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Textile Finishing
Adnan Mukhtar
Qaiser Razzaq
Introduction to Textiles

A Textile is a flexible material comprised of a

network of natural or artificial fibres often referred
to as thread or yarn.
Textile refers to any material made of interlacing
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees
of durability, from the finest gossamer to the
sturdiest canvas
There can be Animal Textiles, Plant Textiles, Mineral
Textiles, Synthetic Textiles
Departments Of Textiles
Textiles are divided in 3 major categories

» Spinning
» Weaving
» Wet-Processing
The process of converting the
fibres in the form yarn is
called Spinning
A flexible material comprised
of a network of natural or
artificial fibres often referred
to as thread or yarn
Yarn is produced by spinning
raw wool fibres, linen, cotton,
or other material on a
spinning wheel to produce
long strands known as yarn
Synthetic yarns are made by
Weaving & Knitting
The process of
converting yarn in the
form of fabric is called
Fabric formed by the
interlacement of warp
and weft yarn is called
Fabric formed by the
interlooping of yarns is
called Knitting
This is the another entirely different stage of textile sector. It
involves various stages, and can be divided as such
» singe
» desize
» scour
» bleach
» mercerize
The term “pretreatments” include all operations of
preparing the textile material, such as fibres yarn and
woven, knit and non-woven fabrics and garments for
the subsequent processes for dyeing printing and
For all practical purposes the pretreatments are carried
out along with dyeing and printing and their
equipments is part of the wet-processing plant
Dyeing and Printing
The process of application of dyes on to the substrate (fabric, yarn
or fibres ) in the solution form is called Dyeing.
The process of application of dyes on the substrate (fabric) in the
paste form is called Printing
Dyes can of various classes as mentioned
– Direct dyes
– Reactive dyes
– Vat dyes
– Sulphur dyes
– Azoic dyes
– Disperse dyes
– Acid or Anionic dyes, pre-mettalised or mordant
– Basic or cationic dyes
Textile finishing is a term commonly applied to different processes
that the textile materials undergo after pretreatments, dyeing or
printing for final embellishments to enhance their attractiveness and
sale appeals well as for comfort and usefulness.
The term has been used in the past for all the treatments that the
fabric may undergo after weaving and knitting but this significance
is now conveyed with the phrase “Wet Processing”.
Finishing treatments are basically meant to give the textile material
certain desirable properties like
» Softness
» Lusture
» Pleasant handle
» Drape
» Dimensional stability
» Crease recovery
» Antistatic
» Non-slip
» Soil release
However these also include finishes that have to meet
certain specific end uses such as

» water repellency
» Flame retardency
» Mildew proofing
Chemical and Mechanical finishing
The finishing processes are applied in various forms and
various types of finishes effect can be obtained such as
discussed below
A finish that is classified as durable is one that will endure
through successive wet or dry cleaning
A non-durable, or soluble finish, is one that will be removed
through successive washing or dry cleanings
Textile finishes applied after the coloring process generally
fall into one of two general categories according to purpose
or end result. These categories are
» wet or chemical finishes
» decorative or mechanical finishes
Standard Chemical or Wet finishes
Standard, chemical or wet finishes augment the textile's
durability or ability to perform in a given way. These finishes
antibacterial or antiseptic
Easy Care
Flame retardant
Lamination or Bonding
Soil repellent
Water repellent
Water absorbency finishes
Decorative or Mechanical Finishes
Decorative finishes achieve a decorative result or an
enhanced aesthetic handle or appearance. Some of
them are
Brightening finishes
Calendering finishes
Ciré (chintz) finishes
Delustering finishes
Durable press calendering
Embossed finishes
Etch printing or burn-out finishes
Friction calendering
French wax finishes
Moiré finishes
Napped finishes
Panné finishes
Plisse finishes
Resin finishes
Schreiner calendering
Flock Finishes
Flocked finishes are the adherence of tiny
fibers or fine particles to create a pile effect on
a fabric through one of two methods:
1. Adhesive is applied to the surface of the fabric, which
may be in a design or pattern. The fibers are added with
the excess flocked fibers vacuumed off. The adhesive is
cured and the fabric brushed and cleaned.

2. Electrostatic flocking uses adhesive on the ground cloth,

which is then passed through a high-voltage field that
charges the fibers causing them to be attracted to the
Additives for Crosslinking
Additives, when added to a chemical finishing liquor, bring
about changes in physical or chemical properties of the
treated fabrics
Additives are also used to enhance the stability and smooth
running properties of the finishing liquors. Wetting,
dispersing and antifoam agents
These auxiliaries are usually added in small quantities (I-5
g/l) to finishing liquors
Dispersing agents ensure stability and compatibility of the
various components of a chemical finishing bath for
prolonged periods (6-8 h)
Antifoam agents prevent foaming of the liquor in the pad
trough or at the nip formed by the padding rollers. They act
by modifying surface tension and many different products
are available, several of them silicones.
Softeners are used to improve the handle and smoothness of
treated fabrics. Resilience (i.e. the ability to resist and
recover from stretching, deformation and creasing) can also
be improved. Softening agents are classified according to
their ionic properties.
Anionic agents are based on:
» (a) Sulphated oils or fatty acid esters
» (b) Alkyl sulphates
» (c) Fatty acid condensation products.
Nonionic agents are based on:
» (a) Polyglycol ethers and esters
» (b) Ethoxylated phenols
» (c) Silicone products.
Cationic agents are based on:
» (a) Quaternary ammonium or pyridinium derivatives
» (b) Aminoesters and amides.
Needle Lubricants (SOFTNERS)

Needle lubricants improve the sewing properties of

easycare cellulosic fabrics.
help to reduce losses in tear strength and abrasion
In general three types of products are employed,
» (a) Primary and secondary dispersions of
» (b) Silicic acid ester dispersions
» (c) Silicone dispersions
Handle Modifiers
They enable the handle of fabrics to be varied
from soft to firm according to demand.
Secondly they restore bulk and firmness to
fabrics that have become limp during
preparation and dyeing processes.
Thirdly they enable fabrics to be stiffened if
necessary to facilitate making-up procedures.
Finally a stiffening finish is required for end
uses such as interlinings, work wear, table
linen, bed linen, mattress covers, tapes and
Hydrophilic Finishes
Synthetic fabrics have low regain values. Nylon takes
up 5% moisture at equilibrium, polyester only 0.5%. To
improve comfort in wear, particularly for underwear in
contact with the skin, it is desirable to impart a
hydrophilic finish. Fatty acid adducts and modified
polyamide dispersions are widely used.
Hydrophobic Finishes
Makes the fabric less
hydrophilic or water
absorbing to protect them
against moisture damage.
Can be durable or non-
Used for tarpaulins and
Based on different
chemical sources
Teflon Finish
The name have been given by the
chemical manufacturing company Dupont,
by the 3M’s the name is Scotch Guard
It is an oil, soil and sometimes also water
They are based on fluorinated
fluorinated acrylate esters, chromium
complexes of perfluorocarboxylic acids and
Anti Slip Finishes
Slippage of warp and weft yarns is a well known defect
of loosely woven filament fabrics arising from the
smoothness of synthetic yarns.
The problem can be overcome by reducing fibre
surface smoothness, thereby increasing interfibre
friction, by applying silicic acid esters, sometimes in
combination with polyacrylates.
The most popular blends are those of polyester with
cellulosic fibres, either cotton or viscose, combining the
excellent easy-care and hard-wearing properties of
polyester with the comfort and freedom from static or
soiling of cellulosic fibres.
Durable Press
Durable press is a generic term for a finishing process
in which chemical or physical stabilizations of a fabric
takes place after making-up in garment form.
By delaying the final finishing step until making-up is
completed, it is possible to stabilizes the shape of a
garment in its final saleable form.
In durable press finishing a distinction is normally
made between precure and postcure methods.
This method is applicable
only if the polyester
content is at least 60% of
the total fabric weight.
Before making-up, the
cellulosic component is
chemically finished in
fabric form, in the usual
The polyester component
is heat set after making-up,
thereby imparting the
desired shape to last the
life of the garment.
In this method blend fabrics
are carefully impregnated
with crosslinking reactant,
catalyst and additives, but
reaction between cellulosic
fibres and crosslinking agent
is prevented by appropriate
selection of chemicals and
close attention to working
The chemically sensitised
fabric is subsequently made
up into garments, the required
final shape of which is
obtained by prolonged curing
in an oven.
Flame-retardant Finishes
Flame-retardant finishing of
cotton and blends, to impart
self-extinguishing behaviour
in normal wear and after
repeated launderings, creates
problems far more complex
than those encountered in any
other finishing process.
they function by
decomposing into chemical
species that alter the thermal
degradation reactions of the
substrate, decreasing the
concentration of combustible
products and increasing the
amount of char produced

Textile chemistry is a deep science in

It keeps us bound, to explore more
and more.
We have only touched a minor part of
this beneficial science