XII (ALL)
QUESMOa MMEJM
MODERN PHYSICS
ANSWER
PHYSICS
Q.l
In the photoelectric effect, why does the existence of a cutofffrequency speak in favour of the photon
theory and against the wave theory?
Q. 2
Explain the statement that one's eyes could not detect faint starlight if light were not particlelike.
Q. 3
How can a photon energy be given by E = h/when the very presence of the frequency/in the formula
implies that light is a wave?
Q. 4
The momentum p of a photon is given by p = hIX. Why is it that c, the speed oflight, does not appear in
this expression?
Q. 5
Given that E = h/'for a photon, the Doppler shift in frequency of radiation from a receding light source
would seem to indicate a reduced energy for the emitted photons. Is this in fact true? If so, what happened
to the conservation of energy principle?
Q. 6
Any series of atomic hydrogen yet to be observed will probably be found in what region of the spectrum?
Q.7
Can a hydrogen atom absorb a photon whose energy exceeds its binding energy( 13.6 eV)?
Q. 8
Only a relatively small number ofBalmer lines can be observed from laboratory discharge tubes, whereas
a large number are observed in stellar spectra. Explain this in terms ofthe small density, high temperature,
and large volume of gases in stellar atmospheres.
Q. 9
Wnat is the origin ofthe cutoffwavelength X offigure shown? Why is it an important clue to the photon
nature ofx rays?
mm
eu
a
<>u
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Wavelength (pm)
Q. 10 Can atomic hydrogen be caused to emit x rays? If so, describe how. Ifnot, why not?
Q.ll Why is it that B ohr theory, which does not work very well even for helium (Z = 2), gives such a good
account ofthe characteristic xray spectra ofthe elements, or at least of that portion that originates deep
within the atom?
Q.12 The ionization potential of hydrogen is 13.6 V. Yet to obtain discharge in a cathode ray tubefilledwith
hydrogen, a very high voltage ( ~10 V) has to be applied across the tube. Explain this clearly. Also
explain why the gas must be at low pressure to obtain discharge.
4
12]
Q.13 Xrays are produced when a fast electron hits a proper target. What happens to the electron?
Q.14 Why does the tail of a comet always point away from the sun?
Q.15 A neutron pion at rest decays into two gamma photons.
7t > y + y
Why cannot a single photon be born? What conservation law is in contradiction with it?
Q.16 What is so special about e/m rather than e end m separately?
Q.17 Why is it advisable to view a TV screen from a distance of about ten feet?
Q. 18 The electrical conductivity of a gas increases when Xrays or yrays pass through it. Explain this
phenomenon.
Q.19 In photoelectric emission exchange of energy takes place among... (photon and electron/' photon, electron
and lattice).
Q.20 The threshold frequencies for photoemission for three metals numbered 1,2,3 are respectively v v v
and Vj > v > v . An incident radiation of frequency v > v ... cause photoemissionfrom3 but... cause
photoemissionfrom1 (fill in the gaps with may, may not / will certainly).
p
NUCLEAR
PHYSICS
Q. 1 Why does the relative importance ofthe Coulomb force compared to the strong nuclear force increase
at large mass numbers?
Q.2
In your body, are there more neutrons than protons? More protons than electrons? Discuss
Q. 3
Why is the binding energy per nucleon (seefigure)low at low mass numbers? At high mass numbers?
Region of greatest
r^stability
Jnisiqp
ii.. ~5
Br 120*
f
iV
i
Fission
!H
. i
0 20 40
2
Q.4
Q.5
' 1
60 80 100 120 MO 161) 180 200 220 240
Mass number, A
Aradioactive nucleus can emit a positron, e . This corresponds to a proton in the nucleus being converted to a
neutron The mass ofa neutron, however, is greater than that ofa proton. How thai can positron emission occur?
In beta decay the emitted electrons form a continuous spectrum, but in alpha decay the alpha particles
form a discrete spectrum. What difficulties did this cause in the explanation ofbeta decay, and how were
these difficultiesfinallyovercome?
3]
Q.6
How do neutrinos differ from photons? Each has zero charge and (presumably) zero rest mass and
travels at the speed oflight.
Q.7 In radioactive dating with U, how do you get around the fact that you do not know how much U
was present in the rocks to begin with? (Hint: What is the ultimate decay product of U?)
Q.8 If it is so much harder to get a nucleon out of a nucleus than to get an electron out of an atom, why try?
Q.9 In the generalized equation for thefissionof U by thermal neutrons, U + n > X+Y + bn, do you
expect the Q of the reaction to depend on the identity of X and Y?
Q.10 The halflife of U is 7.0 x 10 y. Discuss the assertion that ifit had turned out to be shorter by a factor
of 10 or so, there would not be any atomic bombs today.
Q.ll The binding energy curve offiguretells us that any nucleus more massive than A 5 6 can release energy
by the fission process. Only very massive nuclides seem to do so, however. Why cannot lead, for
example, release energy by the fission process?
238
238
238
235
235
235
Region of greatest
^"stability
J'usiqp
"'"Jr
7 He
Fission
Bp
B r I20g 1 I 5 7
f l c
'^Au
2 3 9
Pu
H
0
iiii
. .i
20 40 60 80 1 00 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
Mass number, A
Q.12 Elements up to mass number w 5 6 are created by thermonuclear fusion in the cores of stars. Why are
heavier elements not also created by this process?
Q.13 Which would generate more radioactive waste products:  afissionreactor or a fusion reactor?
Q. 14 How can Becquerel rays, i.e., the combination of a, P and yrays, be separated?
Q.15 When a nucleus undergoes adecay, is the product atom electrically neutral? In (3decay?
Q.16 Experimental results in radioactivity show small variations from the results predicted by theory. Explain
this.
Q.17 If a nucleus emits only a yrays photon, does its mass number change? Does its mass change?
4]
Q. 1 Let n and n be respectively the number of photons emitted by a red bulb and a blue bulb of equal
power in a given time.
(A)n = n
(B)n <n
(C)n >n
(D) data insufficient
Q.2 10~ W of 5000 A light is directed on a photoelectric cell. If the current in the cell is 0.16 pA, the
of incident photons which produce photoelectrons, is
percentage
(A) 0.4%
(B) .04%
(C) 20%
(D) 10%
Q.3 A proton and an electron are accelerated by same potential difference have deBroglie wavelength Xp
and A,.
(A) Xe = Xp
(B) <
(C) Xe > X
(D) none of these.
Q ,4 Two electrons are moving with the same speed v. One electron enters a region ofuniform electric field
while the other enters a region ofuniform magneticfield,then after sometime ifthe deBroglie wavelengths
of the two are X{ and X2, then:
(A) = X
(B)Aj > X
(C) X < X
(D) X > X or X < X
Q.5 In a photoemissive cell, with exciting wavelength X, the maximum kinetic energy of electron is K. If the
3X
exciting wavelength is changed to the kinetic energy ofthe fastest emitted electron will be:
(A) 3K/4
(B) 4K/3
(C) less than 4K/3 (D) greater than 4K/3
Q.6 If the frequency of light in a photoelectric experiment is doubled, the stopping potential will
(A) be doubled
(B) halved
(C) become more than doubled
(D) become less than double
Q.7 An electron with initial kinetic energy of 100 eV is acceleration through a potential difference of 5 0 V
Now the deBroglie wavelength of electron becomes
r
(C) V3 A
(A)lA
Q.8
If h is10"
Planck's
is SI system, the momentum
(A)
h constant (B)h
(C)10of ahphoton ofwavelength
^(D) 100.01
h A is:
Q. 9
The stopping potential for the photo electrons emitted from a metal surface of work function 1.7 eV is
10.4 V. Identify the energy levels corresponding to the transitions in hydrogen atom which will result in
emission ofwavelength equal to that ofincident radiation for the above photoelectric effect
(A)n = 3 to 1
(B)n = 3 to 2
(C)n=2tol
(D)n = 4 t o l
(B)VL5A
(D) 12.27 A
12
Q.10 When a photon oflight collides with a metal surface, number of electrons, (if any) coming out is
(A) only one
(B) only two
(C) infinite
(D) depends upon factors
Q. 11 Two radioactive material Aj and ^ have decay constants of 10 X0 and X0. If initially they have same
number ofnuclei, the ratio of number of their undecayed nuclei will be (1/e) after a time
L
()r
A
dl Bansal Classes
^ ^
(> i s :
1
[5]
Q.12 The frequency and the intensity of a beam oflight falling on the surface of photoelectric material are
increased by a factor of two. This will:
(A) increase the maximum energy of the photoelectrons, as well as photoelectric current by a factor of
two.
(B) increase the maximum kinetic energy of the photo electrons and would increase the photoelectric
current by a factor of two.
(C) increase the maximum kinetic energy ofthe photoelectrons by a factor of greater than two and will
have no effect on the magnitude ofphotoelectric current produced.
(D) not produce any effect on the kinetic energy ofthe emitted electrons but will increase the photoelectric
current by a factor of two.
Q Jo Light comingfroma discharge tubefilledwith hydrogen falls on the cathode ofthe photoelectric cell. The
work function ofthe surface of cathode is 4eV Which one ofthe following values of the anode voltage
(in Volts) with respect to the cathode will likely to make the photo current zero.
(A)  4
(B)6
(C)  8
(D)10
Q. 14 A point source of ligth is used in a photoelectric effect. Ifthe source is removed fartherfromthe emitting
metal, the stopping potential:
(A) will increase
(B) will decrease
(C) will remain constant
(D) will either increase or decrease.
QJ/5 A point source causes photoelectric effect from a small metal plate. Which ofthe following curves may
represent the saturation photocurrent as a function of the distance between the source and the metal ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Q.16 Let Kj be the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emitted by a light of wavelength A, and K
corresponding to X . If = 2"k , then:
2
(A) 2Kj = K
(B) K,  2K
(C)K,<
(D) K, > 2K
Q. 17 In a photoelectric experiment, the potential difference V that must be maintained
between the illuminated surface and the collector so as just to prevent any electron
from reaching the collector is determined for differentfrequenciesfofthe incident
illumination. The graph obtained is shown.
The maximum kinetic energy ofthe electrons emitted atfrequencyf, is
Vi
(D)eV (f f )
(C)h(f f )
(A) iff.
(^ )( f7fT3i
M
ifo)
Q.18 Radiation oftwo photon energies twice andfivetimes the work function of metal are incident sucessively on
the metal surface. The ratio ofthe maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted is the two cases will be
(A) 1 :2
(B)2 . 1
(C) 1 4
(D)4: 1
Q.19 Cut off potentials for a metal in photoelectric effect for light ofwavelength X ,X and X is found to be
Vj, V and V volts if Vj, V and V are inArithmetic Progression and A,,, X and A will be:
(A) Arithmetic Progression
(B) Geometric Progression
(C) Harmonic Progression
(D) None
2
v B
6]
Q. 20 Photons with energy 5 eV are incident on a cathode C, on a photoelectric cell. The maximum energy of
the emitted photoelectrons is 2 eV. When photons of energy 6 eV are incident on C, no photoelectrons
C
will reach the anode A if the stopping potential ofA relative to C is
(A)3 V
(B)3V
(C)1V
(D)4 V
Q.21 In a photoelectric experiment, the collector plate is at 2.0V with respect to the emitter plate made of
copper cp  4.5eV). The emitter is illuminated by a source of monochromatic light ofwavelength 200nm.
(A) the minimum kinetic energy ofthe photoelectrons reaching the collector is 0.
(B) the maximum kinetic energy ofthe photoelectrons reaching the collector is 3,7eV.
p (C) if the polarity of the battery is reversed then answer to part A will be 0.
(D) if the polarity of the battery is reversed then answer to part B will be 1,7eV.
Q.22 By increasing the intensity of incident light keepingfrequency(v > v )fixedon the surface of metal
(A) kinetic energy of the photoelectrons increases
(B) number of emitted electrons increases
(C) kinetic energy and number of electrons increases
(D) no effect
0
Q.23 In a photoelectric experiment, electrons are ejected from metals X and Y by light of intensity I and
frequency f. The potential difference V required to stop the electrons is measured for various frequencies.
IfY has a greater work function than X; which one ofthe following graphs best illustrates the expected
results?
Vi X
V
V
V
Y/
4
(D)
(C)
< f
(B) o
0
f
o
X / /
Q. 2,4 Monochromatic light with a frequency well above the cutoff frequency is incident on the emitter in a
photoelectric effect apparatus. The frequency of the light is then doubled while the intensity is kept
constant. How does this affect the photoelectric current?
(A) The photoelectric current will increase.
(B) The photoelectric current will decrease.
(C),The photoelectric current will remain the same.
(D) None of these
Q. 2 5 In a hypothetical system a particle of mass m and charge 3 q is moving around a very heavy particle
having cahrge q. Assuming Bohr's model to be true to this system, the orbital velocity of mass m when it
is nearest to heavy particle is
3q
3q
3q
3q
2
Q. 26 deBroglie wavelength of an electron in the nth B ohr orbit is \ and the angular momentum is J , then:
n
"
(A) J x
n
q s *
$$ Bansal Classes
cvr\i
(C) Xn cc j
Q.27 The angular momentum of an electron in the hydrogen atom is 2tc. Here h is Planck's constant. The
kinetic energy ofthis electron is:
(A)4.53 eV
(B)1.51eV
(C)3.4eV
(D)6.8eV
 n = oo
Q.28 Consider the following electronic energy level diagram of Hatom:
A
n= 4
Photons associated with shortest and longest wavelengths would be
D
C
emitted from the atom by the transitions labelled:
n = 3
B
(A) D and C respectively
n = 2
(B) C and A respectively
(C) C and D respectively
=j
(D) Aand C respectively
Q.29 In a hydrogen atom, the binding energy ofthe electron in the n state is E , then thefrquencyofrevolutionof
the electron in the nth orbits is:
(A)2E /nh .
(B) 2E n/h
(C)E /nh
(D)E n/h
Q.30 Ifthe electron in a hydrogen atom were in the energy level with n=3, how much energy in joule would
be required to ionise the atom? (Ionisation energy of Hatomis 2.18 10"" J):
(A) 6.54 x 10"
(B) 1.43 x 10"
(C) 2.42 x 10~
(D) 3.14 10"
Q.31 In hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms, the ratio of difference of energies E E and E E varies with
its atomic number z and n as:
(A)z /n
(B) zVn
(C)z/n
(D)zn
n
th
19
19
18
19
4n
2n
20
2n
Q.32 In a hydrogen atom, the electron is in nth excited state. It may come down to second excited state by
. emitting ten different wavelengths. What is the value of n:
(A) 6
(B) 7
(C) 8
(D) 5
Q.33 Difference between nth and (n+1 )th Bohr's radius of'H' atom is equal to it's (n1 )th Bohr's radius, the
value ofnis:
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
Q.34 An electron in hydrogen atom after absorbing energy photons can jump between energy states n and
n (n, > nj). Then it may return to ground state after emitting six different wavelengths in emission spectrum.

the energy of emitted photons is either equal to, less than or greater than the absorbed photons. Then nj
and n are:
(A) n = 4, n = 3
(B)n = 5,nj=3
(C)n = 4, n, = 2
(D) n = 4 , ^ = 1
Q.35 The electron in a hydrogen atom makes transitionfromM shell to L. The ratio of magnitudes ofinitial to
final centripetal acceleration of the electron is
(A) 9:4
(B)81:16
(C)4:9
(D)16:81
Q.36 The electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition n, > n whose nj and n are the principal quantum
numbers of the two states. Assume the Bohr model to be valid. The frequency of orbital motion of the
electron in the initial state is 1/27 of that in thefinalstate. The possible values of n and n are
(A) n =4, n = 2
(6)^=3,^=1
(0)^ = 8,^=1
(0)^ = 6,^ = 3
Q.37 The radiu s of B ohr' sfirstorbit is a . The electron in n orbit has a radiu s:
(A) na
(B)a /n
(C)n a
(D)a /n
t
th
8]
Q.38 The ionisation potential of hydrogen atom is 13.6 volt. The energy required to remove an electron from
^ the second orbit of hydrogen is:
(A) 3.4 eV
(B)6.8eV
(C)13.6eV
(D)27.2eV
Q.39 Electron in a hydrogen atom is replaced by an identically charged particle muon with mass 207 times that
of electron. Now the radius of K shell will be
(A) 2.56 x 10~ A (B) 109.7 A
(C) 1.21 x 10~ A (D)22174.4A
3
Q.40 Monochromatic radiation of wavelength X is incident on ahydrogen sample containing in ground state.
Hydrogen atoms absorb the light and subsequently emit radiations of ten different wavelengths. The value of X is
(A) 95 nm
(B)103nm
(C)73nm
(D)88nm
Q.41 When a hydrogen atom, initially at rest emits, a photon resulting in transition n = 5 > n = 1, its recoil
speed is about
(A) 10^ m/s
(B) 2 x 10" m/s
(C) 4.2 m/s
(D) 3.8 x l(T m/s
2
Q. 42 An electron collides with afixedhydrogen atom in its ground state. Hydrogen atom gets excited and the
colliding electron loses all its kinetic energy. Consequently the hydrogen atom may emit a photon
corresponding to the largest wavelength ofthe Balmer series. The min. K.E. of colliding electron will be
(A) 10.2 eV
(B) 1.9 eV
(C)12.1eV
(D)13.6eV
Q.43 Thefrequencyof revolution of electron in n Bohr orbit is v . The graph between log n and log (v / v,)
may be
th
Q. 44 Consider the spectral line resulting from the transition n = 2 n = 1 in the atoms and ions given below.
The shortest wavelength is produced by:
(A) hydrogen atom
(B) deuterium atom
(C) singly ionized helium
(D) doubly ionized lithium
Q.45 In an atom, two electrons move around the nucleus in circular orbits of radii R and 4R. The ratio of the
time taken by them to complete one revolution is: (neglect electric interaction)
(A) 1:4
(B) 4 : 1
(C) 1 : 8
(D) 8 : 1
Q.46 The electron in hydrogen atom in a sample is in n excited state, then the number of different spectrum
lines obtained in its emission spectrum will be:
(A) 1 + 2 + 3 +
+(n  1)
(B) 1 + 2 + 3 +
+ (n)
(C) 1 + 2 + 3 +
+(n +1)
(D) 1 2 x 3 x
x ( _ l)
Q.47 The total energy of a hydrogen atom in its ground state is 13,6eV. If the potential energy in the first
excited state is taken as zero then the total energy in the ground state will be :
<L (A) 3.4eV
(B) 3.4 eV
(C)6.8eV
(D)6.8eV
lh
9]
f
J
J
J
Q.52 The "K " Xray s emission line of tungsten occurs at X = 0.021 nm. The energy difference between K
and L levels in this atom is about
a
(C)59keV
(D)13.6eV
>
12
13
13
10]
Q.58 If each fission in a U nucleus releases 200 MeV, how many fissions must occurs per second to
produce a power of 1 KW
(A) 1.325 x 10
(B)3.125 x 10
(C) 1.235 x 10
(D) 2.135 x 10
235
13
13
13
13
Q.59 The rest mass of the deuteron, ] H, is equivalent to an energy of 1876 MeV, the rest mass of a proton
is equivalent to 93 9 MeV and that of a neutron to 940 MeV. A deuteron may disintegrate to a proton
and a neutron if it :
(A) emits a y  ray photon of energy 2 MeV
(B) captures ay ray photon of energy 2 MeV
(C) emits a yray photon of energy 3 MeV
(D) captures a y  ray photon of energy 3 MeV
Q.60 In an adecay the Kinetic energy of a particle is 48 MeV and Qvalue ofthe reaction is 5 0 MeV. The
mass number of the mother nucleus is: (Assume that daughter nucleus is in ground state)
(A) 96
(B) 100
(C) 104
(D) none ofthese
Q.61 In the uranium radioactive series the initial nucleus is U , and thefinalnucleus is Pb . When the
uranium nucleus decays to lead, the number ofa  particles emitted is.. and the number of (3particles
 emitted...
(A) 6, 8
(B) 8, 6
(C) 16, 6
(D) 32, 12
238
92
82
206
Q.62 The radioactive sources Aand B ofhalf lives of2 hr and 4 hr respectively, initially contain the same
number ofradioactive atoms. At the end of 2 hours, their rates of disintegration are in the ratio :
(A)4:l
(B) 2 : 1
(C)V^:1
(D) 1 : 1
Q.63 In a RA element the fraction of initiated amount remaining after its mean life time is
1
1
(A)l(D) 1 e~
(B)^
(C)
Q. 64 90% of a radioactive sample is left undecayed after time t has elapsed. What percentage ofthe initialsample
will decay in a total time 2t:
(A) 20%
(B) 19%
(C) 40%
(D) 38%
Q.65 A radioactive material of halflife T was produced in a nuclear reactor at different instants, the quantity
produced second time was twice ofthat producedfirsttime. If now their present activities are Aj and A
respectively then their age difference equals:
t
2
In,
A,
A
(B)T In A,A
T In
(D)T l n2A,
A z
A 2
2A,
R,
Q.66 Activity of a radioactive substance is Rj at time tj and R^ at time t (t > t ). Then the ratio ^ is:
2
h
(A)
(B) Mt +t )
e
\ t ^
(C)e l 2
f
(D) Mtit )
e
Q.67 There are two radionuclei Aand B. Ais an alpha emitter and B is a beta emitter. Their distintegration
constants are in the ratio of 1 : 2. What should be the ratio of number of atoms of two at time
t = 0 so that probabilities of getting a and (3 particles are same at time t = 0.
(A) 2 : 1
(B) 1 : 2
(C) e
(D) e"
1
11]
Q.68 The activity of a sample reduces from Aq to A / y 3 inonehour. The activity after 3 hours more will be
A
A
o
A
()
< >i7?
wf
Q.69 Halflife of radium is 1620years. How many radium nuclei decay in 5 hours in 5 gm radium? (Atomic
weight of radium = 223)
(A) 9.1 10
(B) 3.23 x 10
(C) 1.72 x 10
(D)3.3xl0
x
12
15
20
17
Q. 70 Halflife for certain radioactive element is 5 min. Four nuclei of that element are observed at a certain
instant oftime. Afterfiveminutes
Assertion (A): It can be definitely said that two nuclei will be left undecayed.
Reasoning (R): After halflife i. e. 5 minutes, half of total nuclei will disintegrate. So only two nuclei will
be left undecayed. Then
(A) A is correct & R is correct explanation ofA.
(B) Both are correct. But R is not correct explanation of A.
(C) A is incorrect & Ris correct.
(D) Both are incorrect.
Q. 71 A certain radioactive nuclide of mass number m^ disintegrates, with the emission of an electron and y
radiation only, to give second nuclied ofmass number m^ Which one ofthe following equation correctly
relates rr^ and m ?
y
(A)m = m + 1
y
(B)m = m  2
(C)m = m  1
y
(D)m = m
Q.72 The number ofa and (3 "emitted during the radioactive decay chain starting from gg Ra andendingat
^ I? Pb is
(A)3a&6p(B) 4a & 5(3~
(C)5a&4p"
(D)6a&6p"
Q.73 The activity ofa sample of radioactive material is A, at time t, and .A, at time t (t >t,). Its mean life is T.
A A
6
(A) Ajt, = A t
(B)
2 2
= constant(C) A = A, j w r
(D)
\ (MTt )
e
Q. 74 (A)/,
Afraction
>/, /, of a radioactive sample decays in one mean life, and a fractionf decays in one halflife.
2
(B)/,</;
(C)/ =f
(D) May be (A), (B) or (C) depending on the values of the mean life and halflife
2
Q.75 A radioactive substance is being produced at a constant rate of 10 nuclei/s. The decay constant ofthe
substance is 1/2 sec" . After what time the number of radioactive nuclei will become 10? Initially there
are no nuclei present. Assume decay law holds for the sample.
1
(A) 2.45 sec
(B) log(2) sec
(C) 1.386 sec
(D)
sec
1
Q.76 The radioactivity ofa sample is R, at time Tj and R at time T . If the halflife of the specimen is T.
Number of atoms that have disintegrated in time (T  Tj) is proportional to
(A) ( R J ,  R T ) (B) (Rj  R , ) T
(C) (RJ R,)/T
(D) (Rj  R,) (T  T )
2
12]
1+>
% Bansal Classes
Xlt
(B) +
X2t
(x x )t
r
VN2 7
(D) +N X N X e
1
Q. 2
An electron in hydrogen atomfirstjumpsfromsecond excited state tofirstexcited state and then, from
first excited state to ground state. Let the ratio of wavelength, momentum and energy of photons in the
two cases be x, y and z, then select the wrong answer/(s):
(A)z= 1/x
(B) x=9/4
(C) y=5/27
(D)z=5/27
.An electron is in an excited state in hydrogenlike atom. It has a total energy of3.4 eV. If the kinetic
energy ofthe electron is E and its deBroglie wavelength is X, then
(A) E = 6.8 eV, A, = 6.6 x 10" m
(B) E = 3.4 eV, X = 6.6 x lO m
(C) E = 3.4 eV, X = 6.6 10" m
(D) E = 6.8 eV, X = 6.6 x 10" m
Q.3
10
11
10
11
Q.4
A particular hydrogen like atom has its ground state binding "energy 122.4eV. Its is in ground state.
Then:
(A) Its atomic number is 3
(B) An electron of 90eV can excite it.
(C) An electron of kinetic energy nearly 91 8eV can be brought to almost rest by this atom.
(D) An electron of kinetic energy 2.6eV may emerge from the atom when electron of kinetic energy
125eV collides with this atom.
Q.5
A beam ofultraviolet light of all wavelengths passes through hydrogen gas at room temperature, in the
xdirection. Assume that all photons emitted due to electron transition inside the gas emerge in the
ydirection. Let Aand B denote the lights emergingfromthe gas in the x and y directions respectively.
(A) Some of the incident wavelengths will be absent in A.
(B) Only those wavelengths will be present in B which are absent in A.
(C) B will contain some visible light.
(D) B will contain some infrared light.
Q.6
Q.7
In the hydrogen atom, if the reference level of potential energy is assumed to be zero at the ground state
level. Choose the incorrect statement.
(A) The total energy of the shell increases with increase in the value of n
(B) The total energy of the shell decrease with increase in the value of n.
(C) The difference in total energy of any two shells remains the same.
(D) The total energy at the ground state becomes 13.6 eV.
Q. 8 Choose the correct statement(s) for hydrogen and deuterium atoms (considering motion of nucleus)
(A) The radius offirstBohr orbit of deuterium is less than that of hydrogen
(B) The speed of electron in thefirstBohr orbit of deuterium is more than that of hydrogen.
(C) The wavelength offirstBalmer line of deuterium is more than that ofhydrogen
(D) The angular momentum of electron in thefirstBohr orbit ofdeuterium is more than that of hydrogen.
14]
Q.9
Let A be the area enclosed by the n orbit in a hydrogen atom. The graph of In (A /A,) agains In (n).
(A) will pass through origin
(B) will be a stright line will slope 4
(C) will be a monotonically increasing nonlinear curve
(D) will be a circle.
th
Q, 10 A neutron collides headon with a stationary hydrogen atom in ground state. Which ofthe following
statements are correct (Assume that the hydrogen atom and neutron has same mass):
(A) If kinetic energy of the neutron is less than 20.4 eV collision must be elastic.
(B) If kinetic energy of the neutron is less than 20.4 eV collision may be inelastic.
(C) Inelastic collision may be take place only when initial kinetic energy ofneutron is greater than 20.4 eV.
(D) Perfectly inelastic collision can not take place.
Q.ll When a nucleus with atomic number Z and mass number A undergoes a radioactive decay process:
(A) both Z and A will decrease, if the process is a decay
(B) Z will decrease but A will not change, ifthe process is p decay
(C) Z will decrease but A will not change, if the process is (3~ decay
(D) Z and A will remain unchanged, if the process is y decay.
+
Q.12 In a Coolidge tube experiment, the minimum wavelength of the continuous Xray spectrum is equal to
66.3 pm, then
(A) electrons accelerate through a potential difference of 12.75 kV in the Coolidge tube
(B) electrons accelerate through a potential difference of 18.75 kV inthe Coolidge tube
(C) deBroglie wavelength of the electrons reaching the anti cathode is of the order of 10pm.
(D) deBroglie wavelength of the electrons reaching the anticathode is 0.01 A.
Q.13 The potential difference applied to an Xray tube is increased. As a result, in the emitted radiation:
(A) the intensity increases
(B) the minimum wave length increases
(C) the intensity decreases
(D) the minimum wave length decreases
Q.14 When the atomic number A of the nucleus increases
(A) initially the neutronproton ratio is constant = 1
(B) initially neutronproton ratio increases and later decreases
(C) initially binding energy per nucleon increases and later decreases
(D) the binding energy per nucleon increases when the neutronproton ratio increases.
Q.15 Let m be the mass of a proton, m the mass of a neutron, M, the mas ofa ^ N e nucleus and M the
mass of a [] Ca nucleus. Then
(A)M = 2M,
(B) M > 2Mj
(C) M < 2Mj
(D) M, < 10(m + m )
p
Q.16 The decay constant of a radio active substance is 0.173 (years)" . Therefore :
(A) Nearly 63% of the radioactive substance will decay in (1/0.173) year.
(B) halflife of the radio active substance is (1/0.173) year.
(C) one forth of the radioactive substance will be left after nearly 8 years.
(D) all the above statements are true.
1
Bansal Classes
[15]
ANSWER KEY
ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT.
D
Q.5
Q.6
Q.7
Qi
Q.2
Q.3
Q.8
Q.9
Q.10 A
Q.ll B
Q.12
Q.13 D
Q.14 C
Q.15 D
Q.16 C
Q.17 C
Q.18 A
Q.19 C
Q.20 B
Q.21 B
Q.22 B
Q.23 A
Q.24 B
Q.25 A
Q.26 A
Q.27 B
Q.28 C
Q.29 A
Q.30 C
Q.31 D
Q.32 A
Q.33 D
Q.34 C
Q.35 D
Q.36 B
Q.37 C
Q.38 A
Q.39 A
Q.40 A
Q.41 C
Q.42 C
Q.43 C
Q.44 D
Q.45 C
Q.46 B
Q.47 C
Q.48 A
Q.49 A
Q.50 B
Q.51 C
Q.52 C
Q.53 B
Q.54 A
Q.55 B
Q.56 B
Q.57 A
Q.58 B
Q.59 D
Q.60 B
Q.61 B
Q.62 C
Q.63 C
Q.64 B
Q.65 C
Q.66 D
Q.67 A
Q.68 B
Q.69 B
Q.70 D
Q.71 D
Q.72 C
Q.73 C
Q.74
Q.75 C
Q.76 B
Q.77 A
Q4
Q.78 C
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAYBE CORRECT
Q2 B
Q.3 B
Q 4 AC,D
Q.l
A,C
Q.5
A,C,D
Q.6
Q.9
AB
Q.10 A,C
Q.ll AB,D
Q.12 B
Q.13 A,D
Q.14 A,C
Q.15 C,D
Q.16 A,C
Q.7
Q.8
XII (ALL)
MODERN PHYSICS
CONTENTS
KEYCONCEPTS
EXERCISEI
EXERCISEII
EXERCISEIII
ANSWER KEY
KEY
l.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2.
CONCEPTS
CATHODE RAYS :
Generated in a discharge tube in which a high vaccum is maintained .
They are electrons accelerated by high p.d. (lOto 15 K.V.)
1
= eV.
K.E. of C.R. particle accelerated by a p.d. V is mv'
2m
Can be deflected by Electric & magnetic fields .
red(7.6xl0~ m) *
vioIet(3.6*l(r m)
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
Ordered arrangement ofthe big family
3xlO" m
3*10 m 3m 3 x l 0 ^ m
of electro magnetic waves (EMW)
either in ascending order of frequencies
infrared
Ultraviolet Gamma rays
or ofwave lengths
Radio waves
Speed ofE.M.W. in vacuum
C = 3 x 10 m/s = v X
Xrays
II
\
Micro waves
PLANK S QUANTUM THEORY :
Visible light
(e.g. radar)
A beam ofEMW is a stream of discrete
packets of energy called PHOTONS ,
10 10 10 10 10 10
10 I0 10
each photon having afrequencyv and
Frequency (Hz)
energy = E = hv .
7
l2
3.
10
12
14
16
i8
4.
(0
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(j) = Work function = energy needed by the electron in freeing itself from the atoms of the metal .
d> = h v
0
Note:
5.
max
<iBansal Classes
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[11]
6.
(a)
ATOMIC MODELS :
THOMSON MODEL : (PLUM PUDDING MODEL)
(i) Most of the mass and all the positive charge of an atom is uniformly distributed over the full size
of atom (10" m).
(ii) Electrons are studded in this uniform distribution .
(iii) Failed to explain the large angle scattering a  particle scattered by thin foils of matter .
RUTHERFORD MODEL : (Nuclear Model)
(i) The most of the mass and all the positive charge is concentrated within a size of 10" m inside
the atom . This concentration is called the atomic nucleus .
(ii) The electron revolves around the nucleus under electric interaction between themin circular orbits.
An accelerating charge radiates the nucleus spiralling inward and finally fall into the nucleus,
which does not happen in an atom. This could not be explained by this model .
BOHR ATOMIC MODEL :
Bohr adopted Rutherford model of the atom & added some arbitrary conditions. These conditions are
known as his postulates :
10
(b)
(c)
14
(i)
(ii)
Z7C
(iii)
271
The electron can absorb or radiate energy only if the electron jumpsfroma lower
to a higher orbit or fallsfroma higher to a lower orbit .
(iv) The energy emitted or absorbed is a light photon of frequency v and of energy. E = hv .
FOR HYDROGEN ATOM : (Z  atomic number = 1)
(i) L = angular momentum in the n orbit = n .
2%
(ii) r  radius of n circular orbit = (0.529 A ) n ; (1 A = 10" m); r a n .
(iii) E Energy of the electron in the n orbit =
i.e. E a .
Note: Total energy ofthe electron in an atom is negative , indicating that it is bound .
Binding Energy (BE) =  E =
.
n
(iv) E  E = Energy emitted when an electron jumps from n orbit to n, orbit (n > n ).
AE = (13.6 ev) 1 1
th
th
th
1 3 , 6
n2
10
e v
nl
AE = hv
n, 2
th
th
^
n = (0.529A ) ^ ; E = ( 13.6) ^ ev
z
Z
n
R = RZ  Rydberg's constant for element of atomic no. Z .
Note : If motion of the nucleus is also considered, then m is replaced by p. .
r
n2
= ^
^Bansal Classes
Modern Physics
[3]
7.
(0
00
>2
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
n >3
2
>4
^>5
= n, + 1 is the a line
= n, + 2 is the P line
= n, + 3 is the y line
n
electronch arg e
IONIZATION ENERGY :
The energy required to remove an electronfroman atom . The energy required to ionize hydrogen
atom is = 0  ( 13.6) = 13.6 ev .
IONIZATION POTENTIAL :
E.
Potential difference through which an electron is moved to gain ionization energy =
electronicch arg e
XRAYS :
Short wavelength (0.1 A to 1 A ) electromagnetic radiation .
k ~ kpCharacteristic Spectrum
Are produced when a metal anode is bombarded by very high energy
3ntiaous
electrons .
Spectrum
Are not affected by electric and magnetic field .
35000 volt
They cause photoelectric emission .
Characteristics equation eV = hv
e = electron charge ;
V = accelerating potential
v = maximum frequency of X  radiation
0
<iBansal Classes
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[11]
(v)
(vi)
a (z  b)
u = a (z  b)
[ MOSELEY'S LAW ]
(iii)
(iv)
12.
NUCLEAR
R= R A
0
13.
14.
(i)
c = speed oflight.
DIMENSIONS
1/3
15
RADIOACTIVITY
The phenomenon of self emission of radiation is called radioactivity and the substances which emit these
radiations are called radioactive substances . It can be natural or artificial (induced) .
a., p , y
RADIATION
(iii)
a  particle :
(a) Helium nucleus ( He )
;
(b) energy varies from 4 Mev to 9 Mev;
(c) Velocity 10  10 m/s
;
(d) low penetration
p  particle :
(a) Have much less energy; (b) more penetration; (c) higher velocities than a particles
y  radiation : Electromagnetic waves ofvery high energy .
15.
LAWS OF RADIOACTIVE
(ii)
(A)
DISPLACEMENT LAW : In all radioactive transformation either an a or p particle (never both or more
than one of each simultaneously) is emitted by the nucleus of the atom.
(i) aemission : X
> _ Y + a + Energy
(ii) P  emission : X
> P+ Y + v (antinuetrino)
(iii) y  emission : emission does not affect either the charge number or
the mass number .
STASTISTICAL LAW : The disintegration is a random phenomenon. Whcih atom disintegrates first is
purely a matter of chance .
Number of nuclei disintegrating per second is given ;
(disintegration /s/gm is called specific activity) .
dNa N >=A,N
dN , = activity .
(i)
dt
dt
Where N = No. of nuclei present at time t
;
X  decay constant
(ii) N = N e~
N = number of nuclei present in the beginning .
Z
(B)
DISINTEGRATION
XT
A _ 4
Z + 1
X T
<iBansal Classes
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[11]
(iii)
1/2
.,
Slifetimeof allatoms ; T = 1
totalnumberof atoms
A
(v) CURIE : The unit of activity of any radioactive substance in which the number of disintegration
per second is 3.7 xlO .
ATOMIC MASS UNIT (a.m.u. OR U) :
1 amu = x (mass of carbon12 atom) = 1.6603 x 10~ kg
(iv)
10
16.
27
17.
18.
MP
C .
B E. per nucleon = ( AM~)
Greater the BE. , greater is the stability of the nucleus .
NUCLEAR FISSION :
Heavy nuclei of A, above 200, break up onto two or more fragments of comparable masses.
The total B.E. increases and excess energy is released .
The man point of the fission energy is leberated in the form ofthe K.E. ofthe fission fragments
. eg. 9 2 + o ^ 9 2 ^ 5 6 + 3 6 + o + ^ S Y
NUCLEAR FUSION (Thermo nuclear reaction):
Light nuclei ofAbelow 20, fuse together, the BE. per nucleon increases and hence the excess energy
is released .
These reactions take place at ultra high temperature (= 10 to 10 )
Energy released exceeds the energy liberated in thefissionof heavy nuclei .
eg. 4{Pj He+ e . (Positron)
The energy released in fusion is specified by specifying Q value .
i.e. Q value of reaction = energy released in a reaction .
: (i) In emission of p", z increases by 1 .
(ii) In emission of , z decreases by 1 .
2
19.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
20.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
nl
Note
Ba
Kr
nl
(iv)
<iBansal Classes
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Q.l
Q. 2
EXERCISE # I
(a)
Q.3
(a)
Q.4
Q. 5
Q. 6
Q.7
Q.8
Q. 9
Q.10
Q.ll
34
19
th
n = 2
E?
Q.12 Imagine an atom made up of a proton and a hypothetical particle of double the mass of an electron but
having the same charge as the electron. Apply the Bohr atom model and consider a possible transitions
of this hypothetical particle to the first excited level. Find the longest wavelngth photon that will be
emitted X (in terms of the Rydberg constant R.)
Q.13 In a hydrogen atom, the electron moves in an orbit of radius 0.5 A making 10 revolution per second.
The magnetic moment associated with the orbital motion of the electron is
.
Q.14 The positron is a fundamental particle with the same mass as that ofthe electron and with a charge equal
to that of an electron but of opposite sign. When a positron and an electron collide, they may annihilate
each other. The energy corresponding to their mass appears in two photons of equal energy. Find the
wavelength ofthe radiation emitted.
[Take : mass ofelectron = (0.5/C )MeVandhC= 1.2xlO~ MeV.m where his the Plank's constant
and C is the velocity oflight in air]
16
<iBansal Classes
I2
Modern Physics
[11]
Q.15 Asmall 10W source of ultraviolet light ofwavelength 99 nm is held at a distance 0.1 mfromametal
surface. The radius of an atom ofthe metal is approximately 0.05 nm. Find
(i)
the average number of photons strildng an atom per second.
(ii) the number ofphotoelectrons emitted per unit area per second ifthe efficiency ofliberation ofphotoelectrons is 1 %.
Q.16 The surface of cesium is illuminated with monochromatic light of various
wavelengths and the stopping potentials for the wavelengths are measured. The 1f 210.41
1.5 1.0 1.5 V I O ' H Z
results of this experiment is plotted as shown in thefigure.Estimate the value of
I.7
12V
work function of the cesium and Planck's constant.
5
Q.17 A hydrogen like atom has its single electron orbiting around its stationary nucleus. The energy to excite
the electron from the second Bohr orbit to the third Bohr orbit is 47.2 eV. The atomic number of this
nucleus is
.
Q.18 A single electron orbits a stationary nucleus of charge Ze where Z is a constant and e is the electronic
charge. It requires 47.2eV to excite the electron from the 2nd Bohr orbit to 3rd Bohr orbit. Find
(i)
the value of Z,
(ii) energy required to excite the electronfromthe third to the fourth orbit
(iii) the wavelength of radiation required to remove the electronfromthefirstorbit to infinity
(iv) the kinetic energy, potential energy and angular momentum in the first Bohr orbit
(v) the radius of thefirstBohr orbit.
Q .19 A hydrogen like atom (atomic number Z) is in higher excited state of quantum number n. This excited
atom can make a transition to the first excited state by successively emitting two photons of energy
22.95 eV and 5.15eV respectively. Alternatively, the atomfromthe same excited state can make transition
to the second excited state by successively emitting two photons of energies 2.4eV and 8.7eV respectively.
Find the values of n and Z.
Q.20 Find the binding energy of an electron in the ground state of a hydrogen like atom in whose spectrum the
third of the corresponding B aimer series is equal to 108. 5nm.
Q.21 Which level ofthe doubly ionized lithium has the same energy as the ground state energy ofthe hydrogen
atom. Find the ratio ofthe two radii of corresponding orbits.
Q.22 The binding energies per nucleon for deuteron (jH ) and helium ( He ) are 1.1 MeV and 7.0 MeV
respectively. The energy released when two deuterons fuse to form a. helium nucleus ( He ) is
.
2
Q.23 Aradioactive decay counter is switched on at t = 0. A P  active sample is present near the counter. The
counter registers the number of P  particles emitted by the sample. The counter registers 1 10'
P  particles at t = 36 s and 1.11 * 10 P  particles at t = 108 s. FindT, of this sample
Q.24 An isotopes of Potassium
has a half life of 1.4 x 10 year and decays to Argon ^ A r which is stable.
(i)
Write down the nuclear reaction representing this decay.
(ii) A sample of rock takenfromthe moon contains both potassium and argon in the ratio 1 /7. Find age of
rock
Q.25 At t = 0, a sample is placed in a reactor. An unstable nuclide is produced at a constant rate R in the
sample by neutron absorption. This nuclide P~~ decays with halflife x. Find the time required to produce
80% ofthe equilibrium quantity ofthis unstable nuclide.
Q.26 Suppose that the Sun consists entirely of hydrogen atom and releases the energy by the nuclear reaction,
4 H > ,He with 26 MeV of energy released. Ifthe total output power ofthe Sun is assumed to
remain constant at 3.9 x 10 W,findthe time it will take to burn all the hydrogen. Take the mass of the
Sun as 1.7 x 10 kg.
x
26
30
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
Q. 27 Assuming that the source of the energy of solar radiation is the energy of the formation of helium from
hydrogen according to the following cyclic reaction :
X o ++ le
6C' + 1,H' / N
,C
0 + ,H' 1 / N
2
13
13
13
14
N + ,H
14
0 > N + e
15
15
+1
N + H > C + He
Find how many tons of hydrogen must be converted every second into helium . The solar constant is
8 J / cm min. Assume that hydrogen forms 35% ofthe sun's mass. Calculate in how many years this
hydrogen will be used up if the radiation of the sun is constant. m = 5.49 x 10 amu, atomic masses
m^l.00814 amu, m =4.00388 amu, mass ofthe sun=2 10 kg, distance between the sun and the
earth= 1.5* 10 m. 1 amu = 931 MeV.
Q. 28 An electron of mass "m" and charge "e" initially at rest gets accelerated by a constant electricfieldE. The
rate of change of DeBroglie wavelength ofthis electron at time t is
7
15
12
He
30
EXERCISE # II
>
A small plate of a metal (work function =1.17 eV) is placed at a distance of 2mfroma monochromatic
light source of wave length 4.8 * 10" m and power 1.0 watt. The light falls normally on the plate. Find
the number of photons striking the metal plate per square meter per sec. If a constant uniform
magnetic field of strength
tesla is applied parallel to the metal surface. Find the radius of the
largest circular path followed by the emitted photoelectrons.
7
Q. 3
Electrons in hydrogen like atoms (Z = 3) make transitions from thefifthto the fourth orbit & from the
fourth to the third orbit. The resulting radiations are incident normally on a metal plate & eject photo
electrons. The stopping potential for the photoelectrons ejected by the shorter wavelength is
3.95 volts. Calculate the work function of the metal, & the stopping potential for the photoelectrons
ejected by the longer wavelength. (Rydberg constant = 1.094 x 10 m )
7
Q.4
A beam of light has three wavelengths 4144A, 4972A & 6216 A with a total intensity of
3.6x 10" W. m equally distributed amongst the three wavelengths. The beam falls normally on an area
1.0 cm of a clean metallic surface of work function 2.3 eV. Assume that there is no loss of light by
reflection and that each energetically capable photon ejects one electron. Calculate the number of
photoelectrons liberated in two seconds.
3
<iBansal Classes
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[11]
Q. 5
(i)
Q.6
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Q.7
(i)
(ii)
A small 10 W source of ultraviolet light of wavelength 99 nm is held at a distance 0.1m from a metal
surface. The radius of an atom ofthe metal is approximaterly 0.05 nm. Find :
the number of photons striking an atom per second.
the number of photoelectrons emitted per second ifthe efficiency ofliberation of photoelectrons is 1 %
Q.8
A neutron with kinetic energy 25 eV strikes a stationary deuteron. Find the de Broglie wavelengths of
both particles in the frame of their centre of mass.
Q. 9
Two identical nonrelativistic particles move atrightangles to each other, possessing De Broglie wavelengths,
A, & Xj . Find the De Broglie wavelength of each particle in theframeoftheir centre of mass.
Q.10 A stationary He ion emitted a photon corresponding to thefirstline its Lyman series. That photon liberated a
photoelectronfroma stationary hydrogen atom in the ground state. Find the velocity ofthe photoelectron.
+
Q.ll A gas ofidentical hydrogen like atoms has some atoms in the lowest (ground) energy level A & some
atoms in a particular upper (excited) energy level B& there are no atoms in any other energy level. The
atoms of the gas make transition to a higher energy level by the absorbing monochromatic light of
photon energy 2.7eV Subsequently, the atoms emit radiation of only six different photon energies. Some
of the emitted photons have energy 2.7 eV. Some have energy more and some have less than 2.7 eV.
(i) Find the principal quantum number of the initially excited level B.
(ii) Find the ionisation energy for the gas atoms.
(iii) Find the maximum and the minimum energies of the emitted photons.
Q.12 A hydrogen atom in ground state absorbs a photon ofultraviolet radiation ofwavelength 50 nm. Assuming that
the entire photon energy is taken up by the electron, with what kinetic energy will the electron be ejected ?
Q.13 A monochromatic light source of frequency v illuminates a metallic surface and ej ects photoelectrons.
The photoelectrons having maximum energy are just able to ionize the hydrogen atoms in ground state.
When the whole experiment is repeated with an incident radiation offrequency(5/6)v, the photoelectrons
so emitted are able to excite the hydrogen atom beam which then emits a radiation of wavelength of
1215 A. Find the work function ofthe metal and thefrequencyv.
<iBansal Classes
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[11]
Q . 14 An energy of 68.0 eV is required to excite a hydrogen like atomfromits second Bohr orbit to the third. The
nuclear charge Ze. Find the value of Z, the kinetic energy of the electron in the first Bohr orbit and the
wavelength ofthe electro magnetic radiation required to eiect the electronfromthefirstBohr orbit to infinity.
Q.15 A classical model for the hydrogen atom consists of a single electron of mass rn, in circular motion of
radius r around the nucleus (proton). Since the electron is accelerated, the atom continuously radiates
electromagnetic waves. The total power P radiated by the atom is given by P = Po/r where
e
P =
o Q , J 3 r 3 m 2 (C = velocity oflight)
yon q L, m
(i)
Find the total energy of the atom.
(ii) Calculate an expression for the radius r (t) as a function oftime. Assume that at t=0, the radius is r = 10" m.
(iii) Hence or otherwisefindthe time to when the a om collapses in a classical model ofthe hydrogen atom.
Take V3 4 n s m C 2 = re 3xl0~ m
4
10
15
Q.16 Simplified picture of electron energy levels in a certain atom is shown in the
figure. The atom is bombarded with high energy electrons. The impact of
one of these electron has caused the complete removal ofKlevel is filled
M
by an electronfromthe Llevel with a certain amount ofenergy being released
during the transition. This energy may appear as Xray or may all be used
to eject an Mlevel electronfromthe atom. Find :
~*
(i)
the minimum potential difference through which electron may be accelerated from rest to cause the
ejectrion of Klevel electronfromthe atom.
(ii) energy released when Llevel electron moves tofillthe vacancy in the Klevel.
(iii) wavelength ofthe Xray emitted.
(iv) K.E. ofthe electron emitted from the Mlevel.
3
1015 J
Q. 17 U and U occur in nature in an atomic ratio 140 :1. Assuming that at the time of earth's formation
the two isotopes were present in equal amounts. Calculate the age ofthe earth.
(Halflife o f u = 4.5 x lo yrs & that o f U = 7.13 x lo yrs)
238
233
238
235
Q.18 The kinetic energy of an a  particle which flies out of the nucleus of a Ra atom in radioactive
disintegration is 4.78 MeV. Find the total energy evolved during the escape of the a  particle.
226
Q.19 A small bottle contains powdered beryllium Be & gaseous radon which is used as a source of aparticles.
Neutrons areproduced whenaparticlesoftheradonreact with beryllium. The yield ofthis reaction is (1/4000)
i.e. only one aparticle out of4000 induces the reaction. Find the amount ofradon (Rn ) originally introduced
into the source, ifit produces 1.2x 10 neutrons per second after 7.6 days. [T ofR =3.8 days]
222
17
Q.20 An experiment is done to determine the halflife of radioactive substance that emits one pparticle
for each decay process. Measurement show that an average of 8.4 P are emitted each second by
2.5 mg ofthe substance. The atomic weight ofthe substance is 230. Find the halflife ofthe substance.
Q.21 When thermal neutrons (negligible kinetic energy) are used to induce the reaction;
5B +  n 3 Li + j He ot  particles are emitted with an energy of 1.83 MeV.
Given the masses of boron neutron & He as 10.01167,1.00894 & 4.003 86 u respectively. What is
the mass of 3 Li ? Assume that particles are free to move after the collision.
3
<iBansal Classes
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[11]
Q.23 A wooden piece of great antiquity weighs 50 gm and shows C activity of320 disintegrations per minute.
Estimate the length ofthe time which has elapsed since this wood was part ofliving tree, assuming that living
plants show a C activity of 12 disintegrations per minute per gm. The halflife of C is 5730 yrs.
14
14
14
Q.24 Show that in a nuclear reaction where the outgoing particle is scattered at an angle of 90 with the
direction of the bombarding particle, the Qvalue is expressed as
f
l > \
Q=K
v
o)  I v
o;
Where, I = incoming particle, P = product nucleus, T = target nucleus, O = outgoing particle.
+
l v i
Q.25 When Lithium is bombarded by 10 MeV deutrons, neutrons are observed to emerge at right angle to the
direction of incident beam. Calculate the energy of these neutrons and energy and angle of recoil ofthe
associated Beryllium atom. Given that : m ( n ) = 1.00893 amu ; m ( Li ) = 7.01784 amu ;
m (jH ) = 2.01472 amu ; and m ^Be ) =.8.00776 amu.
0
Q.26 A body of mass m is placed on a smooth horizontal surface. The mass of the body is decreasing
exponentially with disintegration constant X. Assuming that the mass is ejected backward with a relative
velocity v. Initially the body was at rest. Find the velocity of body after time t.
0
Q.27 A radionuclide with disintegration constant X is produced in a reactor at a constant rate a nuclei per sec.
During each decay energy E is released. 20% ofthis energy is utilised in increasing the temperature of
water. Find the increase in temperature ofm mass ofwater in time t. Specific heat of water is S. Assume
that there is no loss of energy through water surface.
0
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
EXERCISE # III
Q.l
(i)
(ii)
Q.2
Q. 3
A neutron of kinetic energy 65 eV collides inelastically with a singly ionized helium atom at rest. It is
scattered at an angle of 90 with respect ofits original direction.
Find the allowed values of the energy ofthe neutron & that ofthe atom after collision.
Ifthe atom gets deexcited subsequently by emitting radiation,findthefrequenciesofthe emitted radiation.
(Given: Mass ofhe atom = 4x(mass ofneutron), ionization energy ofH atom=13.6 eV) [JEE '93]
A hydrogen like atom (atomic number Z) is in a higher excited state of quantum number n. This excited
atom can make a transition to thefirstexcited state by successively emitting two photon s of energies
10.20 eV & 17.00 eV respectively. Alternatively, the atom from the same excited state can make a
transition to the second excited state by successively emitting two photons of energies 4.25 eV& 5.95 eV
respectively. Determine the values of n&Z. (Ionisation energy of hydrogen atom = 13.6eY)[JEE'94]
Select the correct alternative(s):
When photons of energy 4.25 eV strike the surface of a metal A, the ejected photo electrons have
maximum kinetic energy T eV and deBroglie wave length y . The maximum kinetic energy of photo
electrons liberated from another metal B by photons of energy 4.70 eV is T = (T 1.50) eV. If the
deBroglie wave length of these photo electrons is y = 2y , then :
(A) the work function of A is 2.225 eV
(B) the work function ofB is 4 20 eV
(C) T = 2.00 eV
(D) T = 2.75 eV
[JEE'94]
In a photo electric effect setup, a point source of light of power 3.2 x 10" W emits mono energetic
photons of energy 5.0 eV. The source is located at a distance of 0.8 m from the centre of a stationary
metallic sphere of work function 3.0 eV&of radius 8.0 x 10" m.The efficiency of photoelectrons
emission is one for every 10 incident photons. Assume that the sphere is isolated and initially neutral,
and that photo electrons are instantly swept away after emission.
Calculate the number of photo electrons emitted per second.
Find the ratio of the wavelength of incident light to the DeBroglie wavelength ofthe fastest photo
electrons emitted.
It is observed that the photo electron emission stops at a certain time t after the light source is switched
on. Why ?
Evaluate the time t.
[JEE' 95]
An energy of 24.6 eV is required to remove one of the electrons from a neutral helium atom. The
energy (In eV) required to remove both the electrons form a neutral helium atom is :
(A) 38.2
(B) 49.2
(C) 51.8
(D) 79.0
[JEE'95]
An electron, in a hydrogen like atom, is inanexcitedstate.lt has a total energy of3.4 eV.
Calculate: (i) The kinetic energy & (ii) The De  Broglie wave length of the electron. [JEE 96]
/1 g
An electron in the ground state of hydrogen atoms is revolving in
\
anticlockwise direction in a circular orbit of radius R.
Obtain an expression for the orbital magnetic dipole moment ofthe electron. / ^
The atom is placed in a uniform magnetic induction, such that the plane normal
to the electron orbit make an angle of 3 0 with the magnetic induction. Find
\
the torque experienced by the orbiting electron.
[JEE'96]
A
Q.4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Q.5
Q.6
Q.7
(i)
(ii)
Q.8
fi
A potential difference of 20 KV is applied across an xraytube. The minimum wave length ofXrays
generated is
.
[JEE'96]
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
Q. 9(i) As per Bohr model, the minimum energy (in eV) required to remove an electron from the ground state
of doubly ionized Li atom (Z = 3) is
(A) 1.51
(B) 13.6
(C) 40.8
(D) 122.4
(ii) Assume that the deBroglie wave associated with an electron can form a standing wave between the
atoms arranged in a one dimensional array with nodes at each of the atomic sites, It is found that one
such standing wave is formed if the distance'd' between the atoms of the array is 2 A. A similar standing
wave is again formed if'd'is increased to 2.5 Abut not for any intermediate value of d. Find the
energy ofthe electrons in electron volts and the least value of d for which the standing wave ofthe type
described above can form.
[JEE 97]
Q. 10(i) The work function of a substance is 4.0 eV. The longest wavelength oflight that can cause photoelectron
emissionfromthis substance is approximately:
(A) 540 nm
(B) 400nm
(C) 310nm
(D) 220nm
(ii) The electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition n, > r^, where n, & n are the principal quantum
numbers of the two states. Assume the Bohr model to be valid . The time period ofthe electron in the
initial state is eight times that in thefinalstate. The possible values of n & n are:
(A) ^ = 4,112 = 2
(B)n = 8,^ = 2
(C) n, = 8, r^ = 1
(D) n, = 6, r^ = 3
[JEE '98]
Q.ll A particle ofmass M at rest decays into two particles of masses m and m , having nonzero velocities.
The ratio of the deBroglie wavelengths of the particles, A.,/ X2, is
2
( A ) ml / m2
{ B ) m2 / mx
( C ) 1.0
Q.12 Photoelectrons are emitted when 400 nm radiation is incident on a surface of work function 1. 9eV.
These photoelectrons pass through a region containing aparticles. Amaximum energy electron combines
with an aparticle to form a He ion, emitting a single photon in this process. He ions thus formed are
in their fourth excited state. Find the energies in eV ofthe photons, lying in the 2 to 4eV range, that are
likely to be emitted during and after the combination. [Take, h = 4.14 x 10" eVs] [JEE'99]
Q. 13(a) Imagine an atom made up of a proton and a hypothetical particle of double the mass ofthe electron but
having the same charge as the electron. Apply the Bohr atom model and consider all possible transitions
of this hypothetical particle to thefirstexcited level. The longest wavelength photon that will be emitted
has wavelength X (given in terms ofthe Rydberg constant R for the hydrogen atom) equal to
(A) 9/(5R)
(B) 36/(5R)
(C) 18/(5R)
(D)4/R [JEE'2000 (Scr)]
(b) The electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transitionfroman excited state to the ground state. Which of
the following statements is true?
(A) Its kinetic energy increases and its potential and total energies decrease.
(B) Its kinetic energy decreases, potential energy increases and its total energy remains the same.
(C) Its kinetic and total energies decrease and its potential energy increases.
(D) Its kinetic, potential and total energies decrease.
[JEE' 2000 (Scr)]
+
15
Q.l 4(a) A hydrogenlike atom of atomic number Z is in an excited state of quantum number 2 n. It can emit
a maximum energy photon of204 eV. If it makes a transition to quantum state n, a photon of energy
40.8 eV is emitted. Find n, Z and the ground state energy (in eV) for this atom. Also, calculate the
minimum energy (in eV) that can be emitted by this atom during deexcitation. Ground state energy of
hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.
[JEE 2000]
(b) When a beam of 10.6 eV photon of intensity 2 W/m falls on aplatinum surface of area 1 x 10 m and
work function 5.6 ev, 0.53% of the incident photons eject photoelectrons. Find the number of
photoelectrons emitted per sec and their minimum and maximum energies in eV.
[JEE' 2000]
1
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
Q.15 The potential difference applied to an X  ray tube is 5 kV and the current through it is 3.2 mA. Then the
number of electrons striking the target per second is
[JEE' 2002 (Scr.)]
(A) 2 x 10
(B) 5 x 10
(C)lxlO
(D) 4 x 10
Q.16 A Hydrogen atom and Li ion are both in the second excited state. If l and l are their respective
electronic angular momenta, and E and E their respective energies, then
(A) / > l and E  > E 
(B) / = l and E  < EJ
(C) / = l andE  > EJ
(D) / < l and IEJ < EJ [JEE 2002 (Scr)]
Q.17 A hydrogen like atom (described by the Bohr model) is observed to emit six wavelengths, originating
from all possible transition between a group oflevels. These levels have energies between  0.85 eV and
 0.544 eV (including both these values)
(a) Find the atomic number ofthe atom.
(b) Calculate the smallest wavelength emitted in these transitions.
[JEE' 2002]
Q.18 Two metallic plates A and B each of area 5 x 10 m , are placed at a separation of 1 cm. Plate B carries
a positive charge of33.7 x 10~ C. A monochromatic beam oflight, with photons of energy 5 eV each,
starts falling on plate A at t = 0 so that 10 photons fall on it per square meter per second. Assume that
one photoelectron is emitted for every 10 incident photons. Also assume that all the emitted photoelectrons
are collected by plate B and the work function of plate Aremains constant at the value 2 eV. Determine
(a) the number of photoelectrons emitted up to t = 10 sec.
(b) the magnitude ofthe electricfieldbetween the plates A and B at t = 10 s and
(c) the kinetic energy of the most energetic photoelectron emitted at t = 10 s when it reaches plate B.
(Neglect the time taken by photoelectron to reach plate B)
[JEE' 2002]
Q.19 The attractive potential for an atom is given by v = v In (r / r ), v and r are constant and r is the radius
of the orbit. The radius r of the n Bohr's orbit depends upon principal quantum number n as :
(A)rocn
(B) rc 1/n
(C)rxn
(D)roc 1/n
[JEE' 2003 (Scr)]
Q. 20 Frequency of a photon emitted due to transition of electron of a certain elemrnt from L to K shell is
found to be 4.2 x 10 Hz. Using Moseley's
law,findthe atomic number of the element, given that the
1
Rydberg's constant R = 1.1 x 10 mr.
[JEE 2003]
Q.21 In a photoelctric experiment set up, photons of energy 5 eV falls on the cathode having work function 3 eV
(a) If the saturation current is i = 4pA for intensity 10~ W/m , then plot a graph between anode potential
and current.
(b) Also draw a graph for intensity of incident radiation of 2 x 10" W/m ?
[JEE'2003]
Q.22 A star initially has 10 deutrons. It produces energy via, the processes H + jH > jH + p
& jH +,H  He +n. If the average power radiated by the star is 10 W, the deuteron supply of
the star is exhausted in a time of the order of:
[JEE' 93 ]
(A) 10 sec
(B) 10 sec
(C) 10 sec
(D)10 sec
Q. 23 A small quantity of solution containing Na radionuclide (halflife 15 hours) of activity 1.0 microcurie
is injected into the blood of a person. A sample ofthe blood of volume 1 cm taken after 5 hours
shows an activity of296 disintegrations per minute. Determine the total volume ofblood in the body of
the person. Assume that the radioactive solution mixes uniformly in the blood of the person.
(1 Curie = 3.7 x 10 disintegrations per second)
[JEE'94]
Q.24(i)Fast neutrons can easily be slowed down by :
(A) the use of lead shielding
(B) passing them through water
(C) elastic collisions with heavy nuclei
(D) applying a strong electric field
16
16
17
15
++
Li
4
!2
16
th
18
40
16
12
16
24
10
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
(ii)
Q. 2 5
Q.26
Q.27
(i)
(ii)
Q.28
Consider aparticles, P  particles&y rays, each having an energy of 0.5 MeV. Increasing order
of penetrating powers, the radiations are :
[JEE'94]
(A) a , P , y
(B) a , y, (3
(C)(3,y,a
(D)y,p,a
Which ofthe following statement(s) is (are) correct ?
[JEE'94]
(A) The rest mass of a stable nucleus is less than the sum of the rest masses of its separated nucleons.
(B) The rest mass of a stable nucleus is greater than the sum ofthe rest masses ofits separated nucleons.
(C) In nuclear fusion, energy is released by fusion two nuclei ofmedium mass (approximately 100 amu).
(D) In nuclearfission,energy is released byfragmentationof a very heavy nucleus.
The binding energy per nucleon of 11670 is 7.97 MeV & that of ,70 is 7.75 MeV. The energy in MeV
required to remove a neutron from 0 is :
[JEE'95]
(A) 3.52
(B) 3.64
(C) 4.23
(D) 7.86
At a given instant there are 25 % undecayed radioactive nuclei in a sample. After 10 sec the number
of undecayed nuclei remains to 12.5 % . Calculate :
[JEE 96]
mean  life ofthe nuclei and
The time in which the number ofundecayed nuclear will further reduce to 6.25 % ofthe reduced number.
Consider the following reaction ; ^ ^ H , = He + Q .
[JEE 96]
Mass ofthe deuterium atom = 2.0141 u ; Mass ofthe helium atom = 4.0024 u
This is a nuclear
reaction in which the energy Q is released is
MeV.
4
Q.29(a)The maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emittedfroma surface when photons of energy 6 eV
fall on it is 4 eV The stopping potential in Volts is :
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 10
(b) In the following, column I lists some physical quantities & the column II gives approx. energy values
associated with some of them. Choose the appropriate value of energyfromcolumn II for each ofthe
physical quantities in column I and write the corresponding letter A, B, C etc. against the number (i),
(ii), (iii), etc. of the physical quantity in the answer book. In your answer, the sequence of column I
should be maintained.
Column I
Column II
(i)
Energy ofthermal neutrons
(A) 0.025 eV
(ii) Energy of Xrays
(B) 0.5 eV
(iii) Binding energy per nucleon
(C) 3 eV
(iv) Photoelectric threshold of metal
(D) 20 eV
(E)10keV
(F) 8 MeV
(c) The element Curium Cm has a mean life of 10 seconds. Its primary decay modes are spontaneous
fission and a decay, the former with a probability of 8% and the latter with a probability of 92%. Each
fission releases 200 MeV of energy. The masses involved in a decay are as follows :
ggCm=248.072220u, ^Pu=244.0641 OOu&jHe =4.002603u.
Calculate the power output from a sample of 10 Cm atoms. (1 u = 931 MeV/c ) [JEE'97]
Q.30 Select the correct alternative(s) .
[JEE'98]
(i)
Let m be the mass of a proton, m the mass of a neutron, M, the mass of a ^Ne nucleus & M the
mass of a ^Ca nucleus. Then :
(A) M = 2 Mj
(B) M > 2 Mj
(C) M < 2 Mj
(D) M < 10 (m + m )
(ii) The halflife of I is 8 days. Given a sample of 1 at time t = 0, we can assert that:
(A) no nucleus will decay before t = 4 days (B) no nucleus will decay before t = 8 days
(C) all nuclei will decay before t = 16 days (D) a given nucleus may decay at any time after t = 0.
13
20
131
<iBansal Classes
131
Modern Physics
[11]
Q.31 Nuclei ofa radioactive element A are being produced at a constant rate a . The element has a decay
constant X. At time t = 0, there are N nuclei of the element.
(a) Calculate the number N of nuclei of A at time t.
(b) If a=2N ?t, calculate the number ofnuclei ofA after one halflife ofA & also the limiting value ofN as t*.
[JEE '98]
EO
Y
n
Q.32(a) Binding energy per nucleon vs. mass number curve for
nuclei is shown in the figure. W, X, Y and Z are four
nuclei indicated on the curve. The process that would
release energy is
(A) Y > 2Z
(B) W > X + Z
30
60
90
120
(C)W 2Y
(D) X Y + Z
Mass Number of Nuclei
(b) Order of magnitude of density of Uranium nucleus is, [m = 1.67 x 10~ kg]
(A) 10 kg/m
(B) 10 kg/m
(C) 10 kg/m
(D) 10 kg/m
(c)
Ne nucleus, after absorbing energy, decays into two aparticles and an unknown nucleus. The unknown
nucleus is
(A) nitrogen
(B) carbon
(C) boron
(D) oxygen
(d) Which of the following is a correct statement?
(A) Beta rays are same as cathode rays
(B) Gamma rays are high energy neutrons.
(C) Alpha particles are singly ionized helium atoms
(D) Protons and neutrons have exactly the same mass
(E) None
(e) The halflife period of a radioactive element X is same as the meanlife time of another radioactive
element Y. Initially both of them have the same number of atoms. Then
(A) X & Y have the same decay rate initially (B) X & Y decay at the same rate always
(C) Y will decay at a faster rate than X
(D) X will decay at a faster rate than Y [JEE'99]
Q.33 Two radioactive materials Xj and X have decay constants 10X. and X respectively. Ifinitially they have the
same number of nuclei, then the ratio ofthe number of nuclei ofXj to that of Xj will be 1/e after a time
(A) 1/(10X)
(B) 1/(1 IX)
(C) 11/(1 OA,)
(D)1/(9A) [JEE'2000 (Scr)]
Q.34 The electron emitted in beta radiation originates
from
[JEE'2001(Scr)]
(A) inner orbits of atoms
(B)freeelectrons existing in nuclei
(C) decay of a neutron in a nucleus
(D) photon escapingfromthe nucleus
Q.35 The halflife of At is 100 ps. The time taken for the radioactivity of a sample o f At to decay to
1/16 of its initial value is
[JEE 2002 (Scr)]
(A) 400 ps
( B ) 6.3 ps
(C) 40 ps
(D) 300 ps
Q.36 Which of the following processes represents a gamma  decay?
[JEE 2002 (Scr)]
(A) X + y > X _ ! + a + b
(B) X +in
 *  XZ  2 + C
(C) x > x + /
( D ) Xv + e _ !
> X i + 8
Q.37 The volume and mass of a nucleus are related as
[JEE 2003 (Scr)]
(A) v qc m
(B) v cc 1/m
(C) v cc m
(D) v oc 1/m
Q.38 The nucleus of element X (A= 220) undergoes adecay. If Qvalue ofthe reaction is 5.5 MeV, then the
kinetic energy of aparticle is :
[JEE 2003 (Scr)]
(A) 5.4MeV
(B)10.8MeV
(C)2.7MeV
(D)None
Q.39 A radioactive sample emits n Pparticles in 2 sec. In next 2 sec it emits 0.75 n Pparticles, what is the
mean life ofthe sample?
[JEE 2003 ]
0
27
20
17
14
22
215
215
th
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
Q.40 The wavelength of K Xray of an element having atomic number z = 11 is X. The wavelength of K
Xray of another element of atomic number z' is 4A. Then z' is
(A) 11
(B) 44
(C) 6
(D) 4 [JEE 2005 (Scr)]
Q. 41 A photon of 10.2 eV energy collides with a hydrogen atom in ground state inelastically. After few
microseconds one more photon of energy 15 eV collides with the same hydrogen atomThen what can
be detected by a suitable detector.
(A) one photon of 10.2 eV and an electron of energy 1.4 eV
(B) 2 photons of energy 10.2 eV
(C) 2 photons of energy 3.4 eV
(D) 1 photon of 3.4 eVand one electron of 1.4 eV
[JEE 2005 (Scr)]
Q. 42 Helium nuclie combines to form an oxygen nucleus. The binding energy per nucleon ofoxygen nucleus is
if m = 15.834 amu and m = 4,0026 amu
(D) 4 MeV
(A) 10.24 MeV
(B)0MeV
(C) 5.24 MeV
[JEE 2005 (Scr)]
Q. 43 The potential energy of a particle of mass m is given by
V(x)= E 0 < x < 1
x >1
Xl and X2 are the deBroglie wavelengths of the particle, when 0 < x < 1 and x > 1 respectively. If the
total
energy of particle is 2E , find X / X .
[JEE 2005]
Q. 44 Highly energetic electrons are bombarded on a target of an element containing 3 0 neutrons. The ratio of
radii of nucleus to that of helium nucleus is (14) . Find
(a) atomic number of the nucleus
(b) the frequency of K line ofthe Xray produced. (R= l.lx 10 m andc = 3 x 10 m/s)
[JEE 2005]
Q.45 Given a sample of Radium226 having halflife of 4 days. Find the probability, a nucleus disintegrates
within 2 half lives.
(A) 1
(B) 1/2
(C) 3/4
(D) 1/4
[JEE 2006]
x
He
1/3
_1
Q .46 The graph between 1IX and stopping potential (V) ofthree metals
having work functions (j^, (J> and <j) in an experiment of photometal 2 metal 3
electric effect is plotted as shown in the figure. Which of the
following statement(s) is/are correct? [Here X
is the wavelength of the incident ray].
(A) Ratio of work functions : <j) : <t> = 1:2 : 4
0.001 0.002 0.004 l/X
(B) Ratio of work functions ()>, : <j) : (j) = 4 : 2 : 1
(C) tan 9 is directly proportional to hc/e, where h is Planck's constant and c is the speed of light
(D) The violet colour light can eject photoelectrons from metals 2 and 3.
[JEE 2006]
2
Q. 47 In hydrogenlike atom (z = 11), n line of Lyman series has wavelength X equal to the deBroglie's
wavelength of electron in the levelfromwhich it originated. What is the value of n?
[JEE 2006]
th
<iBansal Classes
[JEE 2006]
Column 2
(P) Converts some matter into energy
(Q) Generally occurs for nuclei with low atomic number
(R) Generally occurs for nuclei with higher atomic number
(S) Essentially proceeds by weak nuclear forces
Modern Physics
[11]
ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE # I
Q.l
Q.4
Q.5
885
Q.2 (a) 2.25eV, (b) 4.2eV, (c)2.0 eV, 0.5 eV
Q.3 (a) 0.6 volt, (b)2.0mA
when the potential is steady, photo electric emission just stop when hu = (3 + l)eV = 4.0 eV
5.76 x 1 0 A
Q.6 15/8 V
Q.7 487.06nm Q.8 4.26m/s, 13.2eV
Q.9
7:36
_n
Q.10 22.8 nm
X { X2
A^i + X 2
Q.ll
Q.12 18/(5R)
5 1020
Q.14 2.48 xlO" m Q.15 16' 8071
12
Q.17 5
Q , i 9 " z = 3,n = 7
Q.23 (T = 10.8 sec)
Q.25 t = / n 2
1/2
+1
18
Q.28 h/eEt
18
EXERCISE # II
38IRh
Q.l 8IhR/3C
Q.2 4.8 x 10 , 4.0 cm
Q.3 1.99 eV, 0.760 V
Q.4 1.1 x io
Q.5 (i) 4125A, (ii) 13.2 pA
Q.6 (i) 1,33 x 10 photons/m s ; 0.096 pA(ii) 2.956 x io photons/m s ; 0.0213 pA(iii) 1.06 volt
Q.7 (i) 5/16 photon/sec, (ii) 5/1600'electrons/sec
Q.8 Xdeutron ""neutron ^ ' ^ P ^
16
1 5 C
12
16
15
Q.9 X = yjx +x 2
Q.10 3.1 x 10 m/s Q.ll (i) 2; (ii) 23.04 xlO J; (iii) 4 1 , 4  > 3
Q.12 11.24 eV
Q.13 6.8 eV, 5 x l 0 H z
Q.14 489.6 eV, 25.28A
{
1 er
,1 3Cr
t\
Q15 (i) 87i8 r (ii) o
, (iii) 10" x 100 sec
81
'o
J
v
Q. 16 (i) 1.875 x io V, (ii) 2.7 x 10" J, (iii) 0.737 A, (iv) 2.67 x 10" J
Q.17 6.04 x io yrs
Q.18 4.87MeV
Q.19 3 . 3 x l 0  g
Q.20 1.7 x io years
Q.21 7.01366 amu
Q.22 (a) 4 MeV, 17.6 (b) 7.2 MeV (c) 0.384 %
Q.23 5196 yrs
Q.25 Energy ofneutron = 19.768 MeV; Energy ofBeryllium= 5.0007 MeV;
Angle of recoil = tan" (1.034) or 46
6
2
{
!9
15
1 / 3
z2
10
15
15
10
Q.26 v = uXt
Q.27 AT
<iBansal Classes
0.2Er
mS
Modern Physics
[11]
EXERCISE # III
Q.l
(i) Allowed values of energy of neutron = 6.36 eV and 0.312 eV; Allowed values of energy of He atom
= 17.84 eV and 16.328 eV, (ii) 18.23 x 10 Hz, 9.846 x 10 Hz, 11.6 x 10 Hz
Q.2 n = 6, Z = 3
Q.3 B, C
Q.4 (a) 10 s" ; (b) 286.18 ; (d) 111 s
he
ehB
Q.5 D
Q.6 (i) KE = 3.4 eV, (ii) A = 6.66 A
Q.7 (i) 47tm (ii) 871m
Q.8100.61
Q.9 C(i)D, (ii) KE= 151 eV, d =0.5 A
(i) CA (ii) A, D
Q.ll
Q
Q 12 during combination = 3.365 eV; after combination = 3 .88 eV (5 > 3) & 2.63 eV (4 > 3)
Q 13 (a)C, (b)A
Q 14 (a) n = 2, z = 4; GS.E.  217.6 eV; Min. energy =10.58 eV; (b) 6.25x 10 per sec, 0, 5 eV
Q.16 B
Q.17 3,4052.3 nm Q.18 5xl0 ,2000N./C, 23 eV
Q 15 A
1
15
15
15
least
19
8IA
Q.19 A
1=2x10 W/m
5
Q.21
Q.20 z = 42
1=10 W/m
5
2V
Q.24 (i)B,(ii)A
Q.22 C
Q.23 6 litre
Q.26 C
Q.27
(i) t1/2 = 10 sec.,' tmeans = 14.43 s (ii) 40 seconds
^
Q.28 Fusion, 24
Q.29 (a) B, (b) (i)  A, (ii)  E, (iii) F, (iv)  C, (c) = 33.298 pW
Q.25 A, D
v
Q.31 (a) N = 1 [a (1 X
(b) 3N
2N
2
lt
e~ )+ X N 0 e~ X t ]
Q.33 D
Q.34 C
Q.35 A
Q.37 A
Q.38 A
Q.41 A
Q.42 A
Q.43 V2
Q.45 C
Q.46 A,C
Q.47 n = 24
Q.36 C
4
Q.40 C
In
Q.44
= 1.546 x 10 Hz
18
<iBansal Classes
Modern Physics
[11]
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