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MILLING

It is a machine tool that removes metal as


work is fed against a rotating multi point cutter
for machining flat, curved, irregular surfaces.
Cutter rotates at high speed & bcz of multi
point cutting edges it removes metal at very
fast rate. Machine can hold one/ more cutters
at a time.
This machine produces accuracy & better
surface finish, high rate & very close limits of
dimensions.

Milling machines may be manually


operated, mechanically automated, or
digitally automated via computer
numerical control (CNC).
Milling machines can perform a
vast number of operations, some very
complex, such as slot and keyway
cutting, planing, drilling, die sinking,
rebating, routing, etc.

Milling machines exist in


two basic forms: horizontal
and vertical, which terms
refer to the orientation of
the cutting tool spindle.

Machine
consists
basically of a motor driven
spindle, which mounts and
revolves the milling cutter,
and
a
reciprocating
adjustable
worktable,
which mounts and feeds
the work piece.

Working Principle
Work is rigidly clamped on table of machine, or held b/n
centres & revolving multi teeth cutters are mounted either
on spindle/ arbor.
cutter revolves at high speeds
& work fed slowly past the cutter.
Work can be fed in vertical,
longitudinal/ cross direction.
As work advances cutter teeth
remove metal from w/p surface to
produce desired shape.

Sizes & Specifications


It is denoted by dimensions of working surface of table of
machine (i.e length & breadth) , its maximum length of
longitudinal, cross & vertical travel of table.
Other specifications are:
1. Number of spindle speeds.
2. Number of spindle feeds.
3. Spindle nose taper.
4. Power of driving motor.
5. Net wt.
6. Required floor space.

Classification of Milling
1. Peripheral Milling :
In peripheral (or slab) milling, the milled surface is
generated by teeth located on the periphery of the cutter
body. The axis of cutter rotation is generally in a plane
parallel to the work piece surface to be machined.

2. Face Milling:
In face milling, the cutter is mounted on a spindle
having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the work
piece surface.
The milled surface results from the action of cutting
edges located on the periphery and face of the cutter.

3. End Milling :
The cutter in end milling generally rotates on an axis
vertical to the work piece.
It can be tilted to machine tapered surfaces.
Cutting teeth are located on both the end face of the cutter
and the periphery of the cutter body.

Types Of Milling Machines

1. Column & Knee type:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

These machines are all general purpose machines & have a


single spindle.
Name is derived from fact that work table is supported on Knee
like casting, which can slide in vertical direction along vertical
column.
Depending up on their spindle position & table movements these
are further classified as:
Hand milling machine
Plain/ Horizontal milling machine.
Vertical milling machine
Universal milling machine
Omniversal milling machine

2. Fixed Bed / Manufacturing Type:

a)
b)
c)
d)

In comparison to previous , these machines are more study &


rigid, heavier in wt, larger in size.
Not suitable for tool room work.
These machines carry single / multiple spindles.
Operations performed are slot cutting, grooving, gang milling &
facing.
Plain type.(Single horizontal spindle)
Duplex head.(Double horizontal spindle)
Triplex head.(2 horizontal & 1 vertical spindle.)
Rise & Fall type(profile milling)

3. Planer type Milling Machines:


Used for heavy work.
Up to max of 4 tool heads can be mounted over it, which can be
adjusted vertically & transverse directions.

4.Production Milling Machine:


Rotary Table
Drum Type
Tracer Controlled

5. Special Purpose Milling Machine:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

These machines are designed o perform various specific type of


operation only:
Thread milling machine.
Profile milling machine
Gear milling/ Gear hobbing.
CAM milling machine
Planetary type
Double End

1. Column & Knee type Milling Machines:

a)
b)
c)
d)

Used for general purpose milling operations, column and knee type
milling machines are the most common milling machines.
The spindle to which the milling cutter is may be horizontal (slab milling)
or vertical (face and end milling).
The basic components are:
Work table, on which the work piece is clamped using the T-slots. The
table moves longitudinally with respect to the saddle.
Saddle, which supports the table and can move transversely.
Knee, which supports the saddle and gives the table vertical movements
for adjusting the depth of cut.
Over arm in horizontal machines, which is adjustable to accommodate
different arbor lengths.

e) Head, which contains the spindle and cutter holders. In vertical machines
the head may be fixed or vertically adjustable.

1. a. Hand Milling:

It is simplest of all types of


milling machines & small in
size.
All operations except rotation
of arbor are performed by
hand.
Table carrying work over it, is
moved by hand to feed the
work.
Machine is relatively smaller in
size than that of other types &
is suitable for light & simple
milling operations like
machining slots, groves,
keyways, square heads on
bolts.

b. Plain/ Horizontal Milling Machine:

a. Column:
Vertical column houses the spindle, the bearings, the
gear box, the clutches, the shafts, the pumps, and the
shifting mechanisms for transmitting power from the
electric motor to the spindle at a selected speed.
b. Knee
The knee mounted in front of the column is for
supporting the table and to provide an up or down
motion along the Z axis.
c. Saddle
The saddle consists of two slide ways, one on the top
and one at the bottom located at 90 to each other, for
providing motions in the X or Y axes by means of lead
screws.

d. Table
The table is mounted on top of the saddle and can be
moved along the X axis. On top of the table are some
T-slots for the mounting of work piece or clamping
fixtures.
e. Arbor
The arbor is an extension of the spindle for mounting
cutters. Usually, the thread end of an arbor is of left
hand helix.
f. Over Arm:
It supports yoke which in turn supports the free end of
Arbor.

Table is given straight motions in 3 directions:


i. For giving vertical movement to table knee itself,
together with whole unit above it , slides up &
down along ways, provided in to front of column.
ii.For giving cross movement to table, saddle is
moved towards/ away from column along with
whole unit about it.

c. Vertical Milling Machine:


It derives its name from vertical position of spindle.
Fig. shows a vertical milling machine which is of similar
construction to a horizontal milling machine except that the
spindle is mounted in the vertical position.
a. Milling head
The milling head consisting the spindle, the motor, and the feed
control unit is mounted on a swivel base such that it can be set at
any angle to the table.
b. Ram
The ram on which the milling head is attached can be positioned
forward and backward along the slide way on the top of the
column.

d. Universal Milling Machine:

I t is most versatile of all milling machines, after lathes it is most


useful m/c tool which is capable of performing most of
machining operations.
In Plain milling machine table can be given one/ more additional
movements, where as in this machine table can be swiveled on
saddle in horizontal plane.
The table is permitted to swing up to 45 in either direction for
angular and helical milling operations.
For this circular guide ways are provided on saddle along which
it can swiveled.
A graduated circular base is incorporated under table ,with datum
mark on saddle , to read directly angle through which table has
been swiveled.
By this work is set at an angle with cutter for milling helical &
spiral flutes & grooves.

Not only possess both horizontal milling arbour and the vertical
axis spindle, the latter spindle can be further tilted about one (X) or
both the horizontal axes (X and Y) as shown in diagram enabling
machining jobs of complex shape.

b. Duplex Head Milling m/c (2 horizontal spindles)

It is another form of fixed bed type milling m/c.


In construction it is similar to that of fixed bed type plain milling
machines, except that it carries 2 vertical columns, one each on
both sides of fixed bed type of machines.
Both columns carries parallel vertical ways, on which are
mounted 2 spindle heads/ carriers.
Both these carriers carry a horizontal spindle each on which
cutters can be mounted.
Spindle carriers can be adjusted up side down vertically to adjust
cutters to work.
Table has only longitudinal movements.

Milling Methods
Conventional / Up milling:
In up cut milling, the cutter rotates
in a direction opposite to the table
feed as illustrated in figure.
In this thickness of chip is
minimum at beginning of cut & it
reaches to max.
In other words we can say chip
thick ness is min(zero) at start of
cut & max at end of cut.
Cutting force is directed up wards
& this tend to lift work from
fixtures.

Climb/ Down Milling:


The cutter rotates in the same
direction as the table feed as
illustrated in figure
Thickness of chip is max when
tooth begins to cut & it reduces
to min when cut terminates.
In other word we say that chip
thickness is max in beginning
& zero at end of cut.
Fixture design becomes easier as
direction of cutter force is such
that it tends to seat work firmly in to
work holding devices.
It gives better surface finish.

Broad classifications of milling cutters


(a) Profile sharpened cutters where the geometry of the machined
surfaces are not related with the tool shape
i. Slab or plain milling cutter : straight or helical fluted
ii. side milling cutters single side or both sided type
iii. slotting cutter
iv. slitting or parting tools
v. end milling cutters with straight or taper shank
vi. face milling cutters

(b) Form relieved cutters where the job profile becomes the replica
of the tool-form.
i. Form cutters
ii. gear (teeth) milling cutters
iii. spline shaft cutters
iv. tool form cutters
v. T-slot cutters
vi. Thread milling cutter

Use of profile sharpened cutters


The profile sharpened cutters are inherently used for making flat
surfaces or surface bounded by a number of flat surfaces only.

Slab/ Plain Mills:


For heavy cutting of large and flat surfaces.
Plain milling cutters are hollow straight HSS cylinder of 40 to 80
mm outer diameter having 4 to 16 straight or helical equi-spaced flutes
or cutting edges and are used in horizontal arbor to machine flat
surface

Side and Slot Cutters


This type of cutters has cutting edges
on the periphery and sides of the teeth
for cutting shoulders and slots.
These arbor mounted disc type cutters
have a large number of cutting teeth at
equal spacing on the periphery.
Each tooth has a peripheral cutting
edge and another cutting edge on one
face in case of single side cutter and two
more cutting edges on both the faces
leading to double sided cutter.
These cutters may be made from a
single piece of HSS or its teeth may be of
carbide blades brazed on the periphery or
clamped type uncoated or coated carbide
inserts for high production machining.

Slitting Saws:
These milling cutters are very
similar to the slotting cutters
having only one peripheral
cutting edge on each tooth.
However, the slitting saws
are larger in diameter and
much thin
possess large number of
cutting teeth but of small
size
used only for slitting or
parting

End milling cutters or End


mills
The shape and the common
applications of end milling cutters
(profile sharpened type) are shown
in Fig. The common features and
characteristics of such cutters are :
mostly made of HSS
4 to 12 straight or helical teeth
on the periphery and face
diameter ranges from about 1
mm to 40 mm
very versatile and widely used
in vertical spindle type milling
machines

end milling cutters requiring larger diameter are made as a


separate cutter body which is fitted in the spindle through a taper
shank arbor as shown in the same figure.

Face Milling Cutters


For heavy cutting.
The main features are :
1.usually large in diameter (80 to
800 mm) and heavy
2.used only for machining flat
surfaces in different orientations
3.mounted directly in the vertical
and / or horizontal spindles
4.coated or uncoated carbide
inserts are clamped at the outer
edge of the carbon steel body as
shown
5.generally used for high
production machining of large
jobs.

Use of form relieved cutters (milling):


The distinguishing characteristics of such cutters, in contrast to profile
sharpened cutters, are:
1. form of the tool is exactly replica of the job-profile to be made.
2. used for making 2-D and 3-D contour surfaces .

Form cutters
Such disc type HSS cutters are generally used
for making grooves or slots of various profiles as
indicated in Fig.

Form cutters may be also end mill type like T-slot cutter as
shown in Fig.

Gear Teeth Milling Cutters


Gear milling cutters are made of HSS & available mostly in disc
form like slot milling cutters and also in the form of end mill for
producing teeth of large module gears.
The form of these tools conform to the shape of the gear tooth-gaps
bounded by two involutes as shown in Fig.

Such form relieved cutters can be used for producing


teeth of straight and helical toothed external spur
gears and worm wheels as well as straight toothed
bevel gears.

Spline Shaft Cutters:


These disc type HSS form relieved cutters are used for cutting
slots of external spline shafts having 4 to 8 straight axial teeth.

Tool Room Cutters:


Form milling type cutters are also used widely for cutting slots/ flutes
of different cross section e.g. the flutes of twist drills (Fig.) milling
cutters, reamers etc., and gushing of hobs, taps, short thread milling
cutters etc.

Thread Milling Cutters


Such shank type solid HSS or carbide cutters having thread like
annular grooves with equi-spaced bushings are used in automatic
single purpose milling machines for cutting the threads in large lot
production of screws, bolts etc.
Both internal and external threads are cut by the tool as shown in
Fig.

Applications
Straddle Milling:
For faster and accurate machining 2 parallel vertical
surfaces at definite distance, two separate side milling
cutters are mounted at appropriate distance on the horizontal
milling arbor as shown in Fig.

Gang Milling:
In Gang milling, being employed, where feasible, for quick
production of complex contours comprising a number of parallel
flat or curved surfaces a proper combination of several cutters are
mounted tightly on the same horizontal milling arbor as indicated
in Fig.

Turning by Rotary Tools(Milling CUTTERS)


During turning like operations in large heavy & odd shaped jobs, its
speed (rpm) is essentially kept low.
For enhancing productivity and better cutting fluid action rotary
tools like milling cutters are used as shown in Fig.