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1.

. -
, .
- ,
. , - e E,

e E E e

e () E,

() E () e,

e () E.
, e E,
e
/ E E 6 e

E E
e).
( e
. ,

S = { , , , }
(1)
, , ,
S, S (1).
. , : , 2003 , : X
, . ,
, : (, ),
,
?
, . ,
N2 = { 2n | n N },

N 1, (,
, ). :
C = { (x, y) | x2 + y 2 = 1, x, y R }

,
.
1 , . 3 4.

, .
1

, , .
. . ,
{ x N | n2 + 1 = 0 }

( , 1) .
.
E E . E E,
E E.
E E E E .
,
,
E E,

E.

, E E , E E.
.
1. E E E E, E = E .
1. E E, . ( ) , ,
, .
. E . , E. 2E . , S, (1), 2S
2
S00 = ,
S11 = {}, S12 = {}, S13 = {}, S14 = {},

S21 = {, }, S22 = {, }, S23 = {, }, S24 = {, }, S25 = {, }, S26 = {, },


S31 = {, , }, S32 = {, , }, S33 = {, , }, S34 = {, , },
S41 = {, , , }.

, E n , 2E 2n .
. , ,
:
: A B . , , A, B, . A B. A ,
I,
I A . , Sij ,
S11 S12 = S21 , S21 S22 = S31 , S31 S32 = S41
.. (0, 2) 0 2, (1, 3) 1 3,
(0, 2) (1, 3) = (0, 3).
2 , !

: A B ,
A B , A, B. , I A
A . ,

S31 S32 = S12 , S21 S23 = S11 , S21 S26 =

(0, 2) (1, 3) = (1, 2).


, .
: - A B , , A \ B. ,

S21 \ S22 = S12 , S22 \ S21 = S14 ,

(0, 2) \ (1, 3) = (0, 1], (1, 3) \ (0, 2) = [2, 3).


.
: A B A B, A\B B
A B.
: A B
AB = (A \ B) (B \ A).
2 ( - ). A, B C , , U.
:
A B = B A,

(2)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C),

(4)

A A = U,

(6)

A B = B A,

(8)

A U = A,

(10)

A U = U,

(12)

A (B A) = (A B) A,

(3)

A = A,

(5)

A (B C) = (A B) C,

(7)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C),

(9)

A A = ,

(11)

A = ,

(13)

A B = A B,

(14)

AB = AB

(15)

(A) = A.

(16)

(14) (15) ( ).
. , , , , 3. ()
, ,
, . , , , ,
, .
: , .
, : A
B,
a A a B.
, A , B , ,
, A B
(a ) (a )
( a , a ).
: . 4 :
(a A) (a B) (a A B).

, ( , , ). ,
(x > 2) (x < 3)
, x .
: &
(a A) & (a B) (a A B).
, ,
. ,
(a ) & (a )
, a .
:
:
(a A) a A.
, x ,
(x > 0)
, x 6 0.
- (2)(16)
. , (14) (15)

(x y) (x) & (y)

(x & y) (x) (y).


3 , , !
4 , , ..

() .

.
. , , , .
a A ()

, A ,
,
a A ()
, , .
,
M R : a A R, a < M
(17)
, A :
M , a M
( , A ).
- , ,
, . , (17) :
M R : a A R, a > M

, A .
. .
X , Y ,
X Y . , , , , . : ,
, , . B
, X, A , Y . X Y , B A. , .
X Y : , .
X Y , , , Y X. , , , , .
, , .
, ,
. , , , ,
.
:
, .
: ,
.

2.
, , ,
. , f
A B, , , a
A f (a) B. b = f (a)
a f , a b.
f f (A):
f (A) = { b B | b = f (a), a A } B.

b f 1 (b):
f 1 (b) = { a A | b = f (a) } A.
f A B, f : A B. A B B A .
f : A B ( ), f (A) = B,
A B:
b B a A : b = f (a).
( ), B A:
a, a A : f (a) = f (a ) a = a .
, f : A B - ( ), , , b B
- a A, b B .
1. K ,
. . f : K
S S, (1), .
.
2. f : R R
.

{ y, y}, y > 0,
f 1 (y) = {0},
y = 0,

y < 0,
f (R) .

3. x y,
y2 = x

(18)

, , -, , -, x > 0 y,
(18). , , x
- (, y > 0), - . ,
, .
A . idA : A A,
a A ,
a A : idA (a) = a,
. , , id.
A, B C ,
f : A B,

g: B C

, g f : A C,
(g f )(a) = g(f (a)),

a A.

f g.

3. f : A B, g : B C h : C D
,
h (g f ) = (h g) f
(19)

idB f = f,

(20)

f idA = f.

, , .
g : B A f : A B,
g f = idA ,

f g = idB .

, g f . g = f 1 f = g1
.
4. f : A B ,
- .
. A B .
1. ( ) A B
A B = { (a, b) | a A, b B },

a A b B. prA : A B A prB : A B B,
prA (a, b) = a,

prB (a, b) = b,

.
4. N ,
N = {2, 3, . . . , 10, , , , },
S , N S . , (, )
, (3, ) ..
5. , , .
.
6. X = [x, x ] Y = [y, y ] , X Y X
Y.
7. R R .
5. A B . f : A B B A,
f (a, b) = (b, a),
a A, b B,

. C , g : (A B) C A (B C),

g((a, b), c) = (a, (b, c)),

a A,

b B,

c C,

.
A . An = A
A}.
| {z
n

2. R An n- A.
, a1 , . . . , an R,

An (a1 , . . . , an ) R.

(21)

a1 R . . . Ran

(21), R .
8. n = 1, . , A. ,
, .
9. n = 2, . ,
.

.
10. f : A A A .

(22)
Gf = { (a, f (a)) | a A } A A,
f .
11. n = 3, . ,
.
,
.
.
. A.
3. R A A ,
:
:

aRa,

(23)

aRb bRa,

(24)

:
a, b, c A.

aRb & bRc aRc

(25)

. (23)
(25)
:
:
:

a a,
a b b a,
a b & b c a c.

12. .
13. , O,
, O, .
14. , ( ),
- .
.

A.
[a] = { b A | b a } A

a ( ).
6. , .
4. , , A/ .
a A , :
: A A/ ,
(a) = [a].
15. 12 , .
16. 13
OX, , , .
17. 14 ,
. ,
(. ).
. A .
5. R A A ,
:
:

aRa,

(26)

aRb & bRc aRc,

(27)

aRb & bRa a = b.

(28)

, .

a, b A : aRb bRa,

(29)

6. (26)(28)
:
:
:
(29)

a6a
a6b&b6ca6c
a 6 b & b 6 a a = b,

a, b A : a 6 b b 6 a.
18. ( , ) .
19.
2A , A - . .
20 ( ). A - (, ), . , ( ).
.

10

. 17
. , ,
,
. A ( )
|A| ( #(A)).
21. T , .
A T A , A
T.
.
6. A B . , |A| 6 |B| ( A
B), A - B. ,
|A| < |B|, |A| 6 |B| A B.
7. A . |A| < |2A |.

7. , .
, .

3. ,
,
.

, . #() =
0 ! 2: #(2) = 1, 2 . ,
. , 2 , , n,
n + 1 . .
,
1 < 2 < < n < n + 1 < ...,

N .

2. , :
, , .
. , : . , ( ) : - 1 ,
n, , n + 1, 5.

, . , :
:

5 , . , ,

1 + 1 = 2,

11

1 1 = 1,

n + (m + 1) = (n + m) + 1,

n (m + 1) = n m + n,

, :
n + m = m + n,

(n + m) + k = n + (m + k),
1 n = n,
n m = m m,

,
,
,

n (m + k) = n m + n k,

n (m k) = (n m) k,

, , 1 n = n. n = 1 . ,
n . ,
1 (n + 1) = 1 n + 1 1 = n + 1.
, n.
. 0 , , , , 6.
.
x + n = 0,

(30)

n N,

, . ,
, n, n (
),
n + (1) = {, n},
n > 1,

n > m + 1,
n m 1,
n + ((m + 1)) = 0,
n = m + 1,

(m n + 1), n < m + 1.

(n) m = (nm),

(n) (m) = nm.

, ,
. Z. :
(n + 1) < n < < 1 < 0 < 1 < . . .
, , :
n m = n + (n),

n (m) = n + m,

(n) m = (n + m),

(n) (m) = m n.

3. , VI . , , . , , , , , .

6 ;
.

12

. ,
mx + n = 0,
m, n Z,
(31)
, , . (31) ,
, .
Z Z
Q = { (m, n) | m, n Z, n 6= 0 } Z Z.

(m, n) Q P ,

(m, n)P (m , n ) mn = nm .

(32)

8. P .

m
n (m, n)
m n.
,
m k
ml + kn
m k
mk
+ =
,
=
.
(33)
n
l
nl
n l
nl
, , , . ,
, , , (33),
, . , , ,
, . ,
(33) , , . .
9. (m, n) (m , n ), (k, l) (k , l ) ,
(32).
(ml + kn, nl),

(m l + k n , n l )

(mk, nl),

(m k , n l )

.
,
, , .
4. (m, n) ,
.
(32), , , , 12 24
. , , , ( ,
, ).
Q .
, , , ,
. Q:
m m
1.
, , .
.
10. Q .
k
, : m
n 6 l
,
(ml nk)nl 6 0.
(34)
, : m, n Z, m 6
n
n , m
1 6 1.

13

5. , (,
, , ).
, , ,
. ,
, , . , 4.

4.
.

-
XIX . . , , ,
.
. ,
, , ,
. , .
. ,
a, c, ,
c2 = 2a2 .

(35)

, c = ml, a = nl, l . (35)


m2 = 2n2 ,
m, n N.
(36)
, m n (
). (36) , m 2,
m = 2k, k Z. , 2k2 = n2 , , n 2.
, m n . , (36)
.
. ,
c a. , c = ax,
(35)
x2 = 2.
(37)
2
2
1 < 2, 2 > 2, , , (1, 2). 32 ; ,
12 . , (1, 32 ), ( 32 )2 > 2.
, 54 , (1, 32 ), ,
14 . , ( 54 , 32 ) ,
.
, , (37), ,
. , .
. , ,
, . , .
8. (A, A ), A, A Q,
, :
1) A, A 6= ,
2) A A = Q,
3) A A = ,

14

4) p A, q A p < q.

A , A .
, , ( )
, .
22.
A = { p Q | p2 > 2 & p > 0 }

A = { q Q | (q 6 0) (q 2 6 2 & q > 0) }.

(A,A) .
23.
.

A = { p Q | p < 0 },

A = { q Q | q > 0 }.

A = { p Q | p 6 0 },

A = { q Q | q > 0 }

24.
.

, 22, ,
. , 23 24 ,
22 . , ,
2.
9. , , . .
23 24 , , 22, .
. 9 . , , . ,
.
10. R, , , ,
( ) .
R ( ) .
, ;
.
, (, , ) .
-
, .
- . .
1. R N.

15

. 7 ,
0 . , = 20 . , R,
, .
. ,
A B .
11. , 6 , A B.
11. 11
. ,
(34), Q .
,
.
1. < , r, < r < .
2. , > 0
r r ,
r 6 6 r,
= .

r 6 6 r,

r r 6 ,

3. , n, n 6
< n + 1.
n, 3, [x]. x [x] {x}.
, , ,
8 , . ,
:
2 ( R). (A, A ) , A , A ,
,
A = { R | 6 }, A = { R | > },

A = { R | < }, A = { R | > }.
6. 7, , , .
, , R.
12. X R .
1) , M R, x 6 M
x X.
2) , m R, x > M
x X.
3) , X ,
sup X.
4) , X ,
inf X.
7 continuum .

16

, sup X = +, ,
inf X = .
3. X R, (),
() .
7. , , .
,
1 n
| n N}
E ={ 1+
n
, .
, .
. ,
, , , . .
12. . > 0 d d , d d 6 d 6 6 d .

d , d ,
.
12 ,
. k-
ck ( < k, ck = 0). ,
, K p,
ck = ck+p ,

k > K.

13. ,
.
.
13. . ,
a + b 6 6 a + b ,
a, a , b, b ,
a 6 6 a ,

b 6 6 b .

+ .
14. ,
:
1) + = + ,
2) + ( + ) = ( + ) + ,
3) + 0 = 0 + = ,
4) (, ), + () =
() + = 0,
5) < , + < + R.
( ) ,
(
,
> 0,
|| =
, < 0.

17

14. .
,
6 6 ,
a, a , b, b ,
0 < a 6 6 a ,

0 < b 6 6 b .

( ). = 0,
0 = 0 = 0.

:
(
|| ||,
,
=
(|| ||), .
15. , :
1) = ,
2) ( ) = ( ) ,
3) 1 = 1 = ,
4) ( + ) = + ,
5) 6= 0 1 (, ), 1 =
1 = 1,
6) < > 0, < .
. n Z .

, n > 0,

| {z }
n =

1,

1 ,
n

n = 0 6= 0,
n < 0 6= 0.

16 ( ). > 0 .
n > 0,
n = .

1
n-
0 n , n .

< 0 n , n = n . r = m
n

1
r = (m ) n
, .
15. > 1 . ,

b 6 6 b
b b ,
1 < b 6 6 b .
. 0 < < 1,
 
1
=
.

17. > 0 ,
:

18

1) = + ,
2) 1 = ,
3) ( ) = ,
4) = () .
18. > 0, 6= 1, > 0
, = . ,
log :
1) log log = log ( , log = log1 ),

2) log () = log + log ,


3) log ( ) = log .

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