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SolidWorks

2011

SolidWorks Motion

Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corporation


300 Baker Avenue
Concord, Massachusetts 01742 USA

COMMERCIAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE PROPRIETARY


U.S. Government Restricted Rights. Use, duplication, or
disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions as set
forth in FAR 52.227-19 (Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights), DFARS 227.7202 (Commercial
Computer Software and Commercial Computer Software
Documentation), and in the license agreement, as applicable.
Contractor/Manufacturer:
Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corporation, 300 Baker
Avenue, Concord, Massachusetts 01742 USA

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1995-2010, Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corporation, a


Dassault Systmes S.A. company, 300 Baker Avenue,
Concord, Mass. 01742 USA. All Rights Reserved.
The information and the software discussed in this document
are subject to change without notice and are not
commitments by Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corporation
(DS SolidWorks).
No material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronically or manually, for any purpose
without the express written permission of DS SolidWorks.
The software discussed in this document is furnished under a
license and may be used or copied only in accordance with
the terms of the license. All warranties given by DS
SolidWorks as to the software and documentation are set
forth in the license agreement, and nothing stated in, or
implied by, this document or its contents shall be considered
or deemed a modification or amendment of any terms,
including warranties, in the license agreement.
Patent Notices
SolidWorks 3D mechanical CAD software is protected by
U.S. Patents 5,815,154; 6,219,049; 6,219,055; 6,611,725;
6,844,877; 6,898,560; 6,906,712; 7,079,990; 7,477,262;
7,558,705; 7,571,079; 7,590,497; 7,643,027; 7,672,822;
7,688,318; 7,694,238; and foreign patents, (e.g., EP
1,116,190 and JP 3,517,643).
eDrawings software is protected by U.S. Patent 7,184,044;
U.S. Patent 7,502,027; and Canadian Patent 2,318,706.
U.S. and foreign patents pending.

Trademarks and Product Names for SolidWorks


Products and Services
SolidWorks, 3D PartStream.NET, 3D ContentCentral,
eDrawings, and the eDrawings logo are registered
trademarks and FeatureManager is a jointly owned registered
trademark of DS SolidWorks.
CircuitWorks, Feature Palette, FloXpress, PhotoWorks,
TolAnalyst, and XchangeWorks are trademarks of DS
SolidWorks.
FeatureWorks is a registered trademark of Geometric Ltd.
SolidWorks 2011, SolidWorks Enterprise PDM, SolidWorks
Simulation, SolidWorks Flow Simulation, and eDrawings
Professional are product names of DS SolidWorks.
Other brand or product names are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.

Copyright Notices for SolidWorks Standard,


Premium, Professional, and Education Products
Portions of this software 1986-2010 Siemens Product
Lifecycle Management Software Inc. All rights reserved.
Portions of this software 1986-2010 Siemens Industry
Software Limited. All rights reserved.
Portions of this software 1998-2010 Geometric Ltd.
Portions of this software 1996-2010 Microsoft
Corporation. All rights reserved.
Portions of this software incorporate PhysX by NVIDIA
2006-2010.
Portions of this software 2001 - 2010 Luxology, Inc. All
rights reserved, Patents Pending.
Portions of this software 2007 - 2010 DriveWorks Ltd.
Copyright 1984-2010 Adobe Systems Inc. and its licensors.
All rights reserved. Protected by U.S. Patents 5,929,866;
5,943,063; 6,289,364; 6,563,502; 6,639,593; 6,754,382;
Patents Pending.
Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Adobe PDF logo,
Distiller and Reader are registered trademarks or trademarks
of Adobe Systems Inc. in the U.S. and other countries.
For more copyright information, in SolidWorks see Help >
About SolidWorks.
Copyright Notices for SolidWorks Simulation
Products
Portions of this software 2008 Solversoft Corporation.
PCGLSS 1992-2007 Computational Applications and
System Integration, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright Notices for Enterprise PDM Product


Outside In Viewer Technology, Copyright 1992-2010,
Oracle
Copyright 1995-2010, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Portions of this software 1996-2010 Microsoft
Corporation. All rights reserved.

Copyright Notices for eDrawings Products


Portions of this software 2000-2010 Tech Soft 3D.
Portions of this software 1995-1998 Jean-Loup Gailly and
Mark Adler.
Portions of this software 1998-2001 3Dconnexion.
Portions of this software 1998-2010 Open Design
Alliance. All rights reserved.
Portions of this software 1995-2009 Spatial Corporation.
This software is based in part on the work of the Independent
JPEG Group.

Document Number: PMT1142-ENG_DRAFT

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Contents

Introduction:

About This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Course Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Using this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Laboratory Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Training Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Windows 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Conventions Used in this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Use of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
What is SolidWorks Motion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
What is Motion Simulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Understanding Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Mass and Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Degrees-of- Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Constraining Degrees-of- Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Motion analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
How is motion analyzed on the computer?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Basics of Mechanism Setup in SolidWorks Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Fixed Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Floating Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Mates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Constraint Mapping Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
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Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lesson 1:
Introduction to
Motion Simulation
and Forces

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Basic Motion Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Case Study: Car Jack Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Driving Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Understanding Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Applied Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Force Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Force Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Case 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Plot Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Sub-Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Resizing Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Exercise 1:
3D Fourbar Linkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Lesson 2:
Building a Motion Model
and Post-processing
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Creating Local Mates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Case Study:
Crank Slider Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Mates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Concentric Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Hinge Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Point-to-Point Coincident Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Lock Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Two Face-to-Face Coincident Mates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Universal Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Screw Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Point-on-Axis Coincident Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Parallel Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

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Perpendicular Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Local Mates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Function Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Importing Data Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Alternative Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Plotting Kinematic Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Absolute vs. Relative values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Output coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Angular Displacement Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Angular Velocity and Acceleration Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Exercise 2:
Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Exercise 3:
Trace Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Lesson 3:
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Contact and Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Case Study: Catapult. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Interference Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Contact groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Contact Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Translational Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Magnitude of Spring Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Translational Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Post-processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Analysis with Friction (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Exercise 4:
The Bug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Exercise 5:
Door Closer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Lesson 4:
Advanced Contact
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Contact Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Case Study: Latching Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Fixing Motion with Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Motor Input and Force Input Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Functional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

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Force Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


STEP Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Contact: Solid Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Poisson Model (Restitution Coefficient) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Impact Force Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Closing Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Geometrical Description of Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Instability Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Modifying Result Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Closing Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Precise Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Integrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
GSTIFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
WSTIFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
SI2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Discussion: References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Exercise 6:
Hatchback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Exercise 7:
Conveyor Belt (No Friction). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Path Mate Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Exercise 8:
Conveyor Belt (With Friction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Lesson 5:
Curve to Curve Contact
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Contact Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Case Study: Geneva Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Curve to Curve Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Solid bodies vs. curve to curve contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Solid Bodies Contact Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Exercise 9:
Conveyor Belt (Curve to curve contact with friction) . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Lesson 6:
CAM Synthesis
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
CAMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Case Study: CAM Synthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Generating a CAM Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Trace Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Exporting Trace Path Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

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Cycle based motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173


Exercise 10:
Desmodromic CAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Exercise 11:
Rocker CAM Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Lesson 7:
Flexible Joints

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Flexible Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Case Study:
System with Rigid Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Calculation of Wheel Input Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Understanding Toe Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
System with Flexible Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Lesson 8:
Redundancies

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Redundancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
What are redundancies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Effects of Redundancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
How are redundancies removed in the solver? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Case Study:
Door Hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Degrees of Freedom Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Total Actual and Estimated DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Using Flexible Joints Option to Remove Redundancies . . . . . . 222
Limitations of Flexible Mates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Bushing Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
How to Check For Redundancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Typical Redundant Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Dual Actuators Driving a Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Parallel Linkages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Exercise 12:
Dynamic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Exercise 13:
Dynamic Systems 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Exercise 14:
Kinematic Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Exercise 15:
Zero Redundancy Model-Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

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Exercise 16:
Zero Redundancy Model-Part 2 (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Exercise 17:
Removing Redundancies with Bushings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Exercise 18:
Catapult. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

Lesson 9:
Export to FEA

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Exporting Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Case Study: Drive Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Project Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
FEA Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Load Bearing Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Mate location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Export of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
SolidWorks Simulation Users Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Direct Solution in SolidWorks Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Exercise 19:
Export to FEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Lesson 10:
Event Based Simulation
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Event Based Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Case Study: Sorting Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Servo motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Lesson 11:
Design Project (Optional)
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Design Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Case Study: Surgical Shear - Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Force to Cut the Catheter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Self Guided Problem - Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Self Guided Problem - Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Problem Solution - Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Creating the Force Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Force to Cut the Catheter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

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Creating the Force Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311


Force Expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
IF Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Developing the Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Case Study: Surgical Shear - Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Stages in the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Appendix A:
Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options
Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Integrator Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
GSTIFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
WSTIFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Stabilized Index Two (SI2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Integrator Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Maximum Iterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Initial Integrator Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Minimum Integrator Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Maximum Integrator Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Jacobian Re-evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Appendix B:
Mate Friction
Mate Friction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Concentric (Spherical) Mate Friction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Coincident Translational Mate Friction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Concentric Mate Friction Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Coincident Mate (Planar) Friction Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Universal Joint Friction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Friction Results Reported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

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Contents

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SolidWorks 2011

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Introduction

Introduction

The goal of this course is to teach you the basics of how to use the
SolidWorks Motion simulation software to help you analyze the
kinematic or dynamic behavior of your SolidWorks assembly model.

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About This
Course

SolidWorks 2011

The focus of this course is on the fundamental skills and concepts


central to the successful use of SolidWorks Motion 2011. You should
view the training course manual as a supplement to, and not a
replacement for, the system documentation and on-line help. Once you
have developed a good foundation in basic skills, you can refer to the
on-line help for information on less frequently used command options.

Prerequisites

Students attending this course are expected to have the following:

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Mechanical design experience.


Experience with the Windows operating system.
Completed the on-line SolidWorks tutorials that are available under
Help. You can access the on-line tutorials by clicking Help, Online
Tutorial.

Course Design
Philosophy

This course is designed around a process- or task-based approach to


training. Rather than focusing on individual features and functions, a
process-based training course emphasizes processes and procedures
you should follow to complete a particular task. By utilizing case
studies to illustrate these processes, you learn the necessary commands,
options and menus in the context of completing a design task.

Recommended
Length

The recommended minimum length of this course is two days.

Using this Book

This training manual is intended to be used in a classroom environment


under the guidance of an experienced SolidWorks Motion instructor. It
is not intended to be a self-paced tutorial. The examples and case
studies are designed to be demonstrated live by the instructor.

Please note, there may be slight differences in results for certain lessons
due to service pack upgrades, etc.

SolidWorks 2011

Laboratory exercises give you the opportunity to apply, practice and


expand the material covered during the lecture/demonstration portion
of the course. They are designed to represent typical design, and
analysis situations while being modest enough to be completed during
class time. You should note that many students work at different paces.
Therefore, we have included more lab exercises than you can
reasonably expect to complete during the course. This ensures that even
the fastest student will not run out of exercise.

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Laboratory
Exercises

Introduction

Training Files

A complete set of the various files used throughout this course can be
downloaded from the SolidWorks website, www.solidworks.com.
Click on the link for Support, then Training, then Training Files, then
SolidWorks Simulation Training Files. Select the link for the desired
file set. There may be more than one version of each file set available.
Direct URL:

www.solidworks.com/trainingfilessimulation

The files are supplied in signed, self-extracting executable packages.

The files are organized by lesson number. The Case Studies folder
within each lesson contains the files your instructor uses while
presenting the lessons. The Exercises folder contains any files that are
required for doing the laboratory exercises.

Feature Names

Throughout this course, feature names may be different from those you
obtain when doing the case studies and exercises. SolidWorks and
SolidWorks Motion name features sequentially, (Hinge1, Hinge2, etc.)
so if you apply mates in a different order, or you delete and then
recreate a mate, your names will be different. In most cases, mates are
referred to by their type (lock, hinge, coincident, etc.) and the
components that are mated (link, support, etc.). In addition, images are
also included to help avoid ambiguity, but you must always check the
instructions carefully to make sure you are selecting the correct feature.

Introduction

The screen shots in this manual were made using SolidWorks 2010 and
SolidWorks Motion 2010 running on Windows 7. If you are running
on a different version of Windows, you may notice differences in the
appearance of the menus and windows. These differences do not affect
the performance of the software.

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Windows 7

SolidWorks 2011

Conventions Used
in this Book

This manual uses the following typographic conventions:


Convention

Bold Sans Serif

SolidWorks Motion commands and options


appear in this style. For example, Motion,
Delete Results means choose the Delete
Results option from the Motion menu.

Typewriter

Feature names and file names appear in this


style. For example, Concentric.

17 Do this step

Use of Color

Meaning

Double lines precede and follow sections of


the procedures. This provides separation
between the steps of the procedure and large
blocks of explanatory text. The steps
themselves are numbered in sans serif bold.

The SolidWorks and SolidWorks Motion user interface make extensive


use of color to highlight selected geometry and to provide you with
visual feedback. This greatly increases the intuitiveness and ease of use
of the SolidWorks Motion software. To take maximum advantage of
this, the training manuals are printed in full color.

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction

SolidWorks Motion is a virtual prototyping tool for engineers and


designers interested in understanding the performance of their
assemblies. Powered by ADAMS technology, the industry leader for
over 25 years, SolidWorks Motion helps you ensure that your designs
will work and perform as expected prior to building them. By learning
how to effectively utilize the features of the user interface, you will
have the key to unlocking a solution to the most complex mechanisms.

What is Motion
Simulation?

A mechanism is a mechanical device that has the purpose of


transferring motion and/or force from a source to an output. Motion
simulation is simply the study of such moving systems or mechanisms.
The motion of any system is determined by the following:

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What is
SolidWorks
Motion?

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Mates connecting the parts


The mass and inertia properties of the components
Applied forces to the system
Driving motions (Motors or Actuators)
Time

Understanding
Basics
Mass and Inertia

The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental laws of classical


physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and how it is
affected by applied forces. Today, the concept of inertia is most
commonly defined using Isaac Newton's First Law of Motion, which
states:
Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving
uniformly straight ahead, except insofar as it is compelled to
change its state by forces impressed.

Mass and inertia play a very important role in the simulation of


dynamic systems and are also important in kinematics. Realistic values
of mass and inertia are needed in nearly all simulations.

Degrees-ofFreedom

An unconstrained rigid body in


space has six degrees-of-freedom:
three translational and three
rotational. It can translate along its
X, Y, and Z axes and rotate about its
X, Y, and Z axes as shown in the
figure to the right.

Introduction

SolidWorks 2011

Constraints are the


restrictions placed on
a parts movement in
specific degrees-offreedom. Mates are
connections that
restrict the movement
of one part with
respect to another.

Motion analysis

The two equations governing three dimensional motion of a rigid body


are known as Eulers equations.

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Constraining
Degrees-ofFreedom

The first equation is Newtons second law of motion which states that
the sum of externally applied forces on a body is equal to the rate of
dP
change of linear momentum P, F = -------- .
dt

For bodies where mass does not change, the right hand side of the
equation simplifies to more commonly known mass times acceleration,
F = ma .
The second equation is based on the sum of the moments about the
center of mass of a rigid body due to external forces, and couples
should equal the rate of change of angular momentum H of the body.
dH
M = -------dt

How is motion
analyzed on the
computer?

he program uses the modified Newton Raphson iteration method in


each time step.

By taking very small time steps, the software can predict the position of
parts at the next time step based on initial conditions or the previous
time step.
The solution must satisfy:
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Velocity of parts
Mates connecting parts
Forces and accelerations

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction

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The answer is iterated until certain accuracy is reached for that time
step for force and acceleration values.

Basics of
Mechanism
Setup in
SolidWorks
Motion

The following paragraphs outline how SolidWorks Motion treats parts


and sub-assemblies, and how the mates directly define the motion of
the mechanism when loaded by external forces (such as gravity or
isolated forces) or prescribed motions (motors).

Rigid Body

In SolidWorks Motion, all parts are treated as infinitely rigid. This


means that there is no internal deflection within a part and the parts do
not deform or change shape during the simulation. A rigid body can be
a single SolidWorks part or a sub-assembly.
There are two states of the sub-assembly in SolidWorks: Rigid or
Flexible. A rigid sub-assembly means that the individual components
that make up the sub-assembly are assumed to be rigidly attached
(welded) to each other as if they were one single part.

If a sub-assembly status is set to flexible in SolidWorks, it does not


mean that the sub-assembly parts become flexible. This setting means
that the root level parts of the sub-assembly are treated independently
of each other by SolidWorks Motion. The constraints (SolidWorks
mates at the sub-assembly level) between these parts are automatically
mapped into SolidWorks Motion.

Fixed Parts

A rigid body can be treated as a fixed part or a floating (moving) part.


Fixed parts are, by definition, at absolute rest. Each fixed rigid body
has zero degrees-of-freedom. A fixed part serves as the reference frame
for the remaining rigid bodies that are moving.

In SolidWorks, any component that is fixed in your assembly is


automatically treated as a fixed part when you begin a new mechanism
and map the assembly constraints.

Introduction

Components that move in the mechanism are considered moving parts.


Each moving part has six degrees-of-freedom.

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Floating Parts

SolidWorks 2011

In SolidWorks, any component that is floating in your assembly is


automatically treated as moving when you begin a new mechanism and
map the assembly constraints.

Mates

SolidWorks mates fully define how rigid bodies are attached and how
they move relative to each other. Mates remove degrees-of-freedom
from the parts to which they are attached.

When you add a mate, such as a concentric mate, between two rigid
bodies, you remove degrees-of-freedom, causing them to remain
positioned with respect to each other regardless of any motion or force
in the mechanism.

Motors

Motors can be defined for part to control its movement over a period of
time. A motor dictates the displacement, velocity, or acceleration of a
part as a function of time.

Gravity

Gravity is an important quantity when the weight of a part has an


influence on its simulated motion, such as a body in free fall. In
SolidWorks Motion, gravity consists of two components:

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Direction of the gravitational vector


Magnitude of gravitational acceleration

The Gravity Properties dialog allows you to specify the direction and
magnitude of the gravitational vector. You can specify the gravitational
vector by entering the x, y and z values in the appropriate text box, or
by specifying a reference plane. The magnitude must be entered
separately. The default value for the gravitational vector is (0, -1, 0),
and the magnitude is 9.81 m/s2 (or the equivalent in the currently active
units).

Constraint
Mapping Concept

One of the reasons SolidWorks Motion is such a time saving tool is that
it automatically maps the SolidWorks assembly mates (constraints) to
SolidWorks Motion. There are more than 100 ways to mate or constrain
parts in SolidWorks.

Forces

When defining various Force objects in SolidWorks Motion, a location


and/or direction has to be specified. These directions and locations are
derived from selected SolidWorks entities. The entities can be sketch
points, vertices, edges or surfaces.

Summary

This short review of motion simulation using SolidWorks Motion is


not, of course, all inclusive. It is only intended to get us started with the
hands-on lessons. As we progress through the lessons presented in the
following chapters, we will occasionally digress from software-specific
issues in order to discuss relevant motion simulation fundamentals.

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Lesson 1
Introduction to
Motion Simulation
and Forces

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Use Assembly Motion to animate the motion of a car jack


assembly.

Use SolidWorks Motion to simulate physical behavior of the car


jack and determine the torque required to lift a vehicle.

Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

In this lesson, we will perform a basic motion analysis using


SolidWorks Motion to simulate the weight of a vehicle on the jack and
determine the torque required to lift it. Engineers can then use this
information to choose the required electric motor to drive the car jack.

Case Study: Car


Jack Analysis

A mechanical jack is a device that lifts heavy equipment. The most


common form is a car jack, floor jack, or garage jack which lifts
vehicles so that maintenance can be performed. Car jacks usually use
mechanical advantage to allow a human to lift a vehicle. More
powerful jacks use hydraulic power to provide more lift over greater
distances. Mechanical jacks are usually rated for a maximum lifting
capacity (e.g., 1.5 tons or 3 tons).

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Basic Motion
Analysis

Because this is our first motion analysis, no contact is used and the
tilting motion of the jack is prevented with the help of the mates.

Problem
Description

The car jack will be driven at a rate of 100 RPM and will be loaded
with a force of 8,900 N., representing the weight of a vehicle.
Determine the torque and power required to lift the load through the
range of motion of the jack.

Stages in the
Process

Create a Motion Study.

This will be a new motion study.

Add a rotary motor.

The rotary motor will drive the jack.

Add gravity.

Normal gravity will be added so that the weight of the car jack
components are considered in the calculations.

Add the weight of the car.

The weight of the car will be added as a downward force on the


Support.

10

Calculate the motion.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

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The default analysis will run for five seconds but we will increase it
to allow the jack to extend fully.
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Plot the results.

We will create various plots to show the torque and power required.

Ensure that SolidWorks Motion is


added in.
Under Tools, Add-ins, make sure
SolidWorks Motion is checked.

Open an assembly file.


Open Car_Jack from the
Lesson01\Case Studies folder.

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Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Set the document units.

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SolidWorks Motion uses the document units set in the SolidWorks


document.
Click Tools, Options, Document Properties, Units.

Select MMGS (millimeter, gram, second) for the Unit system. This
will set our length units to millimeters and force to Newtons.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Change to the Motion Study.


Click on the Motion Study 1 tab that appears at the bottom left-hand
corner of the window. If this tab is not visible, select Motion Manager
on the View menu.

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Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Motion can be driven by gravity, springs, forces or motors. Each has


different characteristics that can be controlled.

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Driving Motion
Introducing: Motors

Motors can create either linear, rotary or path dependent motion or to


prevent motion. This motion can be defined in a number of different
ways.
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Constant Speed

The motor will drive at a constant velocity.

Distance

The motor will move for a fixed distance or degrees.

Oscillating

Oscillating motion is a back and forth motion at a specific distance


at a specified frequency.

Segments

Motion profile is constructed from segments of the most commonly


used functions such as linear, polynomial, half-sine and others.

Data Points

Interpolated motion is driven by a tabular set of values.

Expression

The motor can be driven by a function created from existing


variables and constants.

Servo Motor

The motor used to implement control actions for the event-based


triggered motion.

Where to Find It

14

On the MotionManager toolbar, click Motor

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Create a Motor that drives the Screw_rod at 100 RPM.


Click Motor
on the Motion Manager toolbar.

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Under Motor Type, select Rotary Motor.

Under Component Direction, select the cylindrical face of the


Screw_rod part as shown in the figure. The Motion Direction field
will automatically populate the same face to specify the direction.

Use the Reverse Direction button to orient the motor (see the figure).
Leave the Component to move relative to field empty. This ensures
that the motor direction is specified with respect to the global
coordinate system.
Under Motion, select the Constant speed and enter a value of
100 RPM.
Click OK.

Important!

Make sure that the motor is oriented as shown in the figure.

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Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

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Click the graph in the PropertyManager to view the enlarged plot.

Close the graph plot and click OK to close the Motor PropertyManager.

Type of Study.

Make sure that the Motion Type of Study field


shows Motion Analysis.

Gravity

Gravity is an important quantity when the weight of a part has an


influence on its simulated motion, such as a body in free fall. In
SolidWorks Motion, gravity consists of two components:
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Direction of the gravitational vector


Magnitude of the gravitational acceleration

The Gravity Properties allows you to specify the direction and


magnitude of the gravitational vector. You can specify the gravitational
vector by selecting the X, Y and Z direction or by specifying a
reference plane. The magnitude must be entered separately. The default
value for the gravitational vector is Y and the magnitude is
9806.55 mm/sec2 or the equivalent in the currently active units.

16

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Apply Gravity to the assembly.


Click Gravity
on the Motion Manager toolbar.

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For Gravity Parameters, Direction Reference,


select the Y direction.

Under Numeric gravity value, type in a value of


9806.65 mm/sec^2.
Click OK.

Forces

Force entities (including both forces and moments) are used to effect
the dynamic behavior of parts and sub assemblies of a motion model
and are usually a representation of some external effect acting on the
analyzed assembly.
Forces may resist or induce motion, and are defined using similar
functions that are used to define motors (constant, step, function,
expression or interpolated).

Forces in SolidWorks Motion can be divided into two basic groups:


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Action Forces

A single applied force or moment


representing the effect of the external
objects and loadings on the part or
subassembly. The weight of the vehicle
applied on the car jack or an
aerodynamic force on the car body are examples of action forces.

Action and Reaction Forces

A pair of forces or moments, both action and corresponding


reaction, are applied on the parts or subassemblies.

A spring force could be understood as action and reaction force


because both are acting on the same line of action and acting on the
assembly at the spring mount points. Another example would be a
person pushing with his/her arms on the two opposing parts of an
assembly. Such a person can then be represented in the motion
analysis by a pair of two opposing forces of equal magnitude on the
same line of action, i.e. action and reaction forces.

Understanding
Forces

A force can define load or compliance on a part. SolidWorks Motion


provides the following type of forces:

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Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Applied forces are forces that define loads at specific locations on a


part. You must provide you own description of the force behavior by
specifying a constant force value or a function expression. The applied
forces available in SolidWorks Motion are the applied force, applied
torque, action/reaction force and action/reaction torque.

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Applied Forces

The orientation of action-only forces can be fixed or at relative to the


orientation of any part in the mechanism.
Applied forces are used to model inputs such as actuators, rockets,
aerodynamic loads and many more.

Force Definition

To define a force the following information must be specified:

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Part or parts on which the forces act.


Point of the force application.
Magnitude and direction of the force.

On the MotionManager toolbar, click Force


Only
in the PropertyManager.

. Select Action-

Where to Find It

Force Direction

The force direction is based on the reference part


you select in the Force Direction box. An
illustration below gives you the three cases on how
the force direction changes based on the selected
reference parts.

Case 1

Direction of force is based on a fixed component.

If fixed component is the assembly origin then the initial orientation of


the force will be held constant throughout the simulation.
Reference Fixed Component

F1

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F1

F1

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Direction of force is based on the selected moving component,


which is also the component on which you want to apply the
force.

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Case 2

If the part to which the force is applied is used as the reference datum,
then the force will remain locked in its relative orientation to the body
over the entire simulation time (i.e. it will stay in alignment with the
geometry on the body used to define the direction).
Reference Rotating Component

F1

F1

F1

Fixed Component

Case 3

Direction of force is based on the selected moving component


which is different from the component on which you want to
apply the force.

If another moving part is used as the reference datum, the direction of


the force will change based on the relative orientation of the reference
body to the moving body. This is hard to visualize easily, but if you
apply the force on a body that is held locked in position, and use a
rotating part as the reference datum, you should see the force rotates in
concert with the reference body.
Reference Rotating Component

F1

Note

F1

F1

Make sure that the gravity symbol shows the orientation in the
negative Y direction.

19

Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Create a force of 8900 N to simulate the weight of the car on the


car jack.
Click Force
on the Motion Manager.

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For Type, select Force.

Under Direction, select Action Only.

Under Action part and point of application of action, select the


circular edge on component Support-1 (see image below).
For Force Direction, select the vertical edge on the Base-1
component.

The default force direction is defined by the circular edge selected in


the Action part and point of application of action field, i.e.
perpendicular to the plane of the edge. Because the default direction is
correct in this case, the edge selected in the Force Direction field is not
required and is done solely for the educational purpose.

Note

Under Force Function, select Constant. Enter a force value of


8900 N.

Make sure that the force is directed downwards.

Note

Click OK to close the Force/Torque PropertyManager.

20

Run the Simulation.


Click Calculate . The simulation will calculate for 5 seconds.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

10 Run the Simulation for 8 seconds.

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Drag the end time key to 8 seconds on the timeline and recalculate.

Results

The primary output from a motion study is a plot of one parameter


versus another, usually time.
Once the motion is calculated plots can be created for a variety of
parameters. All existing plots will be listed at the bottom of the
MotionManager tree.

Plot Categories

Plots of the following categories can be created:


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Sub-Categories

Displacement
Acceleration
Momentum
Power

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Displacement
Forces
Energy
Other quantities

Within each of the categories, plots can be created for:


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Trace Path
Linear Displacement
Linear Acceleration
Angular Velocity
Applied Force
Reaction Force
Friction Force
Contact Force
Angular Momentum
Angular Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy Delta
Pitch
Roll
Bryant Angles

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XYZ Position
Linear Velocity
Angular Displacement
Angular Acceleration
Applied Torque
Reaction Moment
Friction Moment
Translational Momentum
Translational Kinetic Energy
Total Kinetic Energy
Power Consumption
Yaw
Rodriguez Parameters
Projection Angles

Resizing Plots

Plots can be resized by dragging any border or corner.

Where to Find It

Click Results and Plots

on the MotionManager toolbar.

21

Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

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11 Plot the torque required to lift the weight of the car.


Click Results and Plots
in the Motion manager.

Under Result, select the category as Forces.


Under Sub-category, select Motor Torque.

Under Result component, select Magnitude.

Under Select rotational motor object to create result, select the


motor that we created (see image below).
Click OK.

The plot of torque required appears in the graphics area.

The required torque is about 7244 N-mm.

22

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

Once the Rotary Motor1 is selected, a triad is displayed in the


graphics area. This triad indicates the local X, Y and Z axes of the
motor in which the output quantities may be displayed. In the present
case we require the plot of the magnitude which is independent of the
coordinate system. The post-processing is described in greater detail in
the next lesson.

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Note

12 Plot the power consumed to lift a weight of 8900 N.


We will add this plot into an existing graph. Click Results and Plots in

the Motion Manager toolbar.

Under Result, select the category as Momentum/Energy/Power.


Under Sub-category, select Power Consumption.

Under Select motor object to create result, select the same motor
that you selected in the previous step.

Under Plot Results, select Add to existing plot and select Plot1 from
the pull down menu.
Click OK.

The power consumption is 76 Watts. Based on the torque and the power
information, we can select an electric motor and use it to drive the
Screw_rod instead of a human hand.
You can click Play
to see the animation. The vertical time bar in
both the MotionManager and the graph indicates the time.

23

Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

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13 Plot the vertical position of the Support.


Click on the Results and Plots icon in the Motion Manager.

Under Result, select the category as Displacement/Velocity/


Acceleration.
Under Sub-category, select Linear Displacement.
For Result Component, select Y-component.

For Select two points/faces, select the top face of the support. If no
second item is selected, the ground serves as the default second
component, or the reference.
Leave the Component to define XYZ directions field empty. This
indicates that the displacement is reported in the default global
coordinate system.

Note

The displacement is measured at the origin of the Support part file,


indicated as the small blue sphere in the above figure, with respect to
the origin of the Car_Jack assembly file. The result is reported in the
default global coordinate system.
Click OK.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1

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Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

The above graph indicates change of the global Y coordinate of the


origin of the Support part file. The displacement is therefore 51mm
(212-161mm) in the positive global Y axis.

14 Modify the graph.

Modify the ordinate of the graph to show the


angular displacement of the motor.

In the MotionManager tree, expand the Results


folder. Right-click Plot2 and click Edit Feature.
Under Plot Results, Plot Results verus: select
New Result.

For Define new result, select Displacement/


Velocity/Acceleration.

Select Angular Displacement under sub-category.

Select Magnitude for result component.

Select RotaryMotor1 for the simulation element.


Click OK.

25

Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

15 Examine the graph.

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The result plot is a little coarse and the data ordinate does not cover the
full range of -180 to 180 degrees. To generate a graph with finer detail,
more data must be saved to disk.

Introducing: Study
Properties

SolidWorks Motion has its own set of properties to control the way the
study is calculated and displayed.
Study properties will be discussed throughout the book.
Click Motion Study Properties

on the MotionManager toolbar.

Where to Find It

Introducing: Frames
per Second

Frames per second controls how often the data is saved on the disk. The
higher the frames per second, the more dense the data recorded.

Where to Find It

In the Motion Study Properties, expand Motion Analysis and either


type the number, use the spinbox arrows or adjust the slider.

16 Modify Motion Study properties.


Click Motion Study Properties
in the

MotionManager toolbar.

Change the Frames per second to 100.

Click OK.

26

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 1
Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

17 Calculate the study.

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Notice that we have more detail and the angular displacement is nearly
from -180 to 180 degrees.

18 Save and close the file.

27

Lesson 1

SolidWorks 2011

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Introduction to Motion Simulation and Forces

28

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 1
3D Fourbar Linkage

Exercise 1:
3D Fourbar
Linkage

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This assembly is a simple mechanism called 3D Fourbar linkage.


There are only four parts in the mechanism. The Support part is
grounded, and the rotation of the Lever part will cause a sliding motion
of the SliderBlock part.

LeverArm

linkage

Support

SliderBlock

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


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Project
Description

Basic Motion Analysis on page 10.


Results on page 21.

The LeverArm will be simply rotated with a constant 360 deg/sec


angular velocity. Determine the amount of torque required to drive this
mechanism and plot it from the motion simulation.

Open an assembly file.

Open 3D Fourbar linkage from the Lesson01\


Exercises folder.

Verify fixed and moving components.

Make sure that support is fixed while the other


components can move.

Motion study.

In the MotionManager, select Motion Analysis.

The default Motion Study 1 will be used for the analysis.

Add gravity.

Apply gravity in the negative Z direction.

29

Exercise 1

SolidWorks 2011

3D Fourbar Linkage

Define motion of the Lever Arm.


Define a Rotary Motor at 360 deg/sec.

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You can enter 360 deg/sec directly into the PropertyManager and it will
automatically be converted to RPM.

Tip

Motion study properties.

Set the Frames per second to 100 and drag the time key to 4
seconds.

7
8

Calculate the simulation.

Determine the torque and power required to drive the mechanism.

Define a graph showing the moment torque and the required power as a
function of time. Define both quantities in a single graph.

30

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 1
3D Fourbar Linkage

Linear velocity of the SliderBlock.

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Plot a graph showing the linear velocity of the SliderBlock as a


function of time.

10 Modify the graph.

Modify the ordinate of the graph to show the angular displacement of


the Rotary Motor. This way the graph will show the variation of the
SliderBlock velocity relative to the angular displacement of the
LeverArm.

11 Save and close the file.

31

Exercise 1

SolidWorks 2011

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3D Fourbar Linkage

32

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Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model
and Post-processing

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Build proper SolidWorks Motion models for kinematic simulation.

Create local mates for a SolidWorks Motion study.

Create and modify plots for post-processing.

33

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

In the previous lesson, the mates created in SolidWorks were used as


joints in SolidWorks Motion. If the components are not mated in
SolidWorks, or if we wish to examine different connection types in
SolidWorks Motion, mates can be added or modified in the Motion
Analysis.

Case Study:
Crank Slider
Analysis

In this lesson, we will setup the mechanism for the crank slider model.
We will use SolidWorks mates that most closely represent the real
mechanical connections. The crank slider model is used in a variety of
engineering applications, such as a steam engine or the cylinder of an
internal combustion engine. Therefore, we will apply a motor on the
crank part, run the simulation, and then postprocess some results to
estimate the required torque.

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Creating Local
Mates

Crank

Arm Mount

Link2

Link1

Arm

Crank
Housing

Collar Shaft
Collar

Problem
Description

The crank is driven at a constant angular velocity of 60 RPM.


Determine the torque required to rotate the crank part.

Stages in the
Process

Create a motion study.

Preprocessing.

Add local mates to the assembly with the motion study active.

Run the simulation.

Calculate the motion.

Post-processing.

Plot and analyze the results.

Open an assembly file.

Open 3dcrankslider from the Lesson02\Case Studies folder.

34

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Examine the assembly.

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SolidWorks Motion assumes that all components


that are fixed in SolidWorks are considered to be
grounded parts, and all components that are
floating are assumed to be moving parts.
However, the movement of these parts is
constrained by the SolidWorks mates.

There are no mates in this assembly, but three


parts are fixed. The collar_shaft, arm_mount
and crank_housing are fixed as these are parts
that would be connect to ground and will have no
motion in the assembly.

Fixed

No
Mates

The remaining parts will need mates to constrain


their motion to that expected of the mechanical system.

Mates

Mates are used to constrain the relative motion of a pair of rigid bodies
by physically connecting them.

Note

A rigid body acts and moves as a single unit. SolidWorks components


situated at the root level are considered rigid bodies. This means that
SolidWorks and SolidWorks Motion treat subassemblies as single rigid
bodies.
Mates can be classified into two main types:
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Mates used to constrain the relative motion of a pair of rigid bodies


by physically connecting them. Examples: Hinge, Concentric,
Coincident, Fixed, Screw, Cam, etc.

Mates used to enforce standard geometric constraints. Examples:


Distance, Angle, Parallel, etc.

Below are some descriptions of some of the most commonly used mate
types. For a comprehensive understanding of all the other mates, please
refer to the SolidWorks help.

35

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

The concentric mate allows both relative rotation as well as relative


translation of one rigid body with respect to another rigid body. The
concentric mate origin can be located anywhere along the axis about
which the rigid bodies can rotate or slide with respect to each other.
Example: Piston sliding and rotating inside a cylinder.

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Concentric Mate

Hinge Mate

Hinge mate is essentially concentric mate with the restricted translation


between the two components.

In SolidWorks Motion, the hinge mate is used rather than a


combination of concentric and coincident because the mechanical joint
is a hinge. Hinge mates are found in the Mechanical Mates tab of the
Mate PropertyManager.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

This type of mate permits free rotation about a common point of one
rigid body with respect to another rigid body. The origin location of this
mate determines the point about which the rigid bodies can pivot freely
with respect to each other. Example: Ball and Socket joint.

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Point-to-Point
Coincident Mate

Lock Mate

The lock mate locks two rigid bodies together so they may not move
with respect to each other. For a lock mate, the origin location and
orientation does not affect the outcome of the simulation. A real world
example of a lock mate is a weld that holds two parts together.

Two Face-to-Face
Coincident Mates

This mate allows one rigid body to translate along a vector with respect
to a second rigid body. The rigid bodies may only translate, not rotate,
with respect to each other.

The location of the origin of a translational joint with respect to its rigid
bodies does not affect the motion of the two bodies but does affect the
reaction or the bearing loads.

37

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

A universal mate permits the transfer of rotation from one rigid body to
another rigid body. This mate is particularly useful to transfer rotational
motion around corners, or to transfer rotational motion between two
connected shafts that are permitted to bend at the connection point
(such as the drive shaft on an automobile).

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Universal Mate

The origin location of the universal mate represents the connection


point of the two rigid bodies. The two shaft axes identify the center
lines of the two rigid bodies connected by the universal joint. Note that
SolidWorks Motion uses rotational axes parallel to the rotational axes
you identify but passing through the origin of the universal mate.

Screw Mate

The screw mate constrains one rigid body to rotate as it translates with
respect to another rigid body.

When defining a screw mate, you can define the pitch. The pitch is the
amount of relative translational displacement between the rigid bodies
for each full rotation of the first rigid body. The displacement of the
first rigid body relative to the second rigid body is a function of the
rotation of the first rigid body about the axis of rotation. For every full
rotation, the displacement of the first rigid body along the translation
axis with respect to the second rigid body is equal to the value of the
pitch.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

This type of mate permits one translational and three rotational motions
of one part with respect to another. The translational motion between
the parts is confined to the orientation axis. The point defines the initial
pivot location on the axis.

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Point-on-Axis
Coincident Mate

Parallel Mate

A parallel mate permits only translational motion of one part with


respect to another. No rotation is allowed.

In the picture below, the blue x part can move relative to the ground in
the X direction. The red y part can move relative to the x part in the Y
direction. The z part can move relative to the y part in the Z direction.
Finally, the red/yellow/blue cube on the z part has a curvilinear motion
relative to the ground but always stays parallel.

39

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Perpendicular
Mate

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The perpendicular mate allows both translational and rotational motion


of one part with respect to another. It imposes a single rotational
constraint on the components so that the component axes remain
perpendicular. This allows relative rotations about either z-axis, but
does not allow any relative rotation in the direction perpendicular to
both z-axes.

It is recommended that the mates are representing the real mechanical


connections as closely as possible, i.e. mechanical hinge should be
modeled using the hinge mate and not using a combination of
coincident and concentric mates.

Local Mates

Mates created in SolidWorks can be transferred to the Motion Analysis


and used as mechanical joints. If there are no mates in the SolidWorks
assembly or if we wish to define the connections differently than the
SolidWorks mates, we can add local mates directly to the motion study.
Local mates only apply to the study to which they were added.
To add local mates, make a motion study active and add the mates.
With a motion study active, any mate added is only applied in that
motion study.

Verify the document units.

Verify that the document units are set to MMGS (millimeter, gram,
second).

Create a Motion Study.

Right-click the Motion Study 1 tab and click Create New Motion
Study.

Make sure that the Motion Analysis is selected as the Type of Study
in the MotionManager.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Move components.

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Move the components that are not fixed to separate the assembly. We
are doing this only to make it easier to select faces and to keep track of
what components are mated.

Create a local mate.

Add a mate and select Hinge from the Mechanical Mates section. For
Concentric Selections, select the two cylindrical faces of the shaft
and hole shown with red arrows. For Coincident Selections, select the
end face of the shaft and crank housing shown with the blue arrows.

Click OK.

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Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Warning.

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Because the timeline is active, the mate changes the position of the
crank at the starting position of the animation. This is OK for what we
are doing.

Click Yes.

Examine the mate.

Notice that this mate is only located in the MotionManager and not in
the FeatureManager design tree.

42

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Add additional mates.


Add a concentric mate between the two

Link1

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spherical surfaces shown on the parts


Link1 and crank.

crank

Concentric

10 Mate arm to arm_mount.


Add a hinge mate to connect the arm to the
arm_mount.

11 Mate Link1 to the arm.

This connection requires two hinge mates, one between Link1 and
cardian, and a second hinge mate between cardian and arm.

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Lesson 2

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Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

12 Mate Link2.
Link2 will use a hinge mate to
connect the arm. As there is no pin

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Hinge

going through the two holes, the


coincident selections will be the two
touching faces.

Mate the other end of Link2 to the


pin on the collar with just a
concentric mate.

Concentric

13 Mate collar to collar_shaft.

Add a concentric mate between a cylindrical surface on each part.

14 Test the assembly.

Rotate the crank and make sure the components move as expected.

Check the FeatureManager design tree and the Motion Study tree. All
the mates should just be in the Motion Study tree.

15 Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

16 Calculate.

Adjust the assembly key to 5 seconds. Click Calculate Simulation

17 Play the simulation.

Play the simulation at 25% speed.

The crank will rock back and forth as gravity affects the components
and potential and kinetic energy are exchanged. As there is no friction,
the parts will continue to move without end.

18 Set the timebar to 0s.

To add a motor at time 0s, the timebar needs to be set to 0s.

19 Add a motor.

Create a Motor that drives the crank.


Click Motor

on the Motion Manager.

Under Motor Type, select Rotary Motor.

Under Motor Location, select the cylindrical


face of the crank part (as shown in the
figure).
The default selection for the Motor
Direction is correct for this analysis. Make
sure that the motor is oriented as shown in
the figure.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

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Under Motion, select the Motor Type as Data Points. The command
invokes the Function Builder window.
Make sure that Value (y) and Independent variable (x) are set to
Displacements (deg) and Time (s).

Function Builder

Function Builder can be used to construct functional expression for


motors and forces.

Introducing:
Function Builder

Function Builder can build functional expressions using predefined


Segments, imported set of discrete Data Points or mathematical
Expressions.
The figure below shows the segment view of the Function Builder
window.

Segments

In Segment view, user select both the independent (typically time)


and dependent variable (displacements, velocity or acceleration).
For each specified interval, the transition from the initial to final
value is controlled using one of the predefined profiles curves. The
following profile curves have been implemented: Linear, Cubic,

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Quarter-Sine, Half-Sine, 3-4-5 Polynomial and others. As the


function is constructed, the graph windows show the corresponding
variation of displacement, velocity, acceleration and the jerk (time
derivative of acceleration). Note that it is possible to save and
retrieve function from stored location.

Data Points

The discrete set of data points can be imported from a *.csv file or
entered manually. The functionality as well as the options are
similar to the Interpolated option of the input and are explained in
this lesson.

Expression

Expression enables the construction of functions with the help of


predefined mathematical functions, variables and constants, and
existing motion study results. As in both previous cases, the
function can be saved at a specific location. This procedure will be
used in this lesson.

Where to Find It

In the Motor or Force/Torque PropertyManagers, under Motor


Type or Force Function dialog select Segments, Data Points or
Expression.

20 Import data points.

Rather than type the individual values into the table, we can load them
from a file. In this case, we have an Excel file. Locate the file crank
rotation.csv in the Case Studies folder and examine the file. It is just
two columns of numbers representing the time and displacement.

Click the Import Data button. Navigate to and select the crank
rotation.csv file and click Open. The values from the file are now
inserted into the Time and Value columns.
Select Akima as the Interpolation type.

Note

46

The Function Builder graph windows automatically updates the plots


for displacement, velocity, acceleration and jerk. The data points
describe linear increase of the angular displacement in time, a harmonic
motion

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

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Click OK to complete the definition of the profile and close the


Function Builder.
Click OK to complete the definition of the Motor feature.

Rename this motor feature to Motor - crank.

Importing Data
Points

Using imported data points, you can use your own motion data to
control the displacement, velocity, or acceleration of the motion. The
data points that can be imported into SolidWorks Motion must be in a
text file (*.txt) or comma separated file (*.csv) format. The file should
contain one data point per line. The data point consists of two values,
the time and the value at that time. Commas or spaces can be used as
separators between the values. The file is essentially free format aside
from these restriction. SolidWorks Motion allows for unlimited number
of data points to be used. The minimum number of data points to be
defined is four.
The first column, Independent variable (x), in the data point template
is typically time, but other parameters such as cycle angle, angular
displacement and others can be used as well. The second column,
Value (y), is the displacement, velocity, or acceleration. These values
can be manually entered or imported.

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Besides Linear interpolation, two spline-fitting options are available to


smoothen out the data: the Akima spline (AKISPL) and cubic curve
spline (CUBSPL). It is recommended that you use a cubic curve
because it will work well even if you data points are not evenly spaced.
An Akima curve is fast, but will not work as well if you points are not
evenly spaced.

21 Run the simulation.


Click Calculate to run the simulation for 5 seconds.
22 Plot the torque.

Create a plot for the torque required to turn the


mechanism.
Define the plot by Forces, Motor Torque and
Magnitude.
Select the Motor-crank for the Simulation
element.
Click OK.

23 Examine the plot.

The plot may be improved by recording more data points by increasing


the Frames per second option in the Motion Study Properties.

48

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

24 Plot the power.

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Create a plot for the power required to turn the


mechanism.

Define the plot by Momentum/Energy/Power,


and Power Consumption.
Select the Motor-crank for the Simulation
element.

Click OK.

Note

Knowing the operating RPM, torque and/or power we can select the
appropriate motor to drive our system.

Power

Power is the rate at which work is performed, or the amount of work


conducted in one second. Forces conduct work on distances, moments
then on the angular displacements. For rotating motors the following
relationship therefore holds:
Power [W]

= Torque [N-m] Angular velocity [rad/sec]

The power plot in the previous figure can be easily verified. The
maximum torque is 10 N-mm = 0.01 N-m
Angular velocity

= 360 deg/sec = 2 rad/sec

Students can easily verify this by creating the plot of the angular
velocity.
The resulting maximum power is then:
Power

= 0.01 2 = 0.063W

The graph of the power indicates 0.06 W because two significant digits
precision is used by default.

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Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Often times the rating of the electric motors is expressed in maximum


power and torque. Alternative units are used frequently.

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Alternative Units

If rpm is used for the angular velocity, then:

Torque [N-m] 2 Angular velocity [rpm]


Power [W] = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60

If horsepower is used instead, the following conversion can be used:


Mechanical horsepower = 33,000 lb-ft/min = 745.7W

A useful formula when computing power using mechanical horsepower


in the English system of units is the following:

Power [hp]

Torque[lb-ft] RPM
Torque [lb-ft] 2 Angular velocity [rpm]
= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = ----------------------------------------------33,000

5252.1

While mechanical horsepower is common in some industries in the


United States (automotive industry, for example), similar measure
called metric horsepower is used in Europe and Asia. Metric
horsepower is then defined as:
Metric horsepower

= 735.5W

Because of this ambiguity in the definition of horsepower, its use today


is not recommended.

25 Add a mate.

When we added mates to this motion study, we only added mates


essential to describing the motion. Depending on how the assembly is
built, a mate preventing the collar from rotating around the collar shaft
could be defined. This mate would represent the mechanical function of
the keyway.
Add a coincident mate between one side face of the key and the
corresponding face on the keyway.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

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26 Run the study.


Change the Frames per Second to 100, then re-calculate the study.
27 Review results.

The torque values are essentially the same as when we did not have the
coincident mate. The plot is now smoother as we have four times more
data points.

Following the recommendations that all mates should represent the real
mechanical connections for the kinematic analyses, this mate defining
the keyway could be defined, even if it is not required for the actual
motion analysis.

28 Plot reaction force.

Create a new plot to show the reaction force on


the motor.

Define the plot by Forces, Reaction Force, and


Magnitude.

In this assembly, the first hinge we defined was


between the crank and crank_housing. As the
crank_housing is fixed, the mate must transmit
the reaction force.

Select the first hinge mate as the Simulation


element.

Because the selected mate connects two parts,


there are two equal and opposite forces acting in
the mate. One of the two parts must be selected
for the plot of this force.

Select any face on the crank-1 part as the second component in the
Simulation Element field.
Click the Show vector in the graphics window checkbox.

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Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

This mate must be selected from the Mate Group 1 folder in the
Motion Manager tree because this mate is local and is not listed in the
FeatureManager design tree.

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Note

Click OK.

29 Warning.

We will receive a warning about redundant constraints. Redundant


constraints may have significant impact on the mate forces (forces in
the mechanical connections, defined by the mates) and will be
discussed later in the course. The resulting force obtained for this
mechanism is, however, correct as the redundancies present in this
assembly do not have any effect on the force shown in the figure below.

Click No.

52

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

30 Review the plot.

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Play the simulation and observe the reaction force vector.

When viewed from the Right view:

53

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

The Results PropertyManager provides access to various output


quantities reviewed in Lesson 1. They can be requested in absolute or
relative values, and with respect to another component of the assembly.
While in most situations the default output is in the global coordinate
system of the top level assembly, it is very easy to transform the values
to any other selected local coordinate system.

Absolute vs.
Relative values

To request the plot of absolute values, select the


component (mate, motor, part etc.) in the
Simulation Element field.

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Plotting
Kinematic
Results

To plot values relative to the second


component, add this component to the
Simulation Element field.

Reference component

Note

The reference component must be selected as the second in the list.

Output coordinate
system

Typically, the results are output in the global coordinate system of the
assembly. For some simulation components (mates and motors, for
example) the default output is, however, in the local system of the
selected component.
To plot results in other than the default coordinate
system, select the desired component in the
Component to define XYZ directions field. The
values will then be transformed into the coordinate
system of the selected part.

Note

54

The requested output coordinate system is indicated


by the triad shown in the graphics area.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

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In the next section four plots we will demonstrate the results in their
absolute and relative magnitudes, evaluated in both the global and local
coordinate systems.

31 Absolute result for component in global system.

Create a plot for the X component of the linear displacement of arm.

Define the plot by Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration, Linear


Displacement and X Component.

Select any face of the arm component for the Simulation element.

Click OK.

Note

If we select a face, the plot will be of the linear displacement of the


parts origin, indicated by a small blue sphere, with respect to the origin
of the assembly in the global assembly system.

Because the input was harmonic motion, the output is an oscillatory


motion.

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Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

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32 Absolute result for component transformed in local system.


Create a plot for the X component of the linear displacement of arm

transformed in its own local coordinate system.

Edit the definition of the previous plot and select arm as the
Component to define XYZ directions.
Click OK.

Local coordinate system


of arm part

Global coordinate system

Note

Note that the triad on the part arm now indicates the output local
coordinate system which is misaligned with the global coordinate
system. Further more, note that this local output system translates and
rotates with respect to the global coordinate system as you play the
motion.

Note

The above figure shows the linear displacement of the parts origin,
with respect to the origin of the assembly, transformed in the parts
coordinate system. Alternatively, we can view the above graph as the
values from step 31, transformed in the coordinate system of the arm.

56

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

33 Relative result for component in global system.

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Create a plot for the X component of the linear displacement of the


arm relative to the displacement of the collar.
Edit the previous plot.

Clear the Component to define XYZ directions field.

Select the collar part as the second component in the Simulation


element field.

We can see that the displacement has somewhat different oscillatory


characteristic as the displacement of the arm in the global coordinate
system (step 31). Relative result for component transformed in local
system.

Note

The above figure shows the linear displacement of the arms origin,
with respect to the origin of the collar part in the global coordinate
system.

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Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

34 Relative result for component in local system.

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Create a plot for the X component of the linear displacement of the


arm relative to the displacement of the collar. Transform the results in
the local coordinate system of Link1.
Edit the definition of the previous plot and select Link1 as the
Component to define XYZ directions.

Local coordinate system


of Link1 part

Global coordinate system

Note

Note that the triad on the part Link1 now indicates the output local
coordinate system which is misaligned with the global coordinate
system.

The above plot shows the values plotted in step 33, transformed in the
coordinate system of the collar.

58

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Angular displacement plots can be created to measure the angular


displacement of a motor, mate, three points or one component relative
to another component. Because the angular displacement is not a
vector, only the magnitude can be plotted.

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Angular
Displacement
Plots

The previous section introduced generation of kinematic results plots


for a component. In the next steps various post-processing plots for
other simulation elements (mates, motors etc.) will be generated. For
most of these simulation elements, the default output coordinate system
is the local coordinate system of the element.

35 Angular displacement of mate.

Create a plot for the angular displacement of the local hinge mate
between the part Link1 and the cardian.

Define the plot by Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration, Angular


Displacement and Magnitude.

Select the local hinge mate between the Link1 and cardian for the
Simulation element.

59

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

Click OK.

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Notice the triad at the location of the hinge. It indicates that the output
coordinate system is the local system of the hinge mate. Only the
magnitude can be requested.

This plot shows the vertical rotation of the Link2 part which is
approximately 2 degrees.

36 Angular displacement of motor.

To explore the other options of the angular displacement plot, we will


modify our existing plot rather than create a new plot.
In the Results folder, right-click the last plot and click Edit Feature.

Delete the hinge mate and select the motion component Motor -

crank for the Simulation element.

Click OK.

The plot shows harmonic motion of the motor. The angular


displacement goes from zero to +180 degrees then returns from -180
degrees. The slope of the graph is constant.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

37 Angular displacement of two lines defined by


three points.

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This time, we will create a plot to show the angular


displacement between two lines defined by three
points.
Create a new plot.

Define the plot by Displacement/Velocity/


Acceleration, Angular Displacement and
Magnitude.

For the Simulation element, first select the two


vertices shown, then select the edge.

Select Show vector in graphics window. This


will show lines between the three selected points.

Vertex 1

Vertex 2

Edge
(defining Vertex 3)

Click OK.

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Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

38 Examine the plot.

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The plot shows the angle between the line defined by Vertex1 and
Vertex3 and the line defined by Vertex2 and Vertex3 (Vertex3
therefore defines the center point).

Notice that in the present case the limits of the angular motion is 84
degrees and 121 degrees giving the range of 37 degrees.

Angular Velocity
and Acceleration
Plots

Similarly to the angular displacement, Angular velocity plot can be


generated for a motor, mate and a component relative to another
component. Magnitude as well as all three coordinate components are
available.

39 Plot angular velocity and acceleration.

Generate a couple of velocity and acceleration plots on your own. Try


to plot both the absolute and relative magnitudes in both the global and
local coordinate systems.

40 Save and close the file.

62

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 2
Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

In this lesson we analyzed a 3dcrankslider assembly. While both


SolidWorks and SolidWorks Motion Simulation assemblies can be built
in many ways with various mates, the main objective of this lesson was
to show the suggested assembly building procedure for the motion
analysis where only kinematic results (displacements, velocities,
accelerations etc.) are of interest. We call this type of the analysis
kinematic analysis. Dynamic analysis is then a simulation where
mate forces and their distribution throughout the assembly is required.
These later types of analyses can be more intricate since the
redundancies need to be understood and addressed (redundancies are
subject of the later lessons in this course).

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Summary

It was suggested that the most suitable approach to obtain kinematic


results while investing reasonable about of time in the motion assembly
building is to model the mates as closely to the real mechanical
connections as possible, i.e. all real mechanical hinges will be modeled
as hinge mates. This lesson also introduced the most common mate
types and the subject of local mates. Local mates are designed within
the SolidWorks Motion Simulation tab and do not affect the original
SolidWorks assembly and the design intent in any way. This way, each
Motion Simulation study may feature its own independent mates.
While motors and forces input may be defined in many ways, this
lesson shows the procedure to control the magnitudes using the
imported data from the table. The second half of this lesson introduces
various available result quantities and shows their definitions in detail.

63

Lesson 2

SolidWorks 2011

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Building a Motion Model and Post-processing

64

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 2
Piston

Exercise 2:
Piston

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In this exercise, we will manually create local mates and run a motion
simulation on a simple engine under the effects of gravity only. We will
plot the results and check the assembly for interference.
engineblock
piston

conrod

crankshaft

bearing

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


I
I

Creating Local Mates on page 34.


Angular Displacement Plots on page 59.

Open an assembly file.

Open Piston from the Lesson02\Exercises folder.

Type of Study.

Select the Motion Study 1 tab and set the Type of Study to Motion
Analysis.

Verify the document units.

Verify that the document units are MMGS (millimeter, gram, second).

65

Exercise 2

SolidWorks 2011

Piston

Verify fixed and floating states of components.

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Examine the assembly. Three parts are fixed and three parts are not
fixed and not mated. MateGroup1 is empty.
The engineblock and the two bearings are fixed.

The piston, crankshaft and conrod are floating.


Fixed Components

Floating Components

Move components.

Move the floating components away


from their final positions. We are doing
this just to make it easier to select faces
as we create local mates.

Add local mates.

Add the following local mates:


I

Note

66

Hinge between the crankshaft and


bearing<2>.

The second hinge mate between the crankshaft and the bearing<1>
components could have been defined as well. However, it would have
no effect on the kinematic results of this simulation.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 2
Piston

Hinge between the conrod and


crankshaft.

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Concentric between the piston

and the cylindrical face of the


engineblock (piston bore).

Concentric between the upper


hole in the conrod and one of the wrist pin holes
in the piston. We do not have the wrist pin

modeled so we are using the concentric mate in its


place.

Add gravity.

Under Gravity Parameters, Direction Reference, select the Y


direction.

Under Numeric gravity value, type in a value of 9806.65 mm/sec^2.

Motion Study properties.

Set the study properties to record 100 frames per second.

Run the simulation for 2.32 seconds.

Make sure that the study type is set to Motion Analysis.

67

Exercise 2

SolidWorks 2011

Piston

10 Examine the motion.

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Playback the study at one-quarter speed.


The weight of the piston and conrod will cause the piston to try to move
to bottom dead center. As there is no friction, the model will just
oscillate as the total energy of the system is conserved.

While the assembly moves freely, we cannot tell if there is interference


between the different components. In Lesson 3, interference detection
in SolidWorks Motion will be demonstrated.

11 Plot results.

Create a plot of the angular displacement of the crankshaft.

Initially, the plot may look odd, however if you examine it closely you
can see that the component is just rocking back and forth.

12 Angular displacement of hinge mate.

Create another plot for angular displacement of the hinge mate


between the crankshaft and bearing.

68

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 2
Piston

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The plot should look the same as the previous plot for the crankshaft,
except that the values are of opposite sign and the graph begins at 0
degrees. This is because the displacement plot for the mate, motors and
spring features are plotted at the local coordinate system by default.

13 Plot linear displacement.

Create a plot for the linear displacement of the piston in the global
coordinate system. Plot the Y-component as this is the direction along
the axis of the piston bore.
The plot shows normal harmonic motion.

69

Exercise 2

SolidWorks 2011

Piston

14 Transform linear displacement plot.

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Transform the above linear displacement plot into the local coordinate
system of the crankshaft.

As the local coordinate system of the crankshaft rotates, the values in


the plot are changing from positive to negative.

15 Save and close the file.

Summary

70

In this exercise you analyzed a small piston assembly. The main


objective was to practice the assembly building procedure when
kinematic results are of interest only and to plot various result
quantities.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 3
Trace Path

Exercise 3:
Trace Path

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In this exercise we will use motors that are driven by tabular data to
have a stylus trace a path like a pen plotter.

cross beam

chassis

pointer

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


I
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Procedure

Local Mates on page 40.


Importing Data Points on page 47.

Open the existing assembly from the Exercises folder.

Open an assembly file.

Open pant1 from the Lesson02\Exercises folder.

Set the document units.


Click Tools, Options, Document Properties, Units.

Select MMGS (millimeter, gram, second) for the Unit system.

New study.

Crate a new motion study. Make sure you select Motion Analysis.

71

Exercise 3

SolidWorks 2011

Trace Path

Examine the assembly.

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Existing mates allow the cross beam to


move along the rails of the chassis and the
pointer to move along the cross beam.

One mate missing is something to keep the


pointer from rotating around the cross
beam.

Add rotary motor.

To prevent the rotation, we will use a rotary motor.


Select Axis1 in the Pointer as the Component.

Set the Motion to Distance and make the distance


0 degrees from 0 to 20 seconds.

Add linear motor.

The first linear motor will drive the cross beam along the chassis.

Two csv files are provided in the Exercises folder, movx.csv and
movy.csv. These files have number pairs with the first number
indicating the time and the second number representing position.

Notice that in each set of numbers, the time points are evenly spaced.
This will allow us to use the Akima interpolation type.
Add a Linear Motor.

Select the face shown in the image below.

Select Data Points to open the Function Builder window.


Import Data for the Displacement (movy.csv file).

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 3
Trace Path

Look at the triad to see that the selected face will move in the
Y direction, so we need the movy.csv file instead of the movx.csv.

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Note

Click OK.

Add another motor.

Add another linear motor to move the pointer across the cross beam
using the movx.csv file. Orient the motor in the direction of the
negative X axis.

Run the study.

Run the study for 20 seconds.

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Exercise 3

SolidWorks 2011

Trace Path

Create a path trace.

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Create a new result.


Select Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration and Trace Path.
Select the vertex at the end of the Pointer.

Check the Show vector in the graphics window checkbox to see the
star shape.

Note

The Trace Path plot will be discussed in more in detail in Lesson 6,


where it will be used to generate the profile of a CAM.

10 Save and close the file.

Summary

74

In this exercise you analyzed a pen assembly. The main objective of


this exercise was to define local mate definitions and to import
tabulated data to control the motor magnitude.

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Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts,
Springs and Dampers

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Check interference of components.

Apply contact to components.

Specify solid bodies contact friction.

Add a spring with damper to the assembly.

75

Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

In this lesson we will examine the motion of a catapult as it is loaded


and throws a projectile. Some of the components in this lesson are not
connected to the others through mates or joints but are restricted based
on their contact with other components. We will place these dynamic
components into our system by defining contact conditions and also
include friction between components.

Case Study:
Catapult

The crank will rotate the catapult arm, through a belt and pulley, to a
position where a projectile can be loaded. The crank motion will also
be transmitted through a gear assembly to a trigger mechanism that will
release the projectile and allow the spring to push the projectile onto
the projectile holder.

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Contact and
Friction

When released, the counterweight will cause the arm to rotate and
throw the projectile.

Catapult-Arm

Gear assembly

Projectile

Counterweight

Trigger mechanism

Hand crank

76

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

Problem
Description

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The crank will rotate 2.75 turns to load the catapult. The motion of the
rack will cause the trigger to release the projectile onto the projectile
holder. The mechanism will release the arm and the counterweight will
cause the arm to throw the projectile.

Determine the torque required to rotate the crank and load the catapult.
Determine the displacement and velocity and force of the loading
spring.

Stages in the
Process

Create a Motion Study.

This will be a new motion study.

Apply friction.

Friction will be added to the existing SolidWorks mates.

Apply contact.

Contact will be added to the dynamic components.

Add a spring.

We dont use a spring model in the motion simulation. Instead we


create a motion element that mathematically represents the spring.

Apply gravity.

The catapult operates under conditions of normal gravity.

Calculate the simulation.

Plot the results.

We will create various plots to show the torque and power required.

Open an assembly file.

Open Catapult-assembly from the Lesson03\Case Studies folder.

Examine the assembly.

The crank rotation does two things,


it rotates the arm through the belt
and pulley and it triggers the release
of the projectile through a gear
train.

77

Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

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The gear train consists of


three gear mates and a rack
and pinion mate.
When the rack moves, it
will come in contact with
the release mechanism and
lift the projectile holder
door.

Rotate the crank to see how the mates work.

Verify the document units.

Verify that the document units are set to MMGS (millimeter, gram,
second).

Create a Motion Study.

Right-click the Motion Study 1 tab and click Create New Motion
Study.

Make sure that the Motion Analysis is selected as the Type of Study
in the MotionManager.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

Add a motor.

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To revolve the crank we need to apply a motor to


the end of the shaft. We want to rotate the crank
2.75 turns in 3 seconds.
Click Motor in the MotionManager toolbar.

Select the edge of the crank shaft for both the


Motor Direction and Motor Location fields.

Select Rotary Motor for the Motor Type and Distance for the Motion

Type.

Type 990 deg (2.75 turns x 360 deg) for the Displacement and
3 seconds for the Duration.
Click OK.

Disable the motor.

After the motor turns for 3 seconds, we want it to hold the catapult in
the loaded position while the projectile moves into the projectile tray.
We then want the motor to disengage to allow the counterweight to
drive the catapult.

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Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

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The entire simulation will run for 5 seconds, so to make it easier to


select on the timeline, click Zoom In
on the lower right corner of
the MotionManager until a little more than 5 seconds fills the time line
MotionManager.

Select the RotaryMotor1 in the MotionManager. Right-click in the


timeline at 3.4 seconds and click Off. This creates a key that suppresses
the motor at 3.4 seconds so that it will have no effect after this time.
If you place the key at the wrong time, just drag it to 3.4 seconds.

Tip

Motion Study Properties.

Set the Frames per second to 50.

Calculate.

Click Calculate and observe the motion.

Notice that as specified, motor rotates the crank by 2.75 turns in


3 seconds. From 3 to 3.4 seconds the motor keeps the crank, as well as
the arm, stationary and ready to launch. Finally it disengages at
3.4 seconds when the mechanism begins to move in not specifically
defined motion. A few key elements must still be added to the motion
model, however.

Analyze the motion.

In the MotionManager, right-click Orientation and Camera Views


and click Disable Playback of View Keys.

Change to the Front view and zoom in on the left end of the assembly.

Play the simulation in slow motion again and notice that the two
triggers move through each other.

To stop this, we must add contact between them. Before defining


contact, we will however introduce a feature which can be used to
detect the interference automatically.

80

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

The Interference Detection tool in SolidWorks will detect interference


between components. However, it will only detect interference for a
single static position of the components.

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Interference
Detection

In SolidWorks Motion, interference can be detected for the motion path


of each component.

Where to Find It

Right-click on the top level component in the MotionManager and


select Check Interference.

10 Check Interference.

In the MotionManager, right-click the Catapult-assembly and click


Check Interference.
Select the two triggers and click Find Now.

11 Examine the results.

The two triggers interfere starting at Frame 132 at time 2.620 seconds
and remain that way until the last frame.

Select the first interference and click Details. We


can now see the location and amount of
interference.

Close the dialog Find Interferences Over Time.

81

Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

Contacts can be defined between multiple bodies or curves to prevent


penetration. In this lesson we will only learn how to define the contact
between solid bodies and discuss friction. A more detailed discussion
on the definition of contacts and its parameters will be presented in the
next lesson.

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Contact

Introducing:
Contact

Contact is used to define the way bodies react with each other. Within
the contact definition, we can control the friction and the elastic
properties between the bodies.

Where to Find It

Click Contact

on the MotionManager toolbar.

12 Add contact.

In the MotionManager toolbar click Contact .


Select the two Projectile holder trigger parts.
For Contact Type select Solid Bodies.

We will keep all contact parameters except friction


at their default values - they are the subject of
Lesson 4.
Make sure that Material PropertyManager is
checked and select Steel (Dry) for both materials.

We will run the simulation without considering the


friction between these two parts. Clear Friction.

Click OK.

13 Calculate.

14 Examine the trigger.

When the simulation runs, the trigger on the rack


mechanism will now contact the trigger on the
projectile holder door and lower it.

Contact groups

82

Contacts between the bodies can be defined in a multiple separate


definitions (each for two bodies only), or in one (or a few) definition
with all bodies included in a single (or a few) definition only. The later
one will consider contact between all selected bodies, thus
automatically generating multiple contact pairs. While this procedure is
easy to define, considering contact for all pairs can be computationally
demanding.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

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Contact definition with contact groups ignores contact between parts in


the group, but considers contact between all combinations of pairs of
bodies across the groups. It is possible to define a maximum of two
contact groups.

Introducing:
Use contact groups

Contact groups enable to place contacting bodies in two separate


groups. All contact combinations across the two groups are considered
only.

Where to Find It

Click Contact
on the MotionManager toolbar. Under
Selections, check the Use contact groups check box.

15 Additional contacts.

The following additional contacts have to be defined:


I
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projectile - projectile holder door


projectile holder - projectile
projectile holder pusher - projectile

Using the procedure outlined in the previous steps, three separate


definitions would have to be created. Instead, using the contact groups
one single definition will suffice in this case.

Create contact definition. Under Contact Type


select Solid Bodies, for Material select Steel
(Dry) and clear Friction.

Under Selections check Use contact groups.

Select Projectile in Group1 and projectile


holder, projectile holder door and projectile
holder pusher in Group2.
Click OK.

Note

The PropertyManager indicates that three contact pairs will be


considered for the calculation.

83

Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

When defining contact, there are three friction options which can be
used depending on the model.

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Contact Friction

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Static
Kinematic
None

Once you decide what friction types to include in your contact, you
must evaluate the static and/or kinematic velocity and friction
constants.
Coulomb friction forces are calculated based on two different
coefficients - static and kinematic.

Static Coefficient

The static coefficient is the constant used to calculate the force


necessary to overcome friction when a body is at rest.

Kinematic
Coefficient

The kinematic coefficient is the constant used to calculate friction


forces once the body is no longer at rest.

In reality, the static friction transition velocity is zero, but numerical


solvers, such as SolidWorks Motion, require that a non-zero value be
specified to avoid singularity at the origin. More specifically, when a
part is in transition from a negative to positive velocity, and when the
velocity is zero, the force magnitude cannot instantaneously transition
from a positive to negative value.
Therefore, the graph
Static
shows how
Kinematic
SolidWorks Motion
resolves this issue
Force (N)
the user specifies a
static and kinematic
transition velocity
where the friction
0.102 mm/sec. 10.16 mm/sec.
coefficients are used.
Velocity (mm/sec.)
From there,
SolidWorks Motion fits a smooth curve to solve for the friction force.
In the graph above, the default friction parameters for dry steel in
contact are used.

Static Friction Transition Velocity: vs = 0.102 mm/s.


Kinematic Friction Transition Velocity: vt = 10.16 mm/s.
Static Friction Coefficient: 0.30.
Kinematic Friction Coefficient: 0.25.

In the PropertyManager for Contact, select Friction.

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Where to Find It

84

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

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16 Additional contact set.

Create a contact set between:


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projectile
Catapult-Arm

Under Material select Steel (Dry).

Make sure that Friction is checked.

Uncheck Material and change the values for the


Dynamic Friction Coefficient and Static
Friction Coefficient to 0.15 and 0.2, respectively.
Click OK.

Note

Unchecking Material opens up the Friction dialog fields for editing.


The contact characteristics in Elastic Properties, determined by the
selection in the Material dialog, remain unchanged. Elastic Properties
are discussed in Lesson 4.

Translational
Spring

A translational spring represents the displacement dependent force


acting between two parts over a distance and along a particular
direction.

When defining a spring, you can readily change the force-displacement


dependency from linear to another predefined relationship by selecting
the function type from a list. This allows you to select the relationship
between the force and displacement. The following force-displacement
relationships are supported in SolidWorks Motion:
X, X2, X3, X4, 1/x, 1/x2, 1/x3

You specify the location of the spring on two parts.

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Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

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SolidWorks Motion calculates the spring force based on the relative


displacement between the two parts, the stiffness of the spring and the
fabrication or free length.

When the spring force is negative, the spring is in a stretched position


relative to the free length.

Note

Spring forces become ill-defined if the end points become coincident


because of undefined direction.

Magnitude of
Spring Force

The magnitude of the spring force is based on the stiffness and initial
force.
The spring relationship can be written as:
F = -K (X - X0)n + F0

Where:

X= Distance between the two locations that define the spring


K= Spring stiffness coefficient (always > 0)
F0 = Reference force of the spring (preload)

n = Exponent. For example, if spring force = KX2, then n = 2. Valid


values for the exponent n are: -4,-3,-2,-1,1,2,3,4.
X0 = Reference length (at preload, always > 0)

Note

86

Positive force repels the two parts.

Negative force attracts the two parts.

To create a spring that exhibits non-linear force properties not


supported in the spring definition, you must use an action-reaction
force where you can enter a non-linear force equation.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

Both linear and torsional springs can be added between components.


Both the Exponent of the spring force expression (linear to 4) and
Spring Constant can be specified.

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Introducing: Spring

Click Spring

on the MotionManager toolbar.

Where to Find It

Translational
Damper

A translational damper is considered a resistive element used to


smoothen out oscillations encountered due to outside forces.
Typically, dampers are used in conjunction with springs to dampen
out any oscillations or vibrations created by the spring.
In the real world, bodies and even springs have built in structural
damping, and the damper element can be used to represent this. The
force created by a damper is dependent on the instantaneous velocity
vectors between the two defined endpoints.

Note

To create a damper that exhibits non-linear force properties not


supported in the Damper definition, you must use an action-reaction
force where you can enter a non-linear force equation based on the
velocity between the two points of the force entity.

For the translational damper element, the force equation is pre-defined


as F = c v n where c is the user defined damping coefficient, v is the
relative velocity between two end points and n is the exponent. For
example, if damper force = -c*v2, then n = 2 (valid options are -4,-3,2,-1,1,2,3,4).

Introducing: Damper

The Damper can be added between components in a mechanism.


Additionally, both linear and torsional springs can have damping
properties that act as the combination of spring and damper together.

Like springs, both the Exponent of the damper force expression


(linear to 4) and Damping Constant can be specified.

Where to Find It

Click Damper

on the MotionManager toolbar.

87

Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

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17 Add a spring.

To move the projectile into position on the


Catapult-Arm, we must add a spring. The spring
will have a pre-load to hold the projectile against
the back of the projectile holder door. When
the door drops, the projectile is pushed into
position.
Click Spring

on the MotionManager toolbar.

Select the two faces shown below.

Set the Spring Parameters as shown to create a linear spring with a


Spring Constant of 0.15 N/mm and the Free Length of 13mm.

Select Damper and add a Damping Constant of 0.01 N/(mm/s).

For Display set the Coil Diameter to 4.00mm, 5 turns and a Wire
Diameter of 0.5mm.

Note

The values entered in the Display area are only used as graphics
parameters.
Click OK.

18 Calculate.

When the simulation solves, the projectile flies off into space and arm
does not release and the counterweight does not stay level. This is
because we are still missing a key element, gravity.

19 Add gravity.

Add gravity to the assembly.

20 Calculate.

This time the arm is cranked down to the loading position and is held
there by the motor while the trigger releases the door and the projectile
is pushed onto the arm by the spring. At 3.4 seconds, the motor turns
off and the gravity on the counterweight swings the arm and launches
the projectile.

88

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

Now that the simulation is calculated, we can create plots for the
different parameters we are interested in.

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Postprocessing

21 Motor torque.

Create a new plot.

Define the plot using Forces, Motor Torque and Magnitude.

Select the RotaryMotor as the rotational element.

We observe that the top torque magnitude reaches approximate 7 Nmm.

89

Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

22 Spring displacement.

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Create a new plot.


Define the plot using Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration, Linear
Displacement and Magnitude.
Select the Linear Spring as the simulation element.

The spring expands from 6 to 13 mm. In the setup of the problem, we


specified the length of the uncompressed spring as 13 mm.

23 Spring velocity.

Create a new plot.

Define the plot using Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration, Linear


Velocity and Magnitude.

Select the Linear Spring as the simulation element.

From the plot, we can see that the spring reaches a top speed of 91 mm/
sec.

90

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 3
Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

24 Spring force.

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Create a new plot.


Define the plot using Forces, Reaction Force and Magnitude.

Select the Linear Spring as the simulation element.


Click OK.

25 Warning.

Similarly to Lesson 2, we will receive a warning about redundant


constraints. Redundant constraints may have significant impact on the
mate forces (forces in the mechanical connections, mates, defined by
the mates) and will be discussed later in the course. The resulting force
obtained for this mechanism is, however, correct.

Click No.

26 Review the plot.

From the plot we can see that the maximum spring force is 1 N.
We can see that the spring only pushes the projectile for about
0.1 seconds.

Analysis with
Friction
(Optional)

In this part we will study the effect of contact friction on the motion of
the projectile. We will use the study we have just done and add friction
between the projectile and the projectile holder.

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Lesson 3

SolidWorks 2011

Introduction to Contacts, Springs and Dampers

27 Duplicate the study.

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Duplicate the existing motion study and name it Larger Friction.


28 Add friction.

Edit the group contact set containing the projectile and projectile
holder. Activate Friction with the default values for Steel (Dry).

29 Motion study properties.


Under Motion study Properties set Number of Frames to 100.

Click the Advanced Options button and change the Integrator Type
to WSTIFF.

Note

Integrators are discussed in detail in Lesson 4.

30 Run the simulation.


31 Animate results.

Animate the results and


notice that the projectile
would not slide onto the arm
due to the added friction.

32 Save and close the file.

Summary

92

In this lesson we analyzed a catapult assembly. The main objective was


to rotate the arm to the position where a projectile can be loaded, then
release the arm and eject the projectile. The following features were
used and explained in detail: interference check through the computed
time steps, definition of the spring and damper and the specification of
the solid body contact with the contact groups. Because the parameters
of the contact setup are subject of Lesson 4, this lesson only introduced
the procedure to define the contacts with friction. Both static and
kinematic friction types were introduced and shown. This assembly
also features multiple gear mates.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 4
The Bug

Exercise 4:
The Bug

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In this exercise, we will use a mechanical bug with an oscillating motor


to demonstrate the effects of friction on the movement of parts. We will
run the study twice, first without friction and then with friction.

This exercise reinforces the following skills:

Contact Friction on page 84.

Open an assembly file.

Open Bug Assembly file from the Lesson03\Exercises folder.

The assembly consists of a flat plate and a two piece mechanical bug.
The intent is to have the movement of the leg move the bug along the
plate. There is a Coincident mate between central planes on the Base
and Plate to keep the Bug moving down the middle of the Plate.

Verify the document units.


Click Tools, Options, Document Properties, Units.

Verify that MMGS (millimeter, gram, second) is selected for the Unit
system.

New study.

Crate a new motion study. Make sure you select Motion Analysis.

Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

Add contact.

Using contact groups, add solid body contact between the Plane and
the two parts of the bug (Leg and Base).
Select Rubber (Dry) for the material.

Clear Friction.

93

Exercise 4

SolidWorks 2011

The Bug

Add a motor.

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Add an oscillating Rotary Motor to


the Leg. Attach the motor to the
edge shown and set the motor to
move 30 degrees at 5 Hz.

Calculate.

Calculate the analysis for


2 seconds.

While the motor oscillates properly,


without friction, the bug does not
move.

Add friction.

Edit the two contacts and select Friction. The dynamic friction
coefficient will be set to that of the specified material (Rubber (Dry)).
Select static friction and use the default values.

Re-calculate.

Run the analysis for 20 seconds.

With friction added, the bug will move along the plate.

10 Save and close the file.

Summary

94

In this exercise you analyzed a small assembly called bug. The main
objective was to see the effect of the friction model in the contact
specification. While in the model without friction the bug assembly
does not move, addition of the friction come close to reality the bugs
moves along the base plane.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 5
Door Closer

In public buildings such as schools


or offices, door closers are often
added to non-motorized swing
doors to ensure that the doors
automatically close after use. To
ensure that the doors do not close
too quickly and slam, a spring
damper is added to the interior of
the door closer.

Door Closer
Analysis

In this exercise, we will use the Motion Manager to add an internal


spring and damper to the door closer. We will then use SolidWorks
Motion to plot the effect of the spring and damper on the door's
behavior and adjust the parameters to achieve the desired result.

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Exercise 5:
Door Closer

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


I
I

Procedure

Translational Spring on page 85.


Translational Damper on page 87.

Open the existing assembly from the Exercises folder.

1
2

Open an assembly file.


Open door from the Lesson03\Exercises folder.
Verify the document units.

Click Tools, Options, Document Properties, Units.

Verify that MMGS (millimeter, gram, second) is selected for the Unit
system.

New study.

Crate a new motion study. Make sure you select Motion Analysis.

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Exercise 5

SolidWorks 2011

Door Closer

Create a linear spring.


Define a Linear Spring between the gas-piston and gas-cylinder.

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Use the circular edges as indicated in the figure. You must select the
edges and not the faces or else the software does not use the center. The
spring must be aligned with the cylinder.
Use 1 N/mm and 180 mm for the Spring Constant and the Free
Length, respectively.

Use 5 N/(mm/s) for the Damping constant. Input appropriate values


in the Display PropertyManager.
Edges for the
spring definition

It may be necessary to change the transparency of the door closer's


gas cylinder in order to select the interior parts necessary to define
the linear spring.

Note

Click OK.

The damper is used to prevent doors from slamming shut due to the
force of the spring.

Note

Run the Motion Analysis.

Run the analysis for 40 seconds.

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 5
Door Closer

Plot door velocity.

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Create a plot of the door (center of mass) velocity magnitude.

Notice that the door closes too quickly (within approximately 24


seconds) and passes through the door frame before coming to a
complete stop.

We do not wish to close the door so quickly. Furthermore, we do not


want the door to actually pass through the door frame and open on the
opposite side. To solve this, we need to redefine the spring and damper
constants.

Duplicate the study.

It is possible to simply change the constants in the Motion Study we


just created. However, we want to be able to compare results from the
two constant settings. Therefore, we will duplicate the initial Motion
Study and make modifications to the duplicate study.

Note

Redefine the spring with damper.

Increase the Spring Constant value from 1.00 N/mm to 2.00 N/mm.
Increase the Damping Constant value from 5.00 N/(mm/s) to
10.00 N/(mm/s).

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Exercise 5

SolidWorks 2011

Door Closer

Calculate the Motion Analysis.

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Calculate and plot the door velocity.

10 Compare results.

Clicking either of the motion studies we just completed will enable you
to compare the results from both studies. You can observe that in the
second study, the door closes slower and comes to a complete stop
without actually passing through the frame.

Conclusion

From the data in the two simulations, we can determine the appropriate
spring and damper constants for the door to close as desired and
without slamming.

Summary

In this exercise you analyzed a door assembly. The main objective was
to practice the definition of the spring and damper to model the door
closer and to find an optimum spring and damper parameters to close
the door slowly without it passing through the frame.

98

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Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Understand the definition as well as the description of contacts.

Use expressions to prescribe the magnitude of forces and motors.

Analyze some causes of the incorrect solution or a contact solution


failure.

Use alternative numerical integrators.

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Advanced Contact

Contact Forces

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The objective of this lesson is to get familiar with the definition of solid
body contacts, as well as understanding their limitations and use in
SolidWorks Motion. The expressions utilizing various mathematical
functions prescribing displacements and other study features will be
introduced. Contact force as the latch closes and the force needed to
close the latch will be extracted; accuracy of the contact force will be
discussed as well.

Case Study:
Latching
Assembly

In this assembly, an
over-center latch is
used to hold the
Carriage part against
a spring.

Problem
Description

For the latching mechanism, determine:


I
I

The contact force generated on the Spring Lever and Keeper as


the latch closes.
The forced needed to close the latch.

Open an assembly file.

Open Full Latch Mechanism. from Lesson04\Case Studies


folder.

Examine the assembly.

The assembly has several mates however not all components have
enough mates to allow the parts to move based on the mechanical
motion of the final assembly.

The Carriage part is concentric to the center spindle, but can rotate
through the side spindles.

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Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

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Three components of the latch, knurled_pin, spring and Series


Lever are not restrained laterally.

Verify the units.

Verify that the document units are set to MMGS.

Create a new Motion study.

Name the study Tessellated geometry and set Type of Study to


Motion Analysis.

Center the latch.

Add a Coincident mate


between the Front planes of
the Base and Series Lever.

This is a local mate. If you select the Model tab in the MotionManager,
the Series Lever can still move.

We could add another mate to restrict the motion of the J_Spring. In


the next few steps we will practice an alternative approach to constrain
the motion of free parts.

Fixing Motion with


Motors

An alternative approach to additional mates is the addition of a motor.


The advantage of such an approach may not be immediately apparent,
but we will use it in this motion model.

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Advanced Contact

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One reason for using a motor instead of a mate is that it does not
introduce additional constraints to the motion model and helps to
reduce the number of the redundant constraints. Redundant constraints
will be discussed in Lesson 8: Redundancies.

Restrict the linear translation of the latch.

Create a Linear Motor.

Attach the motor to the face shown.

For Motion, select Distance and set it to 0 mm.

Set the Start Time to 0s and the Duration to 3.5s.

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Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

Restrict rotation of the Carriage.


Create a Rotary Motor.

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Attach the motor to the edge shown.

For Motion, select Distance and set it to 0 deg.

Set the Start Time to 0s and the Duration to 3.5s. The simulation will
run for 3.5 seconds, so this motor will stop the Carriage from rotating
during the entire simulation.

Motor Input and


Force Input Types

SolidWorks Motion allows you to set the motor input to a number of


different types. We have used Constant Speed, Distance and Data
Points in most of our lessons thus far, but Expression, Oscillating
and Segments are also available.
Expression lets us to define a profile that dictates the motion of the
motor with a help of various mathematical functions.

Functional
Expressions

You can use functional expressions to define magnitudes of input used


in:
I

Motors

Forces

Functions can depend on time or other system states, such as


displacement, velocity, and reaction forces and may be composed of
any valid combination of simple constants, operators, parameters, and
available supported solver functions such as Step (STEP) and
Harmonic (SHF), for example. For a detailed list of functions and its
syntax, please refer to the on-line help.

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SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

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The following is a list of accepted functions:


Function

104

Definition

ABS

Absolute value of (a)

ACOS

Arc cosine of (a)

AINT

Nearest integer whose magnitude is not larger than (a)

ANINT

Nearest whole number to (a)

ASIN

Arc sine of (a)

ATAN

Arc tangent of (a)

ATAN2

Arc tangent of (a1, a2)

COS

Cosine of (a)

COSH

Hyperbolic cosine of (a)

DIM

Positive difference of a1 and a2

EXP

e raised to the power of (a)

LOG

Natural logarithm of (a)

LOG10

Log to base 10 of (a)

MAX

Maximum of a1 and a2

MIN

Minimum of a1 and a2

MOD

Remainder when a1 is divided by a2

SIGN

Transfer sign of a2 to magnitude of a1

SIN

Sine of (a)

SINH

Hyperbolic sine of (a)

SQRT

Square root of a1

STEP

Smoothed step function

TAN

Tangent of (a)

TANH

Hyperbolic tangent of (a)

DTOR

Degrees to radians conversion factor

PI

Ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle

RTOD

Radians to degrees conversion factor

TIME

Current simulation time

IF

Defines a function expression

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

There are five types of force functions that can be used to define the
force:

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Force Functions

Constant: Sets a constant value.

Step: Defines a step by an Initial Value, Start Time, Final Value,

Final Time.

Harmonic: Defines the value by Amplitude, Frequency, Average

and Phase Shift.

Segments: Defines the value by combining segments of the most

commonly used functions such as linear, polynomial, half-sine and


others.

Data Points: Takes the values from a table of data points and

interpolates a spline between the data points.

STEP Function

Expression: Defines the value using a formula.

A STEP function prescribes the given quantity (displacement, velocity,


acceleration or force magnitude, for example) between two values with
a smooth transition. Before and after the transition, the displacement,
velocity or acceleration magnitude is constant.
For example, consider the
illustration at the right where:

d0 = Initial value of displacement


d1 = Final value of displacement
t0 = Start step time

t1 = Final step time

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Lesson 4

SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

Create a rotary motor to drive the latch.


Hide the J_Spring.

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In the Motion Manager, click Motor

Under Motor Type, select Rotary Motor.

Under either the Motor Location or Components/Direction fields,


select Axis1 of the Series Lever as indicated in the figure. This motor
will simulate the action of the hand operating the Series Lever to open
and close the latch.

Under Motor Type, in the Motion field, select Expression. The


command brings up the Function Builder window.

Build motor expression.


In the Function Builder, make sure that the Expression button is

selected.

Select Mathematical Functions for the input type and double-click


STEP(x,x0,h0,x1,h1) to insert the step function.
Modify the functional expression to read STEP(TIME,0,0D,1,90D).

Note

The TIME variable can be typed in or inserted by chancing the input


type to Variables and Constants and double-clicking TIME.
Complete the expression to its final form:

STEP(TIME,0,0D,1,90D)+STEP(TIME,1.5,0D,3,-90D)

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

The Function Builder graph windows will update the plots for
displacement, velocity, acceleration and jerk automatically.

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Note

Click OK to complete the definition of the expression and close the


Function Builder.
Click OK to complete the definition of the Motor feature.

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SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

The above expression is a


combination of two step functions.

STEP(TIME,0,0D,1,90D)

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Note

The first rotates the Series Lever


component by 90 degrees between 0
and 1 second and then it keeps the
vertical position for 0.5 seconds until
the time 1.5 seconds.
At time 1.5 seconds, we add the
second step function which changes
the rotational displacement back to
zero between the 1.5 and 3 seconds.

Both functions as well as the


combination (the final motion of the
Series Lever) are shown in the
figures.

1.0 sec

STEP(TIME,1.5,0D,3,-90D)

1.5 sec

Combined

3.0 sec

10 Define Spring and


Damper.

We now need to define


a spring with a damper
which generates
tension to keep the
latch pulled tight.

In the Motion Manager,


click Spring .

Choose a Linear
Spring with a spring
constant of 10 N/mm,
and create the spring at
the locations shown in
the figure below.
Keep the Free Length
at its default value.
Turn on the linear

Damper and specify a


magnitude of 0.10 N/(mm/s).

Notice that the free length of the spring is automatically populated into
the Free Length field.
Click OK.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

Contacts are defined between two or more bodies or two curves (a


contact pair). During the definition of the contact between solid bodies,
whatever feature you pick on the parts, the corresponding body will be
selected (and used for the contact analysis). During the solve, the
software calculates at each frame the bounding boxes of the parts
interfere. As soon as it is the case, a finer interference calculation is
done between the two bodies and from the center of gravity of the
interference volume, an impact force is computed and applied on both
bodies.

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Contact: Solid
Bodies

This procedure is schematically shown in the figure below.

1.

2.

3.

4.

To understand the contact treatment in the SolidWorks Motion, we first


need to reiterate the very original assumption of this modulus: all parts
participating in the motion simulation are rigid. Contact conditions are
used to simulate impact of the two or more colliding parts (which are
not rigid in real life). Nearly without exceptions all impacts feature
high relative velocity, which result in elasto-plastic deformations with
severe localized strains and significant changes in the local geometry
(geometry of the contact region). Approximations are therefore
necessary.
SolidWorks Motion allows for the specification of the contact
parameters using two distinct approaches: Impact properties (Impact
force model) and Restitution coefficient (Poisson model).

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SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

Restitution coefficient (Poisson model): Poisson model is based on the


utilization of the restitution coefficient e is defined in the following
relationship:

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Poisson Model
(Restitution
Coefficient)

v 2 v 1 = e ( v 1 v 2 )

Where v1 and v2 are the


velocities of the spheres
before the impact and v1 and

v1

v2

1
v2
v2 are the velocities after the
impact. The bounding values
of this coefficient are (0;1),
where 1 indicates perfectly
elastic impact where no
energy is lost, while 0 indicates perfectly plastic impact where the parts
adhere after the impact and maximum possible energy is lost.

The restitution coefficient is geometry dependent and spheres in the


above illustration are used for the demonstration purposes only.

Poisson model does not require specification of the damping coefficient


(as is the case of the Impact force model, discussed below) and does
account correctly for the energy dissipation. The use of this model is
therefore recommended if energy dissipation is of the great importance
in the simulation. Also, determination of the Poisson model parameters,
restitution coefficient e, is more straight forward than in the case of the
Impact force model; in many instances, the restitution coefficient can
be measured using the standardized methods (see ASTM F1887-98
Standard Test Method for Measuring the Coefficient of Restitution
(COR) of Baseballs and Softballs, for example) or found in various
tables. This model is not suitable for the persistent impacts (impacts,
where contact is developed for a prolonged periods of time); Impact
force model should be used instead in these situations.

Impact Force
Model

Impact properties (Impact force model): Impact properties in


SolidWorks Simulation allow for the calculation of the contact force
using the following expression:
e

F contact = k ( x 0 x ) c v

where k represent the stiffness of the contact, e is the elastic force


exponent, and c is the damping coefficient (cmax) is then the maximum
possible damping coefficient). As in the case of the restitution
coefficient, these parameters are both material and geometry dependent
and can not be apparently found in the material tables. The following
sections describe the Impact force model parameters in more detail.

110

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

To correctly determine the stiffness, possible solution is to model the


configuration of the contact in SolidWorks Simulation finite element
software, apply any force in the direction of the impact and solve for
the displacements. Stiffness can then be readily obtained from the force
magnitude and the resulting displacements. A figure below
demonstrates the impact configuration of two spheres meshed in
SolidWorks Simulation software.

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Stiffness k

In many instances, the elastic solution can be found in various


engineering publications. It is apparent that the computation of the
contact stiffness k can be a daunting task and simplifications have to be
introduced.

Exponent e

This parameter controls the degree on nonlinearity in the elastic force;


e=1 then constitutes a linear elastic force.

Damping
Coefficient c and
Penetration d

When two objects collide and deform, portion of the kinetic energy is
consumed on the plastic deformation, heat and similar phenomena.
Approximately, this value can be obtained from the results of the
nonlinear dynamic solution (of the above problem of the two spheres,
for example) with advanced material models. Utilizing this procedure
is, however, unrealistic and simplifications are necessary. It is assumed
that the damping coefficient (a measure of the capacity to dissipate
energy) increases from zero (at the beginning of the impact) to its
maximum value cmax, when certain specified deformation is achieved;
we call this deformation value penetration d. For any deformation
larger than the penetration d, the damping coefficient is constant and
equal to cmax. A typical value for the maximum damping coefficient
cmax is 0.1% - 1% of the contact stiffness k.

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Lesson 4

SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

It is now apparent that the determination of the above parameters is


non-trivial, time consuming and significant simplifications have to be
introduced. A corollary of the foregoing is that the solution of the
collision characteristics (impact forces, accelerations of the impacting
regions and etc.) can only be approximate. Their accurate magnitudes
can only be determined by more advanced computational methods,
such as nonlinear dynamic solutions using SolidWorks Simulation
Premium package, which can be computationally very demanding.

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Closing Remarks

It is important to clarify that for the purpose of this section, impact


force and the acceleration of the impacting regions terms represent the
contact quantities at the onset of the contact where severe deceleration
forces are encountered, i.e. impact or collision. The duration of these
collisions is typically very short. After a certain time, when the
impacting or colliding components are touching and the dynamics
aspects of the solution is less important, contact forces are accurate and
can be extracted from SolidWorks Motion. This is demonstrated at the
end of this lesson.
In conclusion, if an important objective of the motion simulation is to
obtain the impact quantities (impact force, impact region acceleration
etc.), time needs to be invested in the determination of the above
parameters, or more advanced analysis type must be carried out.
Typically, users are not interested in the accurate impact region results
but rather they need to determine the kinematics or dynamics of large
systems. Approximate values are then used for the contact
characteristics and accurate solution of the system kinematics and
dynamics can be carried out efficiently.

To assist users with the impact characteristics, SolidWorks Motion


contact library features approximate values for some contact material
configurations (note that the geometry is not clearly defined). You may
use these values as a base line if the material composition of your parts
participating in the contact is similar. However, if more accurate impact
solution is needed, correct impact parameters have to be determined.

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Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

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11 Define contact between latch and latch keeper.


In the Motion Manager, click Contact .

Under Contact Type select Solid Bodies.

Select the latch arm (J_Spring), the latch lever (Lever), and the latch
keeper (keeper).

Select Specify Material to allow us to define the impact parameters.


Select Steel (Dry) from the list for both materials. Keep the Friction
on at its default values.

Here we are trying to make the impact more realistic by simulating two
hard metals colliding. As discussed above, the elastic properties of the
contact are only approximate. More realistic values would be required
for a contact region solution (contact reliable force and acceleration of
the contact region).

Click OK.

12 Define gravity.

Define gravity in the negative X direction.

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Advanced Contact

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13 Motion analysis Properties.


Verify that Frames per second is set at the
default value of 25.

In the Motion Study Properties, set the 3D Contact


Resolution slider all the way to the left, to its
lowest resolution setting.

Note

The contact resolution parameters are explained in the discussion


below.

14 Run the simulation for 3.5 seconds.

Notice that the solution was achieved, but


is incorrect. The Spring passes through the
other components without developing any
of the specified contacts. There can be a
few reasons for such behavior:

I
I
I

The time step of the integrator (solver) is too large, in which case
the contact is not even detected.
The accuracy setting is too high or too low.
The geometrical description of contact is insufficient.

In the present case it is the last one causing the incorrect solution.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

SolidWorks Simulation treats the geometries of the contacting solid


bodies in two distinct ways:

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Geometrical
Description of
Contacts

Tessellated geometry

The surfaces of the contacting bodies are meshed with the triangular
elements to simplify the description. The density of the mesh, i.e. the
contact geometry resolution, is controlled with the 3D Contact
Resolution parameter in the study properties. Because this description
is very efficient, yet typically sufficient to obtain accurate solutions,
tessellated geometry is the default choice. Very coarse description may
result in inaccurate solution or even failing to develop the contacts.
This is also the cause of the solution failure in the present case.
I

Precise geometry

If the tessellated geometry description if not sufficient (solution is not


sufficient or can not be obtained), Use Precise Contact option can be
used instead. Exact description of the bodies surfaces is then used.
While this is the most accurate description, it can be computationally
expensive and should be used with caution. Use this option if your
contacting bodies feature complex or point like geometries.
Examples of the tessellated geometries at two resolution levels as well
as the precise geometry are shown below.

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Advanced Contact

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15 Adjust the Study Properties.

Improve the accuracy of the tessellated data.


In the MotionManager click Motion Study
Properties
.

Move the 3D Contact Resolution slider to the


right to a value of 94.
Click OK.

16 Run the simulation.

Notice that the computation is noticeably slower.

The simulation will fail and display the following message:


The solver failed to converge. Possible causes are:

1. The solver is failing to achieve the specified accuracy.


Relax the Accuracy setting in Motion Analysis Properties.
2. If parts in the model are moving quickly, evaluate the
Jacobian more often.
3. The mechanism may be getting locked. Start the
simulation with a different initial configuration or change
you motors to get valid motion.
4. If the failure is happening right at the beginning of the
simulation, use a smaller Initial Integrator Step Size.
5. Try to use a stiff solver like WSTIFF.
6. Try to avoid sharp discontinuities in the model like
sudden motion changes, force changes or mate activation/
deactivation.
7. You may have motors with very high speeds. Try to
reduce the motor speed.
8. Make sure that only one motor is driving a given
component at any time.

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Advanced Contact

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After reviewing the message, there are some possible problems. The
first possible problem is item 1, where the solver is failing to achieve
the specified accuracy. We will try decreasing the accuracy of the
solution.

The second message suggests that if the parts move too quickly, the
Jacobian should be evaluated more often. Since the Jacobian setting is
already at its maximum value, we will achieve this by also reducing the
Maximum Integrator Step Size in the Advanced Options of the
Motion Study Properties.

The point where the solution fails is when the latch reaches the over
center point because of instability in the solution.

17 Adjust the study properties.

We will reduce the accuracy in order to let the


solver handle the over center solution.
In the MotionManager click Motion Study
Properties
.

Reduce the Accuracy to 0.001.

Set the Frames per second to 120 to save more


instances of data on the disk.
Click Advanced Options and reduce the
Maximum Integrator Step Size to 0.001.

Click OK to close the Advanced Motion Analysis Options.


Click OK to close the Motion Study Properties.

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Advanced Contact

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Accuracy and the Maximum Integrator Step Size parameters have


significant impact on the contact solution and should be used first when
contact solution problems occur. To read more about the advanced
motion analysis options, integrators and their options, refer to Appendix
A: Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options.

18 Run the simulation.

This time the simulation will run, but it may take several minutes to
complete.

19 Animate.

Play the animation and zoom in on the latch mechanism.

Notice that when the latch is closed, there is a small oscillation because
all the energy is not being damped. This does not happen in the
physical model and is a sign that the damping values used in this
simulation can be increased to represent the real situation more closely.

Instability
Points

Instability points can be defined as instances where self equilibrated


structure does not move, however a small impulse in either direction
will result in rapid motion during which the stored elastic energy is
rapidly transformed in kinetic energy. Such instances are difficult to
overcome numerically. This point is featured in our solution and the
solver is expectedly facing difficulties. Also, notice the time required
for the solution to complete.

20 Plot contact forces.

Plot the contact forces between the


latch and the keeper.
Create a new plot.

Define the plot using Forces,


Contact Force and Magnitude.

Select the two faces shown.

Tip

118

To make it easier to select the faces, move the timeline to a position


where the components are in the position shown.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

21 Examine the plot.

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We can observe that the graph exhibits significant oscillations with


apparently unbounded peaks. This interval (approximately 2.85 to 3.5
seconds) corresponds to the small oscillations observed when the latch
mechanism is closed, discussed in Step 19. Each one of those peaks
correspond to an impact (or collision) force, magnitude of which
depends nearly exclusively on the contact stiffness characteristics.
Because these are highly approximate, the peaks of the impacts forces
in this interval should be ignored.

Modifying
Result Plots

Default plots are created with the X axis showing the duration of the
simulation and the Y axis scaled to the maximum value of the variable
being plotted. There are times when we want to scale the plots
differently.

Introducing: Chart
Properties

Almost all aspects of a plot can be modified, from the titles, to


background color to axis values and titles.

Where to Find It

Right-click on the time in the plot and select Chart Properties.

22 Modify the plot.

Right-click on the X axis of the plot and click Axis Properties. Select
the Scale tab.

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Advanced Contact

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Clear End Point and type 3 for the new value of the end point of the
X axis.

Use the same procedure to change the Y axis to a maximum value


of 50.

23 Examine the plot.

We have a very sharp peak at 0.5 seconds (point 1) where the spring
hits the carriage. Because the peak is so sharp, and the contact force at
this instance qualifies as an impact (or collision) force, we do not know
how accurate this data is. We would need accurate contact elasticity
parameters and more data points to get better accuracy and understand
this impact force.

Just before 2.5 seconds (point 2), the latch reaches the over center point
and we see the maximum contact force of about 36 N. This solution is
reliable and its dependence on the contact parameters is significantly
smaller than at point 1.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

24 Data points.

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Right-click on the curve and click Curve Properties. Select the


Marker tab.
Select Symbol, then OK.

25 Examine the plot.

Move you cursor over the data points and the callout will show that the
maximum value is 36 N at 2.42 seconds.

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Lesson 4

SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

26 Plot closing torque.

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Create a new plot.


Define the plot using Forces, Motor Torque and Magnitude.

Select the RotaryMotor that closes the latch as the Simulation

element.

Again, we observe similar peaks after approximately 2.85 seconds.


These peaks should be ignored for the reason specified in the previous
steps.

27 Modify the plot.

Modify the plot to show the first 3 seconds and a maximum magnitude
of 200 N-mm.

28 Examine the plot.

We can see a maximum torque of 96 N-mm at about 2.10 seconds.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

Closing Force

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Having the torque to rotate the latch, we can determine the force
required by dividing the torque by the distance over which the closing
force acts.

29 Determine the distance.


Click Measure on the Tools

menu.

Measure the distance between the


end of the latch and the axis on
which the motor acts.

30 Required force.

The required force is:

96 N-mm / 25.04 mm = 3.83 N.

Precise Contact

Using precise contact instead of tessellated geometry should result in a


more accurate solution, but with a penalty of additional solution time.

We will now solve the problem again with precise contact and compare
the results.

Create a new study.

Duplicate the existing study. Right-click the tab for the study
Tessellated geometry and click Duplicate.
Name the new study Precise geometry.

If we experience sudden changes in forces or motions more accurate


solution can be obtained using WSTIFF integrator where the integrator
coefficients are adjusted based on the current step size. The discussion
below describes all integrator types available in SolidWorks Motion
and states when they should be used.

Integrators

A set of coupled differential and algebraic equations (DAE) define the


equations of motion of a SolidWorks Motion model. A solution to these
equations is obtained by integrating the differential equations in such a
way that the algebraic constraint equations are also satisfied at every
time step. The speed of the solution depends upon the numerical
stiffness of these equations; the stiffer the equations the slower the
solution.

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Lesson 4

SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

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A set of ordinary differential equations are characterized as numerically


stiff when there is a wide spread between high and low frequency
eigenvalues, with the high-frequency eigenvalues being overdamped.
Special efficient integration methods are required to solve numerically
stiff differential equations because usual methods for solving
differential equations perform poorly and are too slow.
The SolidWorks Motion solver offers three stiff integration methods for
computing motion.

GSTIFF

The GSTIFF integration method developed by C. W. Gear is a variable


order, variable step size integration method. It is the default method
used by the SolidWorks Motion solver. The GSTIFF method is a fast
and accurate method for computing displacements for a wide range of
motion analysis problems. For more information on this integrator see
Gear (1971a and 1971b).

WSTIFF

WSTIFF is another variable order, variable step size stiff integrator.


Both methods are very similar in formulation and behavior. Both of
them use a backwards difference formulation. The only difference is
that the coefficients used internally by GSTIFF are calculated assuming
a constant step size whereas in WSTIFF, these coefficients are a
function of the step size. So if the step size changes suddenly during
integration, GSTIFF introduces a small error in the solution whereas
WSTIFF can handle it without any loss of accuracy. So the problems
run more smoothly in WSTIFF. Sudden step size changes occur
whenever there are discontinuous forces, discontinuous motions or
abrupt events such as 3D contacts in the model. For more information
on WSTIFF integrator see Van Bokhoven (1975).

SI2

The Stabilized Index Two (SI2) method offered in SolidWorks Motion


is a modification of the GSTIFF integration method. This method
provides better error control over velocity and acceleration terms in the
equations of motion.

Provided the motion is sufficiently smooth, SI2 velocity and


acceleration results are more accurate than those computed with
GSTIFF or WSTIFF, even for motions with high frequency
oscillations. SI2 is also more accurate with smaller step sizes, but is
significantly slower. For more information see Brenan et. al. (1996) and
Gear et. al (1985).
All references are listed at the end of this lesson. For more information
please see Appendix A.

124

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

Change study Properties.


Click Motion Study Properties on the MotionManager toolbar.

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Select Use Precise Contact.

Click Advanced Option. Select WSTIFF integrator and reduce the


Maximum Integrator Step Size to 0.0005.
Click OK.

Run the simulation for 3.5 seconds.

This simulation will take longer to run and depending on your


computer may be around 7 minutes.

Contact forces.

Create a plot for the contact forces between the latch and the keeper.

Examine the plot.

The plot is similar to the plot we obtained with the tessellated geometry
except that the area where significant oscillations and peaks are
present.

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Lesson 4

SolidWorks 2011

Advanced Contact

Modify the plot.

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Modify the plot to show 3 seconds of time and a maximum force of


50 N.

Within the area of interest, we essentially have the same plot as


obtained with the tessellated data. The maximum force is again 36 N at
2.42 seconds.

We can therefore conclude that we did not need precise geometry to get
accurate results.

Summary

Save and close the file.

In this lesson we analyzed a closing and latching operation of the


latching mechanism. The action of a human hand was simulated with a
help of a motor which controlled the motion of the J_Spring
component. The objective of this lesson was to extract the closing force
and obtain the contact force between the Spring Lever and the
Keeper.
The assembly, initially not fully defined, was completed with a help of
additional mates and zero displacement motors. At some occasions it is
beneficial to restrict the motion with a help of a zero displacement
motor rather than an additional mate because no extra degree of
freedom is removed (motor is a force added to the system, mate is a
constraint removing certain degrees of freedom). The magnitude of the
motor closing the latch (i.e. simulating the action of a human hand) was
expressed with a help of an expression containing mathematical
functions. List of all accepted functions was presented; the STEP
function was discussed in detail.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 4
Advanced Contact

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This analysis also involved high velocity contact of solid bodies. Both
available impact models, Poisson and Impact force models, were
discussed in detail. The accuracy of the contact characteristics
(parameters and geometrical description) as well as the accuracy of
some of the resulting quantities, namely contact forces and
accelerations of the impacting regions, was discussed in detail as well.
The study was run using both available geometrical description
models: tessellated and precise geometry. Several convergence issues
were presented and their solution was shown. Precise geometry study
also introduces various numerical integrators available in SolidWorks
Motion simulation. Alternative WSTIFF integrator was also used to
solve this part of the problem.

Discussion:
References

Gear, C.W. (1971a). The Simultaneous Solution of Differential


Algebraic Systems. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, CT-18, No.
1, 89-95.
Gear, C.W. (1971b). Numerical Initial Value Problems in Ordinary
Differential Equations. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
Van Bokhoven, W.M.G. (1975, February). Linear Implicit
Differentiation Formulas of Variable Step and Order. IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 22 (2).

Brenan, K.E., Campbell, S.I. and Perzold, L.R. (1996). Numerical


Solution of Initial Value Problems in Differential-Algebraic Equations,
Classics in Applied Mathematics. ISBN: 0-89871-353-6 (pkb.).

Gear, C.W., Leimkuhler, B. and Gupta, G.K. Automatic Integration of


Euler-Lagrange Equations with Constants. Journal of Computation and
Applied Mathematics, 12 & 13, pp. 79-90, North-Holland: 1985.

127

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Lesson 4

Advanced Contact

128

SolidWorks 2011

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 6
Hatchback

Exercise 6:
Hatchback

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A number of contemporary car models are designed as hatchbacks.


Similar to station wagons but smaller in size, hatchback cars allow for
cargo to be loaded into the back of the car, and typically the rear seat
folds down to increase the cargo area.

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


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Project
Description

Contact Forces on page 100.


Contact: Solid Bodies on page 109.
Motor Input and Force Input Types on page 103.
Modifying Result Plots on page 119.

Key to the hatchback car's functionality is the hatchback door itself.


These doors are attached to the car via an upward swinging hinge and
are both supported and assisted by gas pistons. To achieve the same
result in SolidWorks Motion, we will apply a motor to the assembly.
Determine the force exerted by the gas pistons on the door.

Open an assembly file.

Open hatchback from the Lesson04\Exercises folder.

Verify units.

Verify that the document units are set to MMGS.

Create a new Motion Study.


Name the new study Hatchback Steel and set the Type of Study to
Motion Analysis.

We will be using reference points. In order to use reference points,


make sure that all components are resolved.

Note

Apply Gravity to the assembly.

Apply gravity in the negative Y direction.

129

Exercise 6

SolidWorks 2011

Hatchback

Apply Force to the assembly.

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The pressure in the piston will be simulated using Action only force
acting on the piston. (It is therefore assumed that the piston force
remains constant as the piston opens). We will begin with the force
definition of the Left_Cylinder.

Apply a 420 N Linear, Action only force as shown below. Make sure
that the force is applied at the indicated point and its direction is
referenced with respect to the cylinder. This way the force will be
always directed along the axis of the rotating piston.

Under Force Function, make sure the Constant button is selected and
enter 420 N in the F1 field.

Click OK.

Note

130

Make sure that the force is oriented as shown in the figure.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 6
Hatchback

Repeat.

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Repeat step 5 for the Right_Cylinder.

Mass Properties

On occasions, mass properties of the SolidWorks parts may be


modified. This should, however, be an exception rather than a frequent
task as most of the SolidWorks parts reflect the design intent and their
mass properties are computed automatically.
When mass properties are discreetly assigned, they override the
properties associated with the material specifically applied to the
component.

Adjust Mass Properties of Lid-1.


Under Tools, select Mass Properties. The Mass Properties window

will appear.

In the Selected items field, right-click and select Clear Selections.

In the assembly view window, click Lid-1 as shown below.


Select Assigned mass properties.

In the Mass field, enter 13000 grams.

Click OK.

Adjust duration of the simulation.

Set the study duration to 2 second.

Set the study properties.


Set the Motion Analysis properties to 100 Frames per second.

131

Exercise 6

SolidWorks 2011

Hatchback

10 Contacts - left side.

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Define contact conditions between the Left_Cylinder-1 and


Left_Piston-1. For both materials select Steel (Dry).

Keep all other contact options at their default values.

11 Contacts - right side.

Repeat for the opposite side of the assembly, creating contacts for
Right_Cylinder-1 and Right_Piston-1.

12 Run the simulation.

In the SolidWorks Motion Manager, click Calculate

The hatchback assembly will open correctly.

13 Graph the cylinder position.


Create a Y Component plot of the Center of Mass Position of the
Left_Cylinder-1.
14 Examine the plot.

Notice that because the plot is created by default in the global


coordinate system, the initial Y value is -63 mm and the final Y value is
289 mm. We can also observe that the initial collision occurs at
approximately 0.83 seconds, while the assembly has completely
opened and stopped moving at approximately 1.1 second.

132

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 6
Hatchback

15 Contact force.

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As stated in the lesson discussions, with generic contact parameters the


contact force solution will be approximate.

Create a new plot for the magnitude of the contact force between the
Piston and the Cylinder (you may use either of the two pairs since the
assembly is symmetrical).

16 Examine the plot.

The two spikes in the graph indicate the initial and the secondary
collision between the piston and the cylinder.

The force magnitudes (22,503 N and 4,210 N at the two peaks)


represent the contact forces at the instant of the collision and have to be
understood as approximate due to the quality of the contact input
characteristics. We can further observe that as the motion ceases, the
contact force reaches a constant static value. To determine the contact
value the limits of the graph need to be modified.

133

Exercise 6

SolidWorks 2011

Hatchback

17 Modify the plot format.

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Modify the plot of the contact force so that the static value can be read
conveniently.

We can observe that, when the motion ceases, the static equilibrium is
reached and the contact force is at that stage approximately 367 N. The
accuracy of the static solution is not affected by the selection of the
impact model, nor by the selection of the impact model parameters. We
can therefore conclude that the static solution is accurate.

It was mentioned already a couple of times that the contact Elastic


properties significantly effect the resulting impact contact forces and
accelerations of the impacting region. In most scenarios only
approximate characteristics are available and as a consequence the
resulting impact forces as well as kinematic characteristics of the
impacting objects are approximate. We will now modify the contact
elastic properties and study their effect on the solution.

18 Copy study.

Copy the study Hatchback Steel into a new study called Hatchback
Aluminum.

19 Change contact material.

Change the contact material for both contacts to Aluminum (Dry).

20 Run the study.

21 The cylinder position.

Create an identical plot of the Y Component of the Center of Matt


Position.

While the minimum and maximum positions are identical and the
general shape of the graph is very similar, notice that the assembly
stops moving at somewhat later time of 1.15 seconds (as opposed to
1.1 seconds when the material specification was Steel (Dry)).

134

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 6
Hatchback

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Because the contact elastic properties have effect on the accelerations


of the impacting regions as well as on the amount of the energy
dissipated during the collision, the resulting velocities after the initial
impact will be different. The assembly will, therefore, cease to move at
a different (now later) time.

22 Contact force.

Create an identical plot of the contact force.

The maximums at the two peaks are again different, 13,412 N and
2,727 N, respectively. But, the absolute values can not be relied on.

As expected, however, the static force magnitude after the motion


ceases is nearly identical to the solution obtained in the previous study,
367 N.

135

Exercise 6

SolidWorks 2011

Hatchback

23 New study (optional).

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Repeat the above procedure and change the contact properties to


Rubber (Dry).

Examine the results and notice that this is an unrealistic scenario. You
will have to extend the length of the study to 20 seconds to reach a
point where the motion ceases. The Lid will bounce many times before
eventually coming to rest.

The static value of the contact force, 376 N, is again very close to the
previous solutions.

24 Save and close the file.

136

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 6
Hatchback

In this exercise we analyzed the opening of a vehicle hatchback. While


in reality the two pistons may generate non-constant and non-linear
force, we simplified the simulation and applied a constant piston force
only. While the force magnitude and its dependence on the piston
position can, of course, be modified in a complex way, it was not the
objective of this exercise.

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Summary

The final phase of the hatchback opening is when the piston contacts
the back side of the cylinder. We used solid body contact and studied
the hatchback opening characteristics (such as opening time, contact
forces, etc.) as functions of the contact specifications. It was found that
with various specifications the hatchback stops moving at different
times. The last study went to an extreme when we used unrealistic
contact specifications: rubber on rubber. In this situation the hatchback
exhibited large repeated oscillations which would be undesirable.

The contact force magnitudes were also analyzed. While the peak
magnitudes coinciding with the short duration collisions are not
reliable since they require very precise contact characteristics, the static
contact force after the motion ceases is accurate. This was
demonstrated by a very similar result obtained from all three
simulation.

137

Exercise 7

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

Exercise 7:
Conveyor Belt
(No Friction)

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A conveyor, consisting of
segmented panels, is driven
around a track.

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


I
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Project
Description

Functional Expressions on page 103.


Modifying Result Plots on page 119.

Our goal is to drive the conveyor at a speed of 0.62 m/sec using a force
that is controlled by a function. In the first part of the exercise we will
move the belt with a controlled force. In the second part the force will
be replaced with a motion on a path.

Open an assembly file.

Open Conveyor_Belt from the Lesson04\Exercises folder.

Review the assembly.

The assembly has all the mates needed for the conveyor belt to move
correctly.
There are many CAM mates that create the tangency conditions
between the wheels and the closed loop conveyor paths.

SolidWorks Motion also supports other SolidWorks Advanced mates


like the Gear mates and Limit mates.

Note

Verify units.

Verify that the document units are set to MKS (meter, kilogram,

second).

Create a Motion Study.

Create a new motion study and name it Conveyor.

138

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 7
Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

Apply a force.

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We will start by creating a


force on Plate-1 simulating a
force applied to push the plates
on the conveyor.

Apply a 100 N Constant,


Action Only, Linear Force on
the Plate-1 indicated in the

following figure. Make sure the


force is oriented as shown and
its direction is referenced with
respect to the same plate (i.e.
the direction of the force must
change as the plate moves
around the guides).

Motion Study Properties.

Set the Number of Frames to


100 and select the WSTIFF
integrator.

This problem can be conveniently solved using the faster GSTIFF


integrator as well. The WSTIFF integrator is used here only for
practice.

Note

Run the simulation.

Run the simulation for 5 seconds.

139

Exercise 7

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

Plot the velocity magnitude of the Plate-1.

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The velocity of the conveyor plates is increasing linearly. We now want


to maintain the conveyor plate at a constant speed of 0.62 meter/
second.

What are we going


to do next?

We are going to change the definition of the force so that it varies as a


function of the difference in the current conveyor velocity from our
desired conveyor speed. Based on the speed difference, the magnitude
and the direction of the force changes to accelerate or decelerate the
conveyor based on the following expression:
Force = Gain * (Desired Speed - Current Speed) = Gain * (0.62 Current Speed)

When the current speed is less that the desired speed, a positive force is
applied to accelerate the conveyor. If the current speed is greater than
the desired speed, then a negative force is applied to decelerate the
conveyor. The gain value controls the force applied to accelerate or
decelerate the conveyor.

140

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 7
Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

Modify the force.

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Edit the force and change its magnitude from a constant of 100 N to
the following functional expression:
100*(0.62-{Velocity1})

Note

To get the {Velocity1} feature into the Expression field, double-click


the Velocity1 feature in the Motion Study Results list.

10 Run the simulation.

141

Exercise 7

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

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11 Examine the plot.

The plot shows that the velocity is being held to 0.62 m/sec but it is
getting there too slowly. We will increase the gain to shorten the time it
takes to reach the target speed.

12 Modify the force.

Edit the force and change the equation to:


500*(0.62-{Velocity1})

13 Run the simulation.


14 Examine the plot.

This time, the conveyor reaches the target speed by 1 second and it then
holds there as the force varies. The variation of the speed is, however,
significant and not acceptable for the manufacturing operation. We can
make it smoother by increasing the gain further.

142

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 7
Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

15 Modify the force.

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Modify the force again so that the gain is 5000. Then re-run the
analysis.

16 Examine the plot.

This time the plot is much smoother.

17 Plot input force.

It can be seen that the force initial magnitude is very high. To accelerate
the conveyor from its initially zero velocity. As the conveyor reaches
the desired velocity of 0.62 m/sec, the force magnitude tends to reduce
to zero.
Alternatively, instead of using the force input the conveyor constant
velocity can be ensured by using a path mate motion. This is shown in
the next part of this exercise.

143

Exercise 7

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

Path Mate Motor feature prescribed motion of a point along a path. It is


required to create a PathMate in SolidWorks prior to defining the Path
Mate Motor in SolidWorks Motion.

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Path Mate
Motor

The options of the PathMate in SolidWorks controls the Pitch, Yaw and
Roll rotational degrees of freedom of the point along the path.

18 PathMate.

Choose one of the wheels on


the plate where the driving
force is applied. Delete the
CamMate.

Delete CamMate

In SolidWorks feature
tree, unsuppress the
Sketch1 feature.

Sketch1

Define a new PathMate


between the center
point of the wheel and
the path defined by
Sketch1.
Keep all PathMate
constraints at their
default values of Free.

Note

144

The Pathmate constraints are set to Free because the mechanism is


fully constraints due the presence of the remaining CamMates features.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 7
Conveyor Belt (No Friction)

19 Path Mate Motor.

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Define Path Mate Motor.

For the PathMate field select


the PathMate defined in the
previous step.

Motor
orientation

Make sure that the orientation


of the motion is the same as is
the orientation of the force
used to drive the belt.

Select Constant Speed and


enter 0.62m/s.
Click OK.

20 Suppress force.

Suppress the force feature. This feature is not needed because the

motion is driven by the motor.

21 Run the simulation.


22 Velocity plot.

This time the plot is much smoother.

Notice the oscillatory variation of the velocity. With the constant


velocity of 0.62m/s prescribed in step 19, we would expect the
resulting velocity profile of the plate to remain constant as well. Can
you explain these oscillations?

23 Save and close the file.

145

Exercise 8

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

Exercise 8:
Conveyor Belt
(With Friction)

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This is the same conveyor


used in the previous
exercise.

We will run the same study,


but this time we will
include friction and
examine the changes in the
forces and velocities.

Project
Description

Our goal is to drive the conveyor at a speed of 0.62 m/sec using a force
that is controlled by a function.
This exercise reinforces the following skills:
I
I
I

Contact Forces on page 100.


Functional Expressions on page 103.
Precise Contact on page 123.

Open an assembly file.


Open Conveyor_Belt from the Lesson04\Exercises\
Conveyor Belt\with contact folder.
Review the assembly.

Examine the mates.

The first coincident mate keeps the top of one of the plate pins in the
same plane as the end plate of the conveyor. This prevents the side to
side motion of the conveyer plates.

There are groups of concentric and coincident mates that hold adjacent
plates together.
The remaining mates are the CAM mates that create the tangency
conditions between the wheels and the closed loop conveyor paths.
Instead of using the CAM mates, we will use solid body contact.
Suppress all the CAM mates.

Verify units.

Verify that the document units are MKS.

Create a Motion Study.

Create a new motion study and name it Solid body contact.

146

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 8
Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

Add Contacts.

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Add a solid body contact between each wheel and the side plate on the
left side of the model (the same side where the CAM mates were
applied). There will be 12 contact sets.

Select Steel (Greasy) for the material and keep the default values for
both the static and kinematic friction.

We only create contacts on the left side of the assembly. The contacts
could be defined on the opposite side to model the problem more
realistically. However, similarly to the previous study with CAM mates
(where the mates were defined on one side only to avoid redundancies),
we will keep the contacts on one side only. The final resultant contact
forces will have to be then divided by two.

Note

Redundancies will be covered in a later lesson.

Add Gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

147

Exercise 8

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

Add a driving force.

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Add a constant force of 5,000 N to plate1<3> just as we did in the


previous exercise. We need to add the constant force first so that we can
generate a velocity graph that can be used in the functional expression
to control the force.
We need a relatively large force to get the belt moving. In the previous
exercise, any force would move the conveyor as there was no friction.

Local mate.

There are two instances of a part called


plate_adjust_p1 on the bottom of the
conveyor that are used to tension the belt.

Add a Lock mate to keep these two parts


in the same position relative to each other.

Motion Study Properties.

This study will be very sensitive to contact accuracy, so we need to use


Precise Contact. Also set the Frames per second to 100 and select
the WSTIFF integrator.

10 Run the study.

Run the study for 2 seconds.

11 Play the animation.

Play the animation at 25% speed to see how the belt moves.

12 Plot the results.

Plot the velocity magnitude of the plate1.The velocity does not


increase linearly as before since the friction forces act against the input
force and the motion with the contact is more complex.

Note

148

To speed up the work you may interrupt the computations at any time.
This run is only important to enable us to define a velocity plot used in
the following expression.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 8
Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

13 Edit the force.

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Change the force to a function of velocity using the equation:


5000*(0.62-{Velocity1})

14 Run the study.

15 Examine the velocity plot.

The velocity approaches 0.62, but the variation is too large.

16 Plot the Force magnitude.


Create a new plot using Forces, Reaction Force, Magnitude and then
select Force1 as the Simulation element.

We will get a warning message about redundant constraints, click Yes.

Contrary to the previous study, the force does not go to zero because of
the friction.

149

Exercise 8

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

17 Edit the plot.

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Make the maximum Y value 1000 so that we can see the oscillations
easier.

18 Increase the force.

Edit the force and increase the gain to 50,000.


50000*(0.62-{Velocity1})

19 Run the study.

20 Examine the plots.

The velocity is now nearly constant at 0.62 m/sec.

150

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 8
Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

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The force variation is similar.

21 Save and close the file.

Summary

In this exercise we analyzed the motion of the conveyor belt on the


fixed guide plates.

The belt was accelerated by an action only force applied on one of the
plates. The magnitude of the force was controlled with the help of an
expression which included the velocity of the belt as a variable. This
way, the input force was directly dependent on the resulting velocity.

Two approaches were shown: the first study simulated the tangential
contact between the wheels and the guides using the CAM mates. To
reduce the redundancies and to simplify the solution only mates on one
side were included. Therefore, the resulting contact forces would have
to be reduced by half.
To add more realism to the simulation, the second study replaced the
CAM mates with the solid body contact. While this approach allows us
to add friction, the computation took longer. When the desired speed of
0.62 m/sec was achieved the input force never came to zero in order to
overcome the opposing friction forces.

151

Exercise 8

SolidWorks 2011

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Conveyor Belt (With Friction)

152

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Lesson 5
Curve to Curve Contact

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Understand the definition as well as the description of contacts.

Use expressions to prescribe the magnitude of forces and motors.

Analyze some causes of the incorrect solution or a contact solution


failure.

Use alternative numerical integrators.

153

Lesson 5

SolidWorks 2011

Curve to Curve Contact

Contact Forces

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The objective of this lesson is to get familiar with the definition of


curve to curve contact. This lesson builds on the knowledge acquired in
the previous lesson where solid to solid contact was treated in detail.

Case Study:
Geneva
Mechanism

The geneva mechanism


was traditionally used in
the movie projectors
where each frame is
exposed for a certain
fraction of a second. The
mechanism allows for the
transformation of the
continuous rotation of the
drive wheel into the
intermittent rotation of the
driven wheel.

Problem
Description

Driven wheel

Driving wheel

For the geneva mechanism, determine:


I
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1
2

The contact force generated on the driving wheel.


Time variation of the driven wheel rotation.

Open an assembly file.


Open stargeneva from Lesson05\Case Studies folder.
Examine the assembly.

Both the driving wheel and the driven wheel are connected to the
base with two hinge mates. There is no mate relation between the
wheels - this interaction will be handled with the help of the curve to
curve contact.

Verify the units.

Verify that the document units are set to MMGS.

Create a new Motion study.

Name the study curve to curve contact.

Make sure that the Motion Analysis is selected as the Type of Study
in the MotionManager.

154

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 5
Curve to Curve Contact

Curve to Curve
Contact

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Curve to curve contact can be defined between two curves, either of


which can form a closed loop or remain open. The curve geometry is
approximated by a discrete set of points. It is possible to specify
whether the contact is persistent, i.e. curves are not allowed to separate,
or intermittent, where separation may occur.
Curve to curve contact supports friction and two contact models,
Restitution coefficient and Impact force, described in detail in the
preceding lesson.

Introducing:
Curve to Curve
Contact

Contact is used to define the way two curves interact. Within the
contact definition, we can control the friction and the elastic properties
between the bodies.

Where to Find It

Click Contact
on the MotionManager toolbar. Under Contact
Type click Curves.

Driven wheel and driving wheel contact #1.


Specify an intermittent curve to curve contact between the driven
wheel and the left knob of the driving wheel.

In the Contact PropertyManager, select Curves under the Contact


Type.

Under Selections click the Selection


Manager button and set it to Standard
Selection.
Select the indicated
curve on the driving
wheel as Curve 1.

Switch the Selection Manger to Select Group setting.

Select the indicated curve and the click the

Tangent button. The tangent closed loop


defining the edge of the driven wheel will be

populated.

Click OK in the Selection Manager to end the


selection process.
The second curve will be constructed and
Closed Group will be shown as Curve 2.

155

Lesson 5

SolidWorks 2011

Curve to Curve Contact

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Under Materials specify Steel (Dry) for both components. Make sure
that the Friction with the default values is used.

Make sure that the orientation of the outward normal for the Closed
Group in Curve 2 field is as indicated in the figure above. The
orientation of the curve can be changed with the Outward Normal
.
Direction button
Click OK to close the Contact PropertyManager.

The Curves always touch button must remain unchecked, because the
two curves come into an intermittent contact only.

Note

Driven wheel and driving


wheel contact #2.
Following the same procedure
specify an intermittent curve to
curve contact between the indicated
curves.

Use the same contact parameters as


those in the preceding step.

Note

156

Make sure that the curves are property oriented.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 5
Curve to Curve Contact

Driven wheel and driving


wheel contact #3.
Continue with the definition of the
intermittent curve to curve contact
between the indicated segment of the
driven wheel and the closed loop
curve of the driving wheel.

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Use the same contact specifications


as those used in step 5.

Make sure that the curves are property oriented.

Note

Driven wheel and driving wheel contact #4 to #6.


Define the intermittent curve to curve contacts between the remaining
three segments of the driven wheel and the closed loop curve of the
driving wheel.

The last four contact sets can be defined in various ways, for example
in a single definition between two closed loop curves. While this is also
a valid contact definition, it is preferable to define contacts with simple
curves rather than one very complex curve.

Note

Driving motor.
Apply a 360 deg/sec driving Rotary Motor to the driving wheel.

157

Lesson 5

SolidWorks 2011

Curve to Curve Contact

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10 Motion analysis Properties.


Set the Frames per second to 100.

Important!

The 3D Contact Resolution and Use Precise Contact options are


only applicable to the contact between solid bodies.

11 Run the simulation for 4.235 seconds.


12 Plot contact forces.

Plot the contact forces between the driven


wheel and the left knob of the driving wheel.
Define the plot using Forces, Contact Force
and Magnitude.

For the selection field, select the Curve


Contact1 item from the Motion
FeatureManager.
Click OK.

158

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 5
Curve to Curve Contact

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Similarly to the contact force results in solid bodies, the contact force
for the curve to curve contact exhibits sharp peaks due to the contact
stiffness approximations and they have to be ignored. Nonlinear
dynamics solutions would be required for the accurate collision forces.
Also, changing the limits for the graph will not yield meaningful static
results for the contact force (as was the case in Lesson 4, where static
contact force existed). Try to answer why.

13 Rotation of the driven wheel.

Plot the variation of the rotation of the driven wheel in time.

The above plot indicates that the output rotation rate for the driven
wheel is 90 deg/sec, or 360 deg in 4 seconds.

Solid bodies vs.


curve to curve
contact

Lesson 4 and the current lesson introduced the two contact types
available in SolidWorks Motion: solid bodies contact and curve to
curve contact. The question may arise as to which contact definition to
use when.
Mots of the contact situations are best resolved with the solid bodies
contact type, especially when the solution of the system depends on
external forces acting on the objects (dynamic systems). If the contact
path can be described using closed loop or open curves, curve to curve
contact type may be used. However, if the curves used in the contact
definitions encircle the entire objects, and especially if they are very
complex, solid bodies contact may still be favored. Therefore, the
above problem of the stargeneva mechanism could be solved with the
solid bodies contact definition instead.

In the last part of this lesson we will solve this assembly again with the
solid bodies contact.

159

Lesson 5

SolidWorks 2011

Curve to Curve Contact

Solid Bodies
Contact
Solution

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In the second part of this lesson the same assembly will be solved with
the solid bodies contact.
1

Solve problem with solid bodies contact.

Solve the simulation again with the solid bodies contact. Specify the
appropriate geometry description for this contact solution.
When finished, compare the curve to curve and solid bodies contact
solutions.

Summary

Save and close the file.

In this lesson we analyzed a stargeneva mechanism. This mechanism


was traditionally used in movie projectors where each frame is exposed
for a certain fraction of a second. The mechanism allows for the
transformation of continuous rotation of the drive wheel into
intermittent rotation of the driven wheel. To achieve this
transformation, a contact between the two wheels must be specified.
The analysis began with the introduction of the curve to curve contact
that was subsequently defined between the various parts of the
assembly. Curve to curve contact allows for the selection of both open
and closed loop curves and features the same contact models as the
solid bodies contact: Restitution coefficient and Impact force, both
described in detail in Lesson 4.

The solution of the contact force and the time variation of the driven
wheel rotation were plotted and discussed. It was demonstrated and
discussed that the contact force solution in the curve to curve contacts
features sharp peaks corresponding to the collision instances. While the
high magnitudes of the collision instances should be ignored, the static
(or non-collision) contact forces can always be extracted.
Finally, the differences and the proper usage of the solid bodies contact
and curve to curve contact was discussed. The problem was solved
once more with the solid bodies contact and the solution were
compared.

160

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 9
Conveyor Belt (Curve to curve contact with friction)

Exercise 9:
Conveyor Belt
(Curve to curve
contact with
friction)

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This is the same conveyor


used in Exercise 7:
Conveyor Belt (No
Friction) on page 138 and
Exercise 8: Conveyor Belt
(With Friction) on page 146
where solid body contact
was used.

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


I
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Project
Description

Contact Forces on page 100.


Functional Expressions on page 103.
Precise Contact on page 123.

In this exercise the solid body contact will be replaces with the curve to
curve contact and the results will be compared.
Our goal is to drive the conveyor at a speed of 0.62 m/sec using a force
that is controlled by a function.

Open an assembly file.

Open Conveyor_Belt from the Lesson05\Exercises folder.

This assembly contains completed file set from the Exercise 8:


Conveyor Belt (With Friction) on page 146, where the solid body
contact was used to simulate the CAM tangent conditions.

Motion study.

Duplicate the Solid body contact study into a new study named
curve to curve contact.

3
4

Delete all solid body contacts.

Curve to curve contacts.

Add a curve to curve contact between the edge curve of each wheel
and the edge curve of the conveyor_path on the left side of the model
(the same side where the solid body contacts were deleted in the
preceding step). Again, there will be 12 contact sets.

161

Exercise 9

SolidWorks 2011

Conveyor Belt (Curve to curve contact with friction)

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Select Steel (Greasy) for the material and keep the default values for
both the static and kinematic friction.
Check Curves always touch check box.

The Outward Normal Direction is not shown because Curves always


touch check box was activated.

Note

Motion Study Properties.


Set the Frames per second to 100 and select the GSTIFF integrator
from the Advanced Options.

Check the Replace redundant mates with


bushings checkbox.

The Replace redundant mates with bushings option is used in this


model due to the complex redundancies situation. Both this option as
well as redundancies are subject of Lesson 8.

Note

Run the study.

Run the study for 2 seconds.

Play the animation.

Play the animation at 25% speed to see how the belt moves.

162

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 9
Conveyor Belt (Curve to curve contact with friction)

Plot the results.

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Plot the velocity magnitude of the plate1.The velocity does not


increase linearly as before since the friction forces act against the input
force and the motion with the contact is more complex.

Comparing the above variation of the velocity with the results of


Exercise 8: Conveyor Belt (With Friction) on page 146, we can
conclude that they are very similar. Both show nearly constant velocity
of 0.62 m/sec.

Summary

Save and close the file.

In this exercise we analyzed the motion of the conveyor belt on the


fixed guide plates. While in Exercise 8: Conveyor Belt (With Friction)
on page 146 this problem was solved with the help of the solid bodies
contact, in the this exercise curve to curve contact was used instead. It
was shown that both approaches provide similar results.

163

Exercise 9

SolidWorks 2011

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Conveyor Belt (Curve to curve contact with friction)

164

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Lesson 6
CAM Synthesis

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Use of a spline curve to control the motor.

Create a trace path of a point to get the CAM profile.

Create a SolidWorks part with this CAM profile.

165

Lesson 6

SolidWorks 2011

CAM Synthesis

SolidWorks Motion can be used to create CAM profiles based on


tabular data or input function such as STEP function. We can work
backward by driving the follower with the desired motion, then use the
motion of the follower to create the CAM profile.

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CAMs

Case Study:
CAM Synthesis

In this case study we will generate a CAM


profile based on an input follower
displacement from a data set.

Problem
Description

Create a CAM that will move the follower based on the following
curve.

166

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 6
CAM Synthesis

Stages in the
Process

To create the CAM, we will follow the steps below:


Define the motion of the follower.

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This can be done from a table of values and drive the follower
through a motor.

Create a Trace Path.

The trace path will be in the exact shape of the CAM surface.

Export the curve to SolidWorks as a sketch.

The trace path can be imported into SolidWorks as a curve and used
in a sketch.

Extrude the sketch to create the CAM.

Open the assembly file. Cam Synthesis.sldasm.


Open Cam Synthesis located in the Lesson06\
Case Studies folder.

The assembly consists of a undefined CAM and a


follower.

Verify the document units.

Verify that the units are set to MMGS (millimeter, gram,

second).

Generating a CAM
Profile

Create a Motion Study.

To generate a CAM profile, the follower motion is prescribed to the


path profile while the CAM component rotates 360. Both are specified
in the next two steps.

Define a motor to drive the CAM.

Add a rotary motor to drive the CAM shaft at a constant


speed of 120 deg/sec. This will rotate the CAM once
every 3 seconds.

167

Lesson 6

SolidWorks 2011

CAM Synthesis

Examine the profile data.


Open the file CAM Input.xls located in the
Lesson06\Case Studies\CAM Synthesis folder.

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Part of the file is shown at right. It consists of X and Y


coordinates for the position of the CAM follower.
The file also contains a plot of the CAM profile based
on the tabular data. Review it, then close the file.

Define a motor to drive the Follower.


Add a linear motor to the top face of the
Follower_Guide. Make sure the direction is as
shown in the image.

Select Data Points to open the Function Builder


window.
Select Displacement for Value (y), Time for
Independent variable (x) and Akima for the
Interpolation type.

Click Import Data and select the CAM Input.csv


file. This file contains just the X and Y data that was
in the Excel file.

Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

Simulation Study Properties.

Change the study properties to save 100 Frames per second.

Run the study.

Run the study for 3 seconds.

168

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 6
CAM Synthesis

SolidWorks Motion allows you to graphically display the path that any
point on a moving part follows. This is called a Trace Path and it was
already used once in Exercise 3: Trace Path on page 71. In this lesson
we will use it to generate a profile of a CAM.

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Trace Path

You can select the part that will be used to generate the trace curve by
selecting it in the box labelled Select Trace Point Component.
This field enables you to select a face, edge or a
vertex to define a point generating the trace.

Optionally, you can select a reference component that defines a


reference frame for the trace path. The default reference frame is the
global reference frame defined by the global coordinate system.

Where to Find It

Create a new plot and select Displacement/Velocity/


Acceleration, then Trace Path.

169

Lesson 6

SolidWorks 2011

CAM Synthesis

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10 Create a trace path which will define the CAM profile.


Click Results and Plots
on the MotionManager toolbar.

Select Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration, then Trace Path.

Select the vertex on the Follower1 to define the CAM profile and
the surface of the cam to define
the reference component.

Leave the Component to define


XYZ directions empty.
Click OK. to show the trace.

Notice how a CAM profile is generated. We will now


copy this trace path curve directly onto the
SolidWorks part from SolidWorks Motion.

Exporting Trace
Path Curves

Now that we have the shape of the CAM, we can use this path in
SolidWorks to create the CAM itself. The trace path curve can be
exported to a SolidWorks part.

Introducing: Create
Curve From Trace
Path

The Trace Path curve can be used to create a curve in a SolidWorks part
to create geometry. This can be done in two ways:
I

Create curve from path in reference part.

A part already exists, so the trace path curve can be imported to the
existing part.

Create curve from path in new part.

If a part has not been created, it can be done directly using this
command.

Where to Find It

170

In the MotionStudy tree, right-click a Trace Path plot under the


Results folder and select Create curve from trace path.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 6
CAM Synthesis

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11 Copy trace path curve to SolidWorks Part.


Right-click the Trace Path plot under the Results folder and click
Create curve from trace path, then Create curve from path in
reference part.

12 Open the CAM part.

Open the CAM part in its own window.

The curve has been inserted into the part as


a new feature.

13 Extrude the profile.

Create a new sketch on the Front plane.


In the SolidWorks FeatureManager,
select Curve1.

Click Convert Entities


on the Sketch
toolbar to project the curve onto the
sketch plane.

Also select the outer cylindrical edge of


the CAM profile and use Convert
Entities to project this edge into the active sketch.

Extrude the sketch to a mid-plane depth of 50 mm.

Make sure that the Merge results checkbox is unchecked.

14 Save and close the part.

Return to the main assembly.

In the last part of this lesson, we will re-run the simulation with the 3D
Contact and verify that the cam profile was generated correctly.

We will need to create solid body contact between the follower and the
cam, and drive the motion with the rotary motor on the cam and turn off
the linear motor on the follower.

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Lesson 6

SolidWorks 2011

CAM Synthesis

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15 Add solid body contact.


Add Solid Bodies Contact between the follower and the cam.

Specify Steel (Greasy) for both materials. Clear Friction.

16 Remove the motion for the follower.


Right-click LinearMotor1 and click Suppress.
17 Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

18 Motion Study properties.


In the Motion Study Properties, select Use Precise Contact.

Whenever we have point contact, we should use precise contact.

19 Run the simulation.

Notice how the follower traverses vertically based on the CAM profile.

20 Examine the motion.


Change to the Back view.

The image is at 1.7 seconds. Notice that


the follower is not touching the cam. This
separation is the result of the momentum
of the follower. Just prior to this time, the
follower was driven up by cam. The cam
profile requires the follower to change
direction rapidly, however the only thing
holding the follower in contact is gravity.

Is this a problem? Probably not as the follower will eventually have


additional components on top of it to force contact with the cam.

172

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Lesson 6
CAM Synthesis

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21 Plot the vertical displacement of the follower-1.


Create a plot of the Y Component displacement of the center of mass
of the follower and compare it to the plot in the Excel file. For clarity,

the Excel plot has been inverted. Both plots have the same shape.

Cycle based
motion

In machine design the independent variable TIME is often not the most
convenient choice. It may be more comfortable to design all tasks in
terms of one master cycle. Typically, the duration of the master cycle is
set to 360 degrees.

Introducing: Cycle
Based Motion

Cycle based motion allows user to easily modify the duration of the
action, or productivity, in the machine design.

Where to Find It

In the FunctionBuilder window set the input type to Variables and

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Lesson 6

SolidWorks 2011

CAM Synthesis

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Constants and select CycleAngle.

The duration of the cycle is then specified in


the Motion Study Properties.

22 Edit rotary motor.


Under Motor Type select Segments to open the Function Builder.

In the Function Builder dialog, make sure that the Segments button is
selected.
Keep Displacements for Value (y) and set the Independent variable
(x) to Cycle Angle.
Add a row and enter 0deg and 360deg cycle angle for the Start X and
End X columns, respectively.
Enter 360deg for the final value of the rotational displacement.

Note

174

Make sure that the Initial value for the rotational displacement is 0deg.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 6

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CAM Synthesis

The four graphs indicate the linear increase of the displacement,


constant velocity and zero acceleration and jerk.
The 360 degree rotation in 360 degree cycle angle indicates one
revolution per output cycle.

Note

The duration of the cycle angle (or output cycle) will be specified in the
next step.
Click OK to close the Function Builder.

Click OK to save the new definition of the Motor.

23 Study properties.
Set the Cycle time to 3s.

24 Run the simulation.

Notice that the resulting motion of the follower-1 is the same as in the
step 21. This is to be expected as both simulation are identical, the
former solved using time as independent variable, the later one then
using cycle angle as independent variable.

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SolidWorks 2011

CAM Synthesis

25 Analyze results.

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Notice that the resulting motion of follower-1 is the same as in the step
21. This is to be expected as both simulations are identical the
definition of the independent variable. The former one solved the
simulation using time as the independent variable, the later one then
used cycle angle.

26 Adjust the cycle time to 1.5s.


27 Run the simulation.
28 Analyze results.

Notice the cam now rotates twice in 3 seconds (study duration).

However, reviewing the trace path we see


that follower-1 detaches from the cam this is unacceptable. The cycle time of 1.5
seconds is therefore too small for this
mechanism.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 6
CAM Synthesis

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29 Save and close the file.

177

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Lesson 6

CAM Synthesis

178

SolidWorks 2011

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 10
Desmodromic CAM

The mechanisms can be


actuated and controlled in
various directions using
various mechanisms. One
conventional solution is using
springs to return the
mechanism to the original
position (i.e. valve springs in
engines). An alternative
solution may be a system of
cams called desmodromic cams.

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Exercise 10:
Desmodromic
CAM

In the following exercise, we will build a simple mechanism using a


traditional torsional spring first. Then we will build a second cam
replacing the torsional spring in the system. This way the mechanism
will be driven using a system of cams only.
This exercise reinforces the following skills:
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Project
Description

see Generating a CAM Profile on page 167.


see Trace Path on page 169.
see Create Curve From Trace Path on page 170.

In this project, we have already designed a cam that will drive the link
in a predictable motion. As the cam rotates, it will push the link
counterclockwise through contact. As the cam continues to rotate,
some force is required to have the link follower stay in contact with the
cam. In the first part of the exercise, we will apply a torsional spring to
the link to keep it in contact.
Separation if
no return force

Spring

179

Exercise 10

SolidWorks 2011

Desmodromic CAM

Open an assembly file.


Open Desmodromic CAM from the Lesson06\Exercises folder.

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The first cam (cam1) is already created and mated to the follower
roller1 with a cam mate.

Units.

Confirm that the assembly is set to use MMGS units.

New study.

Create a new motion study.

Restrict axial motion.

The shaft is currently free to move in an axial


direction. Add a linear motor to prevent any axial
movement of the shaft.
Set the Duration time to 10 s.

Add rotary motion.

Add a rotary motor to the shaft to have it rotate


360 degrees in 10 seconds.

Cam mate.

Examine the mates in SolidWorks and notice that


there is a cam mate between cam1 and the cam
follower (roller<1>). While this mate is
acceptable for animation, it is unrealistic for
analysis because it forces the two surfaces to stay
together even if they would not in reality.

Run study.

Set the study length to 10 seconds and run it. The study will run and
show the motion we desire.

Remove the cam mate.

In the FeatureManager design tree, suppress the cam mate.

You must return the timeline to zero before suppressing the mate.

Note

Run study.

The cam1 still rotates, but the link does not move because there is no
connection between the cam1 and the upper follower roller<1>.

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 10
Desmodromic CAM

10 Add a spring.

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Explode the assembly to


make it easier to select
the correct surface on the
link.
Add a torsional spring to
hold cams together.

Use a Spring Constant


of 10 N-mm/deg, and 30
degrees for Free Angle.
The direction should be
clockwise when viewed
in the Front view.

11 Add contact.

Apply solid body contact between cam1 and the upper follower
roller<1>. For Specify Material select Steel (Greasy) and select
Friction.

12 Run the study.

The motion is correct and the design works well at slow speeds.

If we run this system at higher speeds, we could run into a problem


where the spring cannot keep the follower in contact with the cam. If
we get separation, we could then run into additional problems with the
follower bouncing of the cam and getting a motion other than that
which we were trying to design.

To force contact, we will design a second cam. When our system is


viewed from the Front view, our first cam was able to rotate the link
counterclockwise through contact, but clockwise motion depended on
the spring. In the next part of this lesson, we will replace the spring
with a second cam which will be able to rotate the link in the clockwise
direction. The two cams work together to maintain positive contact
between the cams and followers.

13 Suppress the torsional spring.

Note

You must return the timeline to zero before suppressing the spring.

181

Exercise 10

SolidWorks 2011

Desmodromic CAM

14 Delete contact and unsuppress the cam mate.

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We are going use the Trace Path function to generate our second cam
path. As we need to generate a path that maintains contact throughout
the full rotation, we will use the cam mate to force the contact.
Delete the contact between cam1 and its follower roller<1>.
In the FeatureManager design tree, unsuppress the cam mate.

15 Run the study.


16 Trace Plot.

Create a new plot to generate the curve of the second cam.

We need to select the center point of the second follower roller. We


can do this by selecting the edge of the second follower roller which
will define the center point. Also select the face of cam2.

17 Examine the plot.

We now have the basic


path, but it is too large
because we had to trace
the center of the second
follower roller<2>.

Measure the second


follower roller<2>. As it
is 52 mm, we will have to
reduce the size of the
cam2 by half of this, or
26 mm.

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 10
Desmodromic CAM

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18 Export the curve in the reference part.


19 Open the part.
Open the part cam2 in its own window.
20 Extrude the new cam.
Create a sketch on the Front plane of

the part.

Use Convert Entity to create a circle


in the sketch based on the outer edge
of the existing part.
Use Convert entity again to create a
curve from the trace. Set the type of
this converted curve to For
construction.

Select the For construction curve


from the trace plot and create an Offset Curve, 26 mm to the inside.
Extrude the new cam2 a depth of 10 mm so that the two solids
coincide. Merge the results.

21 Motion Study.

Return to the assembly window.

We will now run the study using the two cams to


drive the motion.
Suppress the cam mate.

Add contact between each of the cams and its


respective follower.

User Steel (Greasy) for the material and select


Friction.

22 Run the study.

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Exercise 10

SolidWorks 2011

Desmodromic CAM

23 Examine the results.

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Both cams stay in contact with their rollers throughout the rotation as
one takes care of counterclockwise rotation of the link and the other
controls clockwise rotation.

Tip

Use a vertical split screen to be able to watch both the Front and Back
views as the shaft rotates.

24 Save and close the file.

184

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 11
Rocker CAM Profile

In this exercise we will create a


multi-piece cam that is used to
control the motion of a slider.

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Exercise 11:
Rocker CAM
Profile

The toothed wheel rotates and has attached to it a drive plate and guides
for the slider.

The roller will ride in a path between two


stationary cam plates. This system uses the
inner cam to move the slider radially
outward and the outer cam to move the
slider radially inward.
This exercise reinforces the following
skills:

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see Generating a CAM Profile on


page 167.
see Trace Path on page 169.
see Create Curve From Trace Path on
page 170.

185

Exercise 11

SolidWorks 2011

Rocker CAM Profile

Project
Description

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The assembly rotates at 8,000 deg/sec. On each rotation, the rocker will
move radially based on a predefined schedule which is provided in an
attached file.
Create the cams from the existing parts based on a predefined motion
path provided in the separate file.

Open an assembly file.

Open rocker cam profile exercise from the Lesson06\Exercises


folder.

Examine the assembly.

If we hide the toothed wheel and


drive_plate assembly. We can see that
the two cam plates are in place, but the
cam paths have not been defined.

Units.

Confirm that the assembly is set to use


MMGS units.

New study.

Create a new motion study.

186

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 11
Rocker CAM Profile

Define the rocker motion.

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Add a linear motor to the bottom face of the rocker.


This motion must be specified relative to another component, so select
the guide plate (699-0431) shown.
Use Data Points, Displacement and load the file Slide Translation
Motion.csv. For Interpolation type, select Cubic.
Make sure that the direction is radially outward.

You may hide the Plate CAM Assembly for easier definition.

Note

Define the rotation.

Add a rotary motor to the drive_plate assembly (or part 699-0414).

Set the motor to rotate at a constant speed of 8,000 deg/sec. The


direction should be counterclockwise when viewed from the Top view.

Motion Study Properties.

As the time of the simulation is very short, we will need a high frame
rate to have sufficient points to get a smooth result.

Set the Motion Study Properties to capture 2,500 frames per second.

Run the study.

Set the length to 0.045 seconds. This will be one full revolution of the
assembly at the speed of 8,000 deg/sec. The assembly should make one
revolution.

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Exercise 11

SolidWorks 2011

Rocker CAM Profile

Define a result plot.

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Create a trace path of the center of the


roller (699-0413) on the rocker.

Note

If the curve does not look smooth, increase the image quality in
SolidWorks Tools, Options.

10 Create curve.

With nothing selected, right-click the Trace Path plot and select Create
curve from trace path, and then Create curve from path.
Because we have nothing selected, this curve will be a feature in the
assembly FeatureManager design tree.

11 Model.

We are now going to work on individual components of the assembly,


so we do not want to be in the Motion Study.
Click the Model tab.

12 Hide components.

We will be creating the cam paths while in the assembly, so it will be


easier to see what we are doing if parts that are not affected are hidden.
Hide the toothed wheel, Slide Assembly and drive plate

assembly.

13 Edit part.

Select the part 699-0416 in the Plate CAM Assembly and click Edit
Part .

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 11
Rocker CAM Profile

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14 Edit sketch.
Edit Sketch3 under Base-Extrude.

This is just a circular sketch that defines the outer face of the part. We
will replace this sketch with the trace path curve with an offset for half
the diameter of the roller.
In the FeatureManager design tree,
select the curve (it will be above
the parts and assemblies).
Use Convert Entities to create a
curve from the trace path curve
created in the previous step and set
its property to For construction.
Click Offset Entities and type
6 mm for the offset (half of the
roller diameter). Make sure the
direction of the offset is inside.
Click OK to confirm the offset.

Delete the original circle from the sketch.

Exit the sketch and the part edit


mode. The profile should look
like the image.

15 Outer cam.

Edit the part 699-0417 in the


Plate CAM Assembly.

On the face facing the 699-0416


component (closer face when viewed
using the Bottom view), create a
sketch using the same procedure.
Offset the same curve, but this time
6 mm to the outside.
Extrude a cut to a depth of 8.8 mm.
Exit the part edit mode.

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Exercise 11

SolidWorks 2011

Rocker CAM Profile

16 Determine the inner radius.

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Measure the distance from the


center of the outer cam plate
to the vertex shown. This is
the same radius that is needed
to create the curve of the
profile on the keeper.

Highlight the distance and


press Ctrl-C to copy this value
to the clipboard as we will
need it in the next step.

17 Show part.

Return to the Edit Assembly mode and Show the part keeper.

This is the keeper that is used to allow access when assembling the
rocker.

18 Edit sketch.

Edit the sketch for Boss-Extrude1.

Double-click the dimension for the radius of


the arc and paste the measured distance from
the clipboard.

19 Examine the completed cams.

Return to the assembly and examine


the cams that have been created.
We should now have a smooth cam
path.

20 New motion study.

Duplicate the existing motion study


into a new one. Name the new study
with contacts.

21 Suppress the linear motor.

Duplicate the existing motion study into a new one. Name the new
study with contacts and suppress the linear motor feature.

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 11
Rocker CAM Profile

22 Contacts.

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Create solid body contacts between all necessary components.


Tip

You can conveniently use the contact groups to minimize the number of
definitions.

23 Motion study properties.


Activate Use Precise Contact.
24 Calculate the motion study.
25 Analyze the results.

Verify that the designed cam assembly provides the desired motion of
the rocker.

26 Save and close the file.

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Exercise 11

SolidWorks 2011

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Rocker CAM Profile

192

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Lesson 7
Flexible Joints

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Learn about Flexible connectors (Bushings).

Create Advanced Plots.

193

Lesson 7

SolidWorks 2011

Flexible Joints

In the physical world, nothing is absolutely rigid as materials have the


ability to deform elastically and plastically. To this point in the course,
mates were all simulated as rigid, which is not realistic. In this lesson,
we will start with rigid mates and then make them flexible to more
realistically model them as they would react in the physical world.

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Flexible Joints

Case Study:
System with
Rigid Joints

A vehicle is being driven on a test track, which has rumble strips that
are 100 mm in height and spaced 2,100 mm apart. The vehicle is
moving at a speed of 60 km/h. A suspension-steering system is set-up
and will be tested for these conditions.
The model is a geometric representation of a short-long arm (SLA)
suspension subsystem with the steering mechanism.
Steering

IntermittentShaft

Steering Shaft

Steering Rack

Body Ground
Tie Rod

Base Caps

Strut Upper

Upper Arm

Lower Arm

wheel

Strut Lower

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 7
Flexible Joints

Problem
Description

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The goal of this study is to inspect the toe angle that the wheel exhibits
throughout its vertical travel of 100 mm in jounce and rebound. The toe
angle that the wheel exhibits is for the steering wheel angles of 45
degrees, 0 degrees, and -45degrees.
We will first run the study at the three angles with rigid joints. Then we
will change the joints to flexible and run the study again for
comparison.

Stages in the
Process

To analyze the suspension system, we will follow the steps below:

Create mates.

We will make sure that all the mechanical mates that are required
have been included in the assembly.

Define the motion.

Add a linear motor that is driven at the frequency that is created by


the vehicle speed and rumble strip spacing.

Plot the results.

Create plots of the tire yaw angle versus the vertical displacement.

Modify the joints.

Change the joints from rigid to flexible.

Re-run the study.

The results of the study will be compared against the previous study
with rigid joints.

Open an assembly file.

Open Suspension_Steering_System from the Lesson07\Case


Studies folder.

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Lesson 7

SolidWorks 2011

Flexible Joints

Examine the assembly.

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Before we create a motion study, we need to examine the assembly and


determine how the linkages are connected.
In the Mates folder, there is an Angle mate. Examine the mate. This
mate controls the angle of the steering wheel and will be one of our
study parameters as we can use this mate to turn the steering wheel to
specific angles.
Move the tire vertically
and rotate it. Notice that
the lower arm is not
connected to the lower
strut. Also notice that the
tire can turn, even though
the steering wheel doesnt
because of the mate.

Fixed

Not Fixed

Fixed

The five Base_Caps (top


of the strut and two per each arm) are fixed and cannot move.

Prepare to apply mates.

We are going to add two mates to the assembly, a rack and pinion mate
to connect the steering rack to the steering shaft, and a lock mate to
connect the bottom of the strut to the lower arm.
Before applying these mates, the tire needs to be returned to its zero
position.

Important!

Either close the assembly without saving, and then reopen it to return to
the starting point. Alternatively, use Reload to copy the assembly on
disk back into RAM.

Attach Base_Caps<5> to Lower_Arm.


In SolidWorks add a Lock mate between the parts Lower_Arm and
Base_Caps<5>.

Now the two parts are rigidly connected to each other.

Float Base_Caps<5>.
Base_Caps<5> is Fixed when we open the assembly. Now that we
have created the Lock mate to the Lower_arm, we must remove the
Fixed mate to allow the suspension to move.

Right-click Base_Caps<5> and click Float.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 7
Flexible Joints

Create a Rack and Pinion mate between Steering_Shaft and

Steering_rack.

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Add a Rack Pinion mate between Steering_shaft and


Steering_rack which would be connected through a worm gear.

When the Steering part (attached to Steering_Shaft) rotates by


7 degrees, the Steering_rack part travels 1.0 mm.

Select Rack travel/revolution and type 51.43 mm [(360/7) x 1 mm/


rotation = 51.43mm/rotation].
Select Reverse to make the direction correct.

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Lesson 7

SolidWorks 2011

Flexible Joints

Examine Angle mate.


There is an Angle mate on the Steering part. With all the mates

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properly applied, the angle mate will be the equivalent of the drivers
input. To get -45 degrees, input 45 degrees and click Flip dimension.
Angle = +45

Angle = 0

Angle = -45

Set the angel value back to 0 degrees before leaving this step.

Calculation of
Wheel Input
Motion

A simple harmonic function motion will be imposed on the wheel to


simulate this condition. To achieve this, some preliminary calculations
are done based on the inputs. For a harmonic function, we need to find
the frequency (deg/sec) and the amplitude (which in this example is the
100 mm height of the rumble strip).
Frequency can be computed from the spacing of the rumble strips
(2,100 mm) and the velocity (60 km/h.).

Frequency (Hz) = velocity / spacing = 60 (km/h) / 2,100 (mm) =


16,666.67 (mm/s)/2,100 mm=7.94 Hz.

The peak-to-peak amplitude desired is 100 mm.

Create a motion study.

Create a new motion study.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 7
Flexible Joints

Create input motion.

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We will add a motor to drive the vertical motion of the wheel based on
the frequency of the vehicle moving over the rumble strip at the desired
speed.
Add a Linear Motor.

Select the vertex in the center of the wheel hub for the position of the
motor. For direction, select the Top plane in the part wheel.

Important!

You must use the Top Plane in the wheel part and not a plane outside
of the part.

Select Oscillating for the motion type. The amplitude is 50 mm (half


the height of the rumble strip) and the frequency is 7.94 Hz. Keep 0deg
for the Phase Shift.

Click OK.

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Lesson 7

SolidWorks 2011

Flexible Joints

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10 Create a spring and damper between Strut_Lower and


Strut_Upper.
Define a spring that is attached at the Point at the top of the strut and

the edge at the bottom.

Enter 60.0 N/mm for the Spring Constant and 405 mm for the Free
Length.
Add a linear Damper with Damping Constant of 0.46 N/(mm/s).

For Display, Coil Diameter = 60 mm; Number of Coils = 10; Wire


Diameter = 10 mm.

Click OK.

11 Study properties.

Set the study properties to record 500 Frames per second.

12 Run the study.

Run the study for 0.12 second which is one cycle at the input frequency
of 7.94 Hz.

200

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 7
Flexible Joints

When a pair of wheels is set so that their leading edges are pointed
slightly towards each other, the wheel pair is said to have toe-in. If the
leading edges point away from each other, the pair is said to have toeout. The amount of toe can be expressed in degrees (from the angle to
which the wheels are out of parallel), or more commonly, as the
difference between the track widths (as measured at the leading and
trailing edges of the tires or wheels). Toe settings affect three major
areas of performance: tire wear, straight-line stability and corner entry
handling characteristics.

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Understanding Toe
Angles

The pink arrow denotes the direction of travel of the car.

13 Animate.

Play back the study at slow speed to observe the motion. If you select
Loop
, it will continue to play.

14 Plot the pitch.

Create a new plot and select Other quantities, Pitch/Yaw/Roll and


Pitch.

Select the tire face of the part wheel for the part to create results. This
will plot the Pitch at the center of mass for the wheel part.
The toe angle can easily be determined from the plot.

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Lesson 7

SolidWorks 2011

Flexible Joints

15 Plot Toe angle vs. wheel height (the Y displacement).

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The previous plot is not important to use as what we are really


interested in is the Toe angle as a function of the vertical displacement
of the spindle.

Edit the previous plot. Under Plot Results versus, select New Result,
then Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration, Center of Mass Position,
Y Component.
Select the same face of the wheel.

16 Examine the plot.

Because we have rigid joints, we have two lines that fall on top of each
other. One line is the wheel moving up, while the other is the wheel
moving down.
We will now repeat the simulation for two more configurations:
steering angles 45 deg and -45 deg (simulating a left and right turn,
respectively).

17 Change the steering angle to 45 deg.

Set the timeline to zero.

Important!

If you do not return the timeline to zero, before editing the mate, the
mate will still be at zero degrees at time zero and will change to 45 at
whichever point the timeline was when the edit was made.

Edit the Angle mate and change it from 0 to 45 deg (to simulate a left
turn).

18 Re-run the simulations.

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Flexible Joints

19 Examine the plot.

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The curves are still straight, but the values are slightly different.

20 Change the steering angle to -45 deg.

Set the timeline to zero.

Edit the Angle mate and change it from 45 to -45 deg (to simulate a
right turn).

Again we have the same shape curves, but different values.

From the three graphs shown, notice how the toe angle changes with
the change in the steering angle.

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Flexible Joints

In the physical world, nothing is absolutely rigid as materials have the


ability to deform elastically and plastically. In the previous study, the
joints were all simulated as rigid, which is not realistic. In the following
part of the lesson, we will change the joints to be flexible, which will
more realistically model the real world.

Introducing:
Bushings

Bushing objects are added to model flexible mates used on physical


suspensions. Bushing elements allow deformation in a certain degreeof-freedom that is not accounted for if the attachment is modeled as
rigid. In this lesson, notice how the Lower_Arm is connected to the
Base-Caps with two concentric mates. These two mates could be
replaced with bushings in order to simulate a flexible connection
between the Lower_Arm and Base-Caps.

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System with
Flexible Joints

Typical bushings used in automotive vehicle design consist of steel-onsteel, Urethane, or Nylon. The stiffness and damping characteristics of
these bushings are measured by SAE testing methods (see Reference 1)
and depend on the type of vehicle (see Reference 2).
Orthotropic bushings can greatly affect the kinematics (camber, toe
angles) and dynamics (joint, shock forces) results of your model when
compared to a rigid connection. In our simulation, we will use isotropic
bushings.

21 Review the mates in the model.

Review the mates associated with the Lower_Arm and the


Upper_Arm parts. Notice how they are connected to the Base-Caps.
The Base-Caps are connected to the automobile frame. There is no
slack in the mates. However, in real life there is some slack or play
between the arms and base-caps. To incorporate this slack, a flexible
connector or, in other words, a bushing will be used.

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22 Create bushings between the Base_Caps


and Arms.

We want to edit the global mates locally, so we


must edit the mates in the SolidWorks
FeatureManager design tree while staying in the
motion study tab.

Locate the four Concentric mates between


Base_Caps 1 through 4 and the upper and lower
arms.

Edit each mate in turn.


I
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I
I
I

Select the Analysis tab and make the following changes to each
mate:
Select Bushing.
Select Isotropic for both Translational and Torsional.
For Translational, change the Stiffness to 3,500 N/mm, Damping
to 2.63 N-s/mm and Force to 0.
Leave the Torsional values at their default settings.

Each mate will now have a Bushing


symbol next to the mate type.

23 Steering angle.

Set the steering angle back to 0.

24 Run the simulation.

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25 Plot Toe angle vs. wheel height (the Y displacement).

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The steering angle should already be plotted on the screen. We can see
that there is now some slack in the bushings.

The plot below shows the same plot when joints are used instead of
bushings.

Comparing the results, we confirm that the toe angle is different


between the two conditions (bushings vs. joints).

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Flexible Joints

26 Review Simulation.

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Zoom into the location of the Lower_Arm where it connects to the


Base_Caps. Notice how Lower_Arm interacts with the Base_Caps.
There will also be some slack between the moving parts and the
Base_Caps.

Time = 0.0

Time = 0.025

Time = 0.05

27 Obtain results for the two additional configurations.


Obtain the graph of the Toe angle vs. the wheel height for the two

additional configurations: steering angles 45 deg and -45 deg.

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Flexible Joints

28 Save and close the file.

Summary

In this lesson, we learned the use of springs, dampers, and bushings in


SolidWorks Motion. We explored several post-processing options to
analyze the rotational displacements of the model. We also studied the
effect of making joints flexible by introducing bushings.

References

[1] Adams, Herb, Chassis Engineering, The Berkley Publishing


Group, 1993.
[2] Kirschenbaum, Al, The Official Ford Mustang 5.0, Bentley
Publishers, 1993.

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Lesson 8
Redundancies

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson and exercises, you will be


able to:
I

Understand Redundancies and how they affect the simulation.

Use Flexible mates to automatically remove redundancies in a


mechanism.

Assign the stiffness to each mate individually.

Understand how to build assemblies without redundancies.

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In Lesson 2, 3D Crank Slider Mechanism, we studied the


recommended approach to building assemblies for the kinematic
simulation, i.e. simulation where our main objective is to obtain
displacements, velocities, accelerations, jerks or possibly some reaction
forces. We covered the fact that mates are used to connect the assembly
components and thus constrain the relative motion of a pair of rigid
bodies. Mates therefore determine how the assembly moves and we
also reviewed some of the most common mate types. In the last part of
this lesson we will discuss this topic in greater detail; we will review
how many degrees of freedom do mates constrain and why can this be
important for the solution of our motion simulation. Before we move
ahead, let us review some of the basic terminology and concepts.

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Redundancies

Each unconstrained body in space has six degrees of freedom: three


translations and three rotations about X, Y and Z axes. Any rigid body,
i.e. SolidWorks part or rigidly attached parts forming sub-assemblies,
therefore feature all six degrees of freedom. When we use mates to
connect rigid parts or subassemblies together, each mate (or connection
type) removes certain number of degrees of freedom from the system.
Below, we will review the basic mate types and state how many
degrees are removed when two rigid bodies are connected.
The table below lists the most common mates representing some of the
common mechanical connections.
Translational
DOF removed

Rotational
DOF removed

Total DOF
removed

Hinge mate

Concentric
(2 cylinders)

Concentric
(2 spheres)

Lock mate

Universal mate

Screw mate

2 (+1)

Point to point
coincident

3 (this mate is
identical to the
concentric
spheres mate)

Mate Type

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The table below list some of the special mates, which do not necessary
represent a real mechanical connection, but do impose a geometric
constraint on the two connected bodies.
Translational
DOF removed

Rotational
DOF removed

Total DOF
removed

Point on axis

Parallel (2 planes)

Parallel (2 axes)

Parallel
(axis and plane)

Parallel (2 axes)

Perpendicular
(2 axes)

Perpendicular
(2 planes)

Perpendicular
(axis and plane)

Mate Type

A very large number of mates can be listed in the above tables. As you
can see, not only the mate type determines the number of the
constrained degrees of freedom, but also the pair of selected entities is
important.
Lesson 2 recommended that for the models
where kinematic quantities (displacements,
velocities, accelerations etc.) are required, all
mates should, up to the reasonable extent,
represent real mechanical connections. In the
figure to the right, the door is connected with
two hinges. Both hinges should be defined as
hinge mates for the kinematic solution.

As you will soon learn, that due to the


redundancies, this approach is not sufficient
when joint forces are required, or when the part
is to be exported to SolidWorks Simulation for
the stress analysis.

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Based on the number of degrees of freedom, mechanical systems are


divided into two categories:
I
I

Kinematic System

Kinematic systems
Dynamics systems

For a kinematic system, mates and motors fully constrain all the
degrees of freedom on the mechanism. So the position, velocity and
acceleration of each part are fully defined at every time step based upon
the mates and motions applied by motors. Mass and inertia information
is not needed to decide the motion. Such mechanism is said to have
zero degrees of freedom.
For example, consider the Scissor lift
model shown to the right. The motion of
the scissor lift will always be the same
regardless of the mass of the links or
platform, or the weight of people
(external load) standing on the platform.
Only the force required to drive the lift
will change, depending upon a change
in the mass of any component or the
external load. More weight means that
more force is needed to get from height
A to height B.

Dynamic System

In a dynamic system, the resulting motion of parts depends upon the


mass of components and the applied forces. If the mass or applied
forces change, then the motion behavior is different. Such a mechanism
is said to have more than zero degrees-of-freedom.
In the mass string example to the
right, depending upon the mass of the
balls, the motion will be different. Or,
if you swing the ball on the left with a
different force, the motion of the balls
will be different.

In summary, the primary difference between kinematic and dynamic


system is that a kinematic system motion is not influenced by the mass
or applied loads, whereas a dynamic system motion is easily influenced
by changing mass and applied loads.

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All of the systems that were analyzed in Lesson 1 to Lesson 7 can be


considered kinematic systems; i.e. given the mates and the applied
motors, the motion of the systems was always determined and unique.
However, as you will soon learn, all of these were also redundant
leading to unique kinematic results (displacements, velocities and
accelerations), but possibly non-unique dynamics results (for example,
joint forces were not computed correctly because no unique solution
existed). Redundant systems, i.e. systems with redundant constraints
(alternatively we may call them over-constrained systems) are subject
of this lesson.

What are
redundancies?

Redundancies relate to modeling a real life system as a mathematical


model and are an inherent problem in rigid body motion simulation. It
is very important that you be aware of redundancies and how they can
effect the simulation and results of a mechanism.
At a base level, redundant constraints occur when more than one mate
constrains a specific degree-of-freedom on a part.

Constraints in SolidWorks Motion remove degrees-of-freedom (DOF)


from the system by adding algebraic equations to the governing system
of DAEs (Differential and Algebraic equations).
Six algebraic equations used by SolidWorks Motion to represent DOF
constrained by mates are as follows:

Equations 1-3 constrain translational DOF while equations 4-6


constrain rotational DOF, where i and j represent the first and
second parts respectively. The above equations can be understood as
follows:
1. X i X j = 0 means that the global X-coordinate of the i part
must always remain identical to the X-coordinate of the j part.

2. Y i Y j = 0 means that the global Y-coordinate of the i part must


always remain identical to the Y-coordinate of the j part.

3. Z i Z j = 0 means that the global Z-coordinate of the i part must


always remain identical to the Z-coordinate of the j part.

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4. Z i X j = 0 means that the Z-axis of the i part always remains


perpendicular to the X-axis of the j part (which means no rotation
about the common Y-axis).
5. Z i Y j = 0 means that the Z-axis of the i part always remains
perpendicular to the Y-axis of the j part (which means no rotation
about the common X-axis).

6. X i Y j = 0 means that the X-axis of the i part always remains


perpendicular to the Y-axis of the j part (which means no rotation
about the common Z-axis).
The " " notation in equations 4-6 signifies a dot product operation.
Recall that when the dot product of two vectors is zero, the vectors are
perpendicular.

Each Fixed mate in your model uses six equations (eq. 1-6), while a
Concentric mate (of two spheres) uses three equations (eq 1-3), a
Hinge mate uses five equations (eq. 1-5), etc.

Notice how each of these mates uses equations 1 and 2. Any such
duplication of constrained DOF can lead to over constraining your
system, or introduce what are known as redundant constraint equations.
SolidWorks Motion outputs warning messages to try to help you
understand which equations are redundant and therefore which DOF
are unnecessarily removed. When you have a redundant constraint, you
have two or more mates effectively fighting to control one specific
degree-of-freedom. In simple cases, the solver will automatically
remove a redundant constraint equation to stop the redundancy. In
complex situations it may not remove the correct one for the
mechanism, affecting the original design.

Important!

This leads to the simulation still running, but giving the wrong motion
or answer.

Effects of
Redundancies

There are two main failures due to redundancies:


I

Simulation failure part way through a solution

As the solver progresses through a solution, it continually re-evaluates


redundancies and removes them from the mechanism. Occasionally
during the re-evaluation, different redundant constraints are removed
based on the current positions and orientations. This can potentially
lead to an inconsistent model. Because the solver is unable to
understand the design intent of a mechanism, it can arbitrarily remove
constraints which are mathematically valid, but not valid from a
functional point of view.
I

Incorrect force calculation

An example to illustrate this is covered in the next section.

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Redundancies

Before a simulation is actually run, the solver goes through the process
of detecting if the mechanism contains redundancies. If it detects
redundancies, it will try to remove them, and only if successful, will it
continue to run the simulation. At each time step, it continues to reevaluate redundancies and removes them as needed.

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How are
redundancies
removed in the
solver?

There is a certain hierarchy by which redundancies are removed. The


solver will remove redundancies based on the following order:

I
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Rotational Constraint
Translational Constraint
Motion Inputs (Motors)

According to this hierarchy, the solver first looks for rotational


constraints that can be removed to eliminate redundancies. If it cannot
remove any rotational constraints, it will then try to remove
translational constraints. If it cannot remove any translational
constraints, it will then try to remove an input motion (as a last resort).

If all these attempts fail, the solver will abort with a message
instructing the user to check for redundant or inconsistent constraints in
the mechanism (or to see if it is in a locked position).

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Let's investigate this removal procedure with the help of a door


mechanism. The most intuitive way to create mechanical connections
consists in recreating the physical reality. For example, when you see a
hinge, you want to model it with a hinge mate. If there are two hinges
on the same part, like this door, and if you place two hinge mates, you
create some redundancies.

Problem
Description

We have a simple door


consisting of a door and frame.
The door is connected to the
frame with two hinges.
Determine the forces on the two
hinges as a result of the weight
of the door.

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Case Study:
Door Hinges

Frame

Door

Hinge

Open an assembly file.

Open door from the Lesson08\Case Studies folder.

Float the door.

When the assembly is opened, both components are fixed and have
zero degrees of freedom.
Right-click the door and click Float.

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Add Hinge mates.

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To make it easier to select faces on the hinge, move the door a small
distance.
Add a Hinge mate between the two halves of the upper hinge.
It is not important if the mate is added as local or global.

Note

Add another Hinge mate.

Add a second hinge mate to the lower hinge.

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Check the door weight.

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Check the mass properties of the door part. The door weighs 28,020.63
grams, so the vertical force of the door should be a 274.8 N.

Create a new Motion study.

Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

Change study properties.

Edit the motion study properties and set Frames

per second to 50.

Make sure that Replace redundant mates with


bushings is cleared. We will discuss this option
later in the lesson.

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Degrees of
Freedom
Calculation

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Let us review how many degrees of freedom (DOF) are currently


restricted by our mates. Because the frame is a fixed body it features
zero DOF. The only floating body in the assembly is the door. Our
mechanism may therefore feature up to 6 degrees of freedom.

The two hinge mates defined in the model are then each constraining 5
DOF.

Total Actual and


Estimated DOF

The current DOF count for our system is therefore 6 2 5 = 4 , i.e. our
mechanism is over-constrained based on the simple DOF count. This
simple count is referred to as approximate (or Gruebler) and is rather
easy to obtain. It could indicate that our mechanism cannot move. It is
obvious, however, that the door is allowed to rotate about the hinges
and, in engineering sense, should not be over-constrained; using this
engineering approach, our mechanism features +1 DOF (rotation about
the hinges). This count, referred to as actual is more complex to
obtain than the simple count introduced above.
The number of redundant constraints in the system is therefore
6 2 5 1 = 5 ; our system features 5 redundant constraints
constraints which are not needed from the mathematical point of view
for the door to close and open. Indeed, by removing one of the hinges
the kinematics of the system is unchanged.

Run the simulation.

Run the simulation for 1 second. There is no movement in this


assembly.

We will now review the number of degrees of freedom as well as the


number of redundancies with the help of functions within SolidWorks
Motion.

Introducing:
Degrees of Freedom
Calculation

Rather than manually calculating the Degrees of Freedom, SolidWorks


Motion can quickly calculate them for us.

Where to Find It

Right-click the local mate group and select Degrees of Freedom.

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10 Use the simulation panel to calculate degrees-of-freedom (DOF).

When the study completes, notice that in the Motion Study


FeatureManager, the mate folder reads Mates (5 Redundancies), just
as we calculated a while ago.
Right click the local
Mates folder and select
Degrees of Freedom to
open the dialog shown
below. We can review the
number of moving
(floating) parts, number of
mates (presented as joints),
number of the estimated
and actual DOF and the
Total number of redundant
constraints.
SolidWorks Motion
calculates five redundant
constraints. The
mechanism is overconstrained.

As mentioned above, the reason for this is that a second hinge mate is
trying to constrain the same degree-of-freedom as the other hinge mate.
Numerically, one hinge mate is sufficient to simulate the hinge
condition. But this may not be enough, especially when reaction loads
at both the hinges are to be calculated.
In order to obtain a unique solution, the program is forced to remove
the 5 redundant constraints. The selection is made internally without
user intervention; the removed redundant DOF can also be found in the
above list.
We will now review the force solution in the joints to reveal the
consequence of the redundancies.

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11 Plot reaction forces for the Hinge mates.

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The weight of the door is approximately 274.8 Newtons. Gravity acts


along the negative global Y direction. The two hinge mates should
share this load equally. Let us verify this.

Create two plots to show the Y Component reaction force for the two
hinges. When we define the plot, we will be warned:

The motion study has redundant constraints which can lead


to invalid force results. Would you like to replace redundant
constraints with bushings to ensure valid force results? Note
that this will make the motion study slower to calculate.

As redundant mates are the subject of this lesson, we will first see what
happens with the redundant constraints.
Click No.

The reaction force on one of


the hinge mates is zero
which should not be the case.

On the other hinge mate the


reaction force is 274.8 N.

It can be seen that one hinge


mate carries the full force of
274.8 N, while the other one
carries no load. The
distribution of the forces
between the two hinges is
incorrect.

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Let us see why the simulation gave us such results. In Step 10, using
the simulation panel, we calculated the DOF in the mechanism. Notice
that one of the redundant constraints was mentioned as Hinge2:
Translation along Y. This tells us that the mechanism is already
constrained in the Y direction by the Hinge1 mate. The same degreeof-freedom is being constrained by the Hinge2 mate and will be
ignored. Therefore, no results are calculated for the Y-direction reaction
force on the Hinge2 mate.The entire weight of the door will then
have to be reacted upon at the Hinge1 mate at simulation time.
Likewise results for other redundant constraints will be ignored and
hence turn out to be zero.

We will now see how this issue can be avoided by using the Flexible
joints option.

Using Flexible
Joints Option to
Remove
Redundancies

In the discussion on page 214 it was mentioned that the redundancies


may lead to:

1. Simulation failure part way through a solution, and


2. Incorrect force calculation (distribution).
The effect of point 1 can be minimized (though not avoided) by using
mates closely representing the mechanical connections in the real
product. For example, two hinges in the door-frame assembly could be
mated with two hinge mates since they represent the real connection
type the most closely. Alternatively, point 1 can be tackled by reducing
the number of redundant constraints manually by using simpler mates
such as point on axis and similar. In complex assemblies this can be,
however, daunting task and may require iterative approach of mate
design and the DOF calculation. For example, imagine that in our
current example of the door, one hinge mate is deleted and the number
of redundant constraints is then zero; the solution in the Y direction is
then identical.

The effect of point 2 can be tackled by manually modifying the mates


to remove the redundancies in the requested (or all locations) and readjusting the distribution of the reaction forces in the mates manually,
or using the technique introduced in Lesson 7, flexible mates. To
demonstrate the former, imagine that one redundant hinge mate is
deleted from the simulation all load is then carried by the remaining
hinge mate. Knowing the geometry, we manually readjust the
distribution equally into both mates. This approach may work in simple
design and loads such as the current example of the door or many
symmetrical mechanisms such as fork lift (analyzed in some of the
exercises following this lesson). In the later approach, when flexible
mates are used in place of mathematically rigid mates, stiffness of the
mates in the respective directions decides on the distribution of the
reaction forces.

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While this approach is still an approximation, it can provide a more


realistic distribution of forces than the infinitely stiff case.
When you make a mate flexible, the mechanism will be updated to
have a bushing representation of the basic mate type instead of a rigid
constraint. Mate motion and friction are not affected by using flexible
mates.

Limitations of
Flexible Mates

The following limitations may exist when using flexible mates:


I
I

I
I

In some models, using bushings will slow down the solve time
because of induced dynamic effects.
We are not accounting for the stiffness of the part in the solution.
Therefore, the distribution of loads due to part stiffness may differ
from the bushing constraint solution. This bushing approach will
ensure that force results are obtained at all mate locations. This
limitation, however, exists in the case of rigid mates solutions as
well.
Advanced mates do not support mate flexibility. See the Help for a
list of joints that can be made flexible.
If the mechanism starts in a dynamic condition, there may be a
spike in initial forces as the model reaches initial equilibrium (that
you would not see with rigid joints). The spike is generated by
initial conditions of the parts not balancing and the bushings
resisting rapid changes in force/acceleration. If the model started
with enforced motions (e.g., constant velocity), try ramping up
motions from zero to the desired value over a time range to
eliminate or minimize this (e.g., use a step function to ramp
velocity from zero to a certain value over a time range).
An optimum mate stiffness and damping characteristics may need
to be entered. This may require an iterative approach.

The following joints can be made flexible: Fixed, Revolute,


Translational, Cylindrical, Universal, Spherical, Planar, Orientation, In
Line, Parallel Axis, In Plane, Perpendicular.
In SolidWorks Motion Simulation, the flexibility in the mates can be
introduced in two distinct ways.

1. Replace redundant mates with bushings option in the Motion Study


Properties. This way, one set of global stiffness and damping
characteristics is assigned to some algorithmically selected mates
only. The decision on which mates are made flexible and which are
kept rigid is done by an advanced algorithm and is fully automatic.
This approach may work in most situations.
2. Assigning individual stiffness values to the selected (or all) mates
manually. This technique will work in all situations, but can be time
consuming. Local mates may be used with great advantage without
altering the design intent of the assembly designer.

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I

In the Motion Study Properties, select Replace redundant mates


with bushings.

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Where to Find It

When mates become flexible, the


icon in the MotionManager tree.

.icon will appear next to the mate

Bushing
Properties

When bushings are defined, their Translational and Rotational Stiffness


and Damping may be defined.

Where to Find It

In the Motion Study Properties, click Bushing Parameters.

In the remainder of this lesson, we will use the Replace redundant


mates with bushings option to correctly solve the door example.

Assigning individual stiffness to the selected mates manually as well as


manual removal of the redundant constraints by building redundanciesfree assembly models are practised in the exercises following this
lesson. Students are encouraged to complete all of the following
exercises to fully understand this important subject.

12 Make joints flexible.

Make all joints in the mechanism flexible, in the Motion Study


Properties, select Replace redundant mates with bushings.

Click Bushing Parameters. If we were to change the stiffness and


damping values of the hinges, we would do it here. To see the effect of
the mates stiffness on the solution, complete the following exercises.

Click OK twice.

13 Run the simulation.

Notice how the mate icon in the Mates


folder of the MotionManager changes. The
yellow lightening indicates that the
flexibility of this mate was forced by the
software rather than manually specified by
the user (as was the case in Lesson 7).

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 8
Redundancies

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14 Review results.
The Y Component of the
Reaction Force for both

mates now shows a value of


137.5 N.

The weight of the door has


now been correctly shared by
both of the Hinge mates.

Note

The approach to make


selected (or all) mates flexible
was introduced and practised
in the previous lesson and will
not be shown here.

15 Save and close the file.

Important!

Students are encouraged to review the following discussion and the


exercises following this lesson. The subject of redundancies is not
trivial and must be understood in order to correctly conduct dynamic
analyses (analyses where correct force distribution is required).

How to Check
For
Redundancies

As mentioned previously, it is important to only supply sufficient


constraints to obtain the required motion on any mechanism.
Kinematic/Dynamic analysis needs only the necessary degrees-offreedom restrained in a system.
A quick indication of whether a system is over-constrained is the
Gruebler count.
I

If the number is greater than zero, then the model is underconstrained (dynamic).

If the number is equal to zero, then the model is fully defined


(kinematic).

If the number is less than zero, the model is over-constrained


(redundant).

225

Lesson 8

SolidWorks 2011

Redundancies

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An important aspect behind modeling mechanisms is in recognizing the


restrained freedoms of connecting parts and making sure they are not
repeated. This can be difficult in very complex assemblies, but will
ensure you achieve the desired motion and force results. If this is not
taken into consideration, redundant constraints will have been applied
which may result in the simulation not working.

Typical
Redundant
Mechanisms

Several mechanisms are redundant by their nature. In the real world,


assembly tolerance, slop, and stiffness make the mechanisms work, but
in the mathematical world, they can be invalid. Below are a couple of
examples of these mechanisms.

Dual Actuators
Driving a Part

From a kinematic point of view,


you only require one actuator to
move a part. In the real world,
pairs of actuators are used to
provide balanced loads from side
to side. The main problem in the
motion simulation world is that
motions are enforcing
displacement in a specific
degree-of-freedom. A specific degree-of-freedom is constrained by two
actuators. Thus, by having two motions you are causing a redundancy.
This can lead to two situations. One, that only one actuator carries the
load and the other has no result, or two, that there is artificial load
induced into the system (equal and opposite) that produces incorrect
driving force results on the motions. Ways to work around this problem
are to use non-rigid connections to link each actuator into the
mechanism or to use a force based movement instead of a motion based
movement.

Parallel Linkages

The scissors lift is a classic example


of where one complete side of the
mechanism is redundant but is done
to provide balanced loads on both
sides of the structure and to make
the design easier. It is simpler to
work with a lighter strut that only
carries in-plane load than to design a
heavier strut that must not only carry
in-plane, but out-of-plane torsional
loads. However, for mechanisms, it
is easier to model only one side and
let the other side come along for
the ride. When analyzing these
types of mechanisms, you can lock
the duplicate parts together by attaching them together or using fixed
joints. You then need to delete any duplicate constraints. When you

226

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 8
Redundancies

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obtain the joint loads, just remember to divide by two. Also, remember
that out-of-plane moments should only be due to the non-symmetry of
modeling one side, and the moment should equate to half of the
reaction force times the distance between the two sides that raise the
platform (see Exercise 14: Kinematic Mechanism on page 233).

Summary

In this lesson, we defined and familiarized ourselves with the concept


of redundancies. Redundancies occur when identical degrees-offreedom in the assembly are constrained by multiple joints. Models
with such redundant constraints are improperly defined and their
solutions are likely to be incorrect (or impossible to obtain). The
implication of redundancies was demonstrated in the first part of this
lesson.

In reality, the rigidness of joints is only an idealized concept. As such,


SolidWorks Motion enables users to disable such rigidity and specify
some finite stiffness and damping along the constrained degrees-offreedom in the joint. This approach eliminates the problem of
redundancies, but introduces additional parameters that must be
specified (joint stiffness and damping). Flexible joints were the subject
of the second part of this lesson.
Students are encouraged to complete the following exercises.

227

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Lesson 8

Redundancies

228

SolidWorks 2011

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 12
Dynamic Systems

Exercise 12:
Dynamic
Systems

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This exercise will demonstrate a simple


dynamic system with four spheres dropping
in a closed container.

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


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Project
Description

Dynamic System on page 212.

Four aluminum balls are contained in a closed container and will fall
under gravity. None of the components have mates and are free to
interact with each other. Examine the motion of this dynamic system.

Open an assembly file.


Open Vase with Spheres from the Lesson08\Exercises folder.

Create a new motion study.

Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

Add contact.

Add contact between all components.

Specify Aluminum (Greasy) for both materials.


Add Friction using the default values.

Run the simulation.

Run the study for 1 second.

Examine the results.

All but one ball falls through the container. This can be cause by either
a very coarse time step or too coarse of a contact description.

Change study parameters.

Change the motion study properties to record 600 frames per second to
save more data on the disk and specify Precise contact.

Run.

Re-run the simulation.

All four spheres are now contained within the Vase. As the spheres
fall, they interact with each other and the vase.

229

Exercise 12

SolidWorks 2011

Dynamic Systems

Animate.

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Play the study at 10% speed and examine the motion of the spheres.
10 Save and close the file.

230

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 13
Dynamic Systems 2

Exercise 13:
Dynamic
Systems 2

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This is another exercise with a


dynamic system. In this study we
will compare our hand calculation
of degrees of freedom with those
calculated by SolidWorks Motion.
We will also investigate the
effects of changing the impact
from elastic to plastic.

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


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Project
Description

Poisson Model (Restitution Coefficient) on page 110.


Dynamic System on page 212.

Five spheres are attached to individual frames. One end sphere is pulled
away from the others and released. Examine the motion of the five
spheres with both elastic and plastic impact.

Open an assembly file.

Open Momentum from the Lesson08\Exercises folder.

Calculate the DOF.

Calculate the DOF by hand. The DOF should be a positive number to


confirm it is a dynamic system.

Create a new study.

Create a new study and name it Rest Coef = 1.0.

Add gravity.

Add gravity in the negative Y direction.

Add contact sets.

Add four contact sets between the pairs of balls


that will make impact.
Clear Material and Friction.

For Elastic Properties, select Restitution


coefficient and set it to 1.0 which is an elastic
collision.

Motion Study Properties.

Record 25 frames per second.


Select Use Precise contact.

Run the study.

Run study for 5 seconds.

231

Exercise 13

SolidWorks 2011

Dynamic Systems 2

Examine the results.

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We see nearly elastic contact. If it was exactly elastic, we would not see
the interior balls move, however with the slight errors in the numerical
methods used, we see some movement as the study progress.

Degrees of freedom.

Now that we have run the study, we


can let SolidWorks Motion calculate
the DOF so we can compare the
results with that which we calculated
by hand.
We have five moving parts with six
degrees of freedom for a total of
thirty. The five hinge mates remove
25 degrees of freedom, leaving us
with five degrees of freedom total.

10 Duplicate the study.


Name the study Rest Coef=0.1.
11 Edit contacts.

Edit the five contacts to and change the Restitution coefficient to 0.1.

This is nearly plastic impact.

12 Run the study.

13 Examine the results.

With plastic impact, once the first sphere makes contact, all the spheres
move together as we would expect.

14 Save and close the file.

232

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 14
Kinematic Mechanism

The following exercise will


demonstrate a kinematic mechanism.
The basic characteristic of the
kinematic mechanisms is a possibility
of a single motion, irrespective of the
applied forces and motors, contrary to
the dynamics mechanisms
(demonstrated in the previous
exercises) where multiple motions
may exist. The Scissor Lift
demonstrated in the following exercise
features no redundancies and one
Actual DOF. We will consume
this last DOF on the motor which will
drive the mechanism.

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Exercise 14:
Kinematic
Mechanism

This exercise reinforces the following skills:


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Project
Description

Kinematic System on page 212.


How are redundancies removed in the solver? on page 215.
Effects of Redundancies on page 214.
We will now review the force solution in the joints to reveal the
consequence of the redundancies. on page 220.
How to Check For Redundancies on page 225.

Analyze the mates utilized to


built this assembly. Notice,
that as suggested in the
discussion on page 222, only
half of the symmetrical
mechanism is used for the
mate definitions. The
symmetrically located
components move in phase
with the mated components.
Also note that the assembly
features many geometric
constraints (non-mechanical
mates such as coincidence of
a point and axis, or
coincidence of two planes).

Mates on
this side

No mates
on this
side

233

Exercise 14

SolidWorks 2011

Kinematic Mechanism

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Examine the individual mates,


such as Coincident14. Notice
that this, like many of the mates
in this assembly, is a geometrical
constraint (point and face) rather
than a mechanical mate (hinge).

Use of such mates requires


existence of the reference entities
and the building procedure can
be time consuming; the DOF
count must be checked after each
rigid component is added until
the whole assembly is completed.
Due to the time constraints we
will not build this assembly in its
entirety; only its part showing the procedure is demonstrated in the
following exercise.

Open an assembly file.

Open Scissor_Lift from the Lesson08\Exercises\


Kinematic Mechanism folder.

Examine the assembly.

Examine the existing mates and move the assembly. With the existing
mates, the only motion allowed is that which moves the platform
vertically.

New motion study.

Create a new Motion study.

234

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 14
Kinematic Mechanism

Add motor.

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We will add one Linear Motor to the piston to drive the motion of the
assembly.
Add a linear motor to the piston.

Set the Motion to Oscillating, 100 mm at 0.5 Hz. with 0deg for Phase
Shift.
Set the motion to move relative the cylinder.

Motion Study Properties.

Set the study properties to record 50 Frames per second.

Run the study.

Run the study for 5 seconds.

Degrees of freedom.

In the local mate group, right-click


MateGroup1 and select Degrees of
Freedom.

We now have zero Total DOF because


of the addition of the motor.

235

Exercise 14

SolidWorks 2011

Kinematic Mechanism

Plot forces.

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To see the consequences of


modeling the assembly
with geometric mates on
just one side, we will plot
the forces in two of the
mates, Concentric14 and
Coincident9.

Concentric14
Coincident9

Create plots of the


Z Component of the Reaction Force for each mate in the global
coordinate system.

Examine the plots.

The plot for mate Coincident9


shows a maximum force of
15,166 N. Because of the
redundancies, this is actually the
combined force on both sides of
the assembly. At this joint, the
real force will be half or about
7,583 N.

For Concentric14, the


maximum combined force is
9,536 N which means that each
side carries 4,768 N.

Note

The assumption that each side of


the assembly carries half of the
total force at each joint is based
on symmetrical loading of the
assembly.

10 Plot moments.

Create a plot of the X


Component of the Reaction
Moment for the Tangent3
mate.

This moment about the global X


axis should be zero if both sides
of the assembly carry the load
symmetrically. This moment is
only a product of the way this
assembly was build and will be compensated by the reaction force on
the opposite side.

11 Save and close the file.

236

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 14
Kinematic Mechanism

This exercise demonstrated a complicated model build without any


redundancies. Such procedure may be time consuming; use of the
geometric constraints such as coincidence of points and axes or planes
is necessary and the step by step procedure with frequent DOF
calculation is necessary. This procedure, applied to a part of the large
assembly (sub-assembly) or the entire assembly may only be required
if all other means of attempting solution failed.

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Summary

237

Exercise 15

SolidWorks 2011

Zero Redundancy Model-Part 1

Exercise 15:
Zero
Redundancy
Model-Part 1

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The following exercise will


demonstrate a short section of
the model building procedure
for the mechanism with zero
redundancies featured in the
previous exercise. We will reuse the model from the
previous exercise, Kinematic
Mechanism, at an early stage
of the model building phase.
The model will feature one redundancy. The goal of this exercise is to
remove the redundant constraint with the help of multiple geometric
constraint (simple mates such as coincident of point and axis and
similar).
This exercise reinforces the following skills:
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Project
Description

Redundancies on page 210.


Effects of Redundancies on page 214.
How are redundancies removed in the solver? on page 215.
How to Check For Redundancies on page 225.

The same scissor lift used in the previous exercise will be used to
practice the procedure of removing and controlling the number of
degrees of freedom in the model. We will start with just the base and
first layer of scissors, remaining components have been suppressed.
The components of interest in this exercise will be the cylinder and
piston.

Open an assembly file.


Open Scissor_Lift.sldasm from the Lesson08\Exercises\
Zero Redundancy Model folder.

The platform and layers 3 through 6 are suppressed.

238

Run the analysis Exercise Study.


The motor is already set up as it was in the previous exercise, so you
can just click Calculate.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 15
Zero Redundancy Model-Part 1

Examine the Degrees of


Freedom.

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The local mate group shows


one redundancy. Right-click
MateGroup1 and click
Degrees of Freedom.

With zero Total DOF, the


mechanism will move as we
expect.

We can also see that there is


one redundant constraint and
that the redundant constraint
Concentric16, Rotation
about X is removed.

Determine orientation.

This redundant constraint is about the


local X axis, so how do we determine
which way the local axes are oriented?

Create a plot based on the mate.


Concentric16 is a mate between the
cylinder and the piston. Create a plot of
the Reaction Force, Y Component of
the mate Concentric16. We do not
actually need to complete the plot, but
once the plot is set up, we can see the
orientation Triad.

The X direction (red) is along the common


axis of the two parts. Once we observe the
direction, cancel the plot.

This concentric mate is redundant because


neither the piston nor cylinder can rotate about this axis. The
cylinder has a hinge mate to connect it to the Base, and the piston
has a concentric mate to the cross rod.

Remove mate.
The piston and cylinder need to stay concentric,

so we will not delete that mate. Instead, we will


replace the hinge mate, which removes five
degrees of freedom, with two less complicated
mates.

Delete the mate Hinge1.

The end of the cylinder is now free to move.

239

Exercise 15

SolidWorks 2011

Zero Redundancy Model-Part 1

Add mate.

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For the following mates, we will be mating points


and axes, so make both visible.

To see the points you need to set the assembly mode to Resolved.

Note

There are already two points created in the hole at the end of the
cylinder. Point1 is on the axis of the hole, half way between the
parallel faces. Point2 is also on the axis of the hole, but coplanar with
the side face.
Add a Coincident mate
between Point1 and the axis
of the hole in the frame.

Add a second Coincident mate


between Point2 and the inside face
of the bracket on the frame.

You can add these mates as either local or global.

Note

Run.

Run the simulation and observe the results. The study appears to run
correctly.

240

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 15
Zero Redundancy Model-Part 1

Check the DOF.


Right-click MateGroup1 and click
Degrees of Freedom.

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There is still one actual degree of


freedom, but there should be none for
correct results.

Determine the problem.

Try to drag the piston


along the cross_rod.
When you do, you can see
the cylinder rotate.

10 Edit mate.

Remove point2

Add edge

The mate between


Point2 and the face is
not enough to stop the
rotation, so we will
have to raise the level
of the mate to remove
an addition degree of
freedom.

Edit the Coincident


mate and replace Point2 with the edge shown.

11 Run.

Run the study and observe the results.

241

Exercise 15

SolidWorks 2011

Zero Redundancy Model-Part 1

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12 Check the DOF.


Right-click MateGroup1 and click
Degrees of Freedom.

We now have zero DOF as we should


for a kinematic system.

13 Save and close the file.

If you are going on to the next


exercise, leave the assembly open,
otherwise save and close the files.

Summary

242

This exercise demonstrated how a mate with redundant constraint is


detected, removed and replaced with a combination of simpler
geometrical constraints such as coincidence of a point and an axis. As
was mentioned in the previous exercise, this technique requires
additional reference entities (points, axes) and the building procedure
can be lengthy. It should be used if all other techniques failed to give
the desired solution. In general, it is easier for the solver to obtain the
solution for models without redundancies then for models with
multiple redundancies.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 16
Zero Redundancy Model-Part 2 (Optional)

Exercise 16:
Zero
Redundancy
Model-Part 2
(Optional)

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This exercise continues the process


started in the previous exercise. The
remaining parts and subassemblies
with the mates in the Scissor_Lift
assembly need to be add to achieve
zero degrees of freedom for correct
results.

This exercise reinforces the following


skills:
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Project
Description

Redundancies on page 210.


Effects of Redundancies on page 214.
How are redundancies removed in the solver? on page 215.
How to Check For Redundancies on page 225.

Add mates to the assembly to achieve zero degrees of freedom.

Open an assembly file.

Continue working on the model prepared in the previous exercise. If


the assembly is not open, open Scissor_Lift from the Lesson08\
Exercises\Zero Redundancy Model folder. Complete the previous
exercise first and then continue with this exercise.

Unsuppress layers.

Unsuppress the sub-assemblies


layer_3 and layer_4.

Repair mates.

Mate them to the rest of the assembly


so that the mechanism operates as
required with redundant constraints
and actual DOF count both equal to
zero.

Left side

Right side

Continue building mates on the left


side as indicated in the figure.

Continue.

Unsuppress the sub-assemblies layer_5


and layer_6.
Continue adding mates to achieve zero
degrees of freedom.

Continue.

Unsuppress platform.

Continue adding mates to achieve zero


degrees of freedom.

Save and close the file.

243

Exercise 17

SolidWorks 2011

Removing Redundancies with Bushings

Exercise 17:
Removing
Redundancies
with Bushings

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In this exercise, we will use a model that has mates applied


symmetrically in preparation for exporting results to SolidWorks
Simulation. To remove the redundancies, we will add bushings and
explore the effects of different damping values.
This exercise reinforces the following skills:
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Project
Description

How are redundancies removed in the solver? on page 215.


How are redundancies removed in the solver? on page 215.
Using Flexible Joints Option to Remove Redundancies on
page 222.
Bushing Properties on page 224.

This is the same Scissor Lift assembly used in the previous exercises
except that the components are mated differently.

Open an assembly file.

Open Scissor_Lift from the Lesson08\Exercises\Redundancies


Removal with Bushings\completed-low stiffness folder.

Examine the assembly.

The approach to the assembly


mates is different in this model.
Notice that most mates, namely the
Concentric mates, represent the real
mechanical connections closely.
Coincident mates only ensure that
the assembly does not move
sideways.

Notice also that, unlike


previous exercises,
mates are applied on
both sides of the
symmetry.

This method is
appropriate when we
Concentric36 Concentric37
want to import the
results in SolidWorks Simulation to get stress results in the different
components, or if we want to see the correct force distribution at all
mate locations on the model.

The problem with this mating scheme however, is that we are going to
generate a large number of redundancies that will have to be removed.

244

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 17
Removing Redundancies with Bushings

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We saw in a previous lesson that we could have SolidWorks Motion


treat all redundant mates as bushings. We can also manually configure
mates to act as bushings.

Add bushings manually.

To save time, each concentric mate has already


been configured as a bushing.
Edit one of the Concentric mates.
Select the Analysis tab.

Notice that Bushing has been selected and the


values set as follows:
Translational
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Select Isotropic
Stiffness = 5,000 N/mm
Damping = 20.0 N-s/mm
Force = 0 N-mm

Torsional
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Select Isotropic
Stiffness = 100 N-mm/deg
Damping = 20.0 N-mm-s/deg
Toque = 0.0 N-mm

These values for stiffness and damping are very


low for a practical system, however we will start here to see the effect
on the mechanism.

Notice that each mate that has been defined as a bushing now features
the bushing icon shown in the MateGroups.

Run.

Notice that the motion is not smooth.

Play the animation back at a slower speed and watch the action of the
individual joints.

245

Exercise 17

SolidWorks 2011

Removing Redundancies with Bushings

Examine the plots.

Concentric20

Concentric21

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Plots of the reaction force in the


Z direction have already be
created for mates Concentric20
and Concentric21. These mates
are on opposite sides of the
assembly.
Notice that the plots are exactly
the same.

Create additional plots.

Concentric36

Concentric37

Create additional plots of the force


in the Z direction for mates
Concentric36 and
Concentric37. These mates are
between the lower cross arms and
the brackets on the frame.

Note

When we create these plots, we still get a warning message about


redundancies. This will be explained in upcoming steps.
Click Yes to dismiss the message.

246

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 17

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Removing Redundancies with Bushings

As with the previous set of mates these plots are also identical. While
they are identical, they are not the sinusoidal shape that matches the
driving motor due to the low stiffness of the joints.

Why do we still
have
redundancies?

When we created the plots, we


were warned that
redundancies still exist in the
model. If we check the
degrees of freedom we see
that there are 11 redundant
constraints.
If you examine the mates, not
all concentric mates were
made flexible. For instance,
the mates between the piston,
cylinder and frame (that
were changed in the previous
exercise) are still hinge and
concentric mates in this
model. We do not have to
change the mates in this
problem because we are not
interested in the forces for
those components.

247

Exercise 17

SolidWorks 2011

Removing Redundancies with Bushings

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Examine the other mates that have not been made flexible. These mate
concern forces or motion in the global Y direction (across the plane of
symmetry). As we expect these forces are going to be zero, we are not
concerned with these forces and do not have to take the time to remove
these redundancies.

7
8

Save and close the file.


Open an assembly file.

Open Scissor_Lift from the Lesson08\Exercises\Redundancies


Removal with Bushings\completed-optimum stiffness folder.

Examine the assembly.

This is exactly the same assembly as used in the previous steps except
that the stiffness of the flexible mates has been changed.

10 Examine the bushings.


Edit one of the Concentric mates that is flexible.

Select the Analysis tab.

Notice that Bushing has been selected and the


values set as follows:
Translational
I
I
I
I

Select Isotropic
Stiffness = 100,000 N/mm
Damping = 2000.0 N-s/mm
Force = 0 N-mm

Torsional
I
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Select Isotropic
Stiffness = 100 N-mm/deg
Damping = 20.0 N-mm-s/deg
Toque = 0.0 N-mm

These values for stiffness and damping are more


realistic for a practical system then those used in
the previous example.

11 Run the study.

248

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Exercise 17
Removing Redundancies with Bushings

12 Examine the plots.

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The plots for the same four mates examined in the previous example
have already be generated.
As before, the plots for the symmetric pairs of mates are identical.

With the higher stiffness, we can see that after the initial acceleration,
the motion is sinusoidal.

Add the two values for the maximum force (ignoring the initial spike in
the magnitude) in mates Concentric20 and Concentric21, they
should be approximately 9,500 N which compares favorably with the
result obtain in Exercise 14: Kinematic Mechanism.

Also compare the values for the maximum force in mates


Concentric36 and Concentric37, they should be approximately
15,000 N which also compares favorably with the result obtain in
Exercise 14: Kinematic Mechanism.

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Exercise 17

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Removing Redundancies with Bushings

From these results, we can see that the forces were equal when we had
all the mates on one side of the model to the total force when we
removed the redundancies and split the force to the two sides.

13 Save and close the file.

250

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 18
Catapult

Exercise 18:
Catapult

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This exercise will further examine the


use of local flexible mates to properly
calculate the forces where multiple
supports are used.

We will use the same catapult model that


we saw in Lesson 3.
With a lot of redundancies, SolidWorks
Motion will solve the kinematics
correctly, however the force distribution
may be incorrect.
This exercise reinforces the following
skills:
I
I
I
I

Project
Description

Redundancies on page 210.


Effects of Redundancies on page 214.
How are redundancies removed in the solver? on page 215.
How to Check For Redundancies on page 225.

Calculate the forces on the pivots between the arm and counterweight.

Open an assembly file.

Open Catapult-assembly from Lesson08\Exercises\Catapult


folder.

This assembly has been set up and run in the study named original

study with results.

Examine the assembly.

The counterweight is connected to


the arm with a single mate,
ConcentricB. There is also
Coincident4 which holds the
counterweight centered on the arm.

Play the simulation.

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Exercise 18

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Catapult

Degrees of Freedom.

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This assembly has 54


redundant constraints, but it
runs without problems. While
the kinematic problem is
solved, the problem with the
solution is that the resulting
forces may not be distributed
properly.

Create plot.

Create a plot of the global


Y direction resultant force
on the mate
ConcentricB.
We can observe a force of
about -1.22 N while the
arm is being rotated into
position, lifting the
counterweight.

Depending on our engineering judgement, this result may be good


enough if we are confident that the load is shared equally as we can just
divide the result in half to get the correct force at each pivot.
If this is not good enough, then we must make the mates flexible to
distribute the force correctly.

252

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 18
Catapult

Add another mate.

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We are interested in the force


in each of the pivots between
the arm and counterweight,
so we need to have a mate on
the other pivot.

Select the Model tab, then


add a Concentric mate to the
other pivot.
Rename this mate
Concentric C.

Run.

Make sure that Replace redundant mate with bushings is cleared,


then rerun the study.

Create plot.

Create an additional plot showing the reaction force in the Y direction


(global coordinates) for the mate Concentric C.

We can see that the force is distributed evenly between the two mates.
This, however, may be just a coincidence as the distribution will
depends on how the software removes the redundancies. We will not
use flexible mates to ensure the correct force redistribution.

253

Exercise 18

SolidWorks 2011

Catapult

Create local flexible mates.


Edit mates ConcentricB and ConcentricC.

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Select the Analysis tab and select Bushing. Keep the default values.

10 Run.

Make sure that Replace redundant mates with bushings is cleared,


then, rerun the study.

We will still have a lot of redundancies in the model, however these do


not affect the results we are interested in at the two pivots.

11 Examine the plots.

The plots now show that the force is divided over the two mates.

254

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 18
Catapult

12 Change scale.

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To make them easier to read, modify the two plots to show the Y Axis:
I
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Start Point = -2
End Point = 1.0
Major Units = 0.5.

We can see that the forces are exactly the same.

13 Save and close the file.

255

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Exercise 18
Catapult

256

SolidWorks 2011

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Lesson 9
Export to FEA

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Create an Action Only Moment.

Export loads from SolidWorks Motion to FEA Simulation.

Run the structural analysis in SolidWorks Simulation.

257

Lesson 9

SolidWorks 2011

Export to FEA

Determining the forces on a part is generally not the end of the analysis
of a part. Usually, the forces obtained are to be used in finite element
analysis to determine the strength, displacement and Factor of Safety of
the individual parts. SolidWorks Motion and SolidWorks Simulation
work together to make the exporting of data from SolidWorks Motion
to SolidWorks Simulation seamless.

Case Study:
Drive Shaft

The Drive Shaft assembly is composed of 5 sub-assemblies, and 2


single parts. SolidWorks Motion will be used to determine the forces
acting on one component, the Journal-cross and then using
SolidWorks Simulation, we will determine the stress and displacements
of the part.

Project
Description

The universal joint is required to transmit a torque of 15,000,000 Nmm at a speed of 2800 RPM. Determine the stress and deflection of the
part Journal_Cross_output.

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Exporting
Results

Output _housing
Output_shaft

Journal-cross_output

Driveshaft

Output_housing

Driveshaft

Input_housing

Journal_cross_input

Input_shaft

Driveshaft

Input_housing

258

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 9
Export to FEA

Stages in the
Process

Create the motion study.

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Using the known data as input, create a motions study.


I

Run the motion study.

The motion study is calculated to determine the forces on the part


or parts in question.

Export loads to Analysis.

From SolidWorks Motion, export the loads directly to SolidWorks


Simulation.

Open the part for analysis.

Open the specific part in its own window.

Run the FEA simulation.

Complete the boundary conditions in SolidWorks Simulation and


run the analysis.

Examine the results.

Use the results to determine if design changes are needed.

Open an assembly file.


Open Drive_shaft_assembly from the Lesson09\Case Studies

folder.

Insert a new motion study.

Make sure the units are in MMGS.

Add a motor.
Add a Rotary Motor to the Input_shaft. Make it turn at 16,800 deg/
sec (2,800 RPM).

Note the direction of rotation. It doesnt matter which direction it turns


only that we know the direction so that we can add the Action Only
moment in the opposite direction in the next step.

259

Lesson 9

SolidWorks 2011

Export to FEA

Add a force.
Apply an Action only Torque on the Output_shaft. This is a torque

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that opposes the rotation, so set the direction opposite the motor added
in the previous step.
Input a value of 15,000,000 N-mm for the torque.

Study properties.

We are going to run the study for only 0.05 seconds, so we will need a
high frame rate to capture enough information.
Set the frame rate at 2,000. This will give us 101 frames.

Run.

Run the study for 0.05 seconds.

The following message will indicate that the current setting for the
Number of Frames parameter seem to be excessive and may
negatively impact the performance:

The playback speed or frames per second for this motion


study will result in poor performance given the current study
duration. Would you like these settings adjusted for better
playback?

Click No to complete the simulation with the current settings.

260

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Lesson 9
Export to FEA

Calculate DOF.

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We can see that there are zero


degrees of freedom, so we have a
kinematic system.
Close the Degrees of Freedom
window.

Examine the mates.

This assembly has zero DOF because of the way it was built. If you
examine the individual mates, many of them are point to point or point
to line to avoid removing too many degrees of freedom.

Plot results.

Create plots of the Angular Velocity Magnitude for both the input and
output shaft.
We can see that both shafts are turning at 16,800 deg/sec which was the
input speed.

261

Lesson 9

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10 Plot the angular velocity of the driveshaft.


Create a plot of the Angular Velocity Magnitude of the driveshaft. We

can see the expected variation of the velocity caused by the offset angle
between the input and output.

11 Plot the required torque.

Create a plot of the torque of the input rotary motor. This is the torque
required by the motor to move the shaft at this load.

FEA Export

Motion Simulation enables you to apply all of the necessary resulting


quantities (forces, moments, accelerations etc.) onto the load bearing
faces and solve for the for the stress and deformation analysis
(SolidWorks Simulation module is required for the deformation
solution). This way, Motion Simulation simplifies the transient problem
using the rigid body dynamics approach and solves for the parts
accelerations and joint reaction forces. Then, in SolidWorks
Simulation, these loads are applied on the bearing faces and the stress
analysis problem is solved.
Motion simulation enables you to apply the loads and solve the
deformation analysis using SolidWorks Simulation in two distinct
ways:

Direct solution, where the setup, solution and the post-processing

is performed directly in the Motion Simulation interface.

Export of the loads into SolidWorks Simulation. Deformation

solution is performed using SolidWorks Simulation interface.

Both approaches are presented in this lesson.

262

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 9
Export to FEA

The applied (or exported) forces are


transferred onto the faces only; edges
and points are not allowed. Any face
used in the mate definition in
SolidWorks is also assumed to be the
load bearing area for the applied (or
exported) loads. If other entity types
(points, edges) are used in the mate
definition, load bearing faces have to be
specified under the Analysis tab.

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Load Bearing
Faces

Mate location

Default initial location of the mate in motion analysis is determined


using the first entity in the definition of the mate. For example, in the
mate definition shown in the figure above, the initial mate location is at
the center of Face<1>@Input_shaft-1/universal_bearing-1.
Optionally, this can be changed by selecting a new entity in the Mate
location field. Changing the location of the mate may change the
motion analysis results and the resulting reaction forces somewhat; the
impact of this change varies from case to case.
It is recommended that you change the mate location if the initial
configuration is not suitable. This can be especially important when
using the motion loads for the finite element analysis using the
SolidWorks Simulation modulus.

Motion Simulation also exports the body loads due to the accelerations
of the parts. Similarly to the joint reaction forces, body loads are
exported at each (or all) requested time step.
The load bearing faces as well as the new mate locations have to be
input before running the motion analysis.

263

Lesson 9

SolidWorks 2011

Export to FEA

This section of the lesson demonstrates how to properly prepare a part


subjected to the motion loads for the finite element analysis in
SolidWorks Simulation. First, the correct load bearing faces and mate
locations will be defined. Then, the motion loads are imported in the
SolidWorks Simulation, where the finite element analysis and the postprocessing are performed.

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Export of Loads

12 Isolate on journal_cross<1>.
This is the journal_cross on the input
side of the driveshaft. Isolating this

component is done just to make it easier to


see the part.
We are interested in computing the
stresses and displacements of this part.

Examine the four mates of this part. None


of the mating entities are faces, but rather
points or axes. This will require us to
specify the faces where the forces will be
transferred for each of these four mates.
Click Exit Isolate.

13 Specify the load bearing faces.


Edit the first mate, Coincident24.

Select the Analysis tab.

Select Load Bearing Faces.

Click Isolate components. This will hide


all components except those associated
with this mate.

Use the Select Other command to select


the exterior surface of the journal_cross
and the internal cylindrical face of the universal_bearing. The two
parts are shown in the exploded view below for clarity.

Because the faces are touching, Treat as Bonded if touching is


automatically selected. Clear Treat as Bonded if touching.

264

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Lesson 9
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As mentioned in the previous discussion block, the default initial mate


location is determined from the first entity in the mate definition, center
of the Face<1>@Input_shaft-1/universal_bearing-1. Because
these two parts are in permanent contact and do not translate
significantly relative to each other, the default location of the mate at
the center of the above face is acceptable and would not have to be
changed. It is, nevertheless, a good habit to place the initial location to
the most ideal location, especially if we intend to follow with the finite
element stress analysis of a part. To practice this we will change the
location for all four journal_cross-1 mates.
Selecting the mate location is optional. You can select either of the
points that define the mate, but it is not necessary.

Click OK and Exit Isolate.

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Lesson 9

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14 Second load bearing face.


Edit mate Coincident25.

Select the Analysis tab.

Select Load Bearing Faces.


Click Isolate components.

Select the two faces shown, one on the journal_cross and the other on
the attachment flange.

As the faces are not touching, the option to Treat as Bonded if

touching is not available.

15 Define remaining load bearing faces.

Repeat the above procedure on the remaining two mates,


Coincident26 and Coincident28.

16 Re-run the analysis and Save the assembly.

After the mate locations have been changed, the motion analysis must
be re-calculated.

We will now proceed with a stress analysis of the journal_cross-1


component.

SolidWorks
Simulation Users
Only

266

SolidWorks Simulation may read the Motion loads for a single time
step or a multiple time steps at once. In the latter case a design scenario
feature of the Simulation software is used to run multiple analyses at all
requested time steps. Design Study enables us to locate the critical time
instance where the part exhibits the largest stresses and deformations.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 9
Export to FEA

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17 Import motion loads.

Ensure that SolidWorks


Simulation is added inside
SolidWorks.
Click Import Motion
Loads on the Simulation
menu.

Select the Motion Study


from the list that you used
to create the forces.

Select journal_cross-1 in
Available assembly
components, then click >
to move it to the Selected
components box.
Click Multiple frame
study.

In the Start (Frame No.) box, type 80.


The End box should already be 101.

Click OK. This will import and save the load data to the CWR file for
the journal_cross-1 part, and define the design study.

The above specifications define design study with 22 sets. Each set has
its loads defined from the motion loads developed at the time instant of
the frame associated with that set.

18 Open the part.


Open the part journal_cross-1 in its own window.

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Lesson 9

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Export to FEA

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19 Select the SolidWorks Simulation study.


A new static study named CM-ALT-Frames-80-101-1 has been

added. The numbers 80, 101 and 1 in the study name refer to the
starting and ending frame numbers and the frame increment,
respectively.

20 Select the Design Study.

A new design study named CM-ALT-Frames-80-101-1 has also been


added. You can review the list of the parameters along with their values
that have been imported from SolidWorks Motion. 22 scenarios
corresponding to the frames 80 to 101 have been created.

268

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Lesson 9
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21 Apply material.

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The definition of the static study needs to


be completed.

Back in the static study, apply Alloy Steel


to the part.
In the Simulation Study tree, right-click
the journal_cross part and click Apply/
Edit material.

Select Alloy Steel from the SolidWorks Materials library files.


Click OK.

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Lesson 9

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22 Mesh the part.


Right-click Mesh in the Simulation Study tree
and click Create Mesh.

Under Advanced, verify that Draft Quality


Mesh is cleared.

Move the Mesh Density slider to set the


Maximum Element Size close to the value of 30
mm.
Click OK and the model will mesh.

23 Study properties.

Right-click the study


icon and click
Properties.

Because this part is self


equilibrated, Use
inertial relief is on by
default.
Click OK.

270

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 9
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The inertial relief is one of the options used to stabilize selfequilibrated problems in the finite element analysis. The detailed
discussion of the option is a subject of the SolidWorks Simulation
course.

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Note

24 Run Design Study.

Select the design study tab and click the Run button.

The 22 different sets of data will be solved sequentially.

25 Global maximum for von Mises stress.

Global maximums indicate the maximum


values over all 22 scenarios.

In the design study tree, right-click Results and Graphs and select
Define Design History Graph.

Click Constrains for the Y-Axis and select VON:


von Mises Stress.
Click OK.

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Lesson 9

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26 Examine the results.

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The graph shows the variation of the maximum von Mises stress in the
journal_cross-1 part across all 22 scenarios. We can observe that the
largest value of 5.07 e8 N/m2 (507 MPa), reached in scenarios 1 and 22,
is smaller than the yield strength of the material (620.4 MPa).

27 Global maximum for resultant displacement.

Create a similar graph showing the global maximum of the resultant


displacements.

The maximum displacement is 0.12 mm.

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Lesson 9
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28 Von Mises Stress plot for design scenario #15.

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Design study stores full results for all


computed scenarios.

In the design study, click the column


corresponding to Scenario 15 to access the
results.

Under Results and Graphs, double-click the


VON: von Mises Stress plot.

The maximum von Mises stress magnitude in scenario #15 is 491 MPa.

29 Resultant Displacement plot for design scenario #15.

The maximum resultant displacement in scenario 15 is 0.12 mm.

30 Save and close the journal_cross part file.

273

Lesson 9

SolidWorks 2011

Export to FEA

This section of the lesson demonstrates how to perform stress analysis


on a part directly in the SolidWorks Motion interface.

Important!

The correct load bearing faces and the mate locations specified in steps
13 to 15 must be specified for the direct stress solution in the Motion
Simulation as well.

Note

SolidWorks Simulation modulus must be activated in order to obtain


the stress solution.

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Direct Solution
in SolidWorks
Motion

31 Simulation setup.

In the Drive_Shaft_Assembly motion study,


click the Simulation Setup icon .
In the Part for Simulation field select the
journal_cross<1> on the input side of the
driveshaft.

Specify 0.0395s and 0.05s for the Simulation


Start Time and Simulation End Time,
respectively. Click Add Time to add the time
range to the Simulation Time Steps and
Time Ranges field.
Under Advanced, move the mesh slider to set
the Mesh Density Scale Factor to 0.95 to
generate finer mesh.
Click OK.

The following message will display:

Do you want to assign material to the part?

Click Yes to open the Material window.

32 Material.

Similarly to step 21, specify Alloy Steel.


Click Apply and Close.

33 Solve finite element simulation.

Click the Calculate Simulation Results button

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34 Stress results at 0.045s.

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To show the result plot, move the time line to 0.045s.

Note

The specified time must fall within the time range requested in step 31.

Set the Results Plot button to show the von


Mises Stress Plot.

The legend indicates the maximum stress of approximately 542 MPa.


However, because journal_cross<1> is shown in the context of the
whole assembly the stress contours are not easily visible. In this case
clearer plot will be provided when we isolate the part.

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35 Isolate on journal_cross<1>.

The stress contours are now visible. The indicated maximum of 542
MPa is below the yield strength of the material, 620.4 MPa.

36 Factor of Safety at 0.045s.

Follow steps 34 to 35 and show the plot of Factor of safety.

The minimum factor of safety indicated in the plot is 1.14 (620.4/


542=1.62).

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37 Deformation results at 0.045s.

The maximum resultant displacement at time 0.045s is 0.37 mm.

38 Results at different times.

Move the time line to any other time step. The contour plots will update
automatically.

Note

The specified time must again fall within the time range requested in
step 31.

39 Animate and show the overall maximums.

To set the legend to show the overall maximum for the requested
analysis time range and to see the animation, click the Play button.

The maximum resultant displacement over the entire requested analysis


interval (0.035s - 0.05s) is 0.38 mm.

40 Save and close the file.

277

Lesson 9

SolidWorks 2011

Export to FEA

This lesson showed the procedure for the application of the joint and
body loads computed in the Motion Simulation in the finite element
stress analysis. In the first part we solved the rigid body dynamics
problem and obtained the necessary joint and body loads. Then, load
bearing faces and mate initial locations were specified in the assembly
mate definitions.

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Summary

In the second part the loads from multiple time steps were applied on
the selected part and the stress analysis was carried out. Two
procedures are currently available: direct stress solution in the Motion
Simulation interface, or the export of the motion loads in the
SolidWorks Simulation. In the later case, the stress solution is carried
out in the SolidWorks Simulation interface with the help of the design
study feature.

The above procedures allowed us to locate the extreme stress in the part
of the rotating drive shaft assembly. Displacements, factor of safety and
other results available in the SolidWorks Simulation are available and
were shown in this lesson.

278

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 19
Export to FEA

Exercise 19:
Export to FEA

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In this exercise, we will export


the loads for a latch mechanism
to SolidWorks Simulation and
conduct an analysis of the part.
This exercise reinforces the
following skills:
I

Project
Description

Exporting Results on
page 258.

Determine the maximum stress and deflection on the part J_Spring.

Open an assembly file.

Open Full latch mechanism from the Lesson09\Exercises folder.


This is the same assembly used in Lesson 4.
The motion study is already set up and has been run.

Play the study.


Click Play (do not run) just to refresh your memory about how the

mechanism works.

Specify load bearing faces.


Locate mate Concentric6. This is the mate that is used as the pivot for

the spring.

Edit the mate and specify the four faces shown as the load bearing
faces. The two parts are shown in exploded view for clarity.

For the Mate location, select the edge of the split surface on either the
clip or pin.

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Exercise 19

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Export to FEA

Re-run the simulation.

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Because the contact faces as well as the mate locations were changed,
the motion simulation needs to be recalculated.

Contact Forces

While the forces in the mates can be imported to SolidWorks


Simulation automatically, the contact forces cannot and must be
defined manually.

We will first determine where the contact forces are maximum through
observing the plots created in SolidWorks Motion. We will then
determine the frame at which this maximum force occurs so that we
only have to output the data for a single frame.
We must also determine the directions along which these forces must
be applied.

Examine the plot of contact force.

The plot of the magnitude contact force between the J-spring and the
keeper is already created. We can see that the maximum force occurs
at about 2.4 seconds.

Fmagnitude, max

Create additional plots.

Plot the contact forces for both the X (red) and Z


(blue) components. We expect the Y (green)
component to be zero, or nearly so, therefore it is
not important to the analysis.

Note

280

By default, the forces are output in the assembly global coordinate


system.

SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 19
Export to FEA

You do not have to select the actual contact faces, only the components.

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Note

Fx, max

Fz, max

Ignoring the short duration peaks, notice that at the point where the
X component is maximum, the overall magnitude is not at its
maximum. We will run the analysis at the point where the overall
magnitude is maximum.
For additional practice, run the analysis at the point where the
X component is maximum.

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Exercise 19

SolidWorks 2011

Export to FEA

Create an additional plot.

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Create a plot of the joint reaction force for the mate linking the
J_spring to the knurled_pin, Concentric6.

Modify the Y axis of the plot so that the End Point is 50.

Compare this plot to the first plot of the contact force. Both plots
should be exactly the same, i.e. the magnitude of this force must be the
same as the contact force.

Close the plot.

Modify the plot to show frames.

Modify the contact force magnitude plot to show


the X axis in Frames.

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Exercise 19
Export to FEA

Change the axis range.

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To better see the area of interest, modify X axis of the plot to show
from frame 320 to frame 340.

To make the graph easier to read, change the X axis major and minor
units to 10 and 5 respectively.

We can see that the most extreme loading occurs at about frame 325.
When we export the motion loads to SolidWorks Simulation, we will
export the data from just this one frame.

10 Modify plots.

Change the X axis to Frames for both the X and Z contact force plots.

11 Export forces.
In step 6 we determined that the

two directions of interest were X


and Z as shown in the image. We
will just export these as the Y
direction should essentially be
zero.
Export both the X and Z contact
forces for the J_spring to CSV
files. Right-click each plot and
click Export CSV.

Each file will get a default name and be saved in the same directory as
the assembly.

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Exercise 19

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Export to FEA

12 Examine the output data.

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Open each of the two CSV files and note the values at frame 325.

13 Export Motion Loads.

When the calculation


completes, save the result
and export the loads for the
J_spring for the frame
325 only.

14 Open the part.


Open the J_spring part in

its own window.

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Exercise 19
Export to FEA

15 Simulation study.

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Select the simulation


tab for the new study
CM1-ALT-Frame325.

The mate loads have


been imported into the
part, but we will have
to apply the contact
forces manually.

Notice the directions of the global coordinate system for this part are
different from the assembly. The X direction in the assembly is the
Y direction in the part and the Z direction in the assembly is the
X direction in the part. When we apply the contact forces to this part,
we will have to insure we are using the correct force for the direction
on the part.

16 Apply X contact force.


Apply a force of -34.80615053 (from the exported values in the CSV
file) to the indicated face. Select the Right plane to define the

direction. As the negative value of the force was the reaction force, we
have to reverse its direction to be correct in the part.

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Exercise 19

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Export to FEA

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17 Apply Z contact force.


Apply a force of 9.569044324 to the indicated edge. Select the Top

plane to define the direction. Reverse its direction to be correct in the


part.

18 Apply material.

Apply the material Alloy Steel to the part in the Simulation Study tree.

19 Mesh the model.


Right-click Mesh in the

Simulation Study tree and


click Create Mesh.
Use the default settings.
Click OK.

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SolidWorks 2011

Exercise 19
Export to FEA

20 Run the study.

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Right-click the study and click Run.


We will get a warning that says:

Warning: There is a significant external imbalance force in


the X-direction which will be balanced by the application of
opposing inertia forces. Unless you model is under such a
force or under marginally imbalance forces, application of
Inertia Relief may alter the characteristics of your model.

This message is the result of exporting the loads from the motion
simulation and entering values by hand. This part can therefore be
considered as nearly self equilibrated. Click Yes.
Click Yes.

21 Stress Plot.

Examine the stress plot. We can see that the maximum stress 150 MPa
and is on the underside of the J_spring.

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Exercise 19

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Export to FEA

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22 Factor of Safety.
Create a Factor of Safety plot to determine if the part is yielding.

Right-click the Results folder and click Define Factor of Safety Plot.

Use the default values to create a plot that shows the Factor of safety
distribution.

Click OK.

23 Examine the plot.

We can see that the minimum Factor of Safety is 4.12, so the part is not
yielding.

24 Save and close the file.

288

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Lesson 10
Event Based Simulation

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Understand and run event based simulation.

Apply servo motors.

Create events with specific timing and logic.

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Lesson 10

SolidWorks 2011

Event Based Simulation

This lesson introduces the event based motion simulation of the


mechanism, which incorporates the event-triggered control.

Case Study:
Sorting Device

The sorting device shown in the


figure is used to sort two types of
boxes: yellow with the hole and the
solid brown. Each type should be
moved to the corresponding bay.
Event based simulation will be used
to simulate this mechanism.

Problem
Description

The mechanism used to sort the boxes into the respective bays consists
of six parts. The vertical motion of the boxes is caused by the gravity.
The horizontal motions are then driven by a set of three pistons with
servo motors. Motors actuate the motion based on a set of sensors
controlling the box type and their position in the mechanism.

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Event Based
Simulation

Simulate a mechanism placing each box type into its respective bay.

Open an assembly file.

Open Sorting device from the Lesson10\Case Studies folder.

Verify the units.

Verify that the document units are set to MMGS.

Create a new Motion study.


Name the study Sorting device.

Servo motors

Servo motors are both rotational and linear motor features driving
mechanisms in event based simulation. Their motion is, however, not
prescribed directly in the Motor FeatureManager. It is controlled via an
event based simulation interface, and it can be triggered based on
various criteria such as proximity of a certain part in the system.

Introducing: Servo
Motors

Servo motors are used as motion drivers in the event based simulations.

Where to Find It

290

On the MotionManager toolbar, click Motor


select Servo Motor.

. Under Motion

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 10
Event Based Simulation

Servo motor #1.


Define linear Servo Motor for Actuator<1>.

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Click the Motor icon and select Linear Motor (Actuator).

Select the indicated face for both Motor Location and Motor

Direction.

Under Motion select Servo Motor and Displacement.

Rename this simulation component to Actuator 1.


Click OK.

Servo motor #2 and #3.

Similarly, define two more linear, displacement based servo motors for
Actuator<2> and Actuator<3>.

Rename the two motors to Actuator 2 and Actuator 3,


correspondingly.
Click OK.

Sensors

Sensors can be used to trigger events or stop them. Three different


sensor types can be used in event based simulations:
I

Interference detection sensor for detecting collisions.

Proximity sensor, which detects motion of a body crossing a line.

Dimension sensor used to detect the relative position of component

from dimensions.

Introducing: Sensor
s

Sensors can be used to trigger or stop the motion in event based


simulation.

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Lesson 10

SolidWorks 2011

Event Based Simulation

Where to Find It

In the SolidWorks FeatureManager, right-click Sensors and select


Add Sensor.
On the Evaluate tab click the Sensor button .

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I
I

Proximity sensor #1.

Two proximity sensors are used to control


the system. Sensor 1 is used to detect the
solid box on the bottom platform of the
holder. Sensor 2 is then tracking the
hollow box.

Sensor 1

Sensor 2

Define Proximity sensor


detecting the presence of the
solid box on the platform.

Select the indicated face of


sensor 1 for Proximity
sensor location. The

Proximity sensor direction

field may remain empty to


keep the default vertical
direction.

Select the two solid boxes for


the Components to track
field.
Enter 12 mm for Proximity
sensor range.
Click OK.

Rename this sensor to Sensor 1.

A 12 mm range was used to trigger the necessary


event when the box reaches the horizontal
platform of the holder. Since the thickness of the
platform is 10 mm, any sensor ray longer than 10
mm will trigger an event as the box approaches
the platform.

Note

Proximity sensor #2.

Similarly, define proximity sensor #2 to track the boxes with the hole.
Rename this sensor to Sensor 2.

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Lesson 10
Event Based Simulation

Contacts.

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Define the following four solid bodies contacts.


Contact group 1
(Acrylic)

All in one group


(Acrylic)

Contact group 2
(Steel (Dry))

Contact group 1
(Acrylic)

Contact group 1
(Acrylic)

Contact group 2
(Steel (Dry))

Contact group 2
(Steel (Dry))

Whenever possible, use contact groups to simplify the contact solution.

Gravity.
Define Gravity in the negative Y direction.

Task

Event based simulation requires a set of tasks, triggered by sensors, and


ordered sequentially or overlapping in time. Each task is defined by a
triggering event and its associated task action, which controls or
defines motion during the task.

Triggers

Each task is triggered with a triggering condition. The triggering


condition can depend on the status of a sensor, or start or end of some
other task in the sequence.

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Lesson 10

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Event Based Simulation

The following is a list of actions which can be specified in a task


definition.

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Task Action

I
I
I
I

Timeline View vs.


Event-based Motion
View

Stop . Stop the motion of a component.


Motors . Turn on or off any motor, or change a constant speed of

motor according to the selected profile.


Forces . Apply or stop applying any force, or change a constant
force according to a selected profile.
Mates . Toggle the suppression of a selected mate.

To define the task, Motion Simulation offers an Event-based Motion


View which can be accessed through the corresponding button on the
MotionManager toolbar . This view is used to define tasks and
design the logic of the system.
Tasks design table

Tasks time sequence


and logical relationship

Timeline based view provides classical Motion simulation view with


the keys, indicating the beginning, end and change in the behavior of
the simulation components. The sequence of the keys in time is
generated when the event based simulation computations complete and
is also an important result of the simulation.

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SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 10
Event Based Simulation

Task controls and defines motion of the components during the


simulation. It is defined by a triggering event and its associated action.

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Introducing: Task

Where to Find It

On the MotionManager toolbar, click the Event-based Motion


button. To add a task, click the Click here to add line on
View
the bottom of the task list table.

10 Event-based motion view.


Switch to the Event-based Motion View.
11 Task #1 - Name and Triggers.

The first task for the system is to move the lowest solid box along the
holder platform to the position, where Actuator 2 may push it into
Bay 1. This task will be triggered when the bottom solid box activates
the proximity Sensor 1. Because this sensor triggers an event when
the solid box is 2 mm above the platform, and to provide enough time
for Actuator 2 to fully retract, a 0.1s time delay for this task will be
specified.
Click Click here to add line to add a new task line.
Enter Push solid box for Name.

Click here to add


a new task line

Click the selection button in the Trigger


field to open the Trigger dialog window.
Select Sensor 1.

Click OK to close the Trigger dialog


window.

Back in the Event-based Motion View,


complete the Triggers section by setting Condition to Alert On and
Time/Delay to 0.1s (see the figure in the next step).

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Event Based Simulation

12 Task #1 - Action.

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The task definition will complete with the specification of action. In


this case the action comprises of Actuator 1 motor pushing the solid
box 75 mm along the platform. (this is an ideal position for subsequent
action of Actuator 2).
Select Actuator 1 from the Motors in the Feature field, Change for
Action, 75mm for Value, 1s for Duration and choose Harmonic for
Profile.

13 Task #2 - retracting Actuator 1.


Define the second task to retract Actuator 1. This task should be
triggered after the task #1, Push solid box, completes and its duration
is 0.2s.

Name this task Retract Actuator 1.

14 Task #3 - pushing solid box into Bay 1.


Define the third task, this time for Actuator 2, pushing the solid box
into Bay 1. This task comprises of a 50mm extension of Actuator 2
in 0.6s.

Similarly to the task #2, Retract Actuator 1, the task #3 is triggered


by the completion of the task #1, Push solid box.

Rename this task to Push solid box to Bay 1.

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Lesson 10
Event Based Simulation

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15 Task #4 - retracting Actuator 2.


Similarly to step 13, define the task #4 retracting Actuator 2 in 0.1s.
This task is triggered by the completion of task Push solid box to
Bay 1.

Rename this task Retract Actuator 2.

16 Tasks for boxes with hole.


Follow steps 11 to 15 and specify similar tasks to move the box with
the hole into Bay 2.

To move the box with hole next to Actuator 3, extend Actuator 1 by


130 mm in 1.2s with a 0.1s delay. Then retract Actuator 1 in 0.3s.

Use the same time and distance values for Actuator 3 as those which
were used for Actuator 2 in steps 14 and 15.
Give the new tasks names similar to those used in steps 11 to 15.

17 Simulation Properties.
Set the Frames per second to 200 and check Use Precise Contact.

Under Advanced Options, set Maximum Integrator Step Size to


0.05s.

Note

To speed up the simulation and because we are not interested in the


force results, the maximum integrator step size value can be relaxed.

18 Calculate simulation for 7 seconds.

It takes approximately 15 minutes for the simulation to complete.

19 Animate.
Animate the final motion of the system.

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Event Based Simulation

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20 Timeline View.
Switch to the Timeline View. Here you can see the result of the event

based simulation. Each key indicates the beginning, end or a change in


the motion of the system components. It also indicates the duration of
the whole cycle.

The Timeline View provides insight into the duration of the whole
operation. Each task start and end is identified with a time key. Possible
action following this simulation may be a change in the velocities of
the actuators in order to optimize the system, change of material in
order to change the effect of friction, change of the design to better
stack the boxes in the bays, or similar.

21 Save and close the file.

Summary

In this lesson, we introduced the event based motion simulation to


model and optimize the behavior of mechanical systems. We modeled
an operation of the sorting device mechanism used to move two
different box types into their respective bays.

The event based simulation is a sequence of tasks triggered by sensors,


ordered sequentially or overlapping in time. Each task is defined by a
triggering event and its associated task action which controls or defines
motion during the task. The triggering condition can depend on the
status of a sensor, or the start or end of some other task in the sequence.
The triggered action can be applied to motors, forces, mates or can
completely stop the motion of a moving part. A special type of motor,
servo motor, was introduces and utilized.

The tasks with their respective actions, sequence and the logic is
designed in the Event-based Motion View interface introduced in this
lesson.

The result of the simulation, the animation and the duration as well as
time sequencing of the entire operation was shown. This result can then
be used to modify the system parameters (kinematic parameters of the
actuators, for example) to optimize it.

298

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Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to:


I

Create a function based force.

Export loads to SolidWorks Simulation.

Complete an analysis project from motion to FEA.

299

Lesson 11

SolidWorks 2011

Design Project (Optional)

This lesson is in two parts, in the first section it is up to the individual


students to solve the problem of the Surgical Shear. In the second part
of the lesson, the complete solution will be shown.

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Design Project

The Case Study is also in two parts:

The overall problem is to determine the suitability of the design of the


handle used in the surgical shear.
Part 1: Develop loads on the parts based on a motion study. This will
require the development of a force function to simulate the resistance
of the catheter being cut by the surgical shear.
Part 2: Conduct an FEA simulation of the handle, using the loads
developed in part 1.

Case Study:
Surgical Shear Part 1

The Surgical Shear is used to cut


arteries and catheters. It consists of
a fixed blade and a moving blade.

Because the surgical shear has to be


operated by many people in the
medical industry, it is important to
estimate the handle force that will
be sufficient to generate the required cutting force.

In this part of the lesson, we will mate the components, create a motion
study and develop a force function to simulate the blades cutting
through a catheter.

Problem
Description

The mechanism is composed of seven parts. The fixed_cutter is


stationary and the rotation of the handle provides the motion of the
moving_cutter. The latch rotates with respect to the fixed_cutter
and is inserted into the moving_cutter. A spring maintains the
moving_cutter in an open configuration when no force is applied to
the handle. The removable blades are attached to the fixed_cutter
and moving_cutter parts.

When the surgeon squeezes the handle, it will rotate 12 degrees and
move the blade. The spring is used to help to return the shear to the
open position. It is assumed that it takes a surgeon approximately one
second to cut the catheter.

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Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

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Determine the design suitability of the handle part.


fixed_cutter

latch

handle_link

blade1

blade2

moving_cutter

handle

Force to Cut the


Catheter

From experimentation, the force to cut a 3 mm catheter was determined


and plotted in the graph below. The X axis shows the travel of the blade
starting at Point 1(X=0mm) where the blade contacts the catheter. The
cutting force increases slowly at first as the catheter is compressed and
then climbs more rapidly as we approach the point when the cutting
begins.
At Point 2 (X=1.5mm) the blade starts cutting the catheter and the
force reduces quickly as the cut portion of the catheter returns to its
round shape.

From Point 3 to Point 4, the remaining thickness is cut and at Point 4


the cut is complete.

Point 2

Point 1

Point 3

Point 4

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Lesson 11

SolidWorks 2011

Design Project (Optional)

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The preceding graph contains the variation of the cutting force from the
experiment. In order to input this curve in SolidWorks Motion
Simulation each segment has to be expressed as function of the catheter
location (location of the cutting blade); in the above graph this location
is expressed through the variable x. Notice that it assumes values
from 0 mm (cutting blade touches the catheter) to 3mm (cutting blade
completes the cut). Each segment is therefore expressed as a linear
function shown in the graph.

Note

The above cutting force curve as measured from the experiment is


expressed as function of the blade location (not the function of time).
Time dependent data is not available since, in general, it depends on
how fast the cutting operation is completed and how the input force
from the surgeons hand varies in time. While the input of the time
dependent force would be trivial (this procedure was practiced multiple
times throughout this course), input of the location dependent force is
more challenging.
Note also, that with certain assumption the above location dependent
function can be converted in time dependent input. However, to
demonstrate the more complex case (which may be required in some
analyses) we will use the location driven input.

As we will see, inputting the number of data segments into the force
expression can be tedious. We will simplify this curve as shown in red,
with only three segments; this should be enough to reasonably simulate
the cutting force.

First Segment

Second Segment

Third Segment

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Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

Each of the three segments can be defined by a linear equation:

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First Segment: y = 7.333333 x

Second Segment: y = -80 x + 131

Third Segment: y = -2.14286 x + 6.42857

Self Guided
Problem - Part 1

In this section, it is up to each student to solve this motion part of the


problem. A basic outline of the procedure is provided as a guide, but
the details of the steps are left up to the student.

Stages in the
Process

The basic steps are:


I

Add mates.

Add the appropriate mates to insure that the mechanism operates as


specified.

Determine the cutting force.

The action/reaction force on the blades while cutting a catheter has


been experimentally determined and is not linear. From the
experimental data, develop an expression to simulate this force on
the blades.

Run the motion analysis.

Run the study and create the appropriate plots.

Analyze the mechanics.


Interference detection is run to make sure that the mechanism will
move through its full range of motion. Load paths are examined to
ensure that the correct forces have been calculated in the
simulation.

You can view the Surgical_shear.avi movie to help you understand


the mechanism motion.

Note

The steps below outline the procedure to form a road map of the
necessary steps:

Open an assembly file.

Open Surgical_shear from the Lesson11\Case Studies folder.


When opened, the components are not mated.

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SolidWorks 2011

Design Project (Optional)

Mate the components.

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It is up to the student to
determine the best
method to mate the
components to reflect the
mechanical operation of
this mechanism and
reduce redundancies.

Keep in mind that the part


of interest in this project
is the handle.

Add motion drivers.

Add appropriate motors and springs to capture the design motion (see
the problem description).

Develop a distance based force.

The action/reaction force developed by cutting the catheter is not


linear. An expression for this force, based on the position of the blades,
must be developed to simulate the experimentally determined forces.

Analyze the results.

Create plots and check for interference.


Modify parts as necessary.

Self Guided
Problem - Part 2

In this section, it is up to each student to solve this FEA part of the


problem. A basic outline of the procedure is provided as a guide, but
the details of the steps are left up to the student.

Stages in the
Process

Export loads to SolidWorks Simulation.

Once we have the loads calculated, they are exported to SolidWorks


Simulation to evaluate the suitability of the parts.

Replace motion drivers.

Some motion drivers such as motors need to be replaced with


forces or moments in order to run a static analysis.

Analyze part.

Analyze the part using SolidWorks Simulation to determine the


suitability of the part based on strength and deflection.

Refine part.

If the analysis determines that the part is not suitable as designed,


modify the part as necessary and re-run the analysis.

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Design Project (Optional)

Problem
Solution - Part 1

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In this section, the complete solution to this problem is provided.


1

Open an assembly file.

Open Surgical_shear from the Lesson11\Case Studies folder.

Mate names are normally not important, however to ensure that mates
described in the text are consistent with the model, specific mate names
are given in the following steps. If you apply mates in a different order,
just rename the mates to be consistent with the images.

Note

Lock mates.

The two blades are rigidly connected to the fixed


and moving cutters, so the appropriate mate would
be the lock mate.

Lock1

Lock2

Coincident mates.

Coincident1
Coincident2

The moving_cutter slides along the


outside faces of the fixed_cutter.
Two Coincident mates, between the
faces shown and the corresponding
faces on the moving_cutter, can be
used to hold this relationship.

fixed_cutter

Mating the linkage.

Concentric1

We need three mates to connect the


linkage.

A Hinge mate can be used to connect


the handle to the fixed_cutter, and
another Hinge mate to connect the
handle_link to the moving_cutter.

The remaining mate between the


handle and handle_link should be a
Concentric mate, preferably using
faces, to avoid over defining the mates.

moving_cutter

Hinge1

Hinge2

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Mating the latch mechanism.

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The latch mechanism needs two different mates.


A Hinge mate is used to control the rotation and
position with respect to the fixed_cutter. The
selected surfaces are shown in the image (the
moving_cutter has been hidden).

A Cam mate could be used to mate the boss on the


latch to the slot in the moving_cutter. In our
initial solution to this problem, we will not use a
Cam mate, but will use Contact in the motion
study.

Cam

Set the initial position.

Before creating the motion study, we need the


blades to be 7.25 mm apart as the initial position.
Use a Position Only mate to set the distance.

Now that everything else is positioned, we


need to also make sure that the boss on the
latch is touching the appropriate surface.
Later, when we add contact and a spring,
those conditions will force the boss onto the
surface. We want to make sure however,
that when the motion study starts, the boss
doesnt have to move onto the surface and
create a transient condition that would not
occur in the physical part.

Temporarily Fix the moving_cutter and use a Tangent Position Only


mate to set the boss on the latch against the surface of the slot. When
finished, Float the moving_cutter.

306

Create a new motion study.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 11
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Add a spring.

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A linear spring is used to


connect the latch to
fixed_cutter.

The spring has a stiffness of

0.175 N/mm and free length of


40 mm.

Add Contact.
Add Solid Bodies contact between the latch and the moving_cutter.

Specify Steel (Dry) for the material.

Select Friction, both kinematic and static.


Click OK.

10 Add a rotary motor.

When the surgeon uses the shear,


the squeezing of the handle will
rotate it 12 degrees. It takes
approximately 1 second to
squeeze and open the shear. To
simulate this action, we will add a
Rotary Motor.
The motor parameters should be
Oscillating, 12deg at 1 Hz with
0deg Phase Shift.

11 Motion Study Properties.

Set the properties to record 100 Frames per second.


Select Use precise contact.

Verify that Replace redundant mates with bushings is cleared.

12 Run the simulation for 1 second.

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Now, we need to create an action/


reaction force that will simulate the
resistance effect of cutting the catheter.
We will consider a catheter with 3 mm
diameter.

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Creating the
Force Function

The force will have to be defined in


several steps based on the physical
conditions. Before creating an
expression, we should be able to
describe the motion in words:

Step 1: During the initial movement of the blade, there is no force as


the blade is moving through open air.

Step 2: Once the blade contacts the catheter, there is a resistance as the
catheter is compressed before it is actually cut.
Step 3: The catheter is cut and the force is rapidly reduced.

Step 4: The catheter is cut, but the blade continues forward without
resistance.
Step 5: The blade moves back to the starting position without
resistance.

Steps 1, 4 and 5 above are easy as they are just zero, while our real
problem is defining the force in Steps 2 and 3.

Force to Cut the


Catheter

The experimental data was shown on page 301. The two graphs are
repeated
below.
Point 2

Point 1

Point 3

Point 4

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The simplified Cutting Force plots is shown again with the equations
for the three segments.

First Segment

Second Segment

Third Segment

Each of the three segments can be defined by a linear equation:


First Segment: y = 7.333333 x

Second Segment: y = -80 x + 131

Third Segment: y = -2.14286 x + 6.42857

Stages in the
Process

We will build the full expression piece by piece to see how it is


constructed.
I
I
I
I
I
I

Create a variable for the location of the cutting blade as it cuts


through the catheter (variable x in the above graph).
Plot the force function for the first segment
Plot the force function for the first and second segments
Plot the force function for the first, second and third segments
Terminate the force function when the cutting blade cuts through
the catheter completely (x=3mm)
Set the force function to zero in the second part of the cutting
process when the cutting blade moves in the opposite direction.

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13 Determine the blade clearance.

Measure distance between blades. The distance is 7.25 mm, so if the


catheter is 3mm, then at the start there is a clearance of 4.25 mm.

14 Create plot of the displacement between


blades.

Select the two vertices in the order shown. If you


select them in the reverse order, the plot will be
reversed.
As the force is a function of blade position, we
need to know the position of the blades. By
creating the plot, we have a variable to use in the
expression.

Important!

310

1 2

The remainder of this section of the lesson assumes that this is the first
linear displacement plot and therefore its name is
LinearDisplacement1. Likewise the force we are about to add will
be Force1 and the linear velocity plot created later will be
LinearVelocity1. If you have created other plots or forces and the plot
names you obtain in these steps are different, you must either rename
your plots or substitute your plot names as appropriate.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

The goal in the next section is to develop an


action/re-action force between the two blades
that represents the force necessary to cut the
catheter.

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Creating the Force


Expression

Rather than apply the force directly to the blades


while developing the force expression, we will
use a dummy force that will not affect the
outcome of the motion analysis. We are going to apply this force to the
fixed_cutter. As SolidWorks Motion is a rigid body analysis tool, any
force applied to a fixed part can have no effect on the motion analysis.

15 Add a force.

This force does not affect the results as it is


applied to a non-moving part. We will use it to
develop the full expression for action/reaction
force.

Define this force as a function equal to the


Linear Displacement1 defined in the previous
plot.

16 Run.

Run the simulation for 1 second.

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17 Create a plot.
Plot the Y Component for the Reaction Force. The force is now

directly related to the position of the moving blade.

Force = 0

18 Modify the force.

The above force starts at -7.25 because the blades are 7.25 mm apart at
the beginning of the simulation. The force is zero when the distance
between the blades is zero. In our simulation however, we want the
force to be zero when the blades are 3 mm apart (when the blade first
contacts the catheter).
Change the force expression to be {LinearDisplacement1} + 3.

19 Re-run the simulation.

The force now starts at -4.25 because that is the distance from the blade
to the catheter. The force is now zero at contact between the blade and
catheter.

Force = 0

Important!

312

This last expression, {LinearDisplacement1} + 3, therefore defines the


X variable used in the expressions on page 309.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

The expression we are going to develop is:


IF({Linear Velocity1}:IF({Linear Displacement1}:IF({Linear
Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3))+IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.5:0,0,7.333333*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)+131)+IF({Linear
Displacement1}+1.4:0,0,80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-1312.142868*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+6.42857),0,0),0,0)

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Force
Expression

While this expression, at first, looks complicated, it is just a nested set


of IF statements.

IF Statement

The IF statement is used to define an output based on the sign of an


input variable. It is in the form of:
IF (Input variable: A, B, C)

When the value of the Input variable is negative, output the value A.
When the value of the Input variable is zero, output the value B.

When the value of the Input variable is positive, output the value C.
The Input variable, A, B and C can all be either fixed values or
expressions.

In the expression above, we can see that in all the IF statements, there
are only two different input variables, LinearVelocity1 and
LinearDisplacement1.

Developing the
Expression

The first thing is to define the point where the blade first touches the
catheter. At this point and before, the force must be zero. From our
measurements, when the blades are open, they are 7.25 mm apart, and
the catheter is 3 mm in diameter. Therefore, the contact occurs when
{LinearDisplacement1}+3=0. We determined this in Step 18.
Therefore, the Force in the first segment will be:

IF({Linear Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3))

This says,
I
I
I

When the value of {Linear Displacement1}+3 is negative, the


expression equals zero.
When the value {Linear Displacement1}+3 is zero, then the
expression equals zero.
When the value of {Linear Displacement1}+3 is positive, then the
value of the expression will be 7.333333 * ({Linear
Displacement1}+3). The value of 7.333333 comes from the
experimental data and is the slope of the curve in Segment 1.

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20 Input the expression.

Edit the force.

Input the above expression. Remember to enter the variable


Linear Displacement1, you can double-click it in the list below the
expression entry box.

21 Run the simulation.

Examine the plot of the force.

The plot is correct from distance zero to 5.75 (Point 2 in the graph on
page 308). At that point, the force continues to climb, so we need add
to the IF statement to define Segment 2 (see the graph on page 309).

When you first look at the plot, it may not look correct as we used the
equation of a straight line (7.333333 * ({Linear Displacement1}+3).
Remember however that the linear equation is based on displacement
while the plot is versus time. As the blade motion is not linear, the plot
is correct.
To get through Segment 2 we need to add more to the expression so it
will be:
IF({Linear Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3))+IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.5:0,0,7.333333*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)+131)

If you examine the expression, it is the sum of two IF statements. The


first IF statement is:
IF({Linear Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)

This is the part we already had. We then add to it:

IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.5:0,0,-7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+131)

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This says, when {Linear Displacement1}+1.5 is either negative or


zero, its value will be zero. In other words, until the blade displacement
is 5.75 (Point 2), this part of the expression has no effect.
Once positive, the value will be:

-7.333333*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)+131

The first part of this is the negative of the first expression, so it is used
to zero the effect of the first expression. The second part of the
expression is the equation for the force in segment 2:
-80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+131

22 Input the expression.

Edit the force.

Input the above expression.

23 Run the simulation.

Examine the plot of the force. For now, we are just interested in the
area circled.

Edit the Y axis so that it shows form -11 to +11. This will make it easier
to see the area of interest.

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The plot is correct from distance zero to 5.85 (Point 3 in the graph on
page 308). At that point, the force needs to reduce at a different rate
based on Segment 3 of our experimental data. So, we will again add to
the IF statement to define Segment 3.
To get through Segment 3 we need to add more to the expression so it
will be:
IF({Linear Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3))+IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.5:0,0,7.333333*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)+131)+IF({Linear
Displacement1}+1.4:0,0,80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-1312.142868*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+6.42857)

Again, the first part of this expression is what we had before. The new
statement is:

IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.4:0,0,80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)131-2.142868*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+6.42857)

The first part, IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.4:0,0,80*({Linear


Displacement1}+3)-131is again just the negative of the previous part
of expression to zero it out. The remaining part:
2.142868*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+6.42857)

defines the curve of Segment 3.

24 Input the expression.

Edit the force.

Input the above expression.

25 Run the simulation.

Examine the plot of the force.

The plot is now correct from zero until the blade finishes the cut
(Point 4). We now have to add another IF statement that will make the
force zero from this point until the end of the blade travel.

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Lets call the entire expression we have developed thus far Force1.
The IF statement we need is then:
IF ({LinearDisplacement1}: Force1, 0, 0)

When the above expression is negative (blades have not touched yet),
use the entire Force function. If it is zero (the cut is complete) or
negative (blades overlapping), then the force will be zero.
The full expression will now be:

IF({Linear Displacement1}:IF({Linear
Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3))+IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.5:0,0,7.333333*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)+131)+IF({Linear
Displacement1}+1.4:0,0,80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-1312.142868*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+6.42857),0,0)

Lets call this expression Force2.

26 Input the expression.

Edit the force.

Input the above expression.

27 Run the simulation.


28 Edit the plot.

Change the Y axis back to automatic scaling.

The plot is now correct for the forward travel of the blade, but forces
are mirrored on the blade retraction where they should instead be zero.

To solve this problem, we will add another IF statement, based on the


velocity of the blade that will only use the previously define force
function (Force2) when the blade velocity is negative. That is the
portion of the motion when the surgeon is squeezing the handle and the
blades are closing. When he releases the handle and the spring is
returning the blades to the open position, the blade velocity will be
positive.

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29 Create a new plot.

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Create a plot of the Linear Velocity,


X Component of the vertex of the blade shown.

We only want the force to equal the force


function when the velocity is negative. Once the
velocity is zero or positive, it should be zero.

The new IF statement is:

IF({Linear Velocity1}:Force2,0,0)

In the above expression Force2 is used to represent the entire force


function we have already defined. We can see in the expression that it
will only be used when the velocity is negative. When the blades stop
moving and returns, the force will be zero.
If we insert the previous expression for Force2, we get:

IF({Linear Velocity1}:IF({Linear Displacement1}:IF({Linear


Displacement1}+3:0,0,7.333333*({Linear
Displacement1}+3))+IF({Linear Displacement1}+1.5:0,0,7.333333*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-80*({Linear
Displacement1}+3)+131)+IF({Linear
Displacement1}+1.4:0,0,80*({Linear Displacement1}+3)-1312.142868*({Linear Displacement1}+3)+6.42857),0,0),0,0)

30 Input the expression.

Edit the force.

Input the above expression.

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31 Run the simulation.

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Examine the plot of the force.

The plot is now correct for the entire motion of the blade. Its shape is
now the same as the input data from the experiment.

32 Edit the force.

Now that the force


expression is properly
defined, we need to have it
applied to the blades as an
Action/Reaction force.
Change the force from
Action only to Action &
reaction.
Select the two blade
vertices as shown.
Click OK.

33 Modify plot.

Edit the force plot and change it to show the X Component. The
original force was in the Y direction while the direction between the to
blades is the X direction.

Make sure that the force is positive. If it is negative, switch the order of
the vertices in the action/reaction force definition (Step 32).

34 Run the simulation.

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In the second part of this Case


Study, we will examine the design
of the handle of the surgical shear.

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Case Study:
Surgical Shear Part 2

We have already run the motion


analysis to determine the loads.

Problem Description

Determine the stresses on the handle part based on the maximum


loading found in the motion analysis.
Evaluate the handle part for suitability based on the results.

Stages in the
Process

The basic steps are:


I

Evaluate the redundancies.

There were several redundancies in the motion study. Each must be


evaluated to determine its effect on the loads needed for the FEA
problem.

Interference detection.

The assembly must be checked to make sure that parts only contact
each other where designed and that there are no contacts that will
stop the assembly from working properly.

Export loads.

Exports the loads from SolidWorks Motion to SolidWorks


Simulation.

Evaluate the imported loads.

The motion loads may not be correct for simulation. Each is


evaluated to make sure it is correct for the FEA process.

Replace imported loads with local loads.

Loads that were not suitable for FEA must be replaced with the
appropriate load or fixture.

Run the simulation.

Evaluate the results.

All results need to be evaluated to make sure the part works as


intended without failure.

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Redundancies.

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When we were solving the motion simulation, we got several warnings


about the redundancies.
Right-click the local mategroup and click Degrees of Freedom.

There are three redundancies.

Coincident2, has some rotations removed, but that is OK as we are not

concerned with the forces in this mate; it is connecting components


other than the handle.

Concentric1 has both rotations removed. As this is a mate connecting


the handle to an adjacent part it must be checked carefully.

Note that your list of removed degrees of freedom may be slightly


different. This will, however, have no effect on the conclusions
regarding the effect of redundancies made in this step.

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Examine the mechanical connection.

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The line of action will be through the


center of each part. Because this
connection is not symmetrical, it does not
allow these two forces to act directly on
each other (on the same line of action),
there is a small offset distance which
creates a moment.

handle_link

Concentric1

This effect is minimized, but not


eliminated, by the offset cut in each of the
two parts.

handle

In the physical model, the two hinge


mates and the concentric mate would all
have some stiffness which would lead to
the redistribution of the torsional moments
between the three connections.

TOP View

As these torsional moments will be very


small, because they were minimized by
the cutouts, we can ignore this. We will assume that the pins in the two
hinges (between the handle, handle_link and the fixed_cutter) are
very stiff, taking on the torsional loads.

Create a plot.

Create a plot of each of the X, Y and Z reaction moment of the hinge


mate (Hinge1) between the handle and the fixed_cutter.

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Design Project (Optional)

The last component of the moment is zero because it is the axial


direction.

The X and Y moments are not zero and have some significant values.
Also note that the moments do not occur at the time when the
maximum cutting force is generated (0.25 seconds), but rather some
time later at about 0.50 seconds.

Check interferences.

Before exporting the loads, we need to determine why the large


moment is generated.

Check interference between the latch and moving_cutter. Right-click


the assembly icon in the Motion Study tree and click Check
Interference.
Check from frame 1 to 115 in increments of 1.

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Examine the results.

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Most of the interferences are very small (volume


<0.01 mm3) and are due to tiny penetrations in the
contact. To locate the individual volumes, select an
interference in the table and click Zoom to
Selection .

If we continue to examine the list of interferences,


we will find some that are several cubic
millimeters. Zoom in on one of these larger
interferences and we will see that at some point,
the latch penetrates the moving_cutter. To fix
this problem, the cutout in the moving cutter has to
be increased in size.

Modify the part.

Open the moving_cutter in its own window.

Edit Sketch3 for Cut-Extrude2.

Change the dimensions to increase the size of the slot by 3 mm.


Before

After

Re-check interferences.

Return to the assembly and re-check the interferences.

There should now only be the small contact interferences.

Re-run the simulation.

Plot force and moment of hinge connecting the handle to the


fixed_cutter.

Locate the maximum force and moment.

Create plots for both the X and Y Force and Moment for the hinge.

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Design Project (Optional)

We have a high force and moment generated at about 0.14 seconds.


This is not the point where the maximum cutting force is located which
is at 0.24 seconds and shown by the red arrows. You can show the
cutting force plot to verify this location.

10 Examine the latch.

If we examine the latch as the simulation progresses, we can see that


maximum forces and moments are generated when the pin in the latch
goes around the slot path. When the handle is first squeezed, there is a
jump in force as static friction is overcome. As the spring expands
rapidly, the spring works against the forward movement of the
moving_cutter. As the pin gets to the turning point in the slot path, the
forces continue to rise until the pin gets to the horizontal section of the
slot path when the force becomes perpendicular to the path and held by
contact.

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Design Project (Optional)

We can see that the maximum force is not caused by cutting the
catheter, but rather by the spring used to retract the mechanism.

11 Determine the frame where


maximum force occurs.

For the plot of the X Component


force, change the X axis scale to
frames.

Change the Start and End values


to 10 and 20 so that we can see
the exact frame.

From this we can see that the maximum force occurs at frame 15.

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12 Moment of the motor.

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In the motion simulation, we used a rotary motor to move the


mechanism. When we do the stress analysis, we are going to have to
replace this motor with a force that represents the force applied by the
surgeon on the handle. In order to calculate that force, we need to know
the maximum moment generated by the motor.
Create a plot of the Z Component, Motor Torque of the Rotary
Motor. Note the peak torque of 5233 N-mm.

13 Export to FEA.
Click Simulation, Import Motion Loads from the menu.

Note

The motion simulation results must be saved before importing the


motion loads.
Export the loads for the handle at frame 15.

14 Open the handle part.


Open the handle in its own window.

327

Lesson 11

SolidWorks 2011

Design Project (Optional)

15 Examine loads.

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Imported from SolidWorks Motion should be


gravity, a centrifugal load and two remote loads.

The remote load from the handle_link is OK,


however the loads from the rotary motor are not.
When in use, the handle is squeezed by the
surgeon which applies a force directly on the
surface of the handle. Therefore, we will have to
remove the loads from the motor and replace it
with a force.

16 Add a loading force.

We will apply the force at the edge shown


in the image.
Measure the distance from the pivot hole
to the edge. It is approximately 50 mm.
The force we need to apply will be
computed from the torque we measured
in Step 11, 5233/50=104.66 N.

Apply a force of 104.66 N, normal to


Plane5, on edge of handle. Reverse the
direction if necessary to insure the correct
rotation of the handle.

Suppress the remote load from the motor.

Note

Your torque value may be slightly different. In such case it is necessary


to update the value of the loading force.

17 Restrain the model.

Suppress the remote load at the pivot point and replace it with a Fixed

Hinge fixture.

18 Add material.

Apply the material Alloy Steel.

19 Mesh.

Mesh the model with a high quality mesh at the default settings.

328

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

20 Run the simulation.

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We will get a warning:


There is a significant external imbalance force in the Ydirection which will be balanced by the application of
opposing inertia forces. Unless your model is under such a
force or under marginally imbalance force, application of
Inertia Relief may alter the characteristics of your model.

The problem is that we have manually added the force, which is


approximate, so this warning is expected.
Click Yes.

We will get another warning:

Excessive displacements were calculated in this model. If


your system is properly restrained, consider using the Large
Displacement option to improve the accuracy of the
calculations. Otherwise continue with the current settings
and review the causes of these displacements.

Since the external forces are in slight imbalance, the handle wants to
rotate about the hinge support. This is an unavoidable consequence
having no implication on the resulting stresses and deformations. The
handle will rotate as a rigid body.
Click No to continue with the linear solution.

21 Examine the results.

The maximum stress about 252 MPa and is located at the sharp edge
under the pivot.

329

Lesson 11

SolidWorks 2011

Design Project (Optional)

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A closer examination shows that the highest


stress is at the connection of the cylindrical
sections to the pivot. A more detail analysis
of this area might be appropriate since this is
a stress singularity location.
Given the yield strength of 620 MPa, the
stresses in the handle are acceptable.

22 Create a Factor of Safety plot.

The plot shows that the Factor of Safety is


close to 2.5, so the design is acceptable.

Note

The above plot has the upper limit set to 100.

23 Save and close the file.

Summary

330

In this lesson, we analyzed a surgical shear assembly utilized to cut a


catheter. Since a catheter is not a rigid object, its resistance against the
cut is expressed by a reaction force acting on the blades. In rigid body
dynamics software, we cannot simulate the deformation and separation
of the flexible catheter and, therefore, modeling of an equivalent
catheter reaction force is required.

SolidWorks 2011

Lesson 11
Design Project (Optional)

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Real experimental data for a catheter cutting force was used to


construct a complex, position dependent, expression for the equivalent
action/reaction force. Due to the complexity of the problem, the
expression involved multiple uses of the IF statement. Various graphs
were generated at the end of each analysis. Motion mate forces were
then imported into SolidWorks Simulation for the finite element stress
analysis. The analysis indicated that the handle component is designed
with a satisfactory safety factor of 2.5.

331

Lesson 11

SolidWorks 2011

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Design Project (Optional)

332

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Appendix A
Motion Study Convergence
Solutions and Advanced
Options

333

Appendix A

SolidWorks 2011

Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

Complex assemblies with many redundancies or problems featuring


scenarios numerically difficult to overcome (for example instability
points featured in Lesson 4, fast changing motions or high velocity
impacts to name a few) may cause the solver to fail to converge and the
solution may terminate before reaching the end. Convergence issues
are unavoidable consequences of the numerical simulation and certain
expertise may be required to overcome them. On occasions we may
foresee that a complex assembly will pose difficulty and will need more
attention. In general, however, it is difficult to predict when the
convergence issues may occur. The following text should help you
understand the basics of solving the above mentioned difficulties. It
introduces some of the advanced software features not used during the
regular part of the course.

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Convergence

When the SolidWorks Motion solver faces convergence problems, the


motion study terminates and the following window opens:

There are a few possible reasons for the convergence issues; we will
review them in the next paragraphs.

334

SolidWorks 2011

Appendix A
Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

A set of coupled differential and algebraic equations


(DAE) define the equations of motion of a
SolidWorks Motion model. A solution to the
equations of motion is obtained by solving these
equations using an integrator. The integrator obtains
the solution in two stages: first it predicts the
solution at the next time step based on the past
history and then it corrects that solution based on
the state data at that time until the solution is within
the desired accuracy level.

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Accuracy

The Accuracy setting controls how accurate you


want your solution to be. There is a trade-off
between accuracy and performance. If the Accuracy
setting is towards the High end, then the motion
solver may take a long time to compute the solution.
On the other hand, if this setting is towards the Low
end, then the results may not be very accurate.

While the default value of 0.0001 fits most


situations; it may need to be changed if sudden
changes in the system occur. In such situations, the
predictor provides an incorrect initial guess to the
corrector resulting in large error and failure. This
value may need to be reduced when sudden and
discontinuous changes occur during simulation;
such as sudden changes in the force or motor
magnitudes, use of non-differentiable intrinsic functions in the
statements (IF, MIN, MAX, SIGN, MOD, and DIM), friction and
similar.

335

Appendix A

SolidWorks 2011

Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

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The advanced options listed below can be accessed by clicking the


Advanced Options in the Motion Study Properties shown in the figure
above.

Integrator Type

The SolidWorks Motion solver solves the DAE equations of motion by


integrating the differential equations in such a way that the algebraic
constraint equations are also satisfied at every time step. The speed of
the solution depends upon the numerical stiffness of these equations;
the stiffer the equations the slower the solution. A set of ordinary
differential equations are characterized as numerically stiff when there
is a wide spread between high and low frequency eigenvalues, with the
high-frequency eigenvalues being overdamped. Special efficient
integration methods are required to solve numerically stiff differential
equations because usual methods for solving differential equations
perform poorly and are too slow.

The SolidWorks Motion solver offers three stiff integration methods for
computing motion:




GSTIFF

336

GSTIFF
WSTIFF
SI2

The GSTIFF integration method developed by C. W. Gear is a variable


order, variable step size integration method. It is the default method
used by the SolidWorks Motion solver. The GSTIFF method is a fast
and accurate method for computing displacements for a wide range of
motion analysis problems.

SolidWorks 2011

Appendix A
Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

WSTIFF is another variable order, variable step size stiff integrator.


Both methods are very similar in formulation and behavior. Both of
them use a backwards difference formulation. The only difference is
that the coefficients used internally by GSTIFF are calculated assuming
a constant step size whereas in WSTIFF, these coefficients are a
function of the step size. If the step size changes suddenly during
integration, GSTIFF introduces a small error in the solution whereas
WSTIFF can handle it without any loss of accuracy. So the problems
run more smoothly in WSTIFF. Sudden step size changes occur
whenever there are discontinuous forces, discontinuous motions or
abrupt events such as 3D contacts in the model.

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WSTIFF

Stabilized Index
Two (SI2)

The Stabilized Index Two (SI2) method offered in SolidWorks Motion


is a modification of the GSTIFF integration method. This method
provides better error control over velocity and acceleration terms in the
equations of motion. Provided the motion is sufficiently smooth, SI2
velocity and acceleration results are more accurate than those
computed with GSTIFF or WSTIFF, even for motions with high
frequency oscillations. SI2 is also more accurate with smaller step
sizes, but is significantly slower.

Integrator
Settings

With each integrator, there are several settings that control the step size
and number of integration steps.

Maximum
Iterations

Maximum Iterations parameter controls the maximum number of


iterations the SolidWorks Motion solver may use to converge to a
solution. The default value of 25 iterations should suffice for most
problems. It is not recommended to increase this parameter
substantially; this parameter is typically not the cause of the failure.

Initial Integrator
Step Size

Initial Integrator Step Size controls the value of the step at the first
solution instance. If your simulation faces some difficulties at the initial
stages of the solution, consider reducing this value. Typically, this
parameter does not need to be changed.

Minimum
Integrator Step
Size

During the integration process, if the simulation error is too large the
integrator reduces the time step and attempts the solution again until
the desired accuracy is satisfied. The integrator will not reduce the step
size beyond the Minimum Integrator Step Size. The default magnitude
is acceptable for most of the simulation and does not need to be
changed.

337

Appendix A

SolidWorks 2011

Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

The Maximum Integrator Step Size controls the value of the largest
time step the integrator may take during the solution. Increasing the
Maximum Integrator Step Size speeds up the solution, and reduces the
time required to solve the model. But if this value is too big, there is a
chance the solver may take too large a step and enter a region from
which it may not recover and hence fail to converge. Reducing this
value has no effect on the accuracy of the solution. When using
GSTIFF integrator, velocities and accelerations may have
discontinuities for larger values of the integrator time step. You can
reduce this error by reducing the maximum integrator step size. If you
know that the motion is smooth and there are no such abrupt changes,
you can increase this value to speed up the solution. When facing
convergence problems, modifying this parameter may help.

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Maximum
Integrator Step
Size

If there are abrupt changes in forces or motions happening over small


time durations that you may need to reduce the maximum integrator
step size to make sure that the integrator does not miss such events.
You may want to reduce this value if you have contact between a solid
body and a thin body, and the solver fails to recognize this contact. This
can happen, for example, if you have a ball bouncing on a thin plate.
Depending upon your model parameters, it is possible that the ball may
pass through the plate without recognizing the contact between them.
In such a case, reducing the Maximum Integrator Step Size forces the
solver to take smaller steps so that it does not miss the contact
incidence between the two bodies.
Reducing this value will slow down the integrator but it has no effect
on the accuracy of the results. On the other hand, if you know that the
motion is smooth and there are no such abrupt changes, you can
increase this value to speed up the solution.

Jacobian Reevaluation

338

The Jacobian Matrix is a matrix of partial derivatives required to solve


the linearized approximation of the original nonlinear equations of
motion during the Newton-Raphson iteration procedure. Users may
find it useful to view this matrix similar to what the stiffness matrix is
in the finite element analysis. The default setting, the most accurate and
also the most time consuming is the re-evaluation of the Jacobian
Matrix at every iteration. While reducing the re-evaluation speeds up
the solution, it should only be done when changes in the assembly
motion are slow. Setting of this parameter has no effect on the accuracy,
but too low a setting may cause the integrator to fail.

SolidWorks 2011

Appendix A
Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

The most common parameters that need to be adjusted when you face
convergence difficulties are Accuracy, Maximum Integrator Step Size,
and Contact Resolution. If chancing none of the above parameters help
the convergence, make sure that your inputs are smooth and
differentiable, especially the user input expressions with mathematical
functions. It is advisable to use STEP function rather than IF statement.

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Conclusion

On occasions redundant constraint may cause the integrator to fail


because the solver is having difficulty satisfying the constraints. The
most likely cause for such a failure is an inconsistently defined or illbehaved model. In these situations try to eliminate the redundancy or
the mating relationships in the assembly.

339

Appendix A

SolidWorks 2011

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Motion Study Convergence Solutions and Advanced Options

340

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Appendix B
Mate Friction

341

Appendix B

SolidWorks 2011

Mate Friction

Friction is a force that occurs in mates and parts in contact. When parts
are in contact, friction is calculated based on the static and dynamic
coefficients of friction and the normal force acting on the part. Mate
friction is more complex, because the size of the mate can affect the
magnitude of friction.

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Mate Friction

In 1699, Amontons rediscovered Leonardo da Vinci's two laws of


friction: the frictional force is directly proportional to the normal load,
and the size of the bodies does not affect the friction [Bowden and
Tabor, 1950, 1974]. Engineers have relied on Amontons' laws,
extensively and routinely for three centuries. Contrary to popular
belief, the size of the bodies does affect the friction forces in the case of
mate friction.
Mate friction is a resistive, sliding, surface force between parts that
must be overcome for the parts to move with respect to one another.
The force develops due to contact between the surfaces and the loads
acting on the connection. For a pin in a hole, mate friction is
experienced as an additional torque restricting the pin from rotating
with respect to the hole. Mate friction is not anything more than
standard friction between bodies; however it takes into account aspects
of components geometries in determining the net frictional forces
acting.
For example, think of a pin in a
hole, but with a little slope. In
the first image shown below,
the pin is resting in the hole
under a centrally located force.
This is the equivalent of a pure
bearing load. The force needed
to slide the pin back and forth is only dependent on the vertical load.
The torque needed to rotate the pin is dependent on this force, but also
on the radius of the pin (see second image below). In this example, the
radius of the pin has no effect on the magnitude of the friction force,
but does have an effect on the moment required to overcome friction to
rotate the pin (mu.r.F)

342

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Appendix B
Mate Friction

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Now, consider the case where there is


an additional moment on the pin. The
moment forces the pin to rotate,
becoming supported at the outer edges
of the hole (w). The moment is reacted
as a force couple (M/w). Dividing the
bearing load (F) between the ends,
results in local force of F/2 + M/w.
Frictional forces are accumulative so you can sum these force couples
to get the total force upon which friction is based (F+2M/w).
It is a simple extension of this to derive the torque necessary to rotate
the pin as mu*r(F+2M/w).

This influence of the bending moment of a mate is an important factor


in mate friction. You can see that if the hole supporting the pin is not
thick (in terms of w), the moment component tends to be very high. If
the hole supporting the pin is very thick, the moment component tends
towards zero.

Concentric, coincident and many other SolidWorks mates support friction. When friction effects are enabled for these mates, a force is
induced that opposes the motion of the mates and is a function of the
reaction forces acting on the mate.

Where to Find It

Concentric
(Spherical) Mate
Friction Model

For the purpose of calculating friction effects, a


Concentric (Spherical) mate is modeled as a
ball rotating in a socket. Some portion of the
ball's surface area is in contact with the socket.
Dimension d is the diameter of the ball.

In the SolidWorks mate property manager, Analysis tab, Friction


dialog.

343

Appendix B

SolidWorks 2011

Mate Friction

For the purpose of calculating friction effects, a


Coincident (translational) mate is modeled as a
rectangular bar sliding in a rectangular sleeve.
Dimension h is the height of the rectangular bar.
Dimension w is the width of the rectangular bar.
Dimension l is the length of the bar that is in
contact with the sleeve.

Concentric Mate
Friction Model

For the purpose of calculating friction effects, a


Concentric mate is modeled as a snug fit pin
rotating and sliding in a hole. Dimension r is the
radius of the pin, and Dimension l is the length of
the pin that is in contact with the hole.

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Coincident
Translational Mate
Friction Model

Concentric mate friction model can only be


activated for faces. No edges are allowed.

Coincident Mate
(Planar) Friction
Model

344

For the purpose of calculating friction effects, this


is modeled as one block sliding and rotating across
the surface of another block. Dimensions l and w
are the length and width of the sliding block.
Dimension r is the radius of a circle, centered at
the center of the block face that circumscribes the
face of the sliding block that is in contact with the
other block.

SolidWorks 2011

Appendix B
Mate Friction

For the purpose of calculating friction effects, a


universal joint is modeled as a cylindrical cross
piece rotating in a set of end caps. Dimension r is
the radius of the bearing end cap. Dimension w is
the height of the cross pieces.

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Universal Joint
Friction Model

Friction Results
Reported

Joint Type

Friction Force

Friction Moment

Concentric (two faces)

Yes

Yes

Concentric (two spheres)

No

Yes

Universal

No

Yes

Coincident (translational)

Yes

No

Coincident (planar)

Yes

Yes

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Appendix B

Mate Friction

346

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Index

A
accuracy 335
action 294
action and reaction forces 17
action forces 17
applied forces 18

E
event based motion view 294
event based simulation 290
export
results to FEA 262
trace path curves 170

B
bushings
defining 204
properties 224

F
fixed parts 7
flexible joints 194, 204
bushings 204
flexible mates
limitations 223
floating parts 8
force expression 313
force function 105, 308
forces 17
action and reaction 17
action only 17
applied 18
closing 123
contact 100, 154, 280
definition 18
impact 110
frames per second 26
friction 76, 342
contact 84
kinematic coefficient 84
static coefficient 84
Function Builder 45

C
CAM 166
desmodromic 179
profile 167
rocker 185
chart properties 119
closing force 123
coefficient of restitution 110
constraint forces 8
constraint mapping 8
contact 76, 82
curve to curve 155, 159
contact
forces 154
forces 100, 280
friction 84
precise contact 123
precise geometry 115
solid bodies 159
tessellated geometry 115
contact, solid bodies - contact 109
convergence 334
Cycle Based Motion 173
D
damper
translational 87
damping
coefficient c 111
penetration d 111
degrees of freedom 219
calculation 219
estimated 219
total actual 219
dynamic systems 212, 229, 231

G
gravity 8, 16
GSTIFF 124, 336

I
IF statement 313
impact force 110
exponent e 111
stiffness k 111
instability 118
integrator settings 337
integrator types 123, 336
GSTIFF 124, 336
SI2 124, 337
WSTIFF 124, 337
interference detection 81
J
jacobian 338

Jerk 46
joints
flexible 194, 204
rigid 194

K
kinematic coefficient of friction 84
kinematic systems 212, 233
L
linear spring
magnitude - spring force 86
load bearing faces 263
M
mass properties 131
mate friction 342
concentric 344
planar 344
results 345
spherical 343
translational 344
universal 345
mates 8, 342
modifying plots 119
motion
driving 14, 45, 173
motion study properties 26
frames per second 26
precise contact 123
motor
servo motor 290
motors 8, 14
fixing motion 101
force function 105
force types 103
functional expressions 103

P
Path Mate 144
PathMate 144
plots
modifying 119
resizing 21
Plotting Kinematic Results 54
plotting results 21
Poisson model 110
postprocessing 89
precise contact 123
precise geometry 115

347

Index

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properties
bushings 224
chart 119
mass 131
motion study 26
proximity sensor 291

SolidWorks 2011

R
redundancies
check 225
defined 213
effects 214
mechanisms 226
removal by solver 215
removal with bushings 244
removal with flexible joints 222
removed in the solver 215
zero 238, 243
redundant mechanisms 226
resizing plots 21
restitution coefficient 110
results
export 258
export to FEA 262
plotting 21
rigid body 7
rigid joints 194
S
sensors 291
proximity 291
servo motor 290
SI2 337
SI2 (Stabilized Index Two) 124
spring
force magnitude 86
translational 85
spring force 86
static coefficient of friction 84
STEP function 105
T
task 293, 295
action 294
triggers 293
tessellated geometry 115
timeline view 294
toe angle 201
trace path 169
export curves 170
translational damper 87
translational spring 85
triggers 293
V
view
event based 294
timeline 294
W-Z
WSTIFF 124, 337

348

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