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I
090106

2006

. . , . . ,
. .


I
090106

2006


,
,
. , 090106
1- . I I
230101.
25.12.2005
15.01.2006.


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6
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25
33

II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.
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34
34
37
39
45
51
55
62

III. . . . . . . .
13. . . . . . . . . . .
14. . . . . . . . . .
14.1. . . . . . . . . .
14.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
15.
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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64
64
71
71
74
76
79
82

IV. , .
18.
19. . . . . . . . . .
20. . . . . . . .
21. . . . . . .
22. . . . . . . . . . .
23. . . . . . .
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3

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84
84
90
96
98
104
107
110

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
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. 118
. 118
. 123
. 124

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


, , , . , .
.

.
. .
, , ,
. .
,
, .
.

I

1.
.
- ,
. - ,
. , - e E, :
e E E e
:
e () E,

() E () e,

e () E.
, e E, :
e
/ E, E 6 e

E E
e).
( e
. ,
S = { , , , }

(1)

, , , S, S (1).
. ,
: ,
2003 , : X ,
. ,
, : (,
6

1.

), ,
, ?
, . ,
N2 = { 2n | n N },

N 1,
(, , ). :

C = { (x, y) | x2 + y 2 = 1, x, y R }
,
.
, , .
. . ,
{ x N | n2 + 1 = 0 }

( , 1)
. .
E E . E
E, E E.

E E E E .

, ,

E E,
E.
, E E , E E. .
1. E E E E, E = E .

. E E,
E 6= E E 6= , .
( )
, , , .
1 . 3 4.

, .

1.
, .

. E .
, E. 2E . , S, (1), 2S 2
S00 = ,
S11 = {}, S12 = {}, S13 = {}, S14 = {},

S21 = {, }, S22 = {, }, S23 = {, }, S24 = {, }, S25 = {, },


S26 = {, },

S31 = {, , }, S32 = {, , }, S33 = {, , }, S34 = {, , },


S41 = {, , , }.

, E n , 2E 2n .

- ,
, .

(, , . 1), ,
.. .

. . 1: , , A B , , , .
: A B .
, , A, B, .
A B. A ,
I,
2 , !

1.

I A . , Sij ,
S11 S12 = S21 , S21 S22 = S31, S31 S32 = S41

.. (0, 2) 0 2, (1, 3) 1 3,
(0, 2) (1, 3) = (0, 3).

A B . 2.

AB

AB

. 2: () ()
: A B , A B , A, B. ,
I A A . ,

S31 S32 = S12 , S21 S23 = S11, S21 S26 =

(0, 2) (1, 3) = (1, 2).


,
. A B . 2.
: - A
B A, B, A \ B. ,

S21 \ S22 = S12 , S22 \ S21 = S14,

(0, 2) \ (1, 3) = (0, 1], (1, 3) \ (0, 2) = [2, 3).

10

1.

. 3.

B\A

A\B

. 3: B \ A () A \ B ()
.
: A B A B, A \ B B A B.
. 4.
: A B
AB = (A \ B) (B \ A)
(. . 4 ).

AB
B
B

. 4: () ()

1.

11

2 ( - ). , A, B C , ,
U. :
A B = B A,

(2)

A = A,

(5)

A (B C) = (A B) C,
A B = B A,

(7)
(8)

A U = A,

(10)

A U = U,

(12)

A (B A) = (A B) A,
A (B C) = (A B) (A C),

(3)
(4)

A A = U,

(6)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C),

(9)

A A = ,

(11)

A = ,

(13)

A B = A B,

(14)

AB =AB

(15)

(A) = A.

(16)

(14) (15) ( ).
. , , , ,
3. () , , , . ,
, ,
, , .
3 , , !

12

1.

: , . (
), : A B,

a A a B.
, A , B , , , A B
(a ) (a )

( a , a ).
:
. 4:
(a A) (a B) (a A B).

, (
, ,
). ,
(x > 2) (x < 3)

, x .
: &
(a A) & (a B) (a A B).

.
, , . ,
(a ) & (a )
, a .
: :
(a A) a A.

, x ,
, x 6 0.

(x > 0)

4 , , .. -

() . .

1.

13

- (2)(16)
. ,
(14) (15)
(x y) (x) & (y)

(x & y) (x) (y).


. . , , ,
.
a A ()
, A , ,
a A ()
, , .
,
M R : a A R, a 6 M

(17)

, A
: M, a
M ( , A ).
- , , , . , (17) :
M R : a A R, a > M
, A
.
!, -. ,
a R, a > 0, !b R, b > 0 : b2 = a

.

14

2.

. .
X ,
Y , X Y . , , , . ,
, , .
B , X, A , Y . X Y , B A. ,
. X Y : , .
X Y , , , Y
X. , , ,
. , , .
, , . , , , .

: , .
: ,
.

2.
, , , . , f A B,
, , a A
f (a) B. b = f (a) a f , a b.
f, g : A B , f (a) = g(a)
a A. f = g.
f f (A):
f (A) = { b B | a A : b = f (a) } B.

2.

15

b f 1(b):
f 1(b) = { a A | b = f (a) } A.
f A B, f : A B. A B B A .
f : A B ( ),
f (A) = B, A
B:
b B a A : b = f (a).
( ),
B A:
a, a A : f (a) = f (a) a = a .
, f : A B ( ), ,
, b B -
a A, b B .
1. K ,
. . f : K S S, (1), . 5.
2. f : R R .

{ y, y}, y > 0,
f 1(y) = {0},
y = 0,

y < 0,
f (R) .

3. x
y,
y 2 = x.
(18)
, , -,
, -,
5 , .

16

2.

x > 0 y, (18). , , x - (, y > 0), - .


, , .
A . idA : A A, a A ,
a A : idA (a) = a,
. , ,
id.
A, B C ,
f : A B,

g: B C

, g f : A C,
(g f )(a) = g(f (a)),

a A.

f g.
3. f : A B, g : B C h : C D ,
h (g f ) = (h g) f

(19)

idB f = f,

f idA = f.

(20)

, , .
g : B A f : A B,

g f = idA ,
f g = idB .

, g f . g = f 1 f = g 1
.
4. f : A B
, .
. A B .

2.

17

1. ( ) A
B
A B = { (a, b) | a A, b B },

a A b B.
prA : A B A prB : A B B,
prA (a, b) = a,

prB (a, b) = b,

. .
4. N ,

N = {2, 3, . . . , 10, , , , },
S , N S . ,
(, ) , (3, ) ..

5. , ,
.
.
6. X = [x, x] Y = [y, y ] , X Y X Y .
7. R R .

5. A B . f : A
B B A,
f (a, b) = (b, a),

a A,

b B,

a A,

b B,

. C , g : (A B)
C A (B C),
g((a, b), c) = (a, (b, c)),

c C,

A . An = A
A}.
| {z
n

2. R An n- A. , a1 , . . . , an R,

An (a1 , . . . , an ) R.

18

2.


a1 R . . . Ran .

(21)

(21), R
.
8. n = 1, . , A. ,
,
.
9. n = 2, . ,
.

.
10. f : A A A .

Gf = { (a, f (a)) | a A } A A,

(22)

f .

11. n = 3, . ,
. ,
.
.
. A.
3. R A A , :
:

aRa,

(23)

:
:

aRb bRa,
aRb & bRc aRc

(24)
(25)

a, b, c A.

.
(23)(25) :
:
:
:

a a,
a b b a,
a b & b c a c.

2.

19

12. .
13. ,
O, , O, .
14. , ( ), - . .
A.
[a] = { b A | b a } A

a ( ).

6. , .
4. ,
,
A/ . a A , :
: A A/ ,

(a) = [a].

15. 12 ,
.
16. 13
OX, , , .
17. 14 , .
, (. ).
. A .
5. R AA ,
:
:
:

aRa,
aRb & bRc aRc,

(26)
(27)

20

2.
:

aRb & bRa a = b.

(28)

, .
a, b A : aRb bRa,

(29)

.
6. (26)(28) :
:
:
:

a 6 a,
a 6 b & b 6 c a 6 c,
a 6 b & b 6 a a = b,

(29)
a, b A : a 6 b b 6 a.

18. ( ,
) .
19. 2A, A - .
.
20 ( ). A -
(, ), . , ( ).
.
. 17
. ,
,
,
. A ( )
|A| ( #(A)).
21. T , .
A T A , A T .
.

3. ,

21

6. A B . , |A| 6 |B| (
A B), A B. , |A| < |B|, |A| 6 |B|
A B.
1. A . |A| < |2A |.

7. , . .
, .

3. ,
,
.

, .
, ,
. #() = 0
! 2: #(2) = 1, 2 . ,
.
, 2
, , n, n + 1 . . ,
1 < 2 < ... < n < n + 1 < ...,
N .
. ,
: , , .
. ,
: . ,

22

3. ,

( ) :
- 1 ,
n, , n + 1,
6.
,
. ,
:
:
1 + 1 = 2,
n + (m + 1) = (n + m) + 1,

:
1 1 = 1,
n (m + 1) = n m + n,

, :
n + m = m + n,

(n + m) + k = n + (m + k),
1 n = n,
n m = m m,

,
,
,

n (m k) = (n m) k,

n (m + k) = n m + n k,

,

.

, , 1 n = n. n = 1 . , n .
,
1 (n + 1) = 1 n + 1 1 = n + 1.
, n.
. 0 , , ,
, 7.
6 , . , -

, .
: - k
, n > k, , n + 1,
, k.
7 ;
.

3. ,

23

.
x + n = 0,

n N,

(30)

, . ,
, n, n ( ),
n + (1) = {, n},
n > 1,

n > m + 1,
n m 1,
n + ((m + 1)) = 0,
n = m + 1,

(m n + 1), n < m + 1.


(n) m = (nm),

(n) (m) = nm.

, , .
Z.
:
. . . (n + 1) < n < . . . < 1 < 0 < 1 < . . .
, , :
n m = n + (m),
(n) m = (n + m),

n (m) = n + m,
(n) (m) = m n.

. , VI . , ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
.
mx + n = 0,
m, n Z,
(31)
, , . (31) , ,
.

24

3. ,
Z Z
Q = { (m, n) | m, n Z, n 6= 0 } Z Z.

(m, n) Q P ,

(m, n)P (m , n) mn = nm .
(32)
7. P .
m
n (m, n)
m n. ,

m k
ml + kn
m k
mk
+ =
,
=
.
(33)
n
l
nl
n l
nl
, , ,
. ,
, , , (33), ,
. , ,
, , .
, (33) , , . .
8. (m, n) (m , n), (k, l) (k , l) ,
(32).
(ml + kn, nl),

(mk, nl),

(m l + k n , nl)
(m k , nl )

.
, , ,
.
. (m, n) ,
. (32), , , , 12 24 .
, , ,
( , , ).
Q
8. , ,
8 . . IV.

4.

25

, , .
Q: m
m1 .
, , .
.
9. Q .
, k
: m
n 6 l ,
(ml nk)nl 6 0.

(34)

, :
m, n Z, m 6 n , m1 6 n1 .
. ,
(, ,
, ). , , ,
. , , , .
, 4.

4.

.
.
- XIX . . , , , .
. ,
, , , . , .
. , a, c,
,
c2 = 2a2 .
(35)

26

4.

, c = ml, a = nl, l .
(35)
m2 = 2n2,

m, n N.

(36)

, m n (
). (36) , m 2, m = 2k, k N. , 2k 2 = n2 ,
, n 2.
, m n . , (36)
.
. , c a. , c = ax, (35)

x2 = 2.
(37)
12 < 2, 22 > 2, , ,
(1, 2). 32 ;
, 21 . ,
(1, 32 ), ( 23 )2 > 2. , 54 (1, 32 ) , 14 .
, ( 45 , 32 )
, .
, ,
(37), ,
.
.
. , , , . , .
8. (A, A), A, A Q,
( ) ,
:
1) A, A 6= ;
2) A A = Q;
3) A A = ;
4) p A, q A p < q.
A , A
.

4.

27

,
,
( )
, .
22.
A = { p Q | p2 > 2 & p > 0 }

A = { q Q | (q 6 0) (q 2 6 2 & q > 0) }.
(A,A) .
23.
A = { p Q | p < 0 },

A = { q Q | q > 0 }.

24.
A = { p Q | p 6 0 },

A = { q Q | q > 0 }

, 22, ,
. , 23 24
, 22
. , ,
2.
9. , ,
.
.
23 24 , , 22, .
. 9
. , , . , .
10. R,
, , , (
) .

28

4.

R ( ) . , ;
.
, (,
, ) .
- .
.
- .
.

2. R N.
.
1 , 0 . ,
= 20 . , R, , .
. A B
.
11. , 6 , A B.

10. 11 . ,
(34), Q .
, .
1. < ,
r, < r < .
2. ,
> 0 r r ,
r 6 6 r,

r 6 6 r,

r r 6 ,

= .
3. ,
n, n 6 < n + 1.

4.

29

n, 3, []. []
{}.
, ,
, 8 ,
. , :
3 ( R). (A, A) , A ,
A , ,
A = { R | 6 },

A = { R | > },

A = { R | < },

A = { R | > }.

. 3 , , , , . R 9,
, , .
, R.
12. X R .

1. , M R, x 6 M x X.
2. , m
R, x > M x X.
3. , X ,
sup X ( supremum
).
4. , X ,
inf X ( innum
).

, sup X = +,
, inf X = .
4. X R, (),
() .
9 continuum .

30

4.

. , , . ,

n

1
E=
1+
nN
n
,
.
,
.
. , , , , . .
11. .
> 0 d d ,
d d 6 d 6 6 d.

d , d , 2 .
11 ,
.
k- ck (
, k, ck = 0). , ,
K p, ck = ck+p, k > K.
12.
, .
.
13. . ,
a + b 6 6 a + b,
a, a , b, b ,
a 6 6 a ,
b 6 6 b .
+ .
13. , :

4.

31

1.
2.
3.
4.

+ = + .
+ ( + ) = ( + ) + .
+ 0 = 0 + = .
(, ), + () = () + = 0.
5. < , + < + R.

( ) ,

, > 0,
|| =
, < 0.

14. .
,
ab 6 6 a b,
a, a , b, b ,
0 < a 6 6 a ,
0 < b 6 6 b .
( ). = 0,
0 = 0 = 0.

:

|| ||,
,
=
(|| ||), .
14.
, :
1. = .
2. ( ) = ( ) .
3. 1 = 1 = .
4. ( + ) = + .
5. 6= 0 1 (,
), 1 = 1 = 1.
6. < > 0, < .

. n .

. . . , n > 0,

| {z }
n
n =
1,
n = 0 6= 0,

1
,
n < 0 6= 0.
n
n

= 0 n 6 0 .

32

4.

15 ( ). > 0 . n
> 0,
n = .

n-
n1
n

,

. < 0 n ,

n
n
= . r,
m
,
n
1

r = (m ) n
, .
15. > 1 .
,

b 6 6 b ,
b b ,
1 < b 6 6 b .
. 0 < < 1,
 
1
=
.

1 = 1.
16. > 0 , :
1. = + .
2. 1 = .
3. ( ) = .
4. = () .
17. > 0, 6= 1, >
> 0 , = .
, log
:
1. log log = log ( , log = log1 ).

2. log () = log + log .


3. log ( ) = log .

33


1. , , ? .
2. - ?
, .
3. - ?
4. ? .
5. ?
6. ?
7. , .
8. , ?
9. ? .
10. , ?
.
11. ? .
12. .
13. ,
. , .
14. ?
15. ,
. .
16. ? ?
17. ?
18. .
19. .
20. ?
21. ?
22. ?
23. .
24. ?
?
25. .

II

6.
1. V
( R),
, ( ):
1) : u + v = v + u u, v V ;
2) : u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w u, v
w V;
3) V 0 ( ),
, 0 + u = u + 0 = u u V ;
4) u V u
, u + (u) = (u) + u = 0;
5) : (u) = ()u , R
u V ;
6) : (u +v) = u +v
R u, v V ;
7) : 1 u = u u V .
.
1. R
. , ,
. 0 .
2.

Rn = { (1, . . . , n ) | 1 , . . . , n R }
(1, . . . , n ) + (1 , . . . , n) = (1 + 1 , . . . , n + n ),
(1 , . . . , n ) = (1 , . . . , n ),

R.

Rn , n- .
34

6.

35

2. V V V , :
1. u + v V u, v V ;
2. u V R u V ,
V
.
1.
.
3. V v V . { v | R } V .

3. A : V W
V W ( V W ), :
1) A(u + v) = A(u) + A(v) u, v V ;
2) A(u) = A(u) R u V .

4. R. A : V V ,
A (v) = v, v V , ,
.
4. A : V W .
ker A = { v V | A(v) = 0 } V

A.

im A = { w W | v V : w = A(v) } W

A.

2.
V W .
5. A : V W , ker A = 0, im A = W . A , V
W .
5. A (. 4).
(
(
0, 6= 0,
V, =
6 0,
ker A =
im A =
V, = 0,
0, = 0.
6. U , V W , A : U
V , B : V W . B A : U W ,

(B A)(u) = B(A(u)),

u U,

36

6.

( ) A B.
3.
.
7. A, B : V W . A + B : V W ,
(A + B)(v) = A(v) + B(v),

v V,

A B. ,
(A)(v) = A(v),

v V,

4. A B , , A + B A .
6. ,
A + A = A+ ,

A A = A .

5. ,
6 7, :
A + B = B + A,
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C,
0 + A = A + 0 = A,
A = (1) A,

(A) = ()A,
(A + B) = A + B,
1 A = A.
, :
A (B C) = (A B) C,
A (B + C) = A B + A C,

(A + B) C = A C + B C.

1. , V W ,
, Lin(V, W ).
8. A, B Lin(V, V ),
[A, B] = A B B A

A B.

7.

37

9. E = EV , V

E(v) = v, v V,
. A Lin(V, V ) ,
A1 Lin(V, V ),
A A1 = A1 A = E.

A1 A. ,
(A1)1 = A, .. A A1.
6. A : V W
EW A = A EV = A.
10. A : V V . R
,
v 6= 0,
A(v) = v.
(1)
v ,
.
7. , , V .
,
, V . , V0
A.

7.
11. V .
1. v1, . . . , vr V
v = 1 v1 + 2 v2 + . . . + r vr ,

1 , 2 , . . . , r R.

2. v1 , . . . , vr ,
1 , 2 , . . . , r , ,
1v1 + 2 v2 + . . . + r vr = 0.
.

38

7.
3. e1 , . . . , en () V , v V ,

v = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + . . . + n en
1. .
i .

1. e1 , . . . , en e1 , . . . , en V ,
n = n .
, ,
.
12.
V
dim V .
7.
1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0),
2 = (0, 1, . . . , 0),
. . .. . .. . ..
n = (0, 0, . . . , 1)
Rn . , n-.
8. V V , dim V 6 dim V
, V = V .
9. V W e1 , . . . , en V . w1 , . . . , wn W
A : V W ,
A(ei) = wi ,

i = 1, . . . , n.

2. dim V = n, dim W = m, dim Lin(V, W ) = mn.


13. v1, . . . , vr V .
r
X
L(v1, . . . , vr ) = { v =
i vi | i R },
i=1

v1, . . . , vr ,
.
1 , e + e + . . . + e = e + e + . . . + e
1 1
2 2
n n
n n
1 1
2 2

1 = 1 , . . . , n = n .

8.

39

10. .
14. v1, . . . , vr V
.
rank(v1, . . . , vr ).
, rank(v1, . . . , vr ) = dim L(v1 , . . . , vr ).

3. v1 , . . . , vr V , rank(v1, . . . , vr ) 6 dim V .

8.
V e1 , . . . , en .
v = 1 e1 +. . .+n en V (v) =
= (1 , . . . , n ) Rn n- .

11. (v) V Rn .
4. n n- .
V W n m
e1 , . . . , en V , f1, . . . , fn W . A : V W
, A(ei )

A(ei) = ai1 f1 + ai2 f2 + + ain fn ,

i = 1, . . . , n,

15.

a11 a12
a21 a22
M =
..
...
.
am1 am2

aij R,

j = 1, . . . , m. (2)

. . . a1n
. . . a2n
. . . ...
,
. . . amn

(3)

m n , ( m n)
A, e1 , . . . , en f1 , . . . , fn. m = n,
.
8. A

0 ...
0 . . .
. . .
.. .. . .
0 0 ...

0
0
,
..
.

40

8.

. = 1,
E. ,

1 0 . . . 0
0 2 . . . 0

. . .
.. .. . . ...
0 0 . . . n
.

12. V W
. , v = 1 e1 + . . . + n en ,


1
1
a11 a12 . . . a1n
a21 a22 . . . a2n 2 2
. = . ,
.
.. . . . ..
.. ..
..

.
.
n
m
am1 am2 . . . amn

n
X
i = ai1 1 + ai22 + . . . + ain n =
aij j , i = 1, . . . , m.
(4)
j=1

(1, . . . , m ) Rm , (4), M (1 , . . . , n) Rn .
13. A, B : V W M =
= (aij ), N = (bij ) ,
.

a11 + b11 a12 + b12 . . . a1n + b1n


a21 + b21 a22 + b22 . . . a2n + b2n
,
M +N =
..
..
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
am1 + bm1 am2 + bm2 . . . amn + bmn

a11
a21
M =
...
am1

M N , A

a12 . . . a1n
a22 . . . a2n
..
..
...
.
.
am2 . . . amn

M .

, , Mat(m, n). nm.

8.

41

(3)

a11 a21
a12 a22
M =
..
...
.
a1n a2n

. . . am1
. . . am2
. . . ...
.
. . . amn

(5)

M M m n. ,
Mat(m, n) Mat(n, m).
14.
: Mat(n, m) Mat(m, n)

, = id, ..

(M ) = M

M.
M M = M,
. ,

aij = aji
i, j = 1, . . . , n.
15. A : U V , B : V W , U , V W n, m k . , M = (ail )
N = (blj ), M N = (cij ) n k,
m
X
cij = ai1 b1j + ai2b2j + . . . + aim bmj =
ais bsj , i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , k.
s=1

M N ( ) M
N . M N , [M, N ] = M N N M
.

. A : V W M = (aij ) , e1 , . . . , en f1 , . . . , fm V W . e1 , . . . , en

f1 , . . . , fm
. A M = (aij ). ,
:
ei = bi1e1 + . . . + binen , i = 1, . . . , n,

fj = cj1 f1 + . . . + cjm fm
, j = 1, . . . , m.

42

8.

F = (bil ) G = (clj ) ( n n
m m).
F M = M G.
(6)
A M, ,
A1, M M 1 . , M M 1 = M 1 M = E.
, , .
.
. (6) M =
F 1 M G. , V ,
M = F 1 M F.

(7)

.
16. n - n .
n n . .
n


1 2 ... k ... n
=
, 1 6 ik 6 n, i 6= i ,
i1 i2 . . . ik . . . in
, (1) = i1 , (2) = i2, . . . , (n) = in .
. ( ) n n!.
. , n! ( ) 1 n: n! = 1 2
. . . (n 1) n.
9. :






1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
, 2 =
, 3 =
,
1 =
1 2 3
1 3 2 
2 3 1
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
4 =
, 5 =
, 6 =
.
2 1 3
3 2 1
3 1 2

(8)

, ,

8.
:

43


1 2 ... i ... j ... n
.
1 2 ... j ... i ... n
, (8) 2, 4 5.
16. .
, .
17. ( ) , . . ||.

, 9 1 , 3 6 , 2, 4 5 .

.
18. M = (aij ) , i, j = 1, . . . , n. ( )
X
M =
(1)||a1i1 a2i2 . . . aanin .
(9)
n

M ,
.
|aij |, M, |M|
det M.
17 ( ). M = M . :
1. , M M = (aji),



a11 a12 . . . a1n a11 a21 . . . an1



a21 a22 . . . a2n a12 a22 . . . an2
.
.. . . . .. = ..
.. . . . .. .
..
.
. .
.
.

an1 an2 . . . ann a1n a2n . . . ann

2. , ().
3. , -
() . , ,
( ) .
4. - () .

44

8.

5. - ()
, , ,




a11 + a11 a12 + a12 . . . a1n + a1n a11 a12 . . . a1n a11 a12 . . . a1n








a21
a
a
.
.
.
a
a
.
.
.
a
a
a
.
.
.
a
22
2n
2n 21
22
2n

= .21 .22 .
+
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

..
..
..
..
..
. . .. ..
..
. . ... .
..




an1
an2
...
ann an1 an2 . . . ann an1 an2 . . . ann

6. ,
.
7. ,


a11 a12 . . . a1n


0 a22 . . . a2n
.
.. . . . .. = a11 a22 . . . ann .
..
.
.

0 0 . . . ann

8. , M N = M N .

(7) .
5. A : V V M
- V . M
, A.
19. M aij .
, , , M i- j- . Mij . Aij = (1)i+j Mij aij .
2 ( ). M = (aij )
n n. i j
M = (1)i+1ai1Mi1 + (1)i+2ai2Mi2 + . . . + (1)i+nain Min

(10)

M = (1)j+1a1j M1j + (1)j+2a2j M2j + . . . + (1)j+nanj Mnj .

(11)

(10) i- ,
(11) j- .

9.

45

. 2
.
3. M = (aij ) , .

A11 A21 . . . An1

1
A.12 A.22 .. . . A.n2 ,
M 1 =
(12)
..
. . ..
M ..
A1n A2n . . . Ann
Aji aij .

9.
20. V W n m w W . m n
, x,
Ax = w.

(13)

v V (13), Av = w. w . ,
w = 0. , V = W A .
18. S Ax = 0
V . x = v0 Ax = w, x = v0 + v, v S,
.
V W A
M = (aij ), w b1 , . . . , bm , (13)

a11x1 + a12x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1,

a x + a x + . . . + a x = b ,
21 1
22 2
2n n
2
(14)

.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . . . + amn xn = bm .

. (13) ,

x = A1(w).

(15)

46

9.

x?
. (13) ( ) w ,
x = 0.
. (15),


x1
b1
x2

. = M 1 b.2 .
..
..
xn
bn

3,

x1 = 1 (M11b1 M21 b2 + . . . + (1)n+1Mn1xn ),

x2 = 1 (M12b1 + M22 b2 . . . + (1)n+2Mn2xn ),

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi = 1 ((1)i+1M1ib1 + (1)i+2M2i b2 + . . . + (1)i+nMni xn),

. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .

xn = 1 ((1)n+1M1n b1 + (1)n+2M2n b2 . . . + Mnn xn ),

xi =

n
X

(1)i+j Mji bj ,

j = 1, . . . , n,

(16)

(17)

j=1

Mji , aji .
.

a11 . . . a1,i1 b1

a21 . . . a2,i1 b2
i = .. . .
..
..
.
.
.
.
an1 . . . an,i1 b1

a1,i+1
a2,i+1
..
.
an,i+1


. . . a1n
. . . a2n
. . . ... ,

. . . ann

i = 1, . . . , n.

(18)

(16)
1
2
n
, x2 =
, . . . , xn =
.
(19)

(19) . ,
.
x1 =

9.

47

. M ,
a11 , . . . , an1 . ,
a11 6= 0 ( , ,
ani ). a11
i- , ai1 ,

x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

a22 x2 + a23 x3 + . . . + a2n xn = b2,

a32 x2 + a33 x3 + . . . + a3n xn = b3,

. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .

an2 x2 + an3 x3 + . . . + ann xn = bn .



a22 x2 + a23 x3 + . . . + a2n xn = b2,

a x + a x + . . . + a x = b ,
32 2
33 3
3n n
3

. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .


an2 x2 + an3 x3 + . . . + ann xn = bn

, ,
, ..

x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 + . . . + a1n xn = b1,

x2 + a23 x3 + . . . + a2n xn = b2,

(20)
x3 + . . . + a3n xn = b3 ,

. . .. . .. . .. . ..

xn = bn .

.
. (20) xn. xn
, xn1 .. x1, . . . , xn.

.
. N = (cij ) , i = 1, . . . , k, j = 1, . . . , l.
19.
c1 = (c11 , c12, . . . , c1l ),

48

9.
c2 = (c21 , c22, . . . , c2l ),
. .. . .. . .. . .. .
ck = (ck1, ck2 , . . . , ckl )


c1 = (c11 , c21, . . . , ck1 ),
c2 = (c12 , c22, . . . , ck2 ),
. .. . .. . .. . .. .
cl = (c1l , c2l , . . . , ckl ).
21. N , . rank N .
22.

a11x1 + a12x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

a x + a x + . . . + a x = b ,
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . ..

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . . . + amn xn = bm

(21)

a11 a12 . . . a1n b1

b2
= a.21 a.22 .. . . a2n
M
..
..
..
. . ...
.
am1 am2 . . . amn bm
.

4 ( ). (21)
, r M = (aij )
M.
nr . , ,
n = r.
. A : V V
M V . , M,
A?

9.

49

v 6= 0 , , x1, . . . , xn , aij M.
10 ,
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = x1 ,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = x2 ,
. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .
an1 x1 + an2 x2 + . . . + ann xn = xn ,

(a11 )x1 + a12x2 + . . . + a1n xn = 0,


a21 x1 + (a22 )x2 + . . . + a2n xn = 0,
. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .
an1 x1 + an2 x2 + . . . + (ann )xn = 0.

,
(M E)v = 0

(22)

|M E| = 0.

(23)

. . 46
, (22) :
, , (23), n , ..
|M E| = d0 + d1 + d2 2 + + dn n .

, , dn = (1)n, d0
M.
23. M () = |M E| ( ) M.
,
M , M (). ,
(22) v .
10.


a11 a12
M=
a21 a22

50

9.



a11

a
12
= (a11 )(a22 ) a12 a21 =
M () =
a21
a22

= 2 (a11 + a22 ) + a11a22 a12 a21.

, ,
2 (a11 + a22) + a11 a22 a12a21 = 0.

(24)

(a11 a22 )2 + 4a12a21 > 0.

(25)

(a11 a22 )2 + 4a12a21 , M ,


11. 33

M () = d0 d1 + d22 3 ,
d0 = M ( ),




a22 a23 a11 a13 a11 a12
,
+
+
d1 =
a32 a33 a31 a33 a21 a22

.. , ,
, ,
d2 = tr M = a11 + a22 + a33.
12. 10 2 2-, ..


a11 a12
.
a12 a22

(25)

(a11 a22 )2 + 4a212 > 0

, , . ,
,
a11 = a22 , a12 = 0,
.. M , ,
. 1 2 , v1,
v2 . 1
2 ,
1 v1 + 2 v2 = 0.
(26)
M,
1 2 v1 + 2 2 v2 = 0.

(27)

10.

51

(26) 1 (27),
(2 1 )2 v2 = 0.
, 2 ,
(1 2 )1 v1 = 0.
1 6= 2 , v1 v2 , , 1 =
= 2 = 0, .. v1 v2 . ,
.



1 0
.
0 2
, :

5. 2 2 , .
, .

10.
n- Rn A = (a1, . . . , an ), . AB , A B. A , B
. , AB A. OA,
O = (0, . . . , 0) , - A.
AB vAB = (b1
a1 , . . . , bn an ). A0, . . . , Ak ( -) , vA0 A1 , . . . , vA0 Ak 1, , 2.
v = (v1, . . . , vn) w = (w1, . . . , wn)

(v, w) = v1w1 + v2w2 + . . . + vnwn .

q
p
kvk = (v, v) = v12 + v22 + . . . + vn2

v.

(28)

(29)

52

10.
e1 , . . . , en Rn ,
(
1, i = j,
(ei , ej ) =
0, i 6= j.

, , 7, . ,
.
n = 2 (). R2
x () y (). A0(x0, y0)
A1(x1, y1) ,
p
kvA0 A1 k = (x1 x0 )2 + (y1 y0 )2
(30)
A0A1 . A2(x2, y2) , vA0 A1 vA0 A2
(vA0A1 , vA0A2 ) = (x1 x0)(x2 x0 ) + (y1 y0)(y2 y0 ).

(31)

:
cos =

(vA0 A1 , vA0 A2 )
=
kvA0 A1 k kvA0 A2 k
(x1 x0)(x2 x0) + (y1 y0 )(y2 y0)
p
=p
, (32)
(x1 x0)2 + (y1 y0 )2 (x2 x0)2 + (y2 y0 )2

A1A0 A2. SA0 A1 A2 A0A1 A2,


1
SA0 A1 A2 = |(x1 x0)(y2 y0 ) (x2 x0)(y1 y0 )|.
(33)
2
A1(x1, y1) A2 (x2, y2) A(x, y)
. A1A2
, A, A1 A2 .



x x1 y y1


x2 x1 y2 y1 = 0,

x x1
y y1
=
.
(34)
x2 x1
y2 y1
, (34) ,
A1(x1, y1) A2 (x2, y2).

10.

53

. x1 = x2, , A1 A2 , x = x1, y1 = y2, y = y1 . x1 = x2


y1 = y2 , A1 A2
.

ax + by + c = 0,

(35)

a b . v = (a, b)
, ,
(35) A1(x1, y1),
x x1
y y1
=
.
a
b

(36)

t R, (36)
x = at + x1 ,

y = bt + y1 ,

t R.

(37)

, t . v = (a, b) , (37).
n = 3 ( ).
x (), y
() z (). A0(x0, y0, z0 ) A1 (x1, y1, z1) ,

p
kvA0 A1 k = (x1 x0)2 + (y1 y0 )2 + (z1 z0 )2
(38)

A0A1. A2(x2, y2, z2 ) , vA0 A1 vA0 A2


(vA0A1 , vA0A2 ) = (x1 x0)(x2 x0) + (y1 y0)(y2 y0 ) + (z1 z0)(z2 z0 ). (39)
,
(vA0 A1 , vA0 A2 )
=
kvA0 A1 k kvA0 A2 k
(x1 x0)(x2 x0) + (y1 y0 )(y2 y0 ) + (z1 z0 )(z2 z0 )
p
=p
,
(x1 x0)2 + (y1 y0)2 + (z1 z0 )2 (x2 x0 )2 + (y2 y0 )2 + (z2 z0 )2
(40)
cos =

A1 A0A2 .

54

10.

i = (1, 0, 0), j = (0, 1, 0) k = (0, 0, 1) .




i

j
k


vA0 A1 vA0 A2 = x1 x0 y1 y0 z1 z0
(41)
x2 x0 y2 y0 z2 z0

2.
A0A1 A2. ,
s
2



x1 x0 z1 z0 2 x1 x0 y1 y0 2
1 y1 y0 z1 z0
+

SA0 A1 A2 =
+
x2 x0 y2 y0 .
x2 x0 z2 z0
2 y2 y0 z2 z0
(42)
A3(x3, y3, z3) .
(vA0A1 vA0 A2 , vA0 A2 )

(43)

vA0 A1 , vA0 A2 vA0 A3 . A0 A1A2A3 :


x
y

y
z

z
1
0
1
0
1
0

1
1
VA0 A1 A2 A3 = |(vA0 A1 vA0 A2 , vA0 A2 )| = det x2 x0 y2 y0 z2 z0 .
6
6
x3 x0 y3 y0 z3 z0
(44)
A(x, y, z) . A1A2 , A, A1 A2 .



x x1 y y1 z z1
rank
= 1.
(45)
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
,

x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
(46)
x2 x1
y2 y1
z2 z1
, A1 A2 (.
. 53).
A A1A2 A3 , A,
A1, A2 A3 .

x x1 y y1 z z1
x x1 y y1 z z1


rank x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 = 2 x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 = 0. (47)
x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1
x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1
2 (41) ,
y y z z
x x z z
x x y y

: y12 y00 z12 z00 i x12 x00 z12 z00 j + x12 x00
, , .

y2 y0

k.

11.

55

, , A1, A2 A3 ,




y2 y1 z2 z1
x2 x1 z2 z1




y3 y1 z3 z1 (x x1 ) x3 x1 z3 z1 (y y1)+


x2 x1 y2 y1
(z z1 ) = 0. (48)
+
x3 x1 y3 y1

x 1
y 1
z 1
=
=
,
(49)


ax + by + cz + d = 0,
(50)
v = (, , ) 6= 0 , n = (a, b, c) 6= 0
. , (x1, y1, z1 ) (49),
(x x1) + (y y1 ) + (z z1 ) = 0,

(51)

, (50)

y y1
z z1
x x1
=
=
.
(52)
a
b
c
, (52)
:
x = at + x1 ,

y = bt + y1 ,

z = ct + z1 ,

t .

t R,

11.
1. A =
v = (3, 1, 2, 1, 0).

12101
21310
22113

. w = Av w = (w1, w2, w3).


w1 =

5
X

a1ivi = 1 3 + 2 (1) + 1 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 =

5
X

a2ivi = 2 3 + 1 (1) + 3 2 + 1 1 + 0 0 =

i=1

w2 =

i=1

= 3 2 + 2 + 0 + 0 = 3,

(53)

56

11.

w3 =

5
X
i=1

= 6 1 + 6 + 1 + 0 = 12,
a3ivi = 2 3 + 2 (1) + 1 2 + 1 1 + 3 0 =
= 6 2 + 2 + 1 + 0 = 7.

: w = (3, 12, 7).


2. A =


121
B= 011 .

221
230
131

113

2 2 1
1 2 1
A B = 2 3 0 0 1 1 =
1 1 3
1 3 1

21+20+11 22+21+11 21+21+13


= 2 1 + 3 0 + 0 1 2 2 + 3 1 + 0 1 2 1 + 3 1 + 0 3 =
11+30+11 12+31+11 11+31+13


2+0+1 4+2+1 2+2+3
3 7

= 2+3+0 4+3+0 2+3+0 = 5 7


1+0+1 2+3+1 1+3+3
2 6

7
5 .
7

1 2 1
2 2 1
7 11 2
B A = 0 1 1 2 3 0 = 3 6 1 .
1 1 3
1 3 1
7 14 4

3 7 7
7 11 2
[A, B] = A B B A = 5 7 5 3 6 1 =
2 6 7
7 14 4

4 4 5
3 7 7 11 7 2
= 5 3 7 6 5 1 = 2 1 4 .
5 8 3
2 7 6 14 7 4
: A B =

377
575
267

, [A, B] =

 4 4 5 
2 1 4
5 8 3

3. A =

121
113
011

B=

1
2
1
2

2
0
0
2

3
1
0
1

1
1
1
1

11.
.

1 2

|A| = 1 1
0 1

57

:







1
1 3
2 1
2 1
1



3 = 1

1 1 + 0 1 3 =
1
1
1
= (1 1 3 1) (2 1 1 1) = 3.

:










1 2 3 1
1 2 3
1 2 1
1 3 1
2 3 1










2 0 1 1
= 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 1 + 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 =
|B| =









2 2 1
2 2 1
2 1 1
2 1 1
1 0 0 1
2 2 1 1





 


1 1
3 1
2 3
1 2



+2


= 2
2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 = 8.
1 1

: |A| = 3, |B| = 8.

4. , A =

121
113
011


.

. , , A,




1 3 1 1
1
3




1 1 0 1 0 1





2
1
1


2 1 1 1 1 2
1 1 1 .
M =
=
1 1 0 1 0 1
5 2 1


2 1 1 1 1 2




1 3 1 3 1 1


2 (1)1+1 1 (1)1+2 1 (1)1+3
2 1 1
= 1 (1)2+1 1 (1)2+2 1 (1)2+3 = 1 1 1
M
5 (1)3+1 2 (1)3+2 1 (1)3+3
5 2 1

, ,

2 1 5
= 1 1 2
M
1 1 1

58

11.

. A 3
( 3),

2
1
5

3
3
1 31
1
1
2

A =
M = 3
3
3 .
|A|
1
1
1
3 3
3
:

A A1

1
5

1 2 1
1 0 0
3
3
3

= 1 1 3 31 13 32 = 0 1 0
1
0 1 1
0 0 1
13 13
3

2
3
1
3

1
3

13
A1 A =
31 13

53
2
3
1
3

1 2 1
1 0 0

1 1 3 = 0 1 0 .
0 1 1
0 0 1

,
.
!
2
1
5
: A

3
1
3
31

31
1
3

3
2
3
1
3

5.

x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 8,
x1 + x2 + 3x3 = 12,

x + x = 5
2
3

.






1 2 8
1 8 1
8 2 1






1 = 12 1 3 = 3, 2 = 1 12 3 = 6, 3 = 1 1 12 = 9.
0 1 15
5 1 1
0 5 1

A 3. = 3
x1 =

1
= 1,

x2 =

2
= 2,

x3 =

3
= 3.

: x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 = 3.

11.

59

6.

x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + x4 = 18,

2x + x + x = 9,
1
3
4

x1 + x4 = 5,

2x1 + 2x2 + x3 + x4 = 13

. :

1 2 3 1 18
2 0 1 1 9


1 0 0 1 5 .

2 2 1 1 13

, , 2,
:

1 2 3 1 18
0 4 5 1 27

0 2 3 0 13 .

0 2 5 1 23
, 2,
:

1 2 3 1 18
1 2 3 1 18
0 0 1 1 1 0 2 3 0 13

0 2 3 0 13 0 0 1 1 1


0 0 2 1 10
0 0 2 1 10
( ).
, , 2:

1 2 3 1 18
0 2 3 0 13

(54)
0 0 1 1 1 .

0 0 0 3 12.

.
. (54) , 3x4 = 12,
.. x4 = 4. ,
x3 x4 = x3 4 = 1,

.. x3 = 3.
2x2 3x3 + 0 x4 = 2x2 9 = 13.

60

11.

, x2 = 2. ,
x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + x4 = x1 + 4 + 9 + 4 = 18,
.. x1 = 1.
: x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 = 3, x4 = 4.
7. A =




121
113
011


.

. A




1
2
1


1
3 =
A () = 1
0
1
1
= (1 )[(1 )(1 ) 1 3] 1 [2(1 ) 1 1] = 3 3 + 32 3 .

: A () = 3 3 + 3 .

8. 4
A = ( 10
4 7 ) A .
.



10
2
= 2 17 + 64.
A () =
2
7

,
A () = 2 17 + 64 = 0.

172 4 64 17 5
=
, 1 = 11, 2 = 6.
2
2
v1 = (x1, y1) v2 = (x2, y2 ), ,
(
(
10x1 + 2y1 = 11x1,
10x2 + 2y2 = 6x2,
2x1 + 7y1 = 11y1,
2x2 + 7y2 = 6y2 .
1,2 =

17

, x1 = 2y1 , y2 = 2x2. ,
v1 = (2, 1) v2 = (1, 2).
Av1 = 11v1, Av2 = 6v2, (v1, v2) A
0
( 11

0 6).
0
: 1 = 11, 2 = 6, v1 = (2, 1), v2 = (1, 2), ( 11
0 6 ).

11.

61


A0(1, 3, 1), A1 (2, 5, 2), A2 (3, 5, 7), A3(1, 5, 3)

(55)

R3 .
9. , (55)
A0, A1, A2, A3.
. A0A1 , A0 A2, A0A3 v1 = (2, 5, 2) (1, 3, 1) = (1, 3, 1), v2 = (3, 5, 7) (1, 3, 1) =
= (2, 2, 6), v3 = (1, 5, 3) (1, 3, 1) = (0, 2, 2). ,
.


1 3 1


= 2 2 6 = 12 6= 0.
0 2 2
, .
V 61 |(v1 v2 , v3)|, .. V = 16 ||.
, V = 2 ( ).

: , V = 2.
10. l A0A1 .
. v1 9.
p

2
2
2
|v1| = 1 + 3 + 1 = 11.

, ,

x = 1 + t,
y = 3 + 3t,

z = 1 + t.

t,
x1 y1 y3
=
=
.
1
1
3
: l =


11 ( ),

x1
1

y1
1

y3
3 .

11. S A0A1A2 .

62

. v1 v2,
A0 A1 A2 .






i j k 


2 6
2 6 2 2
,


v1 v2 = 2 2 6 =

0 2 , 0 2 = (8, 4, 4).
2
2
0 2 2

1
1p
2
2
2
S = |v1 v2| =
(8) + (4) + 4 = 4 6.
2
2
(v, v1 v2) = 0, v = (x 1, y
3, z 1), ..
2x + y z = 4.

: S = 4 6 ( ), 2x + y z = 4.

12. A0 A1 A0 A3.

. (v1, v3) = |v1| |v3| cos ,


r
10+32+12
(v1, v3)
8

=
=
0, 85.
cos =
|v1| |v3|
11
12 + 32 + 12 02 + 22 + 22
= arccos 0, 85 35.
: 35.

13. h , A3 A0 A1A2 .
. V = 31 SA0 A1 A2 h, 9 11

3V
32
6
h=
= =
.
S
4
4 6
: h =

6
4


( ).


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
?
.
?
?

63

6.
?
7. ?
8. .
9. ?
10. .
11. ?
12. .
13. ?
14. ?
15. ?
16. ?
17. .
18. ?
19. .
20. ?
21. .
22. , .
23. .
24. ?
25. ?
26. ?
27. ?
28. ?
29. ?
30. ?
31. ?
32. ?
33. ?
34. ?
35. , .
36. , .
37. , ,
.

III

( )
, , . , x
y,
y 2 x = 0,
,

(
y = x y = x). , , ,
.

13.
.
.
1. d F , . , d F ,
. d ,
F . , , .
.
p
, 2p .
1. ,
y 2 = 2px,

p > 0,

(1)

F = ( p2 , 0). , x = 2p ,
y = 0.
(1) . . 1.
64

13.

65

d (x = p2 )
F ( p2 , 0)

. 1: , (d) (F )
. , , , 1, ,
.
2. F1 F2 . ,
F1 F2 2a, a > 0, . F1 F2
. , ,
, , , .
2c ,
c
1
2
, a b = a c2 .
2. ,
x2 y 2
+
= 1,
a > b > 0,
(2)
a2 b2

. a b, c =

2
= a b2 . a 6= b, ,
a = b ,
.
(2) . . 2.

. ,
a (. 2). , a = c, ,
2, a < c, .
1
.
2 , .

66

13.
b

F (c, 0)

F+ (c, 0)
a

. 2:
3. F1 F2 . ,
F1 F2 2a, a > 0,
. F1 F2 . , , , , ( ), , .

.
2c ,
c , a b = c2 a2
.
,
, tg = ab , 3 .
3. ,
x2 y 2

= 1,
a > 0, b > 0,
(3)
a2 b2
. , .
a,

2
b. (c, 0), c = a + b2,
(a, 0). y = ab x.
(3) .
. 3.
3
.

13.

F (c, 0)

67

F+ (c, 0)

. 3: ,
. a , , , . b ,
x = a.
, (, )
.
4. ,
a11x2 + 2a12xy + a22 y 2 + 2b1x + 2b2y + c = 0,

(4)

aij , bi c aij
, .
, 13 .
. ,
(4), ,
.
5.
A=

a11 a12
a12 a22

(5)

, (4).

a11 a12 b1
B = a12 a22 b2
(6)
b1 b2 c
.

68

13.
A E, R,


a11

a
12
|A E| =
= 2 (a11 + a22 ) + a11a22 a212 .
a12
a22

(7)

, 4 .
6. P () = 2 (a11 + a22 ) + a11 a22 a212 , (4).
tr A = a11 + a22, A , B ,
(8)
A B A B ,
. , tr A
A.

.



a11 b1 a22 b2
,
+
(9)
KA =
b1 c b2 c

( ), A , tr A, B KA .

1. P () = 2 (a11 + a22) + a11 a22 a212 . :


1) ;
2) .
,
D = (a11 + a22 )2 4(a11a22 a212 ) = (a11 a22 )2 + 4a212 > 0.

, 1
2 .
,
A = a11 a22 a212 = 1 2 = 0

tr A = a11 + a22 = 1 + 2 = 0,
, aij . 4
.
4, A

(. 23 . 49).

13.

69

1. , (4). :
1. A > 0,
) tr A B < 0 ( ,
1 = 2 );
) tr A B > 0 ( );
) B = 0 ( ).
2. A < 0,
) B 6= 0 ;
) B = 0 .
3. A = 0,
) B 6= 0 ;
) B = 0 KA < 0
;
) B = 0 KA > 0
( );
) B = 0 KA = 0
.
, . e f 1, x y
O. O1
v1 w1 ,
. O1 v1
w1 .
,
(4). x1, y1 .

(
x = 11 x1 + 12 y1 + 1,
y = 21 x1 + 22 y1 + 2,

a111 x21 + 2a112x1y1 + a122 y12 + 2b11x1 + 2b12y1 + c1 = 0.

70

13.

A =

a111 a112
,
a112 a122

a11 a112 b11


B 1 = a112 a122 b12
b11 b12 c1


.
2.
A = A1 ,

tr A = tr A1,

B = B 1 .

A = 0,
KA = KA1 .
,
.
, w1
v1 (4). , (. 12 8)

O1
. 6= , v w , = , f
w
A. v
, ,
e
.
O
v w .
. 4:
A



0
,
0
, ,
x2 + y 2 + 2b1x + 2b2y + c = 0.
,


2

2
b1
b2
b2 b2
x+
+ y+
= 1 + 2 c.

14.

71


x1 = x +

b1
,

y1 = y +

b2

v w O1 ( b1 , b2 ) (. . 4).

x21 + y12 = d,
d =

b21

b22

c. d 6= 0,
a2 =

|d|
,
||

b2 =

|d|
,
||

, ,
(, ) . .
.

14.
(4)
. ,
.
14.1.
, (2) t ,
x = a cos t,

y = b sin t.

(10)

, t R (x, y), (10), . t


, (10)
. , , , . ,
(10) , (2). , , ,
x = a cos 2t,

y = b sin 2t.

(11)

72

14.

, , , (10), ..
x2 y 2
+
= 1.
a2 b2
(10)
2, , .. , (11)
.
:
y = t,

t2
x= .
2p

(12)


.
.
ex ex
sh x =
2
.

(13)

ex + ex
ch x =
(14)
2
.

ch2 x sh2 x = 1,

(15)

cos2 x + sin2 x = 1

x = a ch t,

y = b sh t,

t R.

(16)

, ,
. .
,
21.
,
sh x ex ex
th x =
=
,
ch x ex + ex

(17)

14.

73


ch x ex + ex
cth x =
=
.
sh x ex ex

p
Arsh x = ln(x + x2 + 1),
p
Arch x = ln(x + x2 1),
1 1+x
Arth x = ln
,
2 1x
1 x+1
,
Arcth x = ln
2 x1

(18)

5
x R, ,

(19)

1 6 x, ,

(20)

|x| < 1, ,

(21)

|x| > 1, . (22)

, :
th x cth x = 1,
sh(x y) = sh x ch y ch x sh y,

ch(x y) = ch x ch y sh x sh y,
th x th y
th(x y) =
,
1 th x th y
1 cth x cth y
cth(x y) =
,
cth x cth y
xy xy
ch
,
sh x sh y = 2 sh
2
2
x+y xy
ch x + ch y = 2 ch
ch
,
2
2
x+y xy
ch x ch y = 2 sh
sh
,
2
2

(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)


(ch x sh x)n = ch nx sh nx.

(31)

. , . . , a2 b2 = (a b)(a b).
5 -.

74

14.

14.2.
,
, ..
. .
, ,
( ) .
, A (x, y).
p
r = x2 + y 2
(32)

arctg xy ,

arctg x + ,
= arctg xy ,

2,

,
2

x > 0,
x < 0, y
x < 0, y
x = 0, y
x = 0, y

> 0,
< 0,
> 0,
< 0,

(33)

. . ,
. , ,

x = r cos ,
y = r sin .
(34)
. ,
A(x0, y0).
(34)
x = x0 + r cos ,

y = y0 + r sin .

(35)

4. ,
.
. (1) , ..
p
x = + r cos ,
y = r sin .
2

y 2 = 2px,

14.

75

sin2 r2 2p cos r p2 .
r. , ,
r=

p
.
1 cos

(36)

.
.
, , ..
x = c + r cos ,

y = r sin ,

c = a2 b2 .
(2)
x2 y 2
+
= 1,
a2 b2

a > b > 0,

r=
p =

b2
a,

e=

c
a

p
,
1 e cos

(37)

< 1.

. :
,
p
r=
,
(38)
1 e cos
p =

b2
a,

e=

c
a

> 1.

, :
3. (.. , )
r=

p
,
1 e cos

e > 0,

e < 1 , e = 1 e > 1 .

(39)

76

15.

15.
. , ,
. ,
.
:
. ,
, , .
(
, )
: , (,
)
, .
:
,
(. . 5). ,
. 5: ,
,
, , . ,
, .
, , ,
, , . .
7.
a11 x2 + 2a12xy + a22 y 2 + 2b1x + 1b2y + c = 0
(x0, y0) . ,
x = v1 t + x0 ,

y = v2t + y0 ,

15.

77

,
a11 (v1t + x0)2 + 2a12(v1t + x0)(v2t + y0) + a22 (v2t + y0 )2+
+ 2b1(v1t + x0) + 1b2(v2t + y0 ) + c = 0, (40)
t,
.
, .
, (40),
(a11v12 + 2a12v1v2 + a22v22 )t2+
+ 2(a11v1x0 + a12 (v1y0 + v2x0) + a22v2 y0 + b1 v1 + b2 v2)t+
+ a11 x20 + 2a12x0y0 + a22 y02 + 2b1x0 + 2b2y0 + c =
= (a11v12 + 2a12 v1v2 + a22 v22 )t2 + 2((a11x0 + a12 y0)v1 + (a12x0 + a22 y0 )v2)t = 0,
(x0, y0) , , . t = 0, , , 2,
(a11x0 + a12 y0 + b1)v1 + (a12x0 + a22y0 + b2 )v2 = 0.

v1 = a12 x0 + a22 y0 + b2 ,
,

v2 = (a11x0 + a12 y0 + b1).

x = (a12x0 + a22 y0 + b2)t + x0,


y = (a11 x0 + a12 y0 + b1 )t + y0

(41)

(x x0)(a11x0 + a12y0 + b1 ) + (y y0 )(a12x0 + a22 y0 + b2) = 0,

(42)

(a11x0 + a12 y0 + b1)x + (a12x0 + a22y0 + b2 )y + b1x0 + b2y0 + c = 0.

(43)

.
(41) t, :
, , (x0, y0) ,

, ,
y = 2px, , (x0, y0), y02 = 2px0, x = y0 t + x0, y = pt + y0 .
y = c, .
c2
( 2p
, c). ,
2

78

15.

( p2 , 0) . , ( (32) 10), ,
,
. , ,
, , .
, ,
(. . 6).

. , (x0, y0),

x0x y0 y
+ 2 = 1,
a2
b

x2 y 2
+
= 1.
a2 b2


. ,
(32) , . 6: , . ,

, , , (. . 7).
,
x2 y 2
2 = 1.
a2
b

F+

. 7:

16.

79


xx0 yy0
2 = 1.
a2
b
(x0, y0) .
. , , ,

. , ,
(. . 8).

F+

. 8:

16.
1.
2x2 + 4xy y 2 + 2x + 6y + 7 = 0.

(44)

,
A(1, 1).

. , A (44). , :
x = at + 1,

y = bt 1.

x y (44),
2(at + 1)2 + 4(at + 1)(bt 1) (bt 1)2 + 2(at + 1) + 6(bt 1) + 7 =

= 2(a2t2 + 2at + 1) + 4(abt2 + (b a)t 1) (b2t2 2bt + 1)+

80

16.
+2(at + 1) + 6(bt 1) + 7 = (2a2 + 4ab b2)t2 + (2a + 12b)t = 0.

, t = 0 2
, .. 2a + 12b = 0. ,
x = 6t + 1,

y = t1

,
x = t + 1,

y = 6t 1

.

: x = 6t + 1, y = t 1 , x = t + 1,
y = 6t 1 .
2. , (44).
.



2 2 1
2 2
A=
,
B = 2 1 3 .
2 1
1 3 7
A = 6 < 0 B = 47 6= 0, .
: , (44), .

3.
, (44).
.


2

2
= 2 6 = 0.
|A E| =
2
1

1 = 3 2 = 2
A. e1 = (v1, w1) e2 = (v2, w2),
 

 
 
 

v
v1
2 2
v2
2 2
v1
= 2 2 ,
,
=3
w2
2 1
w2
w1
w1
2 1
, e1 = (2, 1)
e2 = (1, 2).
 25 5 
 5 25 
f1 =
,
,
f2 =
,
.
(45)
5
5
5
5

16.

81

, (x, y) (x1, y1)

2 5
5
5
2 5
x1 +
y1 ,
y=
x1
y1.
x=
5
5
5
5
(44),

3x21 2y12 + 2 5 x1 2 5 y1 + 7 = 0.
, :




5
5
5
5 5 5
2
2
3 x1 + 2
x1 +
2 y1 + 2
y1 +
+ + 7 = 0,
3
9
2
4
3 2





5 2
5 2 26
2 y1 +
+
= 0.
3 x1 +
3
2
3

5
5
x2 = y1 +
,
y2 = x1 +
,
2
3

x22
y22
q 2 q 2 = 1.
13
3

26
9


(44) (45),

( 25 , 35 ).
2
2
: x132 2 y262 2 = 1,
f1 =


2 5
( 5 , 55 ),

f2 =

5
2 5
( 5 , 5 ),

5
( 2 , 35 ).

4. , ,
2x2 xy + 3y 2 + 4y + 2 = 0,
.
. :

0
2
2

2

2
2




A =
= 6 , B = 2 3 2 = 4 ,
2 3
4
2
0
2 2


A > 0,

tr A B < 0,

tr A = 2 + 3 = 6.

82

:

2
2 
6
> 0,
6 4
< 0,
4
2

.. || < 2 6, || >2 2.

: (2 6, 2 2) (2 2, 2 6).

5. ,
x2 + 4xy + 4y 2 + 2x + 4y + 3 = 0.

. A = | 12 24 | = 0,
B KA .



1 2








1

4
2
= 11 2.
+
B = 2 4 2 = 4( 1)2,
KA =


2 3
3
2 3

, 6= 1 . = 1 B = 0 KA = 10 > 0, ..
.

: 6= 1 = 1.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

. ?
. ?
. ?
?
?
.
?
?
.
.
?

83

12. .
13. ?
14. ,
.
15. .
16. .
17. , .
18. ,
.
19. , .
20. .

IV
,
(, , ,
, )
.

18.
1. G, , 1, , :
1) f (g h) = (f g) h
();
2) e G, e g = g e = g g G
( )2;
3) g G g 1
G, g g 1 = g 1 g = e ( ).
( 3), f g = g f
f, g G.
H G G, f, g H , f g H.
, H , .
1. , ,
, , .
. , ,
.
2. , ,
,
1 : -

, , .
2 , , ,
, , .
3 . . .

84

18.

85

. , .
3. Z
, ( ).
, .
2. : G H G H , (f g) = (f ) (g) f, g G. , , , .
, , . , , ,
.
4. n 2n. , .
5. R , R+
.
exp : R R+ ,

x 7 ex

.
ln : R+ R,

x 7 ln x.

6 ( ). N2 = {1, 2} , . N2 N2 , :
(
(
1 1,
1 2,
12 :
21 :
22
2 1.
, , 2
.

12 21
12 12 21
21 21 12

86

18.

, 2 ,
1
12, 21
= 21.
N3 = {1, 2, 3}
. :

1,
1

1,

1 2,
123 : 2 2, 132 : 2 3, 213 : 2 1,

3 3,
3 2,
3 3,

1 2,
1 3,
1 3,
231 : 2 3, 312 : 2 1, 321 : 2 2,

3 1,
3 2,
3 1.
,
:
123 132 213 231 312 321
123 123 132 213 231 312 321
132 132 123 231 213 321 312
213 213 312 123 321 132 231
231 231 321 132 312 123 213
312 312 213 321 123 231 132
321 321 231 312 132 213 123
, 3. .
, Nk = {1, 2, . . . , k} , k ,
k; k! . k
, (k) = k, , k1.
7. GL(n) (.. ) n n , ( ,
GL(n) , ). : GL(n) R \ {0}, ,
.

. , 1, GL(n), SL(n).

18.

87

8. GL(2) A12 = ( 10 01 ) A21 = ( 01 10 ).


, 2. ,
GL(3)

1 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
A123 = 0 1 0 , A132 = 0 0 1 , A213 = 1 0 0 ,
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 1

0 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
A231 = 1 0 0 , A312 = 0 0 1 , A321 = 0 1 0 .
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 0 0

, 3.
, GL(n) ,
,
, ( n!) , n . ,
( n!2 ), ,
+
+
n . , 3 A123, A231 A312 (, , 123, 231
312).
.
9. SO(2) . ,
, . 0 .
, SO(2) .

sin
A = cos
sin cos . , A A = A+ . ,
, .. SO(2) GL(2). .
,
.
3. R, +
, , :
1) a b R a + b = b + a
( );
2) c R, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ( );

88

18.

3) 0 R, 0+a = a+0 = a a R
( );
4) a R a R, (a) + a =
= a + (a) = 0 ( );
5) a, b c R a(b+c) = ab+
+ ac, (a + b)c = ac + bc (
).
. 3 , () .
4. R , 1 R ( ), 1 a = a 1 a R.
5. R , a(bc) =
= (ab)c a, b c R (
).
6. R , ab = ba
a b R (
).
7. R
, a R ,
a1, a1a = aa1 = 1.
. R R \ {0} .
.
10. Z
. , .
11. 2Z Z, , 2k, k Z, , .
12. ,
.
13. N Z
, , ,
.
14. Mat(n, n) n n . .

18.

89

15. ,
. ,
, .
16. V n, Lin(V, V ) ,
. . 15
, .
17. Q R

.
18. C(R), ,
, , :
(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x), (f g)(x) = f (x)g(x),

f, g C (R), x R.

(1)

8. a b R ,

1) , a 6= 0, b 6= 0;
2) , ab = 0.
19. f (x) = |x| + x, g(x) = |x| x
.
20. ( 10 00 ) ( 00 01 ) Mat(2, 2).
9. R R . f : R R ,
f (a + b) = f (a) + f (b),

f (ab) = f (a)f (b)

a, b R.

10. f : R R .
ker f = { a R | f (a) = 0 }

f .

im f = { a R | a = f (a), a R }

f .

11. f : R R . :

90

19.
1) f , ker f = 0;
2) f , im f = R ;
3) f , f ,
.

21. r R r E, E nn.
R Mat(n, n).
22. x0 R f C(R) x0. C(R) R.
, x0 .
23. n- V e1 , . . . , en V . A : V V .
Lin(V, V ) Mat(n, n). ,
!
1. f : R R . :

1) a , b im f , a + b im f a b im f ;
2) a, b ker f , a + b ker f , ac ker f ca ker f
c R.

12. S R ,
, . 1 1.
, , . 2 .
24.
, , ,
4.
25. 2Z Z
.
26. (x0) C(R), , x0 R, .

19.
.
4 (a ) , a = 0 i > j.
ij
ij

19.

91

2. m n n 6= 0.
q r,
m = qn + r,

0 6 r < |n|.

(2)

q () m n, r .
(2) r = 0, , m n ( n).
n m.
.
13. p > 1 , .
27 ( 10 ). 10 : 2,
3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29.
1 ( ). .
2 ( ). n > 1 . ,
p1 < p2 < < pk ,
n = pi11 pi22 . . . pikk ,

0 < i1 , . . . , ik N.

(3)

. pq, p q , RSA- (. 28), . p q, . ,


.
3 ( ). p a , p. ap1 1 p.

. ,
, 2 5.
28 (RSA-). RSA ( Rivest+Shamir+Adleman)
.
.
p q n = pq (n) = (p 1)(q 1). e,
(n), d,
ed (n) 1.

92

19.

(n, e)
, d .
A t ( ) B, B (n, e)
s = te n,
B, , t
t = sd n.
p q, (.. d).
14. m n .
1. () m n 5 ,
.
2. m n , .
3. () m n
,
.
3.
.
. m n, :
1) (3) m n.
2) m n m = pi11 pi22 . . . pikk , n = pj11 pj22 . . . pjkk .
- p m n, ;
3) l = min(i , j ). = pl11 pl22 . . . plkk ;
4) s = max(i , j ). = ps11 ps22 . . . pskk .
29. m = 72, n = 75. 72 = 23 32, 75 = 3 52. ,
72 = 23 32 50, 75 = 20 31 52. l1 = min(3, 0) = 0, l2 = min(2, 1) = 1,
l3 = min(0, 2) = 0, s1 = max(3, 0) = 3, s2 = max(2, 1) = 2, l3 = max(0, 2) = 2.
,
(72, 75) = 20 31 50 = 3,

(72, 75) = 23 32 52 = 1800.

5 , m, n.

19.

93

.
( (2)).
4 ( ). m0 m1 , m0 > m1 m1 m0 .
q0 , q1, . . . , qk1, qk m2 , m3 , . . . , mk , m0 > m1 > > mk ,
qk > 1

m0 = m1 q0 + m2 ,

m1 = m2 q1 + m3 ,
.. . .. . .. . .

mk2 = mk1qk1 + mk ,

m
k1 = mk qk .
mk m0 m1 .
30. 29
(
75 = 72 1 + 3,
72 = 3 24.
: m0 = 165, m1 = 35.

165 = 35 4 + 25,

35 = 25 1 + 10,

25 = 10 2 + 5,

10 = 5 2.

. n 6=
6= 1 m. , (2), m
m = q1 n + r0. q1 > n, q1 = q2n + r1 ,
, m = q2n2 + r1n + r0. ,

m = qk nk + qk1nk1 + . . . + q1 n + q0,
(4)
qi 0 6 qi < n. (4)
m n- , qi n .
m = (qk qk1 . . . q1 q0)n .
, 0 1

m = qk 2k + qk1 2k1 + . . . + q1 2 + q0 ,

m = (qk qk1 . . . q1 q0)2.

q0, q1, . . . , qk = 0, 1,

94

19.
31. ,
1 = 12, 2 = 102, 3 = 112, 4 = 1002, 5 = 1012, 6 = 1102, . . .

1 = 13, 2 = 23, 3 = 103, 4 = 113, 5 = 123, 6 = 2002, . . .


.
,
, , ,
, .
.
32. 0,125 .
0,125
2
0 ,250
2
0 ,500
2
1 ,000
, (0,125)10 = (0,001)2.
33. 0,3 .
0,3
2
0 ,6
2
1 ,2
2
0 ,4
2
0 ,8
2
1 ,6
2
1 ,2
...

19.

95

, (0,3)10 = (0,0100110011001...)2.
1001.
34. 0,2 .
0,2
3
0 ,6
3
1 ,8
3
2 ,4
3
1 ,2
3
0 ,6
3
1 ,8
...
, (0,3)10 = (0,012101210121...)3.
0121.
, .
.
35 ( ). ,
, :
, , ( ,
, ). , ( , ,
).
, , ,
,
( !) . , , ,
.
( ), .
. , , 3, 7, 12 17 . -

96

20.

:
310 = 112, 710 = 1112, 1210 = 11002, 1710 = 100012.
( )
11
111
1100
10001
11223
2:
11223 7 11001.

, , , .
, , , .
, .
36 ( ). . 27
( , , , ..). ,
,
( ) , .
( , ).
,
: 0, , 1,
2, . .
, .
, .
.

20.
k 6= 1
Zk = { 0, 1, . . . , k 1 }

(5)

20.

97

k. Zk
a + b = a b k

(6)

ab = a b k.

(7)

5. (6) (7) Zk . , k .
15. Zk , (6)
(7) k. k
, .
37. () Zk
. , Z2
+ 0 1
0 1
0 0 1 ,
0 0 0 ,
1 1 0
1 0 1
Z3
+ 0 1 2
0 1 2
0 0 1 2
0 0 0 0
,
,
1 1 2 0
1 0 1 2
2 2 0 1
2 0 2 1
Z6 :
+ 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 2 3 4 5 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5
2 2 3 4 5 0 1 ,
2 0 2 4 0 2 4 .
3 3 4 5 0 1 2
3 0 3 0 3 0 3
4 4 5 0 1 2 3
4 0 4 2 0 4 2
5 5 0 1 2 1 4
5 0 5 4 3 2 1

. S R
R. a R [a] R
a R, a a S. ,
, 6. R/S
6 , a a a a S -

98

21.


[a] + [b] = [a + b],

[a] [b] = [a b],

a, b R.

(8)

4. (8) R/S
, S R/S, a S
[a] S, .
S.
16. R/S R
S.
38. R = Z S = k Z = { kn | n Z }. S =
= k Z , Z/S
Zk .

21.


,
.

( ) .
.






x y
1 0
0 1
M(x, y) =
= xE +y I, E =
, I=
, x, y R.
y x
0 1
1 0


 
 

x y
x y
x + x y y
+
=
,
y x
y x
y + y x + x

 
 

x y
x y
xx yy xy xy

=
,
y x
y x
xy + x y xx yy

M(x, y) + M(x , y ) = M(x + x , y + y ),
M(x, y) M(x , y ) = M(xx yy , xy + x y).

, I 2 = I I = E.


x y
2
2


y x = x + y

21.

99

  x


y 
x y
1
0
2
2
2
2
+y
x +y
x y
=
,
x
y x
0
1
2
2
2
2
x +y
x +y


y
x
M(x, y) M x2 +y
= E.
2 , x2 +y 2

x2 + y 2 6= 0,

, I R2 . v = (x, y) R2 . I v = (y, x) 7
kI vk = k
v k,

(
v, I v) = 0.

, I v v . I 90 .
. M(x, y) (x, y) R2
z = x + iy.
:
z + z = (x + x) + i(y + y ),

zz = (xx yy ) + i(xy + x y).

:
z + z = z + z,
z + 0 = z,

z + (z + z ) = (z + z ) + z ,
z + (z) = 0,

0 = 0 + i 0,

z = x + i(y),

zz = z z,

z(z z ) = (zz )z ,

z 1 = z,

zz 1 = 1,

x
y

i
, z 6= 0.
x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2

z = x+iy, , ,
. , C
. z z , z 6= 0,
zz = zz 1 .
1 = 1 + i 0,

z 1 =

7, kvk v, (v, w) v

w (. 10).

100

21.

Im z

z z
O

z
z + z

Re z
O

Im z

. 1: ,

z = x + iy, x
z Re z; y
z Im z. Im z =
= 0, z = x, . , Re z = 0,
. i = 0 + i 1
. i2 = 1.
z = x + iy z = x iy - . z 7 z :
z + z = z + z ,

zz = zz ,

z = z,

z + z = 2 Re z,

z z = 2i Im z.

, z =
= z, , z =
z.
. z 7 z .

. z z
z=
2
2
x + y .
p
= |z| = x2 + y 2
z. ,
Im z
Re z
sin =
, cos =
,

21.

101

z. 2 Arg z. ,
(, ], arg z.
:
z
y

arctg
,

x
>
0,

arctg x + , x < 0, y > 0,


arg z = arctg xy , x < 0, y < 0,

,
x = 0, y > 0,

,
x = 0, y < 0.
2
O

z = 0 .
,
. 2: z = (cos + i sin ).
.
:
zz = (cos( + ) + i sin( + ))

=
(sin( ) + i cos( )),


z n = n (sin(n) + i cos(n)), n N.
.
cos + i sin ei , exp(i).
,
z = ei exp(i).

(9)

, .

ei ei = ei(+ ) ,

ei
i( )
=
e

ei

( 6= 0).

. (. 14) , :
sh ix = i sin x,

ch ix = cos x,

102

21.
th ix = i tg x,

cth ix = i ctg x.

, :
sh(x + 2i) = sh x,
th(x + i) = th x,

ch(x + 2i) = ch x,
ctg(x + i) = cth x.

. 1799
:
6 ( ).
an z n + an1 z n1 + . . . + a1 z + a0 = 0,

an 6= 0,

(10)

a0 , . . . , an , n ,
.
, (, ), ..
.
z n = x + iy.
n- , . ,
n



+
2k

+
2k
zk = n cos
, k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,
+ i sin
n
n

n . , (, , !) , , n n. , 4-

1, i, 1, i.
p+iq,
. z = x+iy , z 2 = p+iq.

x2 y 2 = p,
2xy = q.
(11)
, y =

q
2p

, ,

q2
x 2 = p,
4x
2


4x4 4px2 q 2 = 0.

21.

103

. 3: 6- 1 () 1 ()
,
sp
sp
2
2
p +q +p
p2 + q 2 p
,
x3,4 =
.
x1,2 =
2
2

:
q
q
p2 +q 2 +p
p2 +q 2 p

i
, p > 0,
q
q 2
22 2
(12)
p +q +p
p2 +q 2 p
i
, p < 0,

2
2

p + iq.
.
az 2 + bz + c = 0,

a, b, c R,

a 6= 0.

z1,2

,
D > 0,
2a

b i D , D < 0,
2a

D = b2 4ac. , ( D < 0),


. (10) : z
, z .

104

22.

b + D
z1,2 =
,
2a

D (12).
,
7 ( ).
az 2 + bz + c = 0,

a, b, c C,

a 6= 0,

z1 , z2 .
c
z1 z2 = ,
a

b
z1 + z2 = .
a

(13)

22.
17.
P (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . + an xn ,

a0 , a1 , a2, . . . , an R,

n N,

( ) x. a0 , . . . , an
, n , an 6= 0. .
P (x) deg P (x).
,
deg(P (x) + Q(x)) 6 deg P (x) + deg Q(x),
deg(P (x)Q(x)) = deg P (x) + deg Q(x).

(14)

5.
.
R[x].
. R C. ,
C[x].
. ,
P (x)
. Q(x)
, P (x) Q(x)
Q(x) 6 0.

22.

105

(14)
6. M(x) N (x) N (x) 6 0.
Q(x) R(x),
M(x) = Q(x)N (x) + R(x),

0 6 deg R(x) < deg N (x).

(15)

Q(x) () M(x) N (x), R(x) . R(x) 0, ,


M(x) N (x) ( N (x)). N (x) M(x), .
8 ( ). M(x)
N (x) = x c, c R, M(x) x = c.
, M(x) x c , M(c) = 0.
, c M(x), M(c) = 0.

. , (. 4).
(. 14).
.
18. P (x) ,
(deg P (x) > 0)
P (x) = S(x)Q(x),

deg S(x) > 0,

deg Q(x) > 0.

( 6) ( 8)
, n
P (x) = an (x c1 )n1 (x c2 )n2 . . . (x ck )nk ,

(16)

c1 < . . . < ck P (x) = 0,


n1, . . . , nk , ni 6= 0, ,
. (16) . , .
7. .
,
, 7 . , . P (x) R[x]

106

22.

c () . c, - c,
. .
9. R[x]
, x2 + x + , D =
= 2 4 < 0.
:
P (x) = an (x c1 )n1 . . . (x ck )nk (x2 + p1x + q1 )m1 . . . (x2 + psx + qs )ms , (17)

, p2i 4qi < 0, cj P (x)


deg P (x) = n1 + . . . + nk + 2(m1 + . . . + ms ).
. P (x) R[x].
(P ) = { Q(x)P (x) | Q(x) R[x] } R[x].

8. (P ) R[x].
, (P ) P (x) R[x].

, P (x) R[x] R[x]/(P ).


9. P (x) R[x]. :
1) P (x) = x + , 6= 0, R[x]/(P )
R;
2) P (x) = x2 + x + , 6= 0 D = 2 4 < 0, R[x]/(P ) C;
3) P (x) = x2 + x + , 6= 0 D = 2 4 > 0, R[x]/(P ) .

R[x]/(P ), P (x) = x2 + x + ,
, L R[x]/(P )
L = ax + b,

a, b R.

L1 L2,
, P (x) =
= x2 + x + .





(a1 x + b1)(a2x + b2 ) = a1 b2 + a2 b1 a1 a2 x + b1 b2 a1 a2
(18)

R[x]/(P ).

23.

107

23.
1. 504 1188
.
.

504 = 2 252 = 2 2 126 = 2 2 2 63 = 2 2 2 3 21 = 2 2 2 3 3 7


1188 = 2 594 = 2 2 297 = 2 2 3 99 = 2 2 3 3 332 2 3 3 3 11,

..

504 = 23 32 71 110, 1188 = 22 33 70 111


, , (504, 1188) = 22 32 70 110 = 36, (504, 1188) = 23 33
71 111 = 16632.

3
2
2
3
: 504 = 2 3 7, 1188 = 2 3 11, (504, 1188) = 36,
(504, 1188) = 16632.
2. 37 .
.
37 = 218+1 = 22 9+1 = 22(23 +1)+1 = 125 +024 +023 +122 +021 +120 ,
.. 3710 = 1001012. ,

37 = 3 12 + 1 = 32(3 + 1) + 1 = 1 33 + 1 32 + 0 31 + 1 30,

.. 3710 = 10013.
: 3710 = 1001012, 3710 = 10013.

3. 10010 11 . , ,
.
. .
. :
+ 0 1
0 1
0 0 1 ,
0 0 0 .
1 1 10
1 0 1
10010 + 11 = 10101 = 2110, 10010 11 = 1111 = 1510, 10010 11 =
= 110110 = 5410, 10010 : 11 = 110 = 610.

: 100102 + 112 = 101012 = 2110, 100102 112 = 11112 = 1510, 100102
112 = 1101102 = 5410, 100102 : 112 = 1102 = 610.

108

23.

4. 121 11 .
, , .
.
:
+ 0 1 2
0 1 2
0 0 1 2
0 0 0 0
,
.
1 1 2 10
1 0 1 2
2 2 10 11
2 0 2 11
121 + 11 = 202 = 2010, 121 11 = 110 = 1210, 121 11 = 2101 = 6410,
121 : 11 = 11 = 410.

: 1213 + 113 = 2023 = 2010, 1213 113 = 1103 = 1210, 1213 113 =
21013 = 6410, 1213 : 113 = 113 = 410.
5. Z6
.
. Z8 6,
+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1
2 0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6
3 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 ,
3 0 3 6 1 4 7 2 5 .
4 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3
4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4
5 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
5 0 5 2 7 4 1 6 3
6 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5
6 0 6 4 2 0 6 4 2
7 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
7 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
, (2, 4), (4, 4) (4, 6)
.

: (2, 4), (4, 4) (4, 6).
6. , Z5 .
. Z5 5. , a Z5, b,
1 6 b 6 4, a b = 5k + 1, k Z.
1 1 = 5 0 + 1,

2 3 = 5 1 + 1,

4 4 = 5 3 + 1,

.
: 11 = 1, 21 = 3, 31 = 2, 41 = 4.

23.

109

7. z1 = 1 + i, z2 = 2 3i.
z1 , z2 , z1 z2 , z1 z2 , zz12 .
.
z1 = 1 + i = 1 i,

z1 = 2 3i = 2 + 3i.

z1 + z2 = (1 + i) + (2 3i) = 1 + 2 + (1 3)i = 3 2i,


z1 z2 = (1 + i) (2 3i) = 1 2 + (1 + 3)i = 1 + 4i.
,
z1 z2 = (1 + i)(2 3i) = 1 2 1 3i + 2i 3i2 = 2 + 3 + (2 1)i = 5 + i.
,
z1
z1 z2
(1 + i)(2 + 3i)
1 3 + (2 + 3)i
2
5
=
=
=
=

+
i.
z2
z2 z2
(2 3i)(2 + 3i)
22 + 32
13 13

z1
z2


: z1 = 1 i, z1 = 2 + 3i, z1 + z2 = 3 2i, z1 z2 = 1 + 4i, z1 z2 = 5 + i,
2
5
= 13
+ 13
i.
8.
x2 + 2x + 2 = 0

, .
.

(2)2 4 2 2 4
x1,2 =
=
= 1 i.
2
2

p

|x1| = |x2 | = (1)2 + (1)2 = 2.


2

x1,2 =

!
2
2

i .
2
2

2
2
cos 1,2 = , sin 1,2 = ,
< 6 ,
2
2

110

, 1,2 = 3
4 . ,

 



3
3
3
+ sin
= 2e 4 .
x1,2 = 2 (cos
4
4
: x1,2

= 1 i = 2 (cos

3
4

+ sin

3
4



3
4

2e


.

9. P (x) = x2 + 2x 12 Q(x) = x + 5.
. .
x2 + 2x 12 x + 5
x2 + 5x
x3
3x 12
3x 15
3,
.. x2 + 2x 12 = (x + 5)(x 3) + 3.

2
: x + 2x 12 = (x + 5)(x 3) + 3, x 3 ,
3 .
10. 2x + 3 3x + 2 R[x]/(x2 + 1).
.
x2 +1.
,
(2x + 3)(3x + 2) = 6x2 + 13x + 6 = (x2 + 1)(6x + 7) 1

(2x + 3) (3x + 2) = 1.
: (2x + 3) (3x + 2) = 1 R[x]/(x2 + 1).


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

. ?
.
? .
?
. .
?
?
.


9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

111

, ?
? .
? .
.
?
?
.
.
?
?
.

.
?
?
?
. ?
, ?
, ?
.
?
?
.

?
.
.
, 6 2.

. 1 , . 2
, ,
, .

1
1.1: .
A, B, C v, w.

1. A, B C.
2. A B.
3. B 1.
4. B x = v .
5. C x = w .
6. A.
7. D .
8.
 2 1 5 1 


1 2 3 
123
0 6
,
0 : A = 2 3 4 , B = 2 3 2 , C = 10 32 1
2
357

5 8 1

1 4 7 6

v = (14, 2, 18), w = (10, 1, 3, 6), D = ( 21 12 ). 





1 2 3 
3 8 3 1
234
3 4 1
1 : A = 3 4 5 , B = 2 1 1 , C = 21 1
2 2 ,
579

1 3

( 13 31 ).

5 3 4

3 2

v = (13, 3, 18), w = (19, 5, 9, 9), D =


 1 1 8 4 


 1 1 1 
231
6 4 ,
2 : A = 3 4 2 , B = 3 2 1 , C = 32 1
3 9 2
573

4 1 5

v = (0, 11, 22), w = (12, 14, 24, 24), D = ( 23 32 ).





1 2 3 
2 1 5 1
342
0 6
3 : A = 4 5 3 , B = 5 1 1 , C = 10 3
,
2 1 2
795

4 3

1 4 7 6

8 .

112

113

v = (11, 6, 19), w = (4, 14, 6, 5), D = ( 14 41 ).


 1 2 3 1 




312
213
4
4 : A = 4 2 3 , B = 3 2 1 , C = 23 31 4
2 2 ,
735

111

1 3 7

v = (13, 13, 6), w = (2, 9, 2, 30), D = ( 41 14 ). 





 2 1 1 
2 2 1 1
423
4
3
1
2
5 : A = 5 3 4 , B = 3 2 2 , C = 8 5 3 4 ,
957

1 1 2
3 3 2 2
v = (7, 15, 3), w = (3, 8, 12, 4), D = ( 25 52 ).
 2 1 6 3 
 2 3 4
 1 2 1 
2 15
6 : A = 1 4 7 , B = 2 3 2 , C = 71 4
,
2
4
9
1 1 3
3 1 1
1 1 2 6
v = (3, 0, 7), w
= (6, 33, 23, 21), D = ( 52 25 ).
1 1 2 3 
3 4 2 
 1 1 1 
1 2
7 : A = 4 7 1 , B = 4 3 1 , C = 32 1
3 1 1 ,
1 3 1
2 1 1
1 2 3 1
3
5
v = (1, 7, 3), w
= (12, 0, 3, 12), D = ( 5 3 ).
 1 2 3 2 
4 2 3
1 1 2
2 3
8 : A = 7 1 4 , B = 2 1 2 , C = 23 1
,
2 1 2
3 1 1
4 1 4
2 3 2 1
v = (6, 4, 14), w = (9, 4, 13, 2), D = ( 53 35 ). 

 1 1 1 
4 6 3 
1234
9 : A = 3 1 4 , B = 8 3 6 , C = 13 12 21 32 ,
1 5 1
4 1 3
4321
v = (1, 7, 4), w
= (14, 10, 16, 21), D = ( 15 51 ).
3

1.2: R .
a, b, c
d. , ,
, :
1) ab;
2) abc;
3) ad db;
4) , a bcd;
5) .
.
0 : a(5, 1, 4), b(7, 6, 5), c(3, 4, 3), d(0, 2, 9).
1 : a(5, 2, 0), b(2, 5, 0), c(1, 2, 4), d(1, 1, 1).
2 : a(2, 0, 4), b(1, 7, 1), c(4, 8, 4), d(1, 4, 6).
3 : a(2, 1, 2), b(1, 2, 1), c(3, 2, 1), d(4, 2, 5).
4 : a(1, 2, 3), b(4, 1, 0, c(2, 1, 2), d(3, 4, 5).
5 : a(1, 1, 1), b(2, 0, 3), c(2, 1, 1), d(2, 2, 4).
6 : a(1, 2, 0), b(1, 1, 2), c(0, 1, 1), d(3, 0, 1).
7 : a(1, 0, 2), b(1, 2, 1), c(2, 2, 1), d(2, 1, 0).
8 : a(1, 3, 0), b(4, 1, 2), c(3, 0, 1), d(4, 3, 5).
9 : a(0, 3, 2), b(1, 3, 6), c(2, 4, 2), d(0, 5, 4).

114

2
1.3: .
1. L A .
, .
2. L.
3. Q .
.
0 : A(1, 1), L : 4x2 + 4xy + y 2 = 4x + 13;
Q : 9x2 + xy + 9y 2 + 2 = x + 6y.
1 : A(1, 1), L : 7x2 + 6xy + 1 = 14x + 12y;
Q : 4x2 + xy + y 2 = 4x + y + 13.
2 : A(1, 1), L : 74x2 + 38xy + 5y 2 + 120x + 30y + 49 = 0;
Q : x2 + 6xy + 1 = x + 12y.
3 : A(1, 1), L : 9x2 + 12xy + 4y 2 + 47 = 42x + 30y;
Q : x2 + 38xy + 5y 2 + 120x + 30y = .
4 : A(1, 1), L : 15x2 + 11xy + 2y 2 + 41x + 15y + 28 = 0;
Q : 9x2 + 12xy + y 2 + 47 = 42x + y.
5 : A(1, 1), L : 13x2 + 42xy + 18y 2 + 1 = 2x + 12y;
Q : 15x2 + xy + 2y 2 + x + 15y + 28 = 0.
6 : A(1, 1), L : 25x2 + 10xy + y 2 + 26x + 4y + 6 = 0;
Q : 13x2 + xy + 18y 2 + 1 = 2x + y.
7 : A(1, 1), L : 27x2 + 48xy + 21y 2 + 106 = 108x + 94y;
Q : x2 + 10xy + y 2 + x + 4y + 6 = 0.
8 : A(1, 1), L : x2 + 4xy + 5y 2 + 96x + 37y + 68 = 0;
Q : 27x2 + xy + 21y 2 + = 108x + 94y.
9 : A(1, 1), L : 9x2 + 18xy + 9y 2 + 2 = 8x + 6y;
Q : 34x2 + 26xy + y 2 + 96x + y + 68 = 0.

2
2.1: .
z1
1. z1 z2 . z1 z2 , z1 z2 , , z1 z2 .
z2
z1 z2 .
2. z 2 + pz + q = 0 , .
.

0 : z1 = 2 + 3i, z2 = 1 + i; p =
2, q = 1.
1 : z1 = 1 + i, z2 = 2 3i; p = 3, q = 1.
2 : z1 = 1 i, z2 = 2 3i; p = 2, q = 1.

115

3 : z1 = 1 i, z2 = 2 + 3i; p = 3, q = 1.
4 : z1 = 2 + i, z2 = 3 + i; p = 1,
q = 1.
5 : z1 = 3 + i, z2 = 2 i; p = 2, q = 2.
6 : z1 = 3 i, z2 = 2 i; p =
1, q = 1.
7 : z1 = 3 i, z2 = 2 + i; p = 2 3,q = 4.
8 : z1 = 3 + 2i, z2 = 1 + 3i; p =
2, q = 2.
9 : z1 = 3 2i, z2 = 1 3i; p = 2 3, q = 4.
2.2: .
1. a10 , b10 c10
.
a2
2. a2 b2 . a2 b2, a2 b2,
b2
.
a3
3. a3 b3 . a3 b3, a3 b3,
b3
.
.
0 : a10 = 21, b10 = 22, c10 = 0, 21; a2 = 1100, b2 = 100;
a3 = 112, b3 = 21.
1 : a10 = 23, b10 = 24 c10 = 0, 22; a2 = 1110, b2 = 111;
a3 = 120, b3 = 12.
2 : a10 = 25, b10 = 26 c10 = 0, 23; a2 = 1111, b2 = 101;
a3 = 110, b3 = 11.
3 : a10 = 27, b10 = 28 c10 = 0, 24; a2 = 10010, b2 = 1001;
a3 = 200, b3 = 100.
4 : a10 = 29, b10 = 30 c10 = 0, 26; a2 = 10101, b2 = 111;
a3 = 210, b3 = 21.
5 : a10 = 13, b10 = 31 c10 = 0, 27; a2 = 11000, b2 = 110;
a3 = 220, b3 = 20.
6 : a10 = 14, b10 = 32 c10 = 0, 28; a2 = 10000, b2 = 100;
a3 = 121, b3 = 11.
7 : a10 = 15, b10 = 33 c10 = 0, 29; a2 = 11100, b2 = 111;
a3 = 1001, b3 = 21.
8 : a10 = 16, b10 = 34 c10 = 0, 31; a2 = 11011, b2 = 1001;
a3 = 1000, b3 = 100.
9 : a10 = 17, b10 = 35 c10 = 0, 32; a2 = 11110, b2 = 101;
a3 = 1010, b3 = 12.
2.3: . .
1. n m
.
2. Zk .

116

2
.
3. , Zp .
.
0 : m = 8580, n = 19890; k = 6; p = 13.
1 : m = 41140, n = 6630; k = 9; p = 5.
2 : m = 17160, n = 28050; k = 12; p = 13.
3 : m = 12012, n = 37128; k = 14; p = 11.
4 : m = 23562, n = 18564; k = 8; p = 7.
5 : m = 47124, n = 14014; k = 16; p = 5.
6 : m = 39780, n = 6006; k = 10; p = 13.
7 : m = 36652, n = 9945; k = 16; p = 11.
8 : m = 56628, n = 9282; k = 18; p = 7.
9 : m = 43316, n = 6732; k = 20; p = 5.
2.4: .
1. P (x) Q(x).
2. 5x + 6 7x + 1 R[x]/(x2 +
+ x + ).
.
0 : P (x) = 2x5 + 3x4 + 4x3 + 5x2 + 7x + 7, Q(x) = x2 + 2x + 3;
1
= 2, = 0, = .
8
1 : P (x) = 3x5 + 4x4 + 5x3 + 6x2 + 7x + 8, Q(x) = x2 + 3x + 4;
1
= 2, = 1, = .
4
2 : P (x) = 4x5 + 5x4 + 6x3 + 7x2 + 8x + 9, Q(x) = x2 + 4x + 5;
5
= 2, = 2, = .
8
3 : P (x) = 5x5 +6x4 +7x3 +8x2 +9x+10, Q(x) = x2 +5x+6;
5
= 2, = 3, = .
8
4 : P (x) = 6x5 +7x4 +8x3 +8x2 +10x+11, Q(x) = x2 +6x+7;
17
= 2, = 4, = .
8
5 : P (x) = 2x5 + x4 x3 2x2 4x 4, Q(x) = x2 + 2x + 3;
1
= 2, = 0, = .
8
6 : P (x) = 3x5 + 2x4 + x3 x2 2x 3, Q(x) = x2 + 3x + 4;
1
= 2, = 1, = .
4
7 : P (x) = 4x5 + 3x4 + 2x3 + x2 1x 2, Q(x) = x2 + 4x + 5;
5
= 2, = 2, = .
8

117

8 : P (x) = 5x5 + 4x4 + 3x3 + 2x2 + x 1, Q(x) = x2 + 5x + 6;


5
= 2, = 3, = .
8
9 : P (x) = 6x5 + 5x4 + 4x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 8, Q(x) = x2 + 6x + 7;
17
.
= 2, = 4, =
8

(Abel) (18021829).
. 16
. (1825). 18251827 . , , . , 4- (1824). ,
(1826).
(1827).
(1823). (), , , (1830).
, .
, . 1908 . .

(Bezout) (17301783).
, (1758).
(1763)
(1768). ( ,
.). (17641769),
.
(Venn) (18341923).
, . .

(Vi`
ete) (15401603).
, . , .
, . (1591).
118

119

( ). ( ).

, sin nx, cos nx sin x, cos x.
.

(Gauss) (17771855).
, , , (1804), (1820), (1824). . .
(17951798). 1807 .
, . ,
, , , ,
, , .
,
. xn 1 = 0,
. n,
n- . , 17- . 1818 .
.
, ,
.

(Dedekind) (18311916).
, (1880). .
. , , .
.
(Descartes) (15961650).
, , , .
- (16041612), . 16171621 .
. 1629 . ,

120

, . 1649 . , . (1637) .
(x, y,
z, . . . ), (a, b, c, . . . ), (a3 , x5, . . . ).
,
,
,
,
.

(E) (3 . . .).
, . .
, 3 . . ( ) , .

.
, , . , , .

(Capelli) (18551910).
,
(1901). , . . (1881) (1886). (1895)
.

(Cram
er) (17041752).
. . 1724 .
( 1734 .
). . , n n ,
( , ..).

121

(Kronecker) (18231891).
, (1861), - (1872). (1845),
. , . , (), ,
.

(Leibniz) (16461716).
, , , , , . 1672
1676 . . 1676 . . ( 1700 .) ( ). I
.
,
.

(De Morgan) (18061871).
. ; (1866) . , - .
(1847),
, .
(Moivre) (16671754).
, . (1697), . n- n-
. ,
; .
. n!,
. .

(P o) (. 570 . 500 . .).


, , .
, , ,

122

, . .
( , 40- ) . , ,
. , ,
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
.

(Fermat) (16011665).
. , 1631 .
. , .
. ,
: ( n > 2 xn + y n = z n x, y, z) ( p
a , p, ap1 1 p).
.
, ,
.
.
(Euler) (17071783).
, , , , .
800 , , , , , , , , ,
., . 1726 . -, 1727 . .
17311741 . , 1766 .,
( 17411766 . , ).

123

A,
B,
,
,
E,
Z,
H,
,
I,
K,
,
M,
N,
,
O, o
,
P,
,
T,
,
,
X,
,
,

()
()

124



A, a
A,a
B, b
B,b
C, c
C,c
D, d
D,d
E, e
E,e
F, f
F,f
G, g
G,g
H, h
H,h
I, i
I,i
J, j
J,j
K, k
K,k
L, l
L,l
M, m
M,m
N, n
N,n
O, o
O,o
P, p
P,p
Q, q
Q,q
R, r
R,r
S, s
S,s
T, t
T,t
U, u
U,u
V, v
V,v
W, v
W,w
X, x
X,x
Y, y
Y,y
Z, z
Z,z


1. .. . / . . .. ..:, 1976.
2. .., .. .
.: , 2003.
3. . . http://ru.wikipedia.org
4. .. ..: , 2004.
5. - .. ..: , 2001.
6. . ..: , 2005.
7. .. ..: , 2002.

125

, 38
, 38
, 35
, 38
, 8, 118
, 8
, 26
, 90

, 66
, 64
, 100
, 25, 27
, 25, 27
, 16
, 15, 16
, 92
, 104, 118
, 68, 104
, 15
, 11
, 12
, 12
, 11
, 12
, 12
, 12
, 11
, 12
, 12

, 84
, 84, 118
, 31
, 99
, 44, 45
, 93, 105
, 101
, 101
-, 73
R, 3032
, 34
, 51
, 66
, 88, 97, 104
, 38
, 52
, 105, 118
, 105
, 30
, 21
, 15
, 34
, 54
, 51
, 51, 52, 54
, 51, 54
, 37
, 37
, 37
, 38
, 53, 55
, 55
, 39
, 51
, 54
, 54
, 34
, 34
, 38
, 35

, 47, 102, 119


, 47
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 79

126

127
, 72
, 75
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 66
, 72, 101
, 72
, 72
, 72
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 101

, 85
, 89
, 89
, 89

, 18
, 18
, 84, 88
, 84
, 84
, 85
, 84
, 85
, 84
, 87
, 84
, 86
, 86
, 87
, 11, 121
, 11
, 26, 119
, 26
, 29
, 40
, 66
, 25, 27, 85, 89
, 31
, 3032
, 29
, 31
, 17, 119
, 17

, 91, 105
, 91, 105
, 89, 106
, 43
, 40
, 8
, 12
, 64

, 51
, 52, 53
, 10
, 14
, 29

, 30
, 30
, 91, 120
, 93, 105
, 91

, 84
, 88, 97
, 40
, 11
, 95
, 90, 98, 106

, 35
, 85
, 90, 100

, 35
, 85
, 98
, 12
, 68
, 68
, 8
, 15
, 25, 27
, 71

, 66
, 64
, 65
, 48, 120
, 19, 20
, 77

128
, 39
, 13
, 13
, 13
, 19
, 69
, 51, 52, 54
, 87, 97
, 88, 97, 104
, 9698
, 88, 97
, 90, 100
, 88, 97, 104
, 90
, 90
, 104
, 88, 104
, 98, 106
, 90, 98
, 90
, 84
, 88, 97, 104

, 36
, 41, 89
, 51, 54
, 100
, 98, 99
, 99
, 101
, 100
, 100
, 98
, 100
, 100
, 100
, 101
, 101
, 100
, 101

, 36
, 41
, 16
, 42, 43
, 21
, 38
, 28, 29
, 12

, 38
, 51

, 102
, 102
, 103
, 105
, 46, 120
, 46
, 46
, 105
, 67
, 68
, 71
, 6466
, 77
, 69
, 7679
, 68
, 71, 72
, 68
, 75
, 67
, 67
, 68
, 21, 48, 121
, 48
, 98, 121
, 20
, 37
, 37
, 37
, 38
, 20
, 35, 89, 90
, 36
, 36
, 35
, 37
, 37
, 36
, 36
, 37
, 37
, 37
, 36
, 35
, 12
, 12
, 91
, 21
, 11

129
, 39, 88, 90, 98
, 90
, 40
, 43
, 40
, 39
, 41, 89
, 41
, 44
, 43
, 45, 86
, 42, 45
, 43
, 41
, 48
, 41, 50
, 40
, 68
, 48
, 48
, 40
, 41, 43
, 44
, 40
, 49

, 98

, 47
, 46
, 46

, 47
, 44
, 100
, 66
, 66
, 100
, 104
, 105
, 104
, 6
, 21
, 17
, 10
, 21
, 20
, 20, 28
, 8
, 29
, 29
, 9

, 8
, 7
, 17
, 7
, 10
, 22
- , 9
, 29
, 29
, 20
, 19
, 6

, 31
, 100

, 85
, 90
, 20, 28
, 19, 20
, 28
, 19
, 101, 121
, 101
(), 92, 105
(), 92, 105
, 51
, 53, 55
, 21
, 21
, 43

, 45
, 14
, 14
, 9
, 91, 105
, 105, 106
, 43
, 26
, 92
, 92

, 89
, 35
, 14
, 45, 86
, 37, 45
, 42, 45
, 16

130
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 73
, 37
, 84
, 8
, 46
, 43
, 44
, 43

, 79
, 78
, 78
, 52
, 52
, 102, 105
, 91
, 91, 97, 105
, 68

, 18
, 18
n-, 17
, 19
, 18
, 18
, 18, 24, 97
, 14
, 15
, 16
, 15, 16
, 15
, 15
, 16
, 14
, 16
, 15
, 19
, 17
, 14
, 15
, 16
, 19
, 15
, 19
, 12
, 64
, 64

, 64
, 64
, 78
, 72
, 74
, 64
, 64
, 64
, 64

, 72
, 72
, 53, 55
, 71
, 9
, 42
, 30
, 23, 121
, 52, 54
, 84
, 90
, 7
, 7
, 35
, 42, 85, 87
, 42, 43
, 43
, 42
, 43
, 93
, 101
, 88
, 96, 97
, 99, 106
, 104
, 104
, 86
, 68
, 65
, 74
, 74
, 74
, 11
, 46
, 30
, 6
, 17
,
36
, 36
, 41
, 14

131
, 91, 105
, 17
, 7
, 19
- , 51
, 44
, 38

, 48
, 39
, 48

, 67
, 23, 24
, 23, 27, 84, 89
, 52
, 45
RSA-, 91
, 43
-
, 11
, 26
, 26
, 26
, 41, 50
, 10
, 45
, 45
, 46
, 48
, 40
, 51
, 68
, 54
, 37, 48
, 7
, 37
, 37, 48
, 25
, 104
, 36
, 40
, 22
, 15

, 105
, 68, 104
, 29
, 91
, 48

(), 91
, 102, 105
, 91
- , 9
, 16
, 51
, 29
, 29
, 42
, 41, 43
, 44
, 101
, 52
, 40
, 20

, 75
, 55
, 74
, 54, 55
, 52
, 75
, 42
, 98, 106
, 19
, 19
, 91, 122
, 91

, 66
, 64
, 65
, 64

, 66
, 64
, 65
, 64
, 101
, 101

, 67
, 67
, 68
, 68
, 49
, 49
, 29
, 23, 85, 88, 90

132
, 66

, 20
, 98
, 21
, 91
, 23
, 23
, 100
, 100
, 43
, 101, 122
, 101
, 12
, 101

, 66
, 65
, 6
, 65
, 65
, 78
, 71
, 65
, 75
, 65
, 65
, 65

, 85
, 90, 98
, 98
, 89
, 35