 .
3.
3,5
.
, , 5
, -

<> .
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,
5 .

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-
:
-
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;
-
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), 28 2005
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.
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.
.
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7. ,




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,
.
-
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28 2005 .V 05-10-01-001 * 1
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,
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,
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28 2005 * 05-10-01-001
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, 4 .
, ,
. :
-
.
:
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;
,
;
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.
,
,
. ,
WiMAX 2,5
3.5 . ,

.

1. Miiola. J., III; Maguire, G.Q.,Jr. Cognitive radio: making software radios more per
sonal. IEEE Personal Communications, Volume 6. Issue 4, Aug. 1999, p. 13-18.
2. . M.
. - .: , 2003. 512 .
3. . ., . . :
.
.: , 2007. 320 .

10

WiMAX
10.1. WiMAX
IDC, 2012
30% .
-
,
YouTube , .

.
21 , .
WiMAX . .
2009 139 468 WiMAX-ce ( 802.16 5 ) (. 10.1. . 10.1
10.2). -130 . WiMAX.
2008 200 WiMAX-. 2009
100 WiMAX. WiMAX-

. . .
500

455

450

468

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

2008

2008

2008

2009

2009

. 1 0 . 1 . WiMAX

2008 , Maravedis,
2,68 . WiMAX ( , .
Canopy, Motorola)

15-4156

410 10. WiMAX


2007 91%. Inforaia
Telecoms fc Media, 2008 3,6 .
( 2013 103 .). J&P Consulting
, 2012 }' WiMAX 60 .
. 65% .

. ,

15 .
.
1 0 . 1 .


95

72

96

.",

18

( )

18

64

168

2008 \\"iMAX. Infouetics Research.


59% (
2007 ) 363 . .

WiMAX. 2008 141%.
WiMAX.
WiMAX-.
. WiMAX
: Sprint- Clear wire . SK Telecom
. Wateen , BSNL Tata Communications .
Yodafonc Orange .
2008 WiMAX
Motorola.
50 . . .
WiMAX Alvarion.
WiMAX-
10.2. '
I.TE .

, WiMAX
,

)
,
,
,
2.3
26


2.5
58

3G.
3.3
!)
3.5
5 6

"! .1

230
18
341


(
Market Intelligence & Consulting Insti-

10.1. 411
tute () 2008
76,9%).
. WiMAX-.
- Korea Telecom (). 400 .
.
Clearwire.
Sprint-Nextel
WiMAX,
. Clearwire. Sprint,
, Google, Intel Capital .,
3,2 . . ( Sprint).
, 2009 10
, , , . -, .
-. , . I! 2010
, . -. - '.
2008 Clearwire 475 . ,
WiMAX. 2010
, 120 . .
.' Sprint Clearwire
Intel, WiMAX ,
, .
KDDI WiMAX (2.5-2.7
( ) 2007 1,3 . .
. KDDI. .
WiMAX 2009 2013
90% , 5.6 . .
Tata Communications WiMax, 500 . . 2009
200 . .
, 1.1 . , .
2008 , 3,24 .
. Tata Communications
.

. (. . ).
. (
www.wimaxfornm.org).
WiMAX (WiBro)
. Korea Telecom.
( ) 1981 ,
. ,
, DSL-.
2002 .
-. 2005
,
27 2.3-2,4
.

412 10. WiMAX


WiBro ( Samsung
IEEE 802.16).
2005

,
120 /. 3
1 / , .
WiBro 2006 ,

2007 ,
WiBro . ,
. WiBro
WiMAX- ( ,
, IEEE 802.16),
( ). 2007
Samsung WiBro WiMAX.
Korea Telecom
.
2007 600 ,
12 . . WiBro
106 . , 43%
. 2008 , 14
, 200 . WiBro. 2008 -
400 . ,
, HSDPA.
WiBro
(. 10.2).
-400

. . '08 /08

2007
. 10.2. WiBro

2008
-ic 3 /
1 / 10.84 .
1 /. 21,45 . 30 /.
: Wi-Fi + WiBro.
(ADSL, VDSL FTTH) + WiBro.

10.1.

413

+ Wi-Fi + WiBro.
3G (cdma200 EV-DO WCDMA HSPA).
Freetel (KTF),
- 3G/WiBro: WiBro 4- HSDPA
USB- WiBro 4- EV-DO/CDMA . 20%-
WiBro 20%- KTF.
80% WiBro ,
USB- - .
, , -,
(T-DMV. Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) ..
.
WiMAX.
, , 7 .
12 8 , -.
WiMAX ,
. , KTF
.
,
, , ,
.
WiBro
2007 , 12 . .
2008 WiMAX
, 20
. 2010 WiBro
40 . .

. , 80% WiBro
DSL- ( ).
2012 WiBro
4 . .
WiMAX- Danske Telecom
- . 3,5 , 72 , 7
. 2005
: , .
2008 Danske Telecom 7 ,
550 . 40% .
,
, DSL-.
Danske Telecom 13,5 .
, WiMAX- Danske Telecom,
3,5 ,
28 112 .
3.6; 10,5 26
-.

414 10. WiMAX



, . VoIP
.
99 (~ 15 .) 1 /
199 (30 .) 3 /. Dauske Telecom
,

DSL- .
-, , .

3.6; 10,5 26 , Dauske Telecom
,
100 / .
WiMAX
QoS. ,
, ,
.
Dauske Telecom

WiMOSS.
, ,
. Dauske lelecom, 5%

95%.
. WiMOSS


, .
, . . WiMOSS

,
.
(OECD).
5.5 . ,
. Dauske Telecom
! ,
.
Danske Telecom
Motorola Expedience.
Danske Telecom
. WiMAX Danske Telecom
,
.
WtMAX- DBD
DBD Deutsche Breitband Dienste) ,
,
. - . 2003 .
DBD WiMAX . WiMAX 2005 .
, . .

10.1. 415
DBD 3.5
(83 . ).
42 . 70
21 . .
DBD 180 WiMAX.
, 400 .
. DBI)
WiMAX- ,
3,5 .
DSLonair DBD
- , DSL.
DBD WiMAX
IP- (VoIP) ( MAXXonair). ,
9.99 ,
29.99 .

Airspan EasyST WiMAX
7,5 , ,
,
9 .
DBD ,
(. 10.3). ,
ASN-,
100 / .
( /)
.
.
2008 25 .
. 2008 DBD
WiMAX-. (
19 . , 3-5
28 .. 100%), DBD
WiMAX- 5% .
1,5 . .
WiMAX- Digital Bridge Communications
Digital Bridge Communications (DBC)
, (. . ).
2005 , DBC

WIMAX.
150 . . 13
, .
.

.
DBC

- WiMAX. DBC (
) 2.5
. . . . DBC
2.3 . Alvarion.

. 1 0 . 3 .

10.1. 417
DBC plug-and-surf (--).
WiMAX- Alvarion.
. . DBC
.
2008 DBC ,
.
, - (.
) (. ). , DBC
(VoIP) WiMAX-.
DBC ,

. DBC
WiMAX-.
WiMAX 1-6 .

. 15
. WiMAX- DBC 2.5 . .
WiMAX- Iberbanda
Iberbanda 2000 , -
. Iberbanda
, , .
3,5 . 20 (
40 ). 900 WiMAX 30% .
Iberbanda
WiMAX . Alvarion.
Iberbanda
, DSL
. 2007 82%
33 . . Iberbanda 50 .
2008 .
WiMAX- Liberty Technologies
Liberty Technologies 2002 ,
, 3 . . Liberty
WiMAX WIPET.
150 3.4 3,6 .
Liberty WiMAX .
WiMAX- 31 Cisco 802.1
16 , 1,2 . .
WiMAX- Max Telecom
Max Telecom WiMAX .
, :
. \ ' \ . ,
IPTV.
Max Telecom ,

WiMAX. 42
3.5 . 2008 180

418 10. WiMAX


WiMAX , 30%
. Max Telecom 4000
. 2008 13 .

Max Telecom . 19
6 .
Max Telecom -
( - )
(. 10.4). ASN-

10.1.

419

, . Max Telecom
1500 WiMAX.
WiMax- Packet One Networks
Packet One Networks (PI)
,
.
2002 Green Packet.
30 2,3 . 1
WiMAX- 2007 . 2008
Alcatel-Lucent WiMAX.
71 . . 2008 1
WiMAX- ,
.
-, 2008
. 1 , 2009 30%
, 40% - 2010 60% - 2012. ,
WiMAX
323 . . 10 1 100%
.
Packet One ,
-. 1,2 / 51 . .
2,4 /
109 . 2009
32 74 ., , .
WiMax- Trans /
TransTelecom Bulgaria . WiMAX- ,
Petrol Holding AD. TransTelecom Bul
garia lone 42
3,5 . 2007 ,
WiMAX- Alvarion ( , 18
). TransTelecom
Huawei. 2008
120 . TransTelecom
WiMAX Huawei ,
Alvarion
.
lone WiMAX 802.16

2009 . 12,5
2 /. 4 / 14,50 /.
.

TransTelecom
. PCMCIA-
USB-, , Scowoii.
WiMax- WiMAX Telecom
2004 , WiMAX Telecom
. -

420 10. WiMAX


, , (
Inquam Broadband), .
42
3,5 . WiMAX ,
2008 .
. , WiMAX Telecom
.
WiMAX Telecom 140
WiMAX ,
500 . 1 . . 13 .
. WiMAX Telecom .
WiMAX Telecom WiMAX
Ethernet/IP- ().

Ethernet, ,
. MPLS
Cisco. QoS,
.
WiMAX Telecom : ,
. .
. ,
(OSS) (BSS) .
WiMAX
30 . ,
40 . . WiMAX Telecom
56 ,

.
8%
1% . WiMAX Telecom
2009 , .
WiMAX Telecom 350
802.16-2005
2009 , WiMAX ,
WiMAX Telecom ,

.
WiMAX- Wateen Telecom
Wateen Telecom
Abu Dhabi Group,
Warid Telecom, GSM- . - Wa
teen Telecom . Wateen Telecom
WiMAX (,
802.16). Motorola
Wi.MAX- wi4 IMS). 842 22 ,
20% , 164 . .
2007

10.1.

421

52 . . , 2009
1300, 70 .
( 1 /) 6.3 1.1 .
Wateen Telecom
3,5-3,6 .
42 , - - 21 . WiMAX
Wateen Telecom
(. 10.5). Waiid, Wateen Telecom
GSM-,
WiMAX-.

. 10.6.

WiMAX Wateen Telecom

Wateen Telecom,
, NGN- MPLS.
IMS. ,
5 . -
(24 G.652/G.655), 71 .
) ,
DWDM, 160 .
96
(G.652/G.655).
Ethernet FTTC.
. 2008
5 . , 95'

422 10. , WiMAX


(dial-up).
, . ,
2010 2011 2/3 .
Wateen Telecom,
,
,
1,5 .
,
WiMAX-.
, WiMAX
(. 10.3). ,
WiMAX (Samsung. Alvarion Motorola)
2008 .
-
WiMAX, . ,
802.16.
10.3. Intel WiMAX ( ) (2007 .)
2004
WiMAX,
, WiMAX. .
WiMAX

10

2000 2008 2010


250

2012

400
150

650

1300

> 10 > 2 0

, WiMAX

WiMAX. , -
WiMAX

. ,
30 . -
.
(, )
.
WiMAX ,
, .

10.2. WiMAX

WiMAX.

BWA (. 2007 ) * WiMAX (. 2008 )
(. . ). 156
, 50 .
,

WiMAX. . ,
:

10.2. WiMAX 423


- WiMAX-;
WiMAX-.
- WiMAX-:
IEEE 802.16.
WiMAX- (,
5 .
BreezeMAX 5,2 Alvarion):
(.
Infinet Wireless).
WiMAX-.
1
.
, , :
. BreezeACCESS VL
Alvarion () Revolution 5000 Infinet Wireless ():
. N'extNET Motorola
(),
- * , Canopy (Motorola) BreezeACCESS VL:
Flex, BreezeACCESS VL Revolution 5000:
, PaeketWave Aperto Network.
():
- .
2007 45 .
6 . .
.
2007
5 .
Alvarion Infinet Wireless. ,
,
. , 2007
, .
2008 , 2-3 .
50%.
. , , ,
. ,
-, (615%),
(463%) - (409%) .
- ,
,
.

. .
1/5 1/4 .
, . ,
.

424

10. WiMAX

WiMAX 2008
, 2009 4500 .
.
J'son & Partners, WiMAX
( 40 . ) 25 . .

. .
WiMAX
( , . 2,5
3.5 (, Lythgoe).
WiMAX 2,3 2.5
2009 .
,
,
- ( -), Unitline (),
., WiMAX (3,5 ).
.

10.2.1.
'
( - -,
Enforta) ,

(
24%). Cnews,
30
. , .
2009 68 (. 10.6):
, , , , , , ?.
, , , , , . , , , , , -.
, --. , , ,
, , , .
. , . . ,
. , , , , , ,
. . , --, , , .
. -, , , . .
, , , , , -, , , ,
, , , -, .
, 2009
-,
3.5 5.2 .

- 5,15 5,35 .
- WiMAX (SMAX Airspan BreezeMAX 1varion 3,5 ), IEEEE 802.16 (BreezeMAX
5.2 ) (BreezeACCESS

' -7

_; -.

-."}

j J L p o ^ ,

"
^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ & '#MIWOB
t Z

'
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^*''4

t/a

(.

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*. "<
2008
(68 )

. 1 0 . 6 . ( I I |. '|>1>11.1||||||| (I I I I ) . I

1|||>*

426 10. , WiMAX


Alvarion SkyMAN Infinet Wireless). .
WiMAX

. ,
70% .
25 . 10 . .
(47%), (17%),
(11%) (9%).
-
: ( 64 / 4 / );
,
;
(VPN),
;
IP VPN.

,
.
2009
386 .
. ,
, .
(. 10.7).
,
( ), , .
() .
.
.
:
, Ethernet-
, .
Cisco,
Dell Hewlett-Packard Natcks-Microlink
( ), Anteruui Ceragon.
,
2006 .
,
,
,
.
IP (QoS)
,
.
, Alvarion BreezeMAX
, ,
30 (
45 ). BreezeMAX 120 .

(
)
2006 Group.

427

10.2. WiMAX

?'}

*
|

?>)

~^
I

;-''
FastEthrnet

/
.--'
FastEthrnet

?> 0 >''

,*L *
3

^_
"'-?,

|_

IK.'IKJI;

FastEthrnet

. 10.7.

.
,
.
WiMAX 33
21 . ,
94 . (. 10.8).
Way
Nokia Siemens Network. 3,4~3,G .

.
.
(. 10.9)
(HP. IBM. Microsoft.
Siemens).
. ;i ,
,
|( .

. 10.8. WiMAX

JO.2. , WiMAX

i35xx
10.0.0.100/12

4 2;f

Cisco 72
10.0.0.1/12

. 10.9. WiMAX

10.2.2.
*
(-)
WiMAX ,
WiMAX.
, .

. 2007 -
Intel
WiMAX . ,
. -

WiMAX 2,5-2,7 ,
. , Intel

WiMAX.
,
(VoIP, ,
VPN- . ,
).
2008
. , Alcatel-Lucent.
Alvarion, Motorola, Samsung, Nortel Networks. Cisco/Navini.
Nortel Networks ( BTS5020, ASN- ASG 5100).

430 10. WiMAX


Sun Microsystems
Bridgcwater Systems.
Nortel
BTS5020. 2008 Nortel Alvarion
WiMAX-

. Nortel -
BreezeMAX 4Motion MIMO
2 x 2 ( ).
- WiMAX- (. 10.10
10.13) 173 ,
.
200.

CPE

4Motion

M~i
CPE

Layer 3

4Motion

AAA

I B

DHCP

.
DNS

. 10.10. - WiMAX- -

-
10 2,5-2,7 (
2540. 2550 2560 ). (reuse 3). ,
, F 1 , - F2 - F3.
.
512 . ,
, 173
265 728 .

.
ASN- AAA.
150 .
ASN-
-.
(
) -
(. . 10.12).
. , ASN-

10.2. WiMAX 431


, ( ,
).

WiMAX

& z2
ii_

-
, AAA-
, , ,
. .

i i

cr

AAA
(Bhdgawalei)
I

D*M
DHCP
1 oopaep

Num.'Ills
Manager
2capaapa

pi - 2

Ethernet-


5100-2 (R2.1)
4 lOOOBaseT

P 2


5100-1 (R2.1)
4 lOOOBaseT

NGN
^

L2

Ethernet- :

NGN

*"

AAA
DNS
Nortel BTS
NT Core
(Btidgewatef)
DHCP
Manager
Manager
1
1 2
1
2 Eth- 1 Eth- 2 Eth- 2 Eth-nopia

. 1 0 . 1 2 . WiMAX- -

-.

I
NTBTS
M.in.iciii

P M . 10.13. 01 OtNtt WiMAX- -. i,i|i O K ' ,

NTBTS
Database
M.iniigei

NT-NMS
OAM-NE Port

it

434

10. WiMAX

WiMAX 2,2 //
IP
!

WiMAX- Intel, WiMAX- US -
COMSTAR 2501. 2,496-2,69 .
, ,
/ PKMv2 , 3DES/AES.
USB-
5.5 ( )
2 /.
* (Yota)
WiMAX

2.5 2.7 ( Yota).


, .
2007 -.
WiMAX Holding, 30 2008 25,1%
.
2 2008 .
(150 ) - (80 ).
1000 (600 400 -).

.

500 . (
,
). 300 .
, ( 470 . .).
Yota -
180 / 1207 .

. 10.14. Yota: ) - SWC-U200,


) SWC-E100 (Samsung)

Samsung.

USB- Samsung AMIS,
- Express-card SWC-E100 (Samsung) (. 10.14).
Wi-Fi- Ethcmct- ( Asus).
WiMAX- Sprint NextTcl ().
Yota WiMAX .
) / -

10.2. WiMAX 435


^
. 6
120 /.
Yota ,
,
. Yota
-. ,
Google,
.
- ( MAX 4G).
, ,
, , .
Yota Mobile WiMAX
MAX 4G (8290) (. 10.15).
().
GSM- WiMAX.
Touch. - 528 .
- 512 . 256 .
9,5 , 480x800 .
Windows Mobile 6.1. 5-
, GPS- .
GSM. Yota
( Skype).

. 10.16. MAX IG

10.2.3. Lythgoe
WiMAX-
Lythgoe. 70'/ Lythgoe

436 10. WiMAX

Sf

ICON . WiMAX- .
, . . . . Lythgoe
UHT,
3.4-3.6 , 30
. Lythgoe Fresh Tel.

' 1
* 2 ( 1 ).

-. Lythgoe
WiMAX-
( ).

. IEEE 802.16-2004
( Alvarion BrezeMAX).
.
, WiMAX
. . .
WiMAX
50% .
J'son & Partners, 2010
WiMAX 100 . . ( 160 . ).
2008 25 . . (~ 40 . ), 2009
60 . . ( 100 . ). WiMAX
. , 2008
, 2009
100 .
,
(190.8 . SIM- 1
2009 , 131.4%. & Consult
ing). , ,
WiMAX .

11


1.1.
2015
2,1 . ,
Analysys Mason (. 11.1) [1].
784 . . (. 11.2)

HSPA. 2009
123 . ( UMTS Forum), 2008
61 . [1], 88%
. , WCDMA 2009
374 . 2015 HSPA 1,1 .
, 54% .
Ericsson
70%
HSPA (. 11.3) [2].
. 11.1. . . .
Analysys Mason

0,0

2008 2009 2010 201 I 2012 2013 2014 2015


EV-DO

HSPA/HSPA-i-

LTE

WiMAX

438

11.

1400

.200

1000

800

600

3
2

400

200


\|

WiMAX

. 1 1 . 2 . . Analysys Mason

, WiMAX- 2015
~98 . , 92%
. WiMAX
2%.

2100
I

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

. 11.3. . Ericsson

HSPA70%

11.2. WiMAX HSPA u LTE

439
" ^

Analysys Mason, 2015


LTE 194 . . (~15%
), 440 .
, LTE
2010 ,
2011 .
,

2015 57% 17% 2008 .
2014
148 .
58% 8% 2008 .
2014 23 . .
2008 .
, cdma2000 EV-DO.
EV-DO rev.
2008 2007 (ABI Re
search). 2009 474 . cdma2000 (
3GPP2). 2008 456 .
112 .
EV-DO [3].
. ABI Research, 2013
EV-DO rev. 54 . , rev.
2-5
. . . WiMAX . ? ,
.
, .
, ,
. . ,
, .
' WiMAX HSPA LTE.
WiMAX- [4].

11.2. WiMAX HSPA LTE


WiMAX-.
, , .
, ,
(
),
. , ,
.
- HSPA (3GPP 6) 2007
. (FDD)
5 .
QPSK 16-QAM.
(1 2 SIMO), 14 /. BPSK
QPSK, 1 x 2 SIMO. 5.8 /.
WiMAX ( 1.0)
(TDD). 10 -

440 11.
2-3 , HSPA
( YVi.MAX TDD
,
).
HSPA HSPA+
iHSPA 7 8). HSPA+
2008 . 64-QAM
SIMO ( 1 x 2 ) 16-QAM (2 2).
16-Q AM VoIP.
8 ( 2009 )
(2 2) 64-QAM,
MIMO
( 2 x 2 ) .
WiMAX HSPA+ (. 11.1),
:
WiMAX ( 1.5) HSPA+ ( 8)
,
. WiMAX
2 3 .
HSPA + 2 x 5
3G. WiMAX
20 , , .
700, 1700. 2300, 2500.
3500 . WiMAX IP- (
).
3GPP. .
Long Term Evolution (LTE). OFDMA
SC-FDMA .
64-QAM.
20 . TDD FDD.
, .

IP-. LTE ,
1 1 . 1 . HSPA ( 7 8) WiMAX ( 1.5)
HSPA

WiMAX

IV.lH.l

2,0

l.">

2,5
1 1)1)

IDI)

FDD

2 5

2 8
10
2 <2

!>'

1 2

64-. 5, 6

2 2

1 2

1 2

16-QAM, 3/4 64-QAM, 5/6 li-1-QAM. 5/6

16-QAM, 3/4
, /

6-1-QAM. 5/6

17,5

21

35

36

48

8,3

8,3

8,3

17

21

11.2.

WiMAX HSPA

LTE

44[

1 1 . 2 . LTE ( ,
WiMAX ( 1.5)
FDD 2 20

LTE

Motorola

Qualcomm

2 4

4x2

WiMAX 1.5

2 2

1 4



. /

64-QAM, 5/6 64-QAM, 5/6


117

226

64-QAM,

2x2

4x4

64-QAM, 5/6
: .6

289

1-

277

1 2
64-QAM

1 2
16-QAM

1 2
64-QAM, 5/6

50.1

75

69,1





, /

WiMAX,
LTE (. 11.2 11.3).
, LTE
3G.
LTE CDMA OFDMA,
IP- .
, ,

. ,
.
3G LTE .
WiMAX
2.0. 802.16,
IMT-Advanced. ,
WiMAX 1.0
( 2,6 //) (1,3 //) (. 11.4).
1 1 . 3 . LTE WiMAX

LTB

WiMAX .. 1.5

FDD TDD

FDD TDD

2000

2500 Ml ii

20

20

OFDMA

OFDMA

SC-FDMA

OFDMA

, //
, 1 (2 2)

1.57

, SIMO (1 2)

0,64

1,59
0.99


, /

350

120

. ,

2 2, 2 4. 4 2, 4 4 2 2. 2 4. 4 2, 4 4

1 2. 1 1. 2 2. 2 4 1 x 2 , l x 1, 3 x 2. 2 x 4

1(^4156

442 11.
0.09 0.05 //
, .
60
AMR (12.2 /).

, (
100 ).
500 /. ,
.
WiMAX 1.0 1.5.
WiMAX LTE.

Rel 1.0
WiMAX
. 11.4. (' :><|>

,
(
). ,
, .
WiMAX IP-, LTE
(. 11.5). WiMAX - IETF.
LTE , ,

3G. ,
WiMAX.
, ,
.
WiMAX -
(. 11.6). 2008
WiMAX 100, 2011 .
WiMAX .
LTE 2009 . ,
3(3- LTE
WiMAX-. ,
2 3 , ? 4G.

11.3. 4Gt 443


, ,
\\ i.MAX. LTE .

LTE/SAE
,

S5

LTE-Uu
/

E-UTRAN

SQ

WiMAX
IETF.

IP

802.16 MAC

GRE/IP

GRE/IP

L2

L2

L2

L2

L1

L1

LI

LI

802.16 MAC

802.16 Phy

802.16 Phy

R6

R1
MC

MIP

R3
ASN-

CSN-HA
"P
()

. 1 1 . 5 . WiMAX LTE

.3. 4G?
,
(-1G) . - 4G WiMAX
HSPA. .
, 3.5G. 3.9G ( LTEi
. . ,

11.
, .
(

' )
. 3G (
) ,
.
-
(DSP), (,
, GaAs
).
(65-45 ) ,
.
, .

.

WiMAX

/-

Rel 1.0
802.1-2005

3GPP

Rel 1.5
802.1 Rev2

Rel 2.0
802.16m

IP-


WiMAX

IP-

>


CDMA


OFDMA

. 1 1 . . WiMAX 3 G P P

, ,

.
IMT-Advanced
100 / 1 /

(. 11.7).
ITl"-R . 16-45 [7], . ,
- ,
, - (IPTV),
.. , ( ).

11.3. 4G? 445


. '
(), 4G

.

%
(4G)

IMT-2000

10
100
, /

1000

. 11.7. -Advanced.
,
60 250 /

, WiMAX, LTE/UMB .
. ,
. . .
1.
.

. , IMT-2000
.
lMT-Advanced .
WiMAX 2.0. LTE Advanced, UMB.
,
100%- .
, . , .


- 4G.
(
. DVB-T2) (. 11.8).

446

11.

-
-
-
-

()

-
" "
-
-
-

(" "

-
- " "

()

X X X X

X X X X

. 11.8. IM -Advanced


? , ,
. ,
.
,
( ).
,

. IMT-Advauced
,
.

().
,
. ,
,
LTE-Advanced, WiMAX.
, 4G ,
-Advanced (. 11.9).
. :

11.3. 4G?

447


()

GSM. CDMA. DAMPS

IEEE 802.11

+OoS
+

_^

IEEE802.16(WiMAX)

Wi-Fi
IEEE 802.11 //g/n

3G (W-CDMA.
cdma2000 1)

i
HSPA,
HSPA+
LTE

-QoS
-Mesh

+
EV-DO RevA
EV-DO RevB
EV-DO RevC

802.11e/i
802.11s

802.1
WiMAX

IMT-2000

(LMDS,
MMDS/MVDS,
DVB, DAB)



(IP-, , )

4G
IMT-Advanced


DVB-T2
DRM

802.11 VNTI
NGN-
IPTV. MPLS, IMS

. 11.9. 4G

448 11.
( 100/1000 / / )
.
, QoS;
- .
,
.
4G :
- OFDM ( );
-
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(Session Initiation Protocol) [8]. NGN MPLS (
QoS )
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,
,
. IMS
LTE. WiMAX.
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.

11.4. WiMAX
, WiMAX
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vanced . .
. WiMAX
. % (
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. , ?
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Ericsson Qualcomm. , , 2008
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, Qualcomm Ericsson , 2006
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. . Eric-

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sson ,
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Ericsson Sony

Sony-Ericsson. 2008
,
11.25 . . ,
.

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. , .
HSPA WiMAX. ,
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, WiMAX-?

11.4- J,Gr 453


Intel. , IEEE 802.16 1990-
, . WiMAX-
Intel, WiMAX .
, .
. , Intel .
Intel ,
?
, Intel
, WiMAX .
, LTE.
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,
),
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,

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, WiMAX ,
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. Open Patent Alliance,


, , .
, ( )
( 1970-)
Mo
torola WiMAX . 50 .
. , .
WiMAX ( WiBro)
Samsung Electronics ( 2008
, 105 . .). A WiBro
Samsung.
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. Intel .

.
, 3GPP/3GPP2 ,

454
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.
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. . ,
Samsung 3G/WiMAX-coBMecTHMbie ,
.
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, , ,

, ,
.
.
.
!

1. Brydon A.. Heath. . Wireless broadband forecasts for 2008-2015: HSPA. HSPA+,
FV-DO. LTE and WiMAX.
Analysys Mason, 2008.
2. Mobile Broadband Evolution: the roadmap from HSPA to LTE. A White Paper from
the UMTS Forum. - UMTS Forum, 2009.
3. www.cdg.org.
4. Gray. D. Comparing Mobile WiMAX with HSPA+, LTE, and Meeting the Goals of
IMT-Advanced.
WiMAX Forum, 2009.
J HSPA+ for Enhanced Mobile Broadband. Qiialcomin. 2009.
6. . 45 : 45. 32, . : .
2008, 2, . 102-109.
7. RECOMMENDATION ITU-R .1645. Framework and overall objectives of the future
development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000.
ITU-R, 2003.
8. . :
.. . 2009, .V 2, .28 31.
9. .., B.C. MPLS.
(.:
. 2005.


3-DES

Triple data encryption standard

3GPP

Third Generation P a r t n e r s h i p
Project
3 G P P 2 Third Generation P a r t n e r s h i p
Project 2

Anchor Authenticator also called


Network Authenticator Server
(NAS)
Authentication. Authorization.
AAA
and Accounting
AAA
An intermediary for transpar
Proxy
ently routing a n d / o r process
ing AAA messages sent be
tween a AAA client and a AAA

,

,

/ -.
-
-

server
C o m p u t e r system performing , AAA services (authentication. AAA (.
authorization, accounting)
)
AAA -,
AAA-V AAA proxy server located
within the visited network

AAS
Adaptive Antenna System also

Advanced A n t e n n a System
Anchor
ASN
ASN. ASN.
A ASN'

AAA
Server

AC
ACK
ADPF
AES
AF
AG
AGC

Admission Control
Acknowledge
Anchor D a t a P a t h Function
Advanced encryption s t a n d a r d
Application Function
Absolute Grant
Automatic gain control

AK
Authorization Key
AK SN Derivation from P M K and
P M K 2 SN
AKA
Authentication and Key
Agreement
AM
Authorization Module
Adaptive modulation and ttxling
AMC


,




(

2 SN


-) Adaptive Multiple Input. Mul M I M O


tiple O u t p u t (Antenna)
Adaptive MIMO Switching
MIMO-
AMS

454

API

Anchor paging Controller


Anchor paging controller func
tion
Application Program Interface

AR
ARP

Access R o u t e r
Address resolution protocol

ARQ

Automatic Retransmission
Request
Authentication Server

A PC
APCF

AS
ASA
ASN
ASP
ATDD
ATM

Authentication a n d service
authorizai ion
Access Service Network
Application Service Provider
Adaptive time division
duplexing
Asynchronous transfer mode
Block convolutional code
Binding Cache E n t r y
Best Effort


(
)

BE
,

<|) ( , )
BER
Bit error ratio

BM
Base station network interface

BR
Bandwidth request
BRAN
B r o a d b a n d Radio Access Net
work
B r o a d b a n d Remote Access

BRAS

Server
Base Station

BS

BSID
Base Station Identifier
Block Sequence Number

BSN
Block t u r b o code

BTC
Bl
Binding U p d a t e


Bandwidth
B
r
o
a
d
b
a
n
d
wireless
access

BWA
Bandwidth
allocation/
access

BWAA
C / ( I + N ) Carrier-to/(interference plus / (
)
noise) r a t i o
Carrier-to-interference ratio
C/I
/
C/N
Carrier-to-noise ratio
/

Cert ificat i< in aut hority
CA
Connection Admission Control
CAC

ew

CBC
CBCMAC


Cipher block chaining
Cipher block chaining message
authentication code

457

Chase Combining (also -


volutional Code)
( )

Confirmation code

Control subchannel
CCI
Co-channel interference

C o u n t e r with Cipher-block

chaining Message authentica
tion code
Collocated Care of Address

Common channel signaling



CCS

Clock comparison value
CCV

CDF
Cumulative Distribution
Function
CDMA
Code division multiple access

CDMA2000 3rd Generation Code Division


Multiple Access R a d i o Tech
nology

E u r o p e a n Conference of
Postal a n d Telecommunica

tions Administrations

CG

CINR
em
CLP

CMIP

COS

CPS
CQI
CQICH
CRC
CS




Carrier to noise and interfer /
ence ratio
Channel impulse response


Cell Lass Priority
Block Cipher-based Message
.
Authentication Code
IP-
Client Mobile IP

Change of Authority
C a r e of Address
( IP,
)
Class of Service

Cyclic Prefix
Common p a r t sublayer
-
( )
Channel Quality Indicator

( information)
Channel quality information

channel
Cyclic redundancy check

(
Convergence Sublayer
) -
Continuous grant
Channel Identifier
Connection IDentifiiT

458

CSCF
CSCH
CSIT
CSX
CSTD
CTC
CTR

cm
DAD
DAMA
DARS
dBi

dBm
DCD
DES
DFS

Centralized scheduling
configuration
Centralized schedule
Channel s t a t e information
at the transmitter

Connectivity Service Net


work
Cyclic Shift Transmit Di-
versitv

Convolutional T u r b o Code
Counter mode encryption
Chargeable User Identity ()

Duplicate Address Detec


tion
Demand assigned multiple
access

Digital audio radio satellite
Decibels of gain relative to ()
t h e zero dB gain of a free-
space

Decibels relative to one


milliwatt
Downlink Channel De
scriptor
D a t a encryption s t a n d a r d
Dynamic frequency selection

Dynamic Host Configura


tion Protocol
diffserv
Differentiated services
Downlink Interval Usage
DHJC
Code
DL
Down Link
Downlink frame prefix
DLFP
Domain Name Service
DNS
DOCSIS D a t a Over Cable Service
Interface Specification
[>.S
Denial of Service
DP
Decision Point D a t a P a t h
DHCP

DSA
DSC
DSCH
DSCP
DSD

Dynamic service addition


Dynamic service change
Distributed schedule
Differentiated services
code-point
Dynamic service deletii >n






(-)


'1




()


DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Link
Access Multiplexer
DSx
Dynamic service addition,
change, or deletion
Digital Video Broadcast.
DVB
E2E
End-to-End
E911
EAP

EAPPSK
EAPSIM
EC
ECB
EDE
EESM

US Emergency Services
Extensible Authentication
Protocol
E A P Authentication and
Key Agreement to be used
with USLM
Ext ensible Authent ication
Protocol
P r e Shared Key
E A P Subscriber Identity
Module to be u>ed with SIM
Encryption control
Electronic code book
Encrypt-decrypt-encrypt
Exponential Effective SIR

459


DSL
,


, ( IP)
('111 \

-
USIM

SIM-

EKS

N

-

/
Mapping
E a r t h exploratory satellite
systems

Effective isotropic radiated


power

Encryption key sequence


I'MSK

Extended Master Session Key -

ErtPS

Extended Real-Time Polling


Service
European Telecommunica
tions S t a n d a r d s Institute
Extended unique identifier

EESS
EIRP

ETSI
EUI
EUI-64
EVM
FA
HNS

Extended Unique Identifier


(04 )
(64-bit)
Error vector m a g n i t u d e

Foreign Agent

East Base Station Switching

FC
Fragmentation cont rol
I- A PS Fault Configuration Ac
counting Performance and
Security


ISO.

: ,
. , ,

FCH
FDD
FEC
FFT
FHDC
FIPS
FQDN
Y\U>

FSH
FSN
FSS
FUSC
FWA
GF
GKEK
GM
GMH
GPC
GPRS
GPS

|Frame Control Header


Frequency division duplex
Forward error correct ion
Fast Fourier transform
Frequency hopping diversi
ty coding
Federal Information Proces
sing Standard
Fully Qualified Domain Name
Fast Router Discovery
[fragmentation subheader
Fragment sequence number
1 :M i -.;,!. Ilite service

Fully Used Sub-Carrier


Fixed wireless access
Galois field
Group key encryption key
Grant management
Generic MAC header
Grant per connection
General Packet Radio Services
Global positioning satellite










()

MAC


|>
GPSS
Grant per subscriber station
GRE
Generic Routing Encapsu
( Cisco)
lation

GS
Guard symbol
GSA
Group Security Association
GSM
Global System for Mobile
communication
GTEK
Group traffic encryption key
GW
Gateway

HA
Home Agent

HARQ
Hybrid Automatic Repeat

reQuest
HCS
Header check sequence

Header error check



H-FDD
Half-duplex FDD

HHO
Hard Hand-Off
()
HiperMAN High Performance

Metropolitan Area Network ( )
HLA
Hot-Line Application
Hot-Lining Application

HLD
HMAC
HO

Hot-Line Device Hot-lining


Device
Keyed-Hashing for Message
Authentication Code
Hand-Off or Hand Over

HO ID
HoA
HSDPA

Handoff Identifier
MS Home Address
High Speed Downlink Pack
et Access
HT
Header type
HTTP
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
HUMAN High-Speed Unlicensed
Metropolitan Area Network
I
biphase
IANA
Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority
IBS
Integrated Base Stations.
Refers to a BS that can in
stantiate all the ASN func
tions for a given MS. Such
an Integrated BS can also be
labeled a Profile ASN
ICMPv6 Internet Control Message
Protocol for (IPv6) Specifi
cation [RFC 2463]
IE
Information Element
I EKE
Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
IEEE
IEEE standard specification
802.3
for Ethernet
IETF
Internet Engineering Task
Force
IFFT
Inverse fast Fourier trans
form
IGMP
Internet Group Manage
ment Protocol
IID
Interface Identifier
IIP3
Input intercept point of
third order
IK
Integrity Key
IKEv2
Internet Key Exchange pro
tocol version 2
IMS
IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMSI
International Mobile Sub
scriber Identity





()







( )




,
ASN-
.

ASN
-
(IPv6)
RFC 2463
.


IEEE
Ethernet


- .
2
IP

IP
IPscc
IPv4

-!
Internet Protocol
IP Security
IP-
Internet Protocol Version 4 - ! , 4

IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6 -, G

IR

Incremental Redundancy

ISF
ISI
1

Initial Service flow


Inter-Symbol Interference
International Telecommu
nications Union
Interval Usage Code
Internetworking Function
Inter-working Gateway
Interworking with Wire
less LANs
Internetworking Unit
Key encryption key
Local area network
Location Based Services

Local multipoint distribu


tion service
Line of sight
Local Policy Function
Location Register MSID.
BSID
Least Significant Bit
Medium access control





(MSID. BSID)

roc
IWF

IWG
I-WLAN
IWU
KEK
LAN
LBS
LDPC
LE
LFSR
LLC

LMDS
LOS
LPF
LR
LSB
MAC









,

Low-Density-Parity-Check
()

License-Exempt
Linear feedback shift reg
isters

Logical link control



(
OSI)

layer
MAI
MAN
MAP
MBMS
MBS
MCC

Multiple Access Interfer

ence
Metropolitan area network
Media Access Protocol
Multimedia Broadcast/
Multicast Service
Multicast and Broadcast
Service
Mobile Country Code


/.-


MCS

Modulation coding

463

SI 1 ]('|| | c

MDHO Macro Diversity handoff


MIB
Management information

IKIM*

MIC
MIMO

Message integrity check


Multiple input multiple
output
Mobile IP


-

MIP
IP ( IPv4.
IPv6)
MIP6
Mobile IP version 6
-!, 6
MM
Mobilin Management

MMDS Multichannel mult ij)oint

distribution service

MMS
Multimedia Message Service
MNC
Mobile Network operator Code
MPEG Moving Pictures Experts

11< >ii])

MPLS Multi Protocol Label



Switching
()
MS
Mobile Station Mini-Slot &-
lii-b
Most significant bit

Mcsli
MSH
Mesh-
\1S!I)
Mobile Station Identifier

MSK
Master Session Key
-
MSO
Multi-Services Operator

Neighbor Advertisements

NACK Not Acknowledge

NA1
Network Access Identifier

NAP
Network Access Provider

NAPT Network Address Port

Translation
NAS
Network Access Si rver

NAT
Network Address Translation
NCFG Netwoi configuration

NENT Network entrv

NLOS Non line of sight.

NMS
Network Management System
NNI
Net work-to-network inter- - ( -)
fiicc (or network node inter
face)
NRM
Network Reference Model

nrlPS Non-real-time Polling Service
NS
Neighbor Solicitation

Network Service Provider
-
NSP

464

Neighbor Unreachability
Detection

Operations and Mainte


nance
OFDM orthogonal frequency divi
sion multiplexing
OFDMA orthogonal frequency divi
sion multiple access
object identifier

OTA
Over-The-Air
Organization Unique
OUI
Identifier
PA
Paging Agent

primary authorization keyPAPR


peak to average power ra
tio
PBR
piggyback request
NUD




..|>1!|>\

PC
Paging Controller

P-CSCF Proxy-Call Session Con
trol Function

PDFID packet data flow ID



PDG
Packet Data Gateway

PDH
plesiochronous digital hi
erarchy
PDU
protocol ( packet) da (,

ta unit
OSI
.
. - PDU
-,
)
PEAP
PER
PF
PF
PG
PG ID
PHS
PHSF

Protected EAP



Packet Error Rate

Proportional Fair (Sched (
uler)
)
Policv Function


Paging Group
Paging Group Identifier

Payload Header Suppres (
sion
)
Payload Header Suppres
sion Field

PHS1

465

Payload Header Suppn-.-

sion Index

PHSM Payload Header Suppres


sion Mask
PHSS Payload Header Suppres
sion Size

(8- , .
,

in i

,
( ,
PHSF)
,

,



()

PHSV

Payload Header Suppres


sion Valid

PHY
PKM
PM
PMD

physical layer
Privacy Key Management
poll-me bit
physical medium depen
dent
Proxy-Mobile IP
- IP
Pairwise Master Key
-

Proxy Mobile Node

point-to-multipoint
-
Point of Attachment

prepaid accounting capa >
bility
Prepaid Client

parts per million

Point-to-Point Protocol
-
Prepaid Server

pseudo random binary se
quence

Proxy Address Resolution ! -


Protocol
physical slot

Packing Subheader

PreShared Key

Public Switched Tele

phone Network
()
Payload Type Indicator

Peer to Peer

-, ..

Partially Used Sub


Carrier

PMIP
PMK
PMN
PMP
PoA
PPAC
PPC
ppm
PPP
PPS
PRBS
PrCDtyARP
PS
PSH
PSK
PSTN
PTI
PtP

PUSC

PUSCASCA
PVC
Q
QAM

PUSC adjacent subcarrier


allocation
Permanent Virtual Circuit
quadrature
quadrature amplitude mod
ulation

PUSC


( )

()
Q u a l i t y (if S e r v i c e
QoS

QPSK
Quadrature phase-shift keying (-1)
RA
Router Advertisement

RADIUS Remote Access Dial In User ,


AAA
Service

REQ
Request
RLAX
Radio Local Access Network
RN'G
Ranging
(

)
RO
Route optimization

RP
Reference Point
()
RR
Round Robin (Scheduler) ()

RR
Resource- R eser vat ion

RRA
Radio Resource Agent

RRC
Radio Resource Controller
RRI
Reverse Rate Indicator

RRM
Radio Resource Management
RS
Reed Solomon
- ()
RS
Router Solicitation

RSP
Response

RSSI
Receive signal strength in

dicator
RSVP
Resource Reservation Pro
tocol
RTG
Receive/Transmit Transi

tion Gap
rtPS
Real-time Polling Service
Rl'I.M
Removable User Identity

Module
, SIM-
CDMA (IS-95a)
Rx

Reception

RxDS

Receiver Delay Spread


Clearing Interval

SA

Security Association

SAE

System architecture evolution


SAID
Security association identi
fier
SAP
Service access point
SAR
Synthetic aperture radar
SC
Single can iei
SCI
Spare capacity indicator
S-CSCF Serving-Call Session Con
trol Function
SCTE
Society of Cable Telecom
munications Engineers
SDFID Service data flow ID
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hier
archy
SDMA Space (or Spatial) Division
(or Diversity) Multiple Ac
cess
SDU
Service data unit

SF
SF
SFA
SFID
SFM
SFN
SGSN
SUA
SHO

467

.
(
,
).


. !

,
LTE

SA





, IMS

II) !


(
)
(,
\ OSI
)
Spreading Factor

Service flow

Service Flow Authorization
Service Flow Identifier

Service Flow Management
Single Frequency Network
Serving GPRS Support
GPRS
Node
Secure hash algorithm


Soft Hand Off
( )

(d>iar.
.

)
Subscriber Identity

SII
System Information Identi
ty or Service Identity bifor-
mation
SIM
Subscriber Identity Module
, ,
GSM-
SIMO
Single Input Multiple
-
Output

SIXR
Signal to Interference 4 / (+)
+ Noise Ratio
SIR
signal-to-interference ratio /
SLA
Service Level Agreement

SM
Spatial Multiplexing

SMS
Short Message Service

SMTP
Simple Mail Transport Pro
tocol

SN
sequence number

SNIR
Signal to Noise + Interfer- / (+)
i nee Ratio
SNMP
Simple Network Manage
ment Protocol
SNR
signal-to-noise ratio
/
S-OFDMA Scalable Orthogonal Fre

quency Division Multiple

Access
SS
Subscriber Station

SS7
Signaling System 7
.V* 7 (-7)
SSID
subscriber station identi

fication (MAC address)
(-)
SSL
Secure Sockets Laver

SSTG
subscriber station
( )
transition gap

STC
space time coding
11< >-

space time transmit


-
STTD

diversity
Sl'BC
Subscriber Credentials

SVC
Switched Virtual Circuit

::>
Target BS

SI

Slip indicator

TCP

Transmission convergence
sublayer
Trellis coded modulation

469

Transmission Control Protocol

TDD
Time division duplex
TDM
Time division multiplex
T D M A Time division multiple
access

Terminal E q u i p m e n t

traffic encryption key


T F T P Trivial File Transfer Proto
col
TLS
T r a n s p o r t Layer Security, a
variant of SSL
TLV
Type-length-value
TTG
Transmit /Receive Transi
tion G a p
TTI
Transmission T i m e Interval
T T L S Tunneled T L S

Typical Urban (as in chan


nel model)
T U S C Tile usage of subchannels
Tx
Transmission
UCD
Uplink Channel Descriptor
UDP
User D a t a g r a m Protocol
UE
User Equipment
UEP
Unequal error protection
Unsolicited Grant Service
UGS
UICC Universal Integrated Circuit
Card




( F T P )
.
SS1.




T L S
(
)







, ,

-
. l S I M -
LTD
User-identity

UIUC Uplink Interval Usage Code

UL
u Uplink
( )
U M T S Universal Mobile Telecom
munications System

UNI
-
User-to-network interface
U - M I Unlicensed National Infor

mation Infrastructure

470

USLM

UTC

Universal Subscriber Iden


tity Module
.
, UMTS-
Coordinated Universal Time

uw
vc

VLAN
VoIP

Unique Word
virtual channel
Virtual LAN
Voice over Internet Protocol




II'

VPN
VSA

Virtual Private Network


Vendor Specific Attributes

YSF

Variable Spreading Factor

<|1>

VSM

Vertical Spatial Multiplexing

WAG
WLAN Access Gateway


Wireless Application Pro
WAP
tocol
WiMAX ASN T r a n s p o r t
WATSP

Signaling Protocols
ASN- WiMAX
W C D M A Wideband Code-Division

Multiple Access

WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy ,
(. . )
WiBro
Wireless B r o a d b a n d (Ser
vice)
( Samsung)
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity
.


802.11 / / g
WiMAX
WLAN
WPA
WWAN
X.509

Worldwide Interoperability
for Microwave Access
Wireless local area network
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Wireless Wide Area Net
work
ITU s t a n d a r d for digital
public-key certificate issued
by a CA




Wi-Fi

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