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breracirnear onan Claro (America Movil) Use Only wee Hest Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction... Course Objectives... Course Overview... Introductions. Housekeeping Introducing LTI Market Drivers for 4G. Market Drivers for 4G: Increasing Data Demand LTE Performance Benefits... Radio Link Improvement is Slowing - What is Next: Benefits of an all-IP Network. Additional LTE Benefits LTE Global Implementations. 3GPP and 3GPP2 Evolution Paths LTE Standards Timeline wm LTE Summary. Section 2: Orthogonal FrequencyDivision Multiplexing(OFDM) .. Objectives LTE Air Interface Cellular Multiple Access Methods . OFDM Characteristics. OFDM Modulation .. OFDM Orthogonality.. Creating an OFDM Signal in Effects of Multipath Multipath and OFDM. Cyclic Prefix (CP) Transmission. Key OFDM Advantages. Key OFDM Challenges. PAPR and the Uplink. Creating an SC-FDMA Signal OFDM versus SC-FDMA.............. OFDMA aad Section 3: Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Objectives What is MIMO? What can MIMO Provide? smn MIMO Gains _ MIMO Beamforming... {©2009 QUALCOW incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION ¥v LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev H MIMO Spatial Multiplexing... Spatial Multiplexing Gai MIMO - Practical Considerations. MIMO in LTE (Downlink) Precoding MIMO in LTE (Uplink) Key Takeaways, Exercise - True or False Answers. Section 4: LTE Overview Objectives 3GPP Evolution Terminology. EPS - Network Elements and Interfaces Overview. E-UTRAN Entities and Interfaces EPC Mobility Management Entities and Interfaces. Gateway Entities and Interfaces... E-UTRAN and EPC Protocol Stack User Plane. Control Plane... EPS Non Access Stratum (NAS) Protocols Overall EPS Architecture. EPS Network Topology and Mobility Procedures... EPS Idle and Active States ‘AS and NAS Layers. Use Case ea esc dit EPS Attach Procedure + Always-on Connectivity. Various Identities used within EPS. LTE Security Features. EPS Security Architecture. EPS QoS Definitions and Parameters.. QoS Class Identifier (QCI) Service Characteristics . Self Optimizing Network (SON) Operation. Home eNodeB (HeNB) ~ Rel 8 and Rel 9 Features. Key Takeaways Exercise Answers Section 5: LTE Channels & Physical Operations mn Objectives —munninnsinnnnn ‘Access Stratum Channel Terminology. Logical Channels... ‘Transport Channels. Downlink Physical Channels..... Downlink Physical Control Channels.. Downlink Reference Signals. Downlink Synchronit Downlink Channelization Hierarchy... 1© 2009 QUALCOMM Incorprated [NAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION LTE Technical Overview (Clore Arwésicat ont) Uses Only 80-W2516-1 Rev H Uplink Physical Channel: Uplink Reference Signals Uplink Channelization Hierarchy Channel Review Exercis Answer: Operations & Procedures Overview. ‘What happens when the UE is turned ON? System Acquisition How Cell Identity is Determined from PSS and SSS. Initial System Acquisition - Details amu ‘System Information Blocks (SIBs) System Information Scheduling on BCH & DL-SCH Downlink Operation Highlights... PDSCH Multiple Transmission Modes. Downlink Data Transfer Functionalit Layer Mapping Precoding. Downlink Scheduled Operation Overview. CQI/PMI/RI Reporting Overview. E-UTRA Uplink Operation Highlights... Uplink Scheduled Operation Overview. Uplink Power Control... Uplink Power Control... Random Access Procedu When does the UE tse the PRACH? wsnnnsnan ‘Timing Advance / Alignment (TA).. LTE Handover and Mobility.. Key Takeaways. Exercise - True or False Answers... Section 6: Physical Layer Details... Objectives LTE Air Interface Capabilities. LTE Air Interface Peak Data Rates... LTE UE Categories, Achievable Peak Data Rates Frequency Domain Organization. Frequency Domain Configurations. FDD Frames, Subframes, and Slots ‘Time and Frequency Resource Grid Definitions ss... Resource Grid Definitions for Control Information... wa Downlink Channels and Signals. Downlink Resource Allocation Overview Downlink Reference Signals (DL-RS). ‘Synchronization Signals (PSS & SSS) Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) (©2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated ‘WAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERRATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION vil LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev iH Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH). PDSCH Resource Allocation Overview. Uplink Channels and Signals. Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) Physical Uplink Control Channel Formats Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) PUSCH Frequency Hopping Modes...... Sounding Reference Signals (SRS) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH).. Random Access Types. Contention-Free Random Access. Contention-Based Random Access... Key TakeawayS.euun Exercise - True or Fal: Answers... Section 7: Layer 2 and Radia Resource Control ‘Objectives Access Stratum (AS) Overview. Whatis the Job of the MAC Layer? ‘MAC PDU ~ How does MAC Package Inform: MAC Control Elements MAC Interaction with RLC What is the Job of the RLC Layer? RLC Transfers Data in One of Three Modes RLC Architectur UM Segmentation and Concatenation Example. Unacknowledged Mode Data Transfer Example... ‘Acknowledged Mode Data Transfer Exampl ‘Acknowledged Mode Data Transfer Example (continued PDCP Functions. PDCP Architecture (SRB/DRB). PDCP and In-order Delivery of Data... RRC Functions Power On and Cell Camped State Procedures. Cell Selection an. Paging Monitoring... Paging Control Channel (PCCH) on PDSCH Connected Mode Mobility Measurements - Object Connected Mode Mobility Measurement Metrics. Mobility Measurement Reporting, Inter-Frequency and IRAT Handover.. Connected Mode DRX... DRX Operation - Connected State LTE Neighbor Lists Example Procedures. Power On and Cell Selection. {©2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION LTE Technical Overview. SRE Ree eorg ver OK, 80-W2516-1 Rev H RACH and RRC Connection Establishment... EPS Attach Procedure + Always-on ConnectiVity ss 7-33 EPS Registration Procedures ~ Highlights E-UTRA Intra/Inter-Frequency Handover ... Key Takeaways... Exercise ~ True or False ANSWEFS wns Section 8: 3GPP and 3GPP2 Interoperation... Objectives mmm Multiple Access Networks and EPC. Standards for 3GPP Interworking.. 3GPP (UTRAN) Interworking Architecture.. Registration for 3GPP Interworking IRAT Iu Handover (E-UTRAN to UTRAN) 3GPP Interworking (Legacy Gn/Gp) How IRAT is Handled in CDMA 2000... Where is eHRPD Defined in the Standards?.... EPS and eHRPD Network Architecture (Non-Optimized) eHRPD and EPS Interworking with Optimized Handover’ Pre-Registration .. Handover Scenarios between LTE and eHRPD won. $101 Tunnel Redirection ..onimsismsnn Key Takeaways. Exercise - Fill in Blanks, Answer: Section 9: LTE and Voice Objectives Options to Support Voice in LTE Considerations for VoIP. Coverage Issues Header Implications... Dynamic and Semi-Persistent Scheduling The IMS Solution Voice over LTE (VoLTE) ‘The Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) Solution BGPP CSFB Architecture seinen 3GPP2 CSFB Network Architecture Short Message Service (SMS)... Typical Call Setup Delay for 1xRTT CSEB. ‘Typical Call Setup Delay Comparison. Simultaneous Voice and LTE Data (SVLTE) Voice Solution Comparison... Key Takeaways. (©2009 QUALCOM Incorporated .MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION te Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview’ 80-W2516-1 Rev H Section 10: The Evolution of LTE. Objectives ” LTE Standards Timeline: ub Release 9 adds Features and Enhancements to Release IMT Advanced (4G) and LTE Requirements Which Knobs do we Turn to get t0 4G? men LTE Advanced Improves Radio Link Performance inn. Carrier Aggregation Introduction ...... Carrier Aggregation - Band 3 and Band 7 Example. Downlink MIMO... Uplink MIMO is New for Release 10... Other Enhancements with LTE Advanced. Heterogencous Networks... Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordiantion (elCIC) Relay Nodes eennmsenn Summary What's Ahead .. Key Takeaways. 122009 QUALCOMM Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION x Claro (America Movil} Use Only 80.W2516-1 Rev H LTE Technical Overview Acronyms and Abbreviations 3G 3rd Generation 3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project AAA Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting ACK Acknowledgment AES Advanced Encryption Standard AIPN AILIP Network AKA ‘Authentication and Key Agreement AM ‘Acknowledged Mode AMBR ‘Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate AMC ‘Adaptive Modulation and Coding AMD ‘Acknowledged Mode Data AN Access Network ANR ‘Automatic Neighbor Relation APN ‘Access Point Name ARFCN ‘Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number ARP Allocation and Retention Priority ARQ ‘Automatic Repeat Request AS ‘Access Stratum AUTN ‘Authentication result BccHl Broadcast Control Channel BCH Broadcast Channel BER Bit Error Rate BL Backoff Indicator BLER Block Error Rate BP Bandwidth Part BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying BSR Buffer Status Report Bw BandWidth cecnt Common Control Channel CCE, Control Channel Elements Carrier Class Ethernet cop Cyclic Delay Diversity cbM Code Division Multi CDMA Code Division Multiple Access cos Channel Dependent Scheduling cel Control Format Indicator cN Core Network cP Control Plane Cyclic Prefix crIcH Common Pilot Channel cal Channel Quality Indicator cre Cyclic Redundancy Check C-RNTI Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier cs Circuit Switched csc Closed Subscriber Group csi Channel Signal Information cw Code Word (©2009 QUALCOWn incorporated [NAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION x LTE Technical Overview ‘Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev pecH Del DFT Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Control Information Discrete Fourier Transform DFTS-OFDM Discrete Fourier Transform Spread Orthogonal Frequency Division DL DL-SCH DM DM-RS DRB DRX Ds DTcH DIX DwPTs E-AGCH EARFCN ECGI ECN E-DCH EDGE E-DPCCH E-DPDCH E-HICH BEA EIA EMM eNB EPC ePCF ePDG EPLMN EPRE EPS Multiplexing Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Demodulation Demodulation Reference Signal Data Radio Bearer Discontinuous Reception Data Services Dedicated Traffic Channel Discontinuous Transmission Downlink Pilot Time Slot Enhanced Absolute Granting Channel B-UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number E-UTRAN Cell Global Identifior Explicit Congestion Notification Enhanced Dedicated Channel Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control Channel Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data Channel Enhanced Hybrid Indicator Channel EPS Encryption Algorithm EPS Integrity Algorithm EPS Mobility Management Evolved Node B Evolved Packet Core Evolved Packet Control Function evolved Packet Data Gateway Equivalent PLMN, Energy Per Resource Element Evolved Packet System Enhanced Relative Granting Channel EPS Session Management Encapsulated Security Protocol Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Ev-Do Evolution-Data Optimized EVRC Enhanced Variable Rate Codec FC Federal Communications Commission FD Full-Duplex FDD Frequency Division Duplex (© 2009 QUALCOWN incoypratea (AY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED HEORHATION xl Claro (America Movil) Use Only eo.w2516-1 Revit LTE Technical Overview FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing FDMA Frequeney Division Multiple Access FDS Frequency Diverse Scheduling FFT Fast Fourier Transform FH Frequency Hopping FL Framing Information FL Forward Link FMS First Missing Sequence Fs Frame Structure FSS Frequency Selective Scheduling FSTD Frequency Shift Time Diversity GBR Guaranteed Bit Rate cl Global Cell 1D GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network GGsN Gateway GPRS Support Node GLONASS Russian GLObal NAvigation Satel GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems GP Guard Period GPRS General Packet Radio Service GPs Global Positioning System Gsm Global System for Mobiles GrP-u GPRS Tunneling Protocol - User GUMME! Globally Unique MME Identity Gut Globally Unique ‘Temporary Identifier cw Gateway Wa Home Agent WAP ID ARQ Process ID HARQ Hybrid ARQ uD Half-Duplex Hens Home eNode B HEN Hyper Frame Number HI Hybrid ARQ Indicator HLR Home Location Register HNBID Home Evolved Node B Identifier HO Handover HOM Higher Order Modulation PLM Home Public Land Mobile Network RPD high Rate Packet Data us High Speed HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access HS-DPCCH High Speed Dedicated Control Channel Hiscw HRPD Serving Gateway HSPA High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ Migh-Speed Packet Access evolved or enhanced ss Home Subscriber Service HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access Ic Interference Cancellation IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform {©2009 QUALCONM Incorporated "MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION itt LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only 20.W2516-1 Rev H IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IFFT. Inverse Fast Fourier Transform IMs IP Multimedia Subsystem IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity Pp Internet Protocol IP-CAN IP Connectivity Access Network Ist Inter-Symbol Interference ISR Idle Signaling load Reduction ITU-R International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector Li Layer 1 12 Layer 2 LAN Local Area Networks 1G Logical Channel Group LCD Logical Channel ID LEDM Localized Frequency Division Multiplexing ut Length indicators Los Line of Sight ist LTE/SAE Trial Initiative LTE Long Term Evolution wm Linear Time Invariant Mac Medium Access Control MAPL. Maximum Allowable Path Loss MBMS Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service MBR Maximum Bit Rate MBSEN Multimedia Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network Mcc Mobile Country Code MccH Multicast Control Channe! MCH Multicast Channel Mes Modulation and Coding Scheme Mcw Multiple Code Word ME Mobile Equipment MIB Master Information Block MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output MIP Mobile IP MME Mobility Management Entity MMEC MME Code MMEGI MME Group ID MMEI ‘MME Identifier MNC Mobile Network Code MSC Mobile Switching Center MSIN Mobile Subscriber Identification Number MTCH Multicast Traffic Channel M-TSMI MME Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity MU-MIMO Multi-User Multiple Input Multiple Output NACC. Network Assisted Cell Change NAK Negative Acknowledgment NAS Non-Access Stratum NCL Neighbor Cell List NDI New Data Indicator NID Network ID (© 2009 QUALCONA incorporated TAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION xv LTE Technical Overview NLOS NR OAM OFDM OFDMA oO PAPR PAR PARC PBCH Pc Poce PCCH PCFICH PCH PCI PCRF PDCCH PDcP PDB PDG PDN PDSCH PDSN DU PELR PF P-cw PHICH PHR PHY PLMN PMCH PMI PMIP. PN Po Pot PRACH PRB P-RNTI Claro (America Movil) Use Only arene win Non Line of sight Neighbor Relation Operations and Maintenance Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ‘Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Overload Indicator Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Peak to Average Ratio Per Antenna Rate Control Physical Broadcast Channel Policy Charging and Control Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Code Paging Control Channel Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Paging Channel Physical Cell ID Policy and Charging Rules Function Physical Downlink Control Channel Packet Data Convergence Protocol Packet Delay Buffer Packet Data Gateway Packet Data Network Physical Downlink Shared Channel Packet Data Serving Node Protocol Data Unit, Packet Error Loss Rate Paging Frame Packet Data Network Gateway Physical Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Indicator Channel Power Headroom Report Physical Layer Public Land Mobile Network Physical Multicast Channel Precoding Matrix Indicator Proxy Mabile IP PseudoNoise Paging Occasion Push-to-Talk over Cellular Physical Random Access Channel Physical Resource Block Paging Radio Network Temporary Identifier Packet Switched Primary Synchronization Signal Primary Synchronization Channel Primary Synchronization Signal Packet Switched Telephone Network Packet Switched Video Telephony Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity; Paging TMS! Push-To-Talk Physical Uplink Control Channel (©2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated "MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION ~ Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview 80-W2516-1 Rev H pusci Physical Uplink Shared Channel ‘Qa Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Qc QoS Class Identifier Qos Quality of Service QPSK ‘Quadrature Phase Shift Keying RACH Random Access Channel RAN Radio Access Network RAND Random Number (authentication) RAPID Random Access Preamble Identifier RAR Random Access Response RA-RNTI Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier RAT Radio Access Technology RB Resource Block RBG Resource Block Group RDS RMS Delay Spread Resource Element Resource Element Group ‘Authentication Response Remote Electrical Tilt Rank Indicator Resource Indication Value Reverse Link Radio Link Control RLF Radio Link Failure Reverse Link FIFO Return Link Finger Module RMS Root Mean Square RNC Radio Network Controller RNL Radio Network Layer RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identifier ROH Robust Header Compression RPLMN Registered PLMN RRC Radio Resource Control RRM Radio Resource Management RS Reference Signal RSCP Received Signal Code Power RSRP Reference Signal Receive Power RSRQ Reference Signal Receive Quality Rss Received Signal Strength Indication RV Redundancy Version Rx Receive SAE System Architecture Evolution saw Stop-And-Wait SC-FDM Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiptexing SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SCH ‘Supplemental Channel (CDMA2000) Synchronization Channel (WCDMA) scre Stream Control Transmission Protocol scw Single Code Word SDF Service Data Flow {©2009 QUALCOWM incorporated ‘NAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORWATION i LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only o-w2516-1 Rev 4 ‘SDM Spatial Division Multiplexing SDMA Spatial Division Multiple Access sDU Service Data Unit SFBC Space Frequency Block Code SEN System Frame Number ‘SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node sow Serving Gateway sl System Information Message sic Successive Interference Cancellation SIRNTI System Information - Radio Network Temporary Identifier siso Single Input Single Output SIB System Information Block SM Session Management Spatial Multiplexing sMs Short Message Service SNR Signal to Noise Ratio SON Self Optimizing Network SPS ‘Semi-Persistent Scheduling S-Q0S Subscribed Quality of Service SR Scheduling Request SRB Signaling Radio Bearer SRS Sounding Reference Signals ssc Secondary Synchronization Signal S-SCH Secondary Synchronization Channel S85 Secondary Synchronization Signal S-TMSI SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity SU-MIMO Single User Multiple input Multiple Output TA Tracking Area ‘Timing Advance/Alignment TAC ‘Tracking Area Code Tal ‘Tracking Area ID TAU ‘Tracking Area Update 1B ‘Transport Block TeCe Tail Biting Convolutional Coding ToD ‘Time Division Duplex. TDM Time Division Multiplexing ‘TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TT ‘Traffic Flow Template TMA ‘Tower Mounted Amplifier ‘rec ‘Transmit Power Control ™ ‘Transparent Mode ‘TMSI ‘Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. TT Transmission Time Interval TK Transmit uci Uplink Control information UE User Equipment UL Uplink ULSCH Uplink Shared Channel uM Unacknowledged Mode (©2009 QUALCOWN incorporated "wat CONTAIN US, AND WWTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION wi LTE Technical Overviow Claro (America Movil) Use Only WIE uMTs uP upPTS USIM UTRA UTRAN vec VLR VoIP VoLGA VoLTE VRB vr WCDMA uC Universal Mobile Telecommunications System User Plane Uplink Pilot Time Slot Universal Subscriber Identity Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Voice Call Continuity Visitor Location Register Voice over Internet Protocol Voice over LTE via Generic Access Voice over LTE Virtual Resource Block Video Telephony Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Zadoff-Chu sequence (©2008 QUALCOMN Incorporated [MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORNATION seat cr aemaraeaas) Claro (America Movil) Use Only Section 1: Introduction 80-W2516-1 Rev H un Wns Ae Section 1 Introduction (©2009 QUALCOM incorporated [MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION ey LTE Technical Overview Section f= Introduction Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev H Course Objectives Recognize the motivations for deploying LTE. 7 Describe the building blocks of the LTE air interface. > Introduce the LTE network architecture. Describe the Downlink and Uplink Physical Layer. Understand basic signaling procedures. Describe interworking with other networks. > Illustrate how voice is handled in LTE. Describe how LTE will evolve. Notes 162009 QUALCONA Incorparated (NAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 12 cre yachaueateaes: Claro (America Movil) Use Only Section 1; Introduction 80-W2516-1 Rev H Course Overview Introduction Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) LTE Overview LTE Channels & Physical Operations Physical Layer Details Layer 2 and Radio Resource Control 3GPP and 3GPP2 interoperation fay LTE and Voice U8) The Evolution of LTE bebo be lice re Notes (© 2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated ‘NAY CONTAIN WS, AND IXTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 13 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview 80-W2516-1 Rev H Section 1: Introduction = wwa Introductions Sonn Meet your instructor(s) Meet the participants (-1 minute) * Name » Organization/group = Role * Course expectations ‘©2009 QUALCOMA Incorporated [MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION ry iret —_— Claro (America Movil) Use Only Section #: Introduction 80-W2516-1 Rev iH ~ ww Housekeeping Starting Emergency Restrooms Cell Phones Ti Exits Breaks Exercises Course Test wal ca Notes (©7009 QUALCOMM Incorprated ‘MAY CONTAM U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 15 LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only “Section #: introduction 180-W2516-1 Rev H a Wwwd Introducing LTE lite. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard defined by the Third Generation Partnership project (3GPP) + Defines an evolution path towards 4'" Generation (4G) - Initial release is not fully 4G compliant * Specifies key building blocks for 4G - Air Interface with Scalable Bandwidth - Multiple Antenna Technology — AILIP Flat Architecture - Seamless mobility with 3GPP and non-3GPP networks Introducing LTE ‘The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined IMT-Advanced as a set of requirements for any mobile wireless broadband technology to be considered as 4% Generation compliant. The initial (Release 3) version of LTE does not completely meet those requirements but does define an evolution path towards 4. The ITU accorded LTE Advanced (LTE Release 10 and later) the official designation of IMT-Advanced, being fully 4G compliant ‘The high level r2quirements for 4G are defined by ITU as: + Ahigh degree of commonality of functionality worldwide while retaining the Nlexibility to support a wide range of services and applications in a cost efficient manner * Compatibility of services within IMT and with fixed networks + Capability of interworking with other radio access systems + High quality mobile services + User equipment suitable for worldwide use + User-friendly applications, services, and equipment + Worldwide roaming capability; and, + Enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services and applications (100 Mbit/s for high mobilityand 1 Gbit/s for low mobility were established as targets for research) Further details can be found in ITU Recommendation ITU-R M,1645 (©7009 QUALCOMN Incorporated (MAY CONTAIN US, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORWATION +6 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview MEA Ren Section 1: Introduction = 7 Wwa Market Drivers for 4G Consumer driven demand Operator driven demand + Increased data consumption based + Need to deliver more data on new devices + Increase spectral efficiency + Smartphones + Competitive advantage * Mobile data access + Seamless mobility with legacy + Gaming networks * Video + File transfer + Corporate VPN access Notes (©2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated "MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 17 LTE Technical Overview introduction Market Drivers for 4G: Increasing Data Demand ‘vam + Carriers are struggling to meet econied traffic demand of data services. + Mobile data use will grow by 17x between 2008 and 2013, while revenue will grow only by a factor of 1.8. tee + New solutions like LTE are required to increase profitability by reducing the cost per megabyte of data. ‘Traffic Volume Increasing Data Demand With the advent of the smartphone and other digital devices, operators have experienced an explosive growsh of data traffic. Unfortunately for operators, this growth in data has not been matched with a commensurate growth in revenue. Operators thus are forced to find ways of reducing the cost per byte of data they provide. LTE is an important part of this strategy. Claro (America Movil) Use Only Prerer Tt 122009 QUALCOMN incorporated NAY CONTAM U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 18 ee Claro (America Movil) Use Only ‘Section 17 Introduction a 5 Wwwa LTE Performance Benefits LTE benefits (compared to 3G) include: | + High data rates » Reduced latency + Improved end-user throughputs LTE gains are realized by: + Increasing radio frequency deployment bandwidth ~ Flexible deployments in 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz + MIMO (multiple antennas) ~ Using multiple antennas on Base Station and Mobile Device can provide up to 4x improvement + Flatter all-IP network with fewer network elements ~ Reduced latency Notes 80.W2516-1 Revi (©7009 QUALCOMM Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 19 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview. Section 1: Introduction 80-W2516-1 Revi Radio Link Improvement is Slowing - What is Next? Early cellular systems (AMPS) operated at very high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of around 17 dB. GSM introduced improvements with some error correction and achieved reasonable performance in the mobile environment with SNRs of 12 to 14 dB. 18-95 was a major breakthrough. With better coding and spread spectrum techniques, IS-95 dramatically lowered SNRs to the 5 to 7 dB range. Current 36 systems reduced SNRs a few dB better than IS-95, achieving about the same performance as LTE, and approaching the theoretical limit expressed by Shannon's capacity theorem. Given that gains from modulation and coding are practically exhausted, further advances in capacity will come from topology changes in network deployment. (©7008 QUALCONM Incororated [MAY CONTAIN U5. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION +410 Claro (America Movil) Use Only sanenasN WW Benefits of an all-IP Network Lower equipment costs than circuit switched 2G and 3G wireless infrastructure. Increased interoperability between equipment from different vendors. Flexibility to handle voice, data, and future traffic requirements. « Open interfaces offer an easier path for development, future improvement, and support. Notes (©2009 QUALCOWM Incorporated [MAY CONTAIN U5, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 1 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview 80-W2516-1 Rev H Section f: Introduction = WwWwa Additional LTE Benefits tony * Deployable in many frequency bands with flexible bandwidths + Availability of a flexible TDD solution + LTE is already confirmed as the evolution choice of many Tier 1 operators, leading to other advantages: Economies of scale, reducing cost ~ Roaming is easier - Availability of devices, infrastructure, and test equipment LTE Benefits Beyond Throughput Higher data rates, higher capacity, and lower latency are often cited as the reasons that LTE is being embraced by many operators. However, there are also less obvious reasons to chose LTE. Flexible spectrum use is one of them, LTE can use spectrum in multiple bands and with a wide assortment of bandwidths (i.e, 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz). This makes it easier for operators to utilize spectrum for LTE than other technologies for which the available bands and allowable bandwidths are more rigidly defined. Many Tier 1 operators have committed to LTE and there are many ongoing commercial deployments. This significant commitment can create economies of scale for devices, network equipment, and test equipment. Froma technical perspective, roaming isalso easier when operators employ the same technology. As a practical matter, smaller operators can also leverage many solutions developed as part of the Tier 1 operators’ deployments. LTE also provides a strong TDD solution, which isa significantincentive for operators in countries with TDD spectrum (such as India) to choose LTE. (©7009 QUALCOWN incorporated "MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORNATION 112 Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev H LTE Global Implementations 208 operators in 80 countries investing in LTE + 154 commercial LTE network commitments in 60 countries + 54 pre-commitment trials in additional 20 countries + 20-commerctal LTE networks launched in 14 countries © Countries with commercial LTE Service Countries with LTE commercial network deployments ongoing or planned Countries with LTE trial systems (pre commitment) Notes 192009 QUALCOMA incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN US, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 113 LTE Technical Overview ‘Section 1: Introduction 3GPP and 3GPP2 Evolution Paths Cre eee ZN Poe eo r eee Maran Soca Bese. Meson Baca) Poe ear ies) Notes Claro (America Movil) Use Only Srey (©2009 QUALCON incorporated [MAY CONTAIN US, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION. 114 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview 80-W2516-1 Revi Section 1; Introduction = Wwwa LTE Standards Timelines + OFDMAair interface SHimnanae + Peakdatarates:DL.1 Gbps, + MIMO transmission une ULS00 Mbps + Scalable bandwidth aaa + Increased transmission + 10D.0¢ FDO deployments = Maiieetentke ‘bandwith to 100 He + AP network {Near pisaaar abe + Enhanced MMO support + Home eNodeb (HeN8) cnpanisee + carler Aearegation + Sl Oring Network eens (50N) support (2008 ‘2009 2011+ This class focuses on Release & - the first commercially deployed version of LTE _ esisatsaaiacizn| LTE Standards Timelines BGPP Release 8 defines the first release of the LTE specifications; it was published in December of 2008, The Evolved Packet System (EPS) is defined, mandating the key features and components of both the radio access network (E-UTRAN) and the core network (Evolved Packet Core(EPC)). Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is defined as the air interface with the ability to support multi-layer data streams using Multiple Input- Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna systems to increase spectral efficiency. LTE is defined as an all-IP network topology with no CS domain. Other significant aspects defined in this initial release are Self Organizing Networks (SON) and Home Base Stations (Home eNodeB or Femto cells). LTE Release 9 provides improvements to the Release 8 standard, most notably enabling improved network throughput by refining SON and improving eNode B mobility. Additional MIMO flexibility is introduced with multi-layer beamforming. Vocoder rate adaption is also introduced, enabling an LTE network to make modifications to the vocoder rate based on load or required quality. Release 10 defines LTE-Advanced and is the first standard release that meets the ITU definition of 46. Increased data rates up to 1 Gbps in the Downlink and 500 Mbps in the Uplink are enabled through the use of scalable and flexible bandwidth allocations up to 100 MHz. (©2009 QUALCOMM incorporated (MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 115 LTE Technical overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 RevH LTE Summary eae cel Lael oe} eM ea ume Cr emmts: ese Ci cula ae improved end-user throughputs. Vaio Rit em- OG area) crm OC dls paretelaa Ciera urea asc elie ius mecaecniteasiis meu ki fests ee ORC UCU aa Peele nace (©7009 QUALCOWM eorporated [MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION Lre Technical Claro (America Movil) Use Only ‘Seetion 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 80-W2516-1 Rev H Orthogonal Frequency Section 2 Division Multiplexing (OFDM) sem oidielesacademy com Quacown (©2009 QUALCOWM incrporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORNATION, a en Claro (America Movil) Use Only ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 80-W2516-1 Rev H wwa Objectives > Describe OFDM and its characteristics. » Discuss the advantages and challenges of OFDM. > Compare SC-FDM and OFDM. > Explain how OFDM is used in LTE. (© 7009 QUALCOWM incerprated [MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED FORMATION ae ATE Technical Overview Glare: emnadien MOM ste Ont, 20.W2516-1 Rev H ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) = wwa LTE Air Interface uineenn Sen OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing); A form of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) that uses a large number of narrowband, closely-spaced subcarriers to carry data, LTE employs two variants of OFDM: + Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) on the Downlink + Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) on the Uplink —_ LTE Air Interface ‘The Downlink transmission scheme for LTE is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). The Uplink uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA), also referred to as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (DFTS-OFDM). Both of these schemes are based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is a form of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) that uses a large number of narrowband, closely- spaced subcarriers to carry data. Akey feature of OFDM is that the frequency spacing between the subcarriers is chosen in stich a manner that orthogonality exists between subcarriers despite their close spacing. In effect, this eliminates mutual interference between signals carried on different subcarriers (inter-carrier interference). This enables the effective elimination of the guard band between subcarriers that ‘would be necessary in a conventional FDM system. The obvious benefit of this approach is the relatively high achievable spectral efficiency. This approach also eliminates the need for receiver filters for each subcarrier (which is necessary in a conventional FDM system). Further benefits of OFDM include its robustness to multipath fading and the ease by which inter-symbol interference can be eliminated. (©2009 QUALCOWM Incorporated "WAY CONTAIN US, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 2 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical overview 80-W2516-1 Rey H ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Cellular Multiple Access Methods TDMA, PDC ‘GSM, GPRS/EDGE CDMA OFDMA Codes ‘CDMA, WCDMA LTE Cellular Multiple Access Methods Any multiple access method allows many users or terminals to utilize a predefined physical resource. Ina wireless network, an operator will possess a fixed bandwidth allocation that needs to be used in the most efficient manner possible to support the largest number of users. This enables the operator to provide the highest capacity in the most cost effective manner possible. Many first generation (1G) cellular systems (e.g, AMPS) use Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), This isa multiple access technique in which users are assigned specific frequency bands. Once assigned, the user has the sole right of using the frequency band for the entire duration of a call. Typically many users are supported, due to the relatively narrow spectrum allocation per user. The Uplink or Downlink receiver must use filtering to mitigate interference from other users. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). in a similar manner to FDMA, generally assigns a relatively narrow spectrum allocation to each user, but in TDMA the bandwidth is shared between a set of users. Each user is allowed to transmit in predetermined time slots. Channelization of users in the same band is achieved through separation in both frequency and time. Like FDMA, filtering is required for both the Uplink and Downlink receiver to separate adjacent carriers, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a method that enables multiple users to accupy the same time and frequency allocations and are channelized by assigning unique orthogonal codes. The signals are separated at the receiver by using a correlator thataccepts only signal energy from the assigned code channel. All other signals in that frequency band contribute only to the noise. Both CDMA2000 and WCDMA use the same fundamental concepts of CDMA modulation. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is similar to TDMA except the tone spacing is related to the symbol rate, which eliminates inter-symbol interference and enables tighter spacing of the frequencytones, (©2009 QUALCOMN Incorpoated [MAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 24 LTE Technical Overview. Glaro [Arwariea Mow) Use: Only 80.W2516+1 Rev H Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) =~ wwa_ OFDM Characteristics in OFDM: Conventional FDMA » Overlapping carriers increase spectral efficiency compared to conventional FDM + Orthogonality between carriers mitigates interference + Carrier spacing is the inverse cae Freqoenoy of the modulation rate i + Simple rectangular pulse ‘during modulation period =“ + Parallel transmission of payload across multiple subcarriers Freaosrey OFDM Characteristics Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) uses a large number of closely spaced narrowband carriers, In a conventional FDM system, the frequency spacing between carriers is chosen with a sufficient guard band to ensure that interference is minimized and can be cost effectively filtered. In OFDM, however, the carriers are packed much closer together. This increases spectral efficiency by utilizing carrier spacing that is the inverse of the symbol or modulation rate. ‘Additionally, simple rectangular pulses are utilized during each modulation symbol. High data rates are achieved in OFDM by allocating a single data stream in a parallel manner across multiple subcarriers. (©7009 QUALCOMM Incorporated TMAY CONTAIK U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORNATION 2 Claro (America Movil) Use Only LTE Technical Overview 80-W2516-1 Rev H Section 2; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) a wwa OFDM Modulation + Each OFDM subcarrier symbol is a rectangular pulse. + Arectangular pulse in the time domain corresponds to a sinc-shaped spectrum in the frequency domain. f ' ia — Atos ah Time Domain Frequency Domain OFDM Modulation A rectangular pulse of period 7, in the time domain corresponds to a sinc-shaped spectrum in the frequency domain with zero crossings every for 1/T,, A fundamental principle of OFDM is that each OFDM subcarrier symbol is a rectangular pulse, and that the subcarsier spacing equals the inverse of the symbol period. Hence: Subcarrier Spacing= 1/7, This ensures that for a specific subcarrier in the frequency domain, the zero crossings from adjacent subcarriers coincide with its center frequency. (©2009 QUALCON incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 26 ec a Claro (america Movi) Use Oni so.asi tov Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) wuwa OFDM Orthogonality Orthogonality allows simultaneous transmission on many subcarriers in a tight frequency space without interference from each other. The spectrums of the subcarriers are not separated, but overlap. Incer-carrier 1 interference OFDM Orthogonality In OFDM, adjacent subcarriers are separated in frequency by Af corresponding to 1/7, where 7, is the modulation symbol period. Ensuring that each subcarrier has an identical period ensures that there is zero inter-carrier interference at the center frequency of each subcarrier, as shown in the figure above. Applying this criteria to two subcarriers in the time domain x,(t) and x,(t) with non- equal center frequencies corresponds to the following condition being met such that: cosy, fo x) dt=0 nt, during the time period n7, to (n+1)T, where nis an integer. A key benefit of OFDM is the ability to space adjacent subcarriers close together to achieve an increased spectral efficiency. Another key feature of OFDM is its robustness to multipath fading. OFDM functions by sending high rate data stream over many low rate subcarriers. This is different from single carrier schemes such as CDMA where the transmitted symbol rate increases proportionately with required user data rate, As required data rates increase, the symbol interval becomes much shorter than the delay spread of the propagation environment and inter-symbol interference (ISI) becomes a significant performance issue. {©7009 QUALCOMM Incorporated "WAY CONTAIN US. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 27 LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFOM) 80-W2516-1 Rev H Creating an OFDM Signal in Practice + OFDM represents a single data stream as multiple parallel narrowband signals + An OFDM signal can be efficiently generated by utilizing an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) technique " N,. discrete frequencies sampled by size-N (IFFT) cca Creating an OFDM Signal in Practice ‘The block diagram in this slide is a simplified illustration of how an OFDM signal is generated in practice. User data initially passes through a Forward Error Correction (FEC) mechanism and is coded (turbo coding is utilized in LTTE). After coding, the data stream is modulated such that a certain number of bits are represented by each modulation symbol. For example, if 16-QAM modulation is employed, 4 bits are represented by each modulation symbol; whereas 6 bits are represented by each modulation symbol if 64-QAM is employed. LTE supports QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM on both the Downlink and Uplink, Serial-to-Parallel conversion follows modulation such that successive modulation symbols are assigned to Ns- OFDM subcarriers. N,- is the number of defined narrowband OFDM subcarriers where the frequency separation between each subcarrier Afis equal to the inverse of the symbol period T,, Theseare input to a size-N (N 2 Ng,) Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT), whose output is a complex time domain signal that is transmitted over the air. Ensuring that Af=1/T, forces each IFFT input symbol to be an integer number of cycles following: x(t) = e/a where k=1 to N, (©2009 QUALCOWM Incorporated [NAY CONTAIN U.S. ANO INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 28 Ler. Claro (America Movil) Use Only eaeeaeern: ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) = wwa Effects of Multipath Signals follow several propagation paths: + Line of Sight (LOS) « Non Line of Sight (NLOS) oraine ud ‘a + Multiple copies of the signal arrive at the receiver with different intensities, phase offsets, and delays. + Multiple versions of the same signal may constructively and destructively interfere with each other. Fs + Difficult to extract the original information when delay spread is greater than symbol time - Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). + ISI limits performance: Increases the bit error rate (BER) and reduces the achievable data rate. Multipath Propagation Multipath is problematic for cellular systems. It is caused by the transmitted signal being reflected and refracted by natural and man-made objects. This causes multiple signals to arrive at the receiver at different times. These multiple copies of the transmitted signal can combine constructively or destructively. RMS delay spread is a term that characterizes a propagation environment. For a cellular outdoor environment, typical values are in microseconds. The Coherence Bandwidth (B,) is inversely proportional to the RMS delay spread and is the bandwidth over which a channel's frequency response is correlated or flat. FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA systems often use an equalizer to minimize the effects of multipath. CDMA can also use Rake combining to capitalize on the path diversity created by different multipath receptions. The Rake receiver can combine several multipaths coherently into one strong signal. One of the receivers (Fingers) constantly searches for multipaths and sends the information to the other three fingers. Each finger demodulates the signal corresponding to a strong multipath. The results are combined to produce a single, stronger signal. As required data rates increase and the available bandwidth to achieve these data rates is increased, receiver equalization complexity increases dramatically until it becomes a limiting factor in performance, particularly considering the likely cost and available processing power of a typical handset. Akey aspect of OFDM is its resistance to frequency selective fading and the manner in which inter- symbol interference (ISI) caused by multipath can be eliminated. "©2007 QUALCONM Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 29 eieicdiesine Claro (America Movil) Use Only ‘Section 2: Orthogona: Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 80.W2516-1 Rev Multipath and OFDM In OFDM, multipath causes loss of orthogonality + De.ayed paths cause overlap between symbols sa itty sor A overs Ronectes Pats an Cyclic Prefix (CP) insertion helps maintain orthogonality \ Insert the CP by copying and pasting the tail of the ERI ) essen am Multipath and OFDM In the absence of multipath, a received OFDM signal is free from interference from other subcarriers and from inter-symbol interference. In a multipath radio environment, however, orthogonality between subcarriers will be partially lost due to the symbols received from reflected or delayed paths overlapping into the following consecutive symbol. This is addressed by the use of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) whereby the tail of each symbol is copied and pasted onto the front of the OFDM symbol. (©2009 QUALCOMA Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND MVTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 240 LTE Technical Overview Glare (Arwcrica Mowe) UserOrty 80.W2516+4 Rev H ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) = wwa Cyclic Prefix (CP) Transmission < Tile = h Direct Pah) | a | ike a =I P= Reflected Path a a =k nr Cyclic Prefix + Nitigates Inter-Symbol Interference (IS!) + Reduces efficiency ~ Useable time per symbal is T,/(T,+Teo) + Selection of Cyclic Prefix governed by delay spread Cyclic Prefix Transmission Insertion of the Cyclic Prefix increases the total symbol time from 7, to 7, + Tee where Tops the length of the Cyclic Prefix. At the receiver, the integration is carried out over the original symbol time T,, Correct selection of the CP ensures that any multipath components froma previous symbol fall within the effective guard time at the start of each symbol and can be discarded. This avoids inter-symbol interference and preserves orthogonality. ‘When choosing the length of the CP, the channel dispersion characteristics should be considered as well as the resultant power efficiency. For example, a long CP has the potential to cover a larger range of channel delays at the expense of efficiency. A shorter CP is more efficientat the expense of increasing the probability of signal distortion due to strong multipath components. In summary, an OFDM system utilizes multiple narrowband carriers with a frequency separal that equals the inverse of the symbol period. In terms of how to set the subcarrier spacing and symbol period, two aspects need to be considered: + First, the symbol period should be chosen such that the channel does not vary significantly over cach period, in order to preserve orthogonality and limit inter-subcarrier interference, + Second, the carrier frequency should be as small as possible, maximizing the symbol period to reduce the overhead associated with the Cyclic Prefix. “© 2009 QUALCOWN Incorporated WAY CONTAIN US, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION zt HeiedikalGiecier Claro (America Movil) Use Only ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 80.W2516-1 RevH Key OFDM Advantages + Increased Spectral Efficiency ~ Carrier orthogonality allows tight packing * Robustness to Multipath Fading tite = ~ Cyelic Prefix and choice of T, (the symbol length) + Scalable Bandwidth Allocation ~ Narrow carrier bandwidth increases flexibility Key OFDM Advantages With OFDM, relatively high spectral efficiency can be achieved due to the ability to closely pack the subcarriers, Carriers can be overlapped due to the orthogonality achieved by the selection of frequency separation and symbol duration. Additionally, OFDM offers robustness to fading by operating with narrowband channels that exhibit flat fading. The use of the Cyclic Prefix effectively eliminates the impact of Inter-Symbol Interference due to delay spread. An additional advantage of OFDM based systems is their flexibility, Utilizing multiple narrowband subcarriers enables the total bandwidth utilized to be easily scaled based on demand and spectrum availability. '© 2009 QUAICOWM Incorparated ‘WAY CONTAIN U.S. AND MVTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 22 peau Claro (America Movil) Use Only eesnaaen ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) = wwa Key OFDM Challenges + High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) — Instantaneous power can vary dramatically within an OFDM symbol + Lower PAetfficlency or + Increased costs - SC-FDMA can be used to reduce PAPR + Sensitive to Frequency and Timing Errors ~ Transmitter and Receiver need to remain synchronized ~ Reference symbols can be employed to help receiver with channel estimation + Guard Band Requirement = Slow roll off due to rectangular pulse ~ Mitigate by limiting percentage of bandwidth used for OFDM carriers = Can also use time domain windowing OFDM Challenges The most significant disadvantage of an OFDM based system is the relatively large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) compared to typical single carrier systems. Most importantly, this impacts the achievable efficiency of the RF transmitter. ‘The modulation of each subcarrier in an OFDM system changes independently, resulting in the requirement of a power amplifier with a large range of linearity. Achieving the required range can be expensive and result in low efficiency. For the Downlink (ie, at the eNode B), amplifier size, cost, and power efficiency are deemed less critical. However, for the Uplink (ie., UE) transmitter, itis a completely different story. Here, device cost and efficiency are of paramount importance. The ability to produce an affordable handset with acceptable performance and battery life severely limits the applicability of the basic form of OFDM described so far. ‘©2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated "ua CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 213 LTE Technical Overview Halo (ArrGHiOG ena (sO, 80-W2516-1 Rov H “Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) a PAPR and the Uplink High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is a significant problem for the Uplink + Large variations of power on a per carrier basis with OFDM Required characteristics of a UE transmitter are: + Low Complexity + Limited Transmit Power + Low Cost These characteristics can be achieved by using Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) + Also known as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM (DFTS-OFDM) ~ Uses DFT precoding to achieve a signal with smaller power variations PAPR and the Uplink OFDM in its fundamental form is inherently unsuitable as an Uplink transmission scheme due to the larger PAPR compared to other comparable access schemes. Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) offers a solution that preserves much of the same OFDM architecture and offers similar resistance to multipath fading. Using SC-FDMA produces signals with characteristics more closely associated with a single carrier system. A more appropriate name for SC-FDMA is Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM (DFTS- OFDM), which more accurately reflects the use of DFT precoding to achieve the requirement of signal with smaller variations of peak to average power. (©2009 QUALCOMN incorporated [MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED NFORNATION 24 urinates Clare (America Movil) Use Only ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 80-W2516-1 Rev H = wwa Creating an SC-FDMA Signal « SC-FDMA uses DFT precoding of user data = Individual bits mapped across multiple frequencies « DFT (FFT in practice) size (M) defines number of subcarriers allocated to user data + Time domain signal more resembles a single carrier — PAPR reduced Tie Gomain Sal oe ye Data, Modulation and _, Precading: FFT = Subcarier cower ‘S Coding (Size=M) = Mapping § (Size=N) 4 & Creating an SC-FDMA Signal The initial step of SC-FDMA signal generation is similar to conventional OFDM whereby redundancy is added to the data stream by means by means of Forward Error Correction coding, The coded information bits are then modulated. In the next step, rather than allocate successive modulation symbols to successive subcarriers,as in conventional OFDM, each symbols is input to a Discrete Fourier Transform (FFT in practice), This maps bits from each modulation symbol across a number of frequency components. The output from the FFT is then used as input to the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). Assuminga size M FFT, subcarriers would be mapped to M of N (M OFDMA, ‘© OFDMA assigns subcarriers to multiple users at the same time © Resource Blocks (RB) define contiguous groups of subcarriers OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is a form of OFDM. The description of ‘OFDM up to this point has defined that all subcarriersare assigned to a single user during each subframe, where a subframe is some number of OFDM symbols. In OFDMA, however, multiple users ‘can be assigned subcarriers during the same subframe. For example, consider a system consisting of 45 subcarriers. In OFDM all 45 subcarriers would be assigned to a single user during each subframe. In OFDMA, based on both user demand and channel conditions, different users can be given different groups of subcarriers during each subframe. For example, 3 users may be assigned 15 subcarriers each during one subframe. During the next subframe, user 1 may be assigned 30 subearriers, user 2 may be assigned 15, and user 3 may be assigned 0. In practice, Resource Blocks (RB) are defined consisting of a contiguous number of subcarriers and a number of OFDM symbols. 1© 2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated [MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 27 LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev H Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Summary of OFDM in LTE + OFDMA Downlink / SC-FDMA Uplink * Channel Bandwidths: 1.4, 3, 5, ST leslie mse ad 5 kHz also supported for B RG [ole ad -lty aeuale (os Dee Rs. Modulation: QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM 15, and 20 MHz rm Summary of OFDM in LTE A high level summary of OFDM in LITE concepts is shown above. LTE uses a variable channel bandwidth of 14,3, 5, 10, 15, or 20 MHz with an OFDMA Downlinkand an SC-FDMA Uplink. The subcarrier spacing is 15 kHz, although a 7.5 kHz spacing is also defined for use with the Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) mode of LTE. A normal and an extended Cyclic Prefix are defined. The longer cyclic prefix, although costing more in terms of overhead, can enable successful deployment of LTE within a relatively large radius cell, or where the delay spread is significantly werse than typically would be encountered, For modulation, QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM are supported on both the Downlink and Uplink for LTE, (© 2009 QUALCONM incorpaate [MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 28 Dretiane Claro (America Movil) Use Only ‘ection 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 80-W2516-1 Rev H = wwe Key Takeaways > OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a form of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) that uses a large number of narrowband, closely-spaced subcarriers to carry data. > Key advantages of OFDM include high spectral efficiency, robustness to multi-path fading, and scalability. > SC-FDMA, an OFDM variant, overcomes the key OFDM challenge of high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). LTE employs OFDMA on the Downtink and SC-FDMA on the Uplink, Notes (©2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 219 LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Wwuwda Exercise Scenario: An FDD OFDM system operating in 20 MHz bandwidth (each link) has a carrier spacing of 15 KHz. It uses a cyclic prefix of length 4.69 ps. 10% of the available bandwidth is allocated as guard band. Complete the table below for this system. Repeat the calculations for FDD system bandwidths of 5 MHz and 10 MHz (each link). Sin 5 MHz ‘Available bandwidth Number of carriers ‘Useable symbol duration Total symbol duration ‘Naximum physical layer data rate for 64-QAM modulation Notes 80.2516-1 Rev H (©2009 QUALCONM Incorporated ‘MAY CONTAIN U.S, AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION LTE Technical Overview Claro (America Movil) Use Only 80-W2516-1 Rev H ‘Section 2: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Exercise Answers Scenario: An FDD OFDM system operating in 20 MHz bandwidth (each link) has a carrier spacing of 15 KHz. It uses a cyclic prefix of length 4.69 ps. 10% of the available bandwidth is allocated as guard band. Complete the table below for this system, Repeat the calculations for FOD system bandwidths of § MHz and 10 MHz (each Link). owe pr Available bandwidth 4.5 wiz Number of carriers 300 Useable symbol duration 66.67 ps Total symbol duration 71.36 ps ‘Maximum physical ayer 10 MHz MHz 600 66.67 U5 71.36 ps data rate for 64-QAM 25.22 Mbps 50.45 Mbps modulation Exercise Information Available bandwidth = 0.9 x Bandwidth Number of subcarriers = Available bandwidth / 15 kHz Useable Symbol Duration = 1/15 kHz ‘Total Symbol Duration = (1/15 kHz) + 4.69 1s Maximum Data Rate = x (Number of Carriers) / (Total Symbol Duration) (©7009 QUALCOMNM Incorporated [NAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONA. EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION 22