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08-10-2014

APPLICATION OF
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CONCEPT OF REINFORCED
SOIL

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil
Howtoemphasize
thereinforcement
effect?

EXPERIMENTAL
OBSERVATIONS

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil
1

ReinforcedSoil
1
vr

h/2

hr/2

Intheaboveillustration,bothreinforcedandunreinforcedsamplesaresubjectedtothe
samemagnitudeofexternallyappliedloadsandtheadditionofreinforcementdecreases
deformationscomparedtotheunreinforcedsoil.Theadditionofreinforcementwillalso
improvesoilstrength.

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Althoughsoilcanbeloadedunderacompressivestressregime,tensilestrainscan
developwithinthesoilmass.Clearlythelateralexpansionwillbeassociatedwiththe
developmentoflateraltensilestrainwithinthesoilmass.
Whentheaxialloadisappliedtothereinforcedsoil,thisgeneratedanaxial
compressivestrainandaresultinglateraltensilestrain.Ifthereinforcementhasan
axialtensilestiffnessgreaterthanthatofthesoil,thenlateralmovementofthesoil
willonlyoccurifthesoilcanmoverelativetothereinforcement.Providedthe
surfaceofthereinforcementissufficientrough,movementofthesoil,relativetothe
reinforcement,willgenerateshearstressesatthesoil/reinforcementinterface.

Theseshearstressesinducetensileloadsinthereinforcementwhichare
redistributedbackintothesoilintheformofaninternalconfiningstresswhich
isadditivetoanyexternallyappliedconfiningstress3.
Thereductioninthemagnitudesofdeformationsisadirectresultofan
additionalconfiningstressgeneratedbyaninternalinteractionbetweenthesoil
andthereinforcement.

CE451A

ReinforcedSoil
Thesoilhasaninherentlylowtensilestrengthbutahighcompressivestrength
whichisonlylimitedbytheabilityofthesoiltoresistappliedshearstress.
Anobjectiveofincorporatingsoilreinforcementistoabsorbtensileloadsor
shearstresses,therebyreducingtheloadsthatmightotherwisecausethesoil
tofailinshearorexcessivedeformation.

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil
Iftheunreinforcedsoilisconfinedbyaconstantstress3 andthemagnitudeof1 is
progressivelyincreased,thenthesoilwillbesubjectedtoaprogressivelyincreasing
shearstress[0.5(1 3)].Generallyshearfailureoftheunreinforcedsoilensuesas
thisappliedshearstressapproachedtheshearstrengthofthesoil.
Whenthesoilisreinforced,alargervalueof1 isneededtocausefailure.The
reasonforthisisevaluatedusingtriaxialtestondrycoarsegainedsoil(c=0)

Thereissomesimilaritytotheprincipleofreinforcedconcreteasthereinforced
massmaybeconsideredacompositematerialwithimprovedproperties,
particularlyintensionandshearoverthesoilorconcretealone.

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

ReinforcedSoil
Inclusionofreinforcementcouldberelatedtoincreaseintheconfinement

Whenthesoilisreinforced,alargervalueof1 isneededtocausefailure.Thisis
becauseincrementsof1 induceincrementsof3 whichleadtorelativelysmall
incrementsintheappliedshearstress,[0.5(1 (1+ 3))]

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

ReinforcedSoil

Inclusionofreinforcementcouldberelatedtoapparentcohesion

Inclusionofreinforcementcouldberelatedtoincreaseinthefrictionangle

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

ReinforcedSoil

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

08-10-2014

ReinforcedSoil

OverviewofReinforcedSoil
Additionalstrengthduetoreinforcementcouldbedueto
Increaseintheconfinementduetofictitiousoverburdenpressure
Developmentofapparentcohesion
Increaseintheangleofinternalfriction/frictionangle
Additionalstrengthduetoreinforcementdependson
Vertical spacing of reinforcement layers (density of reinforcement)
Verticalspacingofreinforcementlayers(densityofreinforcement)
Strengthandstiffnessofthereinforcement
Interactionbetweensoilandreinforcement
Apracticallimitisimposedonthestrengthofthe
reinforcedsoileitherbytensilerupture ofthe
reinforcementorpullout/bondfailurecausedby
slippageatthesoil/reinforcementinterface.

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur