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ELLIPSE.

Q-2) Find the lengths of the axis,

GROUP-(A) CLASS WORK EXAMPLES

eccentricity, co-ordinates of the

Q-1) The equation of ellipse is

foci, equation of directrices, length

9x 2 + 4y 2 = 36. Find the (i) lengths of

of latus-rectum, co-ordinates of the

axes (ii) eccentricity

ends of latus rectum for each of

(iii) co-ordinate of foci (iv) equation of

ellipse

directrices v) length of L.R.

2 2

x2 y2

x y (i) + =1

Ans. 9x 2 + 4y 2 = 36. ⇒ + =1 25 9

4 9

x2 y2

x2 y2 Ans. (i) + =1

Comparing with + =1 25 9

a2 b2

2 2

Hence a 2 = 25,b2 = 9 and a > b

⇒ a =4&b =9 ⇒ a =2&b=3

l (major axis)= 2a =10, l (minor axis) =

⇒ a<b

2b = 6

(i)Lengths of axes :

Eccentricity =

Length of major axis = 2b = 2 × 3 = 6 units

a 2 − b2 25 − 9 16 4

Length of minor axis = 2a = 2 × 2 = 4 e= 2

= = =

a 25 25 5

units

(ii) Eccentricity: 4

ae = 5 = 4, foci ≡ ( ±ae,0 ) ≡ ( ±4,0 )

5

( )

a 2 = b2 1 − e 2 ⇒ 4 = 9 1 − e 2 ⇒ ( ) a

Equations of directrices are x = ±

4 e

= 1 − e2

9 25

i.e. x = ±

9−4 5 5 4

⇒ e2 = ⇒ e2 = ⇒ e =

9 9 3 2b2 2 ( 9 ) 18

latus-rectum = = =

iii) Co-ordinates of Foci : a 5 5

foci ≡ ( 0, ± be ) ⇒ Foci ≡ 0, ± 3 × ⇒

3 b2 9

ae, 5

= 4, and

a

(

Foci ≡ 0, ± 5 )

b2 9

iv) Equation of directrices: ae, − = 4, −

a 5

Equation of directrices are y = ± b/e ⇒

b2 9

3 9 − ae, = −4, and

y=± ⇒ y=± a 5

5 /3 5

v) Length of L.R. − b2 −9

−ae, = −4,

a 5

2a 2 2 × 4 8

= = = units

b 3 3

Ellipse

87 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Q-3) Find equation of ellipse in standard Q-5) Find the equation of the ellipse

form of its vertices are ( ±4,0 ) and (referred to its principal axes)

3

x2 y2 eccentricity=

Ans. Let equation be + = 1 …( a > b ) 5

a2 b2

Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be

Vertices ≡ ( ±a,0 ) ≡ ( ±4,0 ) ⇒ a = 4

x2 y2

length of minor axis = 2b = 6. ⇒ b = 3 + =1

a2 b2

x2 y2 Since minor axis = 8 ⇒ 2b = 8 ⇒ b = 4

Required equation is 2

+ 2

=1

4 3

3

2 2 ⇒ eccentricity = e =

x y 5

⇒ + =1

16 9

(

b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ⇒ )

Q-4) Find the equation of the following 9 16a 2

16 = a 2 1 − = ⇒ a 2 = 25.

25 25

ellipse whose foci are ( ±5,0 ) and

x2 y2

5 The equation of the ellipse + =1

eccentricity . 25 16

8

x2 y2

Ans. Let equation of ellipse be + =1 Q-6) Find the equation of the ellipse

a2 b2

(referred to its principal axes) such

foci ≡ ( ±ae,0 ) ≡ (± 5,0 )

that distance between foci = 2 and

5 5

ae = 5 and e = ⇒ a × = 5 ⇒a = 8 vertices are ( ±2,0 )

8 8

Ans. Let equation of the ellipse

25

( )

⇒ b2 = a 2 1 − e2 ⇒ b2 = 82 1 −

⇒

64 x2 y2

+ =1 ……..…(i)

a2 b2

64 − 25

b2 = 64 2

⇒ b = 39

64 Given 2ae = 2 ⇒ ∴ae = 1

Equation of ellipse 2 +

x2

y2

=1

( )

b 2 = a 2 1 − e 2 = a 2 − a 2e 2 = 4 − 1 = 3

8 39

Also a = 2 ⇒ a 2 = 4,b 2 = 3

2 2

x y

⇒. + =1 put these values in (i), the equation of

64 39

x2 y2

the ellipse is + =1

4 3

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 88

Q-7) Find the equation of the ellipse Q-9) Find the equation of the ellipse

(referred to its principal axes) passing through ( 15, −1 ) and

Distance between directrices = 32

distance between whose foci is ‘8’.

1

and eccentricity = Ans. ∵ Distance between foci = 8

2

∴ 2 ae = 8

Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be

ae = 4

x2 y2

+ =1 …(i)

a2 b2 ∵ Ellipse passes through ( )

15, −1 ,

a a 1

Given 2 = 32 ⇒ = 16 But e = x2 y2

e e 2 ∴ + =1

a2 b2

⇒ a=8

15 1

+ =1

Here a 2

b2

1 3

(

)

b2 = a 2 1 − e2 = 64 1 − = 64 = 48

4 4

15

+

1

=1

a 2

a 2

(1 − e ) 2

⇒ a 2 = 64 and b2 = 48

15 1

from (i) the equation of the ellipse is + =1

a 2

16

a 2 1 − 2

x2 y2 a

+ =1

64 48

15 1

+ =1

a 2

(a 2

− 16 )

Q-8) Find the equation of the ellipse

(referred to its principal axes) (

15 a 2 − 16 + a 2 = a 2 a 2 − 16 ) ( )

Distance between foci = minor axis,

15a 2 − 240 + a 2 = a 4 − 16a 2

latus rectum = 10.

a 4 − 32a 2 + 240 = 0

Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be

a 4 − 20a 2 − 12a 2 + 240 = 0

x2 y2

+ =1 …(i)

a2 b2 (a 2

)(

− 20 a 2 − 12 = 0 )

2ae = 2b ⇒ ae = b …(ii)

a 2 = 20 or a 2 = 12

2

2b

and = 10 …(iii)

a ∴ b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ( )

From (ii) and (iii), we get a 2 = 100 and b 2 = a 2 − a 2e 2

b2 = 50 When a 2 = 20 ,

From (i), the equation of the ellipse is

b 2 = 20 − 16

x2 y2 =4

+ =1

100 50

∴ equation of ellipse is,

x 2 y2

+ =1

20 4

If a 2 = 12 ,

Ellipse

89 Mahesh Tutorials Science

b 2 = 12 − 16

b 2 = −4 b2 = 27.

Put these values in (i) the equation of

But b 2 ≠ −4

Equation of ellipse is, x2 y2

the ellipse is + =1

36 27

x 2 y2

+ =1

20 4

Q-13) Find eccentricity of the ellipse, if

its latus rectum = (1/2) major axis.

Q-11) Find the equation of the ellipse

Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be

(referred to its principal axes) such

x2 y2

that latus rectum = 39/4 and + = 1 major axis = 2a,

a2 b2

eccentricity = 5/8.

2b2

Ans. Let equation of the ellipse is eccentricity = e; Latus rectum =

a

x2 y2

+ =1 …(i) 2b2 1 a2

a2 b2 ⇒ = ( 2a ) ⇒ b2 = ⇒

a 2 2

39

Since latus rectum = …..(ii) and a2

4 (

b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ⇒ ) 2

(

= a 2 1 − e2 )

5

e= ...(iii)

a2 1

8 ⇒

2

( 2

)

= a 2 1 − e2 ⇒ = 1 − e 2 ⇒ ( )

2

2b 39

= and 1 1

a 4 e2 = ⇒ e=

2 2

25 2 39

b2 = a 2 1 − =a

64 64 1 1

e2 = ⇒ e=

3 3

We get a 2 = 64 and b2 = 39 .

x2 y2

Equation of the ellipse is + =1 Q-14) Find eccentricity of the ellipse

64 39

(referred to its principal axes) such

its Distance between

Q-12) Find the equation of the ellipse

directrices=3(distance between its

(referred to its principal axes) such

foci)

Focus at (3,0) and whose directrix is

Ans. 2a 1

x = 12. Here = 3 ( 2ae ) ⇒ 3e ⇒ 1 = 3e 2

e 3

Ans. Let equation of the ellipse is 1 1

e2 = ⇒ e =

x2 y2 3 3

+ =1 …(i)

a2 b2

a

Given ae = 3 …(ii) and = 12 …(iii)

e

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 90

Q-15) Find focal distance of the point Q-16) The length of latus rectum of the

(

A 5,4 3 ) on ellipse parabola y 2 = 4x is equal to length

16x 2 + 25y 2 = 1600

Ans. The equation of ellipse is one vertex of this ellipse, find

equation of ellipse. Also find its

2 2x2 y2

16x + 25y = 1600 ⇒ + =1 eccentricity.

100 64

Ans. The equation of parabola is y 2 = 4x

⇒ a 2 = 100 & b2 = 64 ⇒ a = 10 &

b = 8 ⇒ ∴a > b ⇒ 4A = 4 ⇒ A = 1

length of latus rectum = 4A = 4 x 1 = 4

(

b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ⇒ ) Length of minor axis = 4 ⇒ 2b = 4 ⇒ b

64 2 2

(

64 = 100 1 − e2 ; ) 100 = (1 − e ) =2

Also (3,0) is one vertex of ellipse a = 3

64

= 1 −

100 x2 y2

Equation of ellipse is + =1 ⇒

32 22

36 2 9 3

e2 = ;e = ;e =

100 25 5 x2 y2

+ −1 (∵ a > b )

a 9 4

Equation of directrices are x = and

e

( ) (

b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ; 4 = 9 1 − e 2 )

−a

x= 4 4 5 5

e ∴ = 1 − e2 ;e2 = 1 − ;e2 = ; e =

9 9 9 3

10 10 50

⇒ x= and x = − ⇒ x= 5

3/5 3/5 3 eccentricity =

3

50

and x = −

3

Q-17) P is any point on the ellipse

50 50

⇒x − = 0 and x + =0 x2 y2

3 3 + = 1, S and S' are its foci.

25 9

50

5− Find the perimeter of ∆SPS ' .

3 3 = 7 units

⇒ SP = ePM = Y

5 12 Ans. d

d'

P (x,y)

M' M

⇒ S'P = ePM'

A' O A X

50 S

(h,0)

5+

3

= . 3 = 3 × 15 + 50 = 13 units x= -a/e x= a/e

5 12 5 3

x2 y2

Given equation of ellipse is + =1

25 9

Ellipse

91 Mahesh Tutorials Science

a2 − b 2 25 − 9 4

e= = = ⇒

a 2 25 5 ( ( ) (

Q ≡ r2 cos 90 + α , r2 sin 90 + α ))

4 ≡ ( −r2 sin α + r2 cos α )

ae = 5. =4

5

x 2 y2

⇒ S ≡ (4,0) and S’ ≡ (-4,0) Now P lies on the ellipse + = 1, ⇒

a 2 b2

If P is any point on ellipse SP = ePM

2 cos α sin2 α

2

a

2

b 2

∴ SP + S'P = e ( PM + PM') = e ( ZZ ')

cos 2 α sin2 α 1

⇒ 2

+ 2

= 2⇒

2a a b r1

=e = 2a = 2 × 5 = 10

e

1 cos 2 α sin2 α

4 = + …(i)

SS' = 2ae = 2 × 5 × = 8 OP 2 a2 b2

5

Similarly Q lies on the ellipse

Perimeter of ∆SPS' = SP + S'P + SS' =

x 2 y2 2 sin α cos 2 α

2

10 + 8 = 18 units. + = 1, ⇒ r2

+ =1

a 2 b2 a

2

b 2

⇒ 2

+ 2

= 2⇒

a b r2

x2 y2

ellipse + = 1, such that seg PQ

a2 b2 1 sin2 α cos 2 α

= + …(ii)

subtends a right angle at the centre OQ 2 a2 b2

+ = + . + = +

ΟΡ2 ΟQ2 a2 b2 ΟΡ 2 ΟQ 2 a2 b2

Y 1 1 1 1

Ans. ∴ 2

+ 2

= 2+ 2

Y Q ΟΡ ΟQ a b

P

(90+ )

X

O

x 2 y2

Q-19) P (θ) is a point on ellipse + = 1,

a 2 b2

whose foci are S & S ' prove that

Seg PQ subtends a right angle at the (i) SP .S ' P = a 2 sin2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ

centre O, ∴ the line OP ⊥ OQ. If line (ii) SP + S ' P = 2a

OP makes an angle α with the x-axis, Ans. Y

d' d

P

then OQ makes an angle 90 + α with M' M

A' A X

the x-axis. O

Z' S' S Z

(a/e,0)

( OP ) = r1 & ( OQ) = r2 . Then (-a/e,0)

The equation of the ellipse is

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 92

x 2 y2 x 2 y2

+ =1 Q-20) S is focus of the ellipse + =1

a 2 b2 4 3

Its foci are S (ae,0 ) and S ′(− ae ,0 ) . corresponding to directrix x = 4 .

The equation of its directrices are Find the equation of the circle

x = ±a / e which passes through S, centre of

Let PM and PM’ be the length of the ⊥ the ellipse and the point (3,3) .

a a 2 − b2 4 − 3 1 1

a cos θ − e2 = = = ⇒ ∴e = ⇒

Then, PM = e and a 2

4 4 2

1

1

ae = 2 = 1

a 2

a cos θ +

PM ' = e Focus S (ae,0 ) ≡ (1,0 )

1

Let required equation of the circle be

SP = ePM & S ' P = ePM ' where e < 1 focus S(1,0) and (3,3)

= a (1 − e cos θ) ⇒ 1 + 0 + 2g + 0 + 0 = 0 ⇒ 2g = −1 ⇒

S ′P = e a cos θ + a / e −1

g= …(iii)

= a e cos θ + 1 = a (1 + e cos θ) 2

−5

( )

= a 2 1 − e 2 cos 2 θ = a 2 − a 2e 2 cos 2 θ ⇒ f =

2

( )

= a 2 − a 2 − b 2 cos 2 θ Equation of required circle

2 2 2 2

(∴ a e = a − b ) −1 −5

is x 2 + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 0 = 0

= a 2 − a 2 cos 2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ 2 2

( )

= a 2 1 − cos 2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ ⇒ x 2 + y 2 − x − 5y = 0

= a 2 sin2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ.

ii)

SP + S ' P = a (1 − e cos θ) + a (1 + e cos θ)

= a − ae cos θ + a + ae cos θ

= 2a

Ellipse

93 Mahesh Tutorials Science

( x1 − 3)2 + y12 = 64 − 16

x 2 y2

ellipse + = 1 and the eccentric ( x1 + 3)2 + y12 + ( x1 + 3 )2 + y12

25 9

5 3 x12 − 6x1 + 9 + y12 = 64 − 16

angle of the point Q ,

2 2

( x1 + 3 )2 + y12 + 6x12 + 6x1 + 9 + y12

Ans. (i) Comparing a = 5, b = 3 ; Given that

−12x1 − 64 = −16 x12 + 6x1 + 9 + y12

θ = 60

5 Dividing by -4,

x = a cos θ = 5 cos 60 = &

2 3x1 + 16 = 4 x12 + 6x1 + 9 + y12

3 3

y = b sin θ = 3 sin 60 = Squaring both sides,

2

5 3 3

(

9x12 + 96x12 + 256 = 16 x12 + 6x12 + 9 + y12 )

Cartesian co-ordinates are ,

2 2 9x11 + 96x12 + 256 =

5 16x12 + 96x1 + 144 + 16y12

(ii) x = a cos θ = 5 cos θ = ⇒

2

7x12 + 16y12 = 112

1

cos θ = x12 y12

2 + =1

16 7

3 1

y = b sin θ = 3 sin θ = ⇒ sin θ = ∴ equation of locus of P is an ellipse,

2 2

x 2 y2

Hence θ = 45 + =1

16 7

Q-22) If A and B are two fixed points such GROUP-(B): CLASSWORK PROBLEMS

that l (AB)=6. Then show the locus Q-1) Find equation of the tangent to the

of the point P which moves so that ellipse x 2 + 4y 2 = 100 at ( 8,3 )

l(PA) + l(PB) = 8 is an ellipse

x2 y2

Ans. Let A ≡ ( 3,0 ) and B ≡ ( −3,0 ) Ans. Equation of the ellipse + =1

100 25

Let P ≡ ( x1, y1 ) Equation of the tangent to the given

ellipse at (8,3) is + 2 =1

a2 b

( x1 − 3)2 + (y1 − 0 )2 + 8x 3y

2 2 i.e. + =1

( x1 + 3 ) + ( y1 − 0 ) = 8 100 25

2x 3y

⇒ + =1

( x1,3)2 + y12 =8− ( x1 + 3)2 + y12 25 25

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 94

y×

x 7 4 =1

(4 cos θ, 3 sin θ). ∴ +

16 a

x 2 y2 7x y

Ans. Equation of the ellipse is + =1 + =1

16 9 16 4

Equation of the tangent to the given 7x + 4y = 16

ellipse at (4 cos θ, 3 sin θ).

⇒ + 2 =1 ⇒

a2 b

the co-ordinate axis A and B and

4 cos θ.x 3 sin θ

+ =1 touches the ellipse in the first

16 9

quadrant at the mid-point of AB.

⇒ 3cos θ x + 4sin θ y = 12

Show that its equation is

bx + ay = ab 2 .

Q-3) Find equation of tangent to ellipse

Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1

a2 b2

is end of Latus Rectum in 1st

Let equation of tangent at

Quadrant

x cos θ y sin θ

x 2 y2 P (θ) ∴ + = 1 …(i)

Ans. 9x 2 + 16y 2 = 144 ⇒ + =1 a b

16 9

a

Tangent meet x axis at A ≡ ,0

∴ a = 16 & b = 9 ⇒ a = 4 & b = 3

2 2

cos θ

b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ( )

Tangent meet y axis at B ≡ 0,

b

sin θ

9 = 16 − 16e 2

P (a cos θ,b sin θ ) is mid point of AB

16e 2 = 7

a b

7 +0 0+

2 cos θ sin θ

e = a cos θ = & b sin θ =

16 2 2

7 a b

e= a cos θ = & b sin θ =

4 2 cos θ 2 sin θ

b2 1 1

∴ L ≡ ae , ⇒ cos2 θ = & sin2 θ =

a

2 2

9 1 1

≡ 7, ⇒ cos θ = ± & sin θ = ±

4 2 2

xx1 yy1 1 1

+ =1 ∴cos θ = & sin θ =

2 2 2 2

a b

Hence equation of tangent becomes

Ellipse

95 Mahesh Tutorials Science

x 1 y 1

. + . =1

a 2 b 2 2 2

a b

∴ + = 1

x y bx + ay 2 x1 2y1

+ = 1⇒ = 1⇒

a 2 b 2 ab 2

a2 b2 a2 b2

∴ + = 4 ⇒ ∴ + =4

bx + ay = ab 2 4x1

2

4y1

2

x12 y12

This is equation of required tangent ∴ Equation of locus of M ≡ (x1 ,y1 ) is

a 2 b2

Q-5) Show that the equation of the locus + =4

x2 y2

of the mid point of the portion of a

x2 y2

tangent to the ellipse + =1 x2 y2

a2 b2 Q-6) A tangent to ellipse + =1

a2 b2

intercepted by the co-ordinate axis

meets the co-ordinate axes at L and

a 2 b2

is 2 + 2 = 4 . M respectively. If a tangent to

x y

x2 y2

x 2

y 2 ellipse + = 1 meets the

Ans. The equation of ellipse is + 2 =1 a2 b2

2

a b

co-ordinate axes at L and M

Let P (θ) be any point on ellipse.

respectively. If CL = p , CM = q where

∴Equation of tangent at P

C is centre of ellipse. Show that

x cos θ y sin θ

is + =1 a2 b2

a b + =1

p2 q2

This tangent meet x- axis suppose at A

and y- axis at B. x2 y2

Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1

a2 b2

a b

A ≡ , 0 and B ≡ 0, Equation of tangent at P ( x1 , y1 ) is

cos θ sin θ

Let M ≡ (x1 ,y1 ) be point on locus xx1 yy1

2

+ =1

a b2

∴ M is mid point of AB

It meet x axis in point L.⇒ put y = 0

By mid point formula

xx1 a2 a2

a b = 1⇒ x = ⇒ L≡ ,0

+0 0+ a2 x1 x

cos θ sin θ 1

x1 = and y1 =

2 2

Tangent also meet Y-axis ⇒ put x = 0

a b

x1 = and ∴ y1 = in the equation of tangent

2 cos θ 2 sin θ

yy1 b2 b2

=1 ⇒ y = ⇒ M ≡ 0,

cos θ =

a

and sin θ =

b

b2 y1 y

2 x1 2 y1 1

Centre ≡ ( 0,0 )

cos 2θ + sin 2 θ = 1

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 96

a2 b2

p = CL = ; q = CM =

x1 y1 a 2m 2 + b 2 − ae

∴ P12 + P22 = +

2

a2 b2 a2 b2 x12 y12 m + 1

∴ + = + = +

p2 q2 a2

2

b2

2

a2 b2 2

a 2m 2 + b 2 + ae

x1 y1

m 2

+ 1

a 2 b2

= + =1

p2 q 2

a 2m 2 + b 2 + 2ae a 2m 2 + b 2 + a 2e 2

+

x2 y2 m2 + 1

∵ (x1 ,y1 ) lies on ellipse 2 + 2 = 1

a b 2a 2m 2 + 2b 2 + 2a 2e 2

=

x1

2

y

2

m2 + 1

2

+ 12 = 1 Hence proved.

a b

=

(

2a 2m 2 + 2a 2 1 − e 2 + 2a 2e 2 )

m2 + 1

Q-7) Prove that the sum of the squares

2a 2m 2 + 2a 2 − 2a 2e 2 + 2a 2e 2

of the perpendiculars drawn on any =

m2 + 1

tangent to the ellipse

2 2 2 2 2 2 =

(

2a 2 m 2 + 1 ) = 2a 2

b + x + a y = a b , from the 2

m +1

point (o, ae ) and (o, −ae ) is P12 + P22 = constant

constant.

Ans. For ellipse b 2 + x 2 + a 2y 2 = a 2b 2 , Q-8) P and Q are two points on the

Equation of tangent is, x2 y2

ellipse + = 1 such that their

25 16

y = mx + a 2m 2 + b 2

π

eccentric angles differ by . Show

Let P1 be the ⊥r distance between 2

(0, ae) and tangent, that the locus of the point of

P1 =

from P and Q is also an ellipse

m2 +1

x2 y2

a 2m 2 + b 2 − ae given by + = 2.

= 25 16

m2 +1

x2 y2

Ans. Equation of ellipse is + = 1 …(i)

Let P2 be the ⊥r distance between 25 16

m ( 0 ) + (ae ) + a 2m 2 + b 2 π

P2 = Let P (θ) and Q + θ be points on

2

m2 + 1

ellipse such that their eccentric angle

2 2 2

a m + b + ae π

= differ by .

2

m +1 2

Ellipse

97 Mahesh Tutorials Science

x cos θ y sin θ

+ . =1 x2 y2

a b tangent to the ellipse + =1

9 4

π π Ans.

x cos + θ y sin + θ Here a 2 = 9, b2 = 4

and 2 + 2 . =1

a b Equation of the line x + 3 2y = 9

x cos θ y sin θ

⇒ + . = 1 …(ii) −x 9 1

5 4 ⇒ y= + ⇒ m=− and

3 2 3 2 3 2

− x sin θ y cos θ

and + . = 1 ……(iii) 9 3

5 4 c= =

3 2 2

π π

∵cos 2 + θ = − sin θ ;sin 2 + θ = cos θ Now y = mx + c is tangent to the

To find the locus of point of ellipse if c2 = a 2m2 + b2

intersection of tangents 2

3

2 9

(ii) and (iii) we have to eliminate θ, ⇒ c = = and

2 2

∴ Squaring and adding equations (ii) 2

2 2 21 1 4 9

and (iii) a m + b = 9 − +4 = + =

3 2 2 1 2

2

x cosθ y sin θ 2 −x sinθ y cos θ

+ . + + =2

5 4 5 4 Hence c2 = a 2m2 + b2

+ +

25 20 16

x 2 sin 2 θ 2xy. sin θ. cos θ y 2 cos 2 θ Q-12) Find k , if the line x + y + k = 0

+ + + =2

25 20 16

touches the ellipse x 2 + 4y 2 = 20.

x2 y2

25

[cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ +]16

[ ]

sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 2

Ans. The line x + y + k = 0

x2 y2

∴

25 16

+ (

= 2 … ∵sin2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 ) ⇒ put x = − y − k in x 2 + 4y 2 = 20.

2

This is equation of required locus. ⇒ ( − y − k ) + 4y 2 = 20.

⇒ y 2 + 2ky + k 2 + 4y 2 − 20 = 0

Q-9 and Q-10 is given in notes

⇒ 5y 2 + 2ky + k 2 − 20 = 0( )

Since the line touch the ellipse

This equation has two equal roots

∴ ∆=0

( 2k )2 − 4 × 5 ( k 2 − 20 ) = 0

4k 2 − 20k 2 + 400 = 0

−16k 2 = −400 ⇒ k 2 = 25 ⇒ k = ±5

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 98

Q-13) Find equation of tangent to ellipse Q-15) Find the equation of the tangents to

x2 −1 x2 y2

+ y 2 = 1 having slope is the ellipse + = 1 making

4 2 64 36

x2 y2 equal intercepts on the co-ordinate

Ans. Equation of ellipse is + =1

4 1 axes.

⇒ a 2 = 4,b2 = 1 ⇒ a = 2,b = 1

x2 y2

Ans. + = 1 ⇒ a 2 = 64,b2 = 36,

−1 64 36

slope of tangent m =

2 Tangents making equal intercepts

Equation of ellipse is in the form

( k,0 ) & ( 0,k ) on the co-ordinate axes.

2 2

x y

+ =1 k −0

a 2

b2 ⇒ Slope = = −1

0−k

then equation of tangents is

The equation of the tangent line is

y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2

y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2

2

−1 −1 2

y = − x ± 64 ( −1) + 36

∴y = x ± 4 +1

2 2

y = − x ± 100

−1

∴y = x ± 1+1

2 y = − x ± 10

−1 ⇒ Equations of tangents be

∴y = x± 2

2

x + y + 10 = 0 and x + y − 10 = 0

∴ 2y + x = ±2 2

Q-14) Find equations of tangent to the

touches the ellipse

x2 y2

ellipse + = 1, parallel to

144 25 b2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 2b2 at P ( a cos θ ,b sin θ )

x + y −3 = 0 −b

show that tan θ =

Ans. Slope of the line x + y − 3 = 0 …(i) am

is -1 x2 y2

Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1

a2 b2

Slope of the tangent line parallel to (i)

and P (a cos θ, b sin θ) is on ellipse.

is -1

∴ Equation of the tangent line is Equation of tangent to ellipse at P is

x cos θ y sin θ

y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2 + =1 …(i)

a b

m = −1,a 2 = 144,b2 = 25 − cos θ

−b

y = − x ± 144 + 25 ∴ slope of tangent = a = cot θ .

sin θ a

y = − x ± 169 ⇒ y = − x ± 13 b

But equation of tangent at P is

x + y + 13 = 0 and x + y − 13 = 0

Ellipse

99 Mahesh Tutorials Science

y = mx + a 2m2 + b2 …(ii)

∴ Area of

∴ slope of tangent = m

1 1

Equation (i) and (ii) represent same ∆ OAB= l (OA ) × l (OB ) = ×4×2 = 4

2 2

tangent

square units.

∴ slopes are equal

−b −am 1

∴m= cot θ ⇒ = ⇒ Q-18) The line x − y − 5 = 0 touches the

a b tan θ

ellipse whose foci are S ≡ (3,0 ) &

b

tan θ =

−am S ≡ (− 3,0 ) . Find the equation of the

ellipse

−1 Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse

Q-17) A tangent having slope to the

2

x2 y2

be + =1 …(i)

ellipse 3x 2 + 4y 2 = 12 interacts a2 b2

the x and y axes in the point A and The foci of the ellipse are ( ±ae,0 ) ⇒

B respectively. If O is the origin, ae = 3 …(ii)

find the area of the ∆OAB .

( )

b 2 = a 2 1 − e 2 = a 2 − a 2e 2 = a 2 − 9

Ans. The equation of the ellipse is

Now slope of the given tangent is

x2 y2

+ = 1 ⇒ a 2 = 4, b2 = 3 …..(i) m =1

4 3

∴

−1

Given slope of the tangent is m =

2

2

(

a2m2 + b2 = a2 (1) + a2 − 9 = 2a2 − 9 )

The equation of the tangents with But line x − y − 5 = 0 condition for

2 c 2 = a 2m 2 + b 2 ⇒ 2a 2 = 34 ⇒ a 2 = 17

1 1

Here y = − x ± 4 − + 3 ⇒

2 2 from b 2 = 17 − 9 = 8

1 1 x 2 y2

y=− x ± 1+ 3 ⇒ y = − x ± 4 Equation of the ellipse is + =1

2 2 17 8

1

y=− x ± 2 ⇒ 2y = −x ± 4 ⇒

2

x + 2y = ±4

Let the tangent x + 2y = ±4 meet the

x-axis in A and y-axis in B.

∴ x = ±4 ⇒ A = (± 4,0 ) ⇒

2y = ±4 ⇒ B = ( 0, ±2)

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 100

Q-19) Find the equation of tangent to the Q-20) Show that the locus of the foot of

ellipse + = 1 from (3,-2).

7 4 ellipse b 2 x 2 + a 2y 2 = a 2b 2 to any

x 2 y2

Ans. The equation of ellipse is

7

+

4

=1 tangent is x 2 + y 2 ( )2

= a 2 x 2 + b 2y 2 .

⇒ a 2 = 7, b 2 = 4 ⇒ a = 7 ,b = 2 x 2 y2

Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1

a 2 b2

Equation of ellipse is in the form

Equation of a tangent with slope m

x 2 y2

+ =1 is, y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2

a 2 b2

Let equation of tangents Let P (x1,y1 ) be the foot of the

P (x1,y1 ) lies on tangent⇒

−2 = 3m ± 7m2 + 4

y1 = mx1 ± a 2m 2 + b 2 …(i)

⇒ − 2 − 3m = ± 7m 2 + 4

slope of tangent = m

4 + 12m + 9m 2 = 7m 2 + 4

−1

2m 2 + 12m = 0 ⇒ slope of OP =

m

∴ m 2 + 6m = 0 −1

Equation of OP is y = x

∴ m (m + 6) = 0 m

−1

∴ m = 0 or m = −6 ∵ P (x1,y1 ) lies on OP ⇒ y1 = x1 ⇒

m

If m = 0 and line passing through

− x1

(3,-2) then equation of tangent is m= …(ii)

y1

y − (−2) = −6(x − 3)

Put in (i) ⇒

y +2=0

2

−x −x

If m = −6 and line passing through y1 = 1 x1 + a 2 1 + b2

y1 y1

(3,-2) then equation of tangent is

y − (−2) = −6(x − 3) − x12 a 2 x12 + b2 y12

⇒ y1 = +

y + 2 = −6x + 18

y1 y12

∴ Required equations are y + 2 = 0

⇒ x12 + y12 = a 2 x12 + b2 y12

and 6x + y = 16

2

(

⇒ x12 + y12 ) = a 2 x12 + b2 y12

2

(x 2

+ y2 ) = a 2 x 2 + b2 y 2 .

Ellipse

101 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Q-21) At the point P on the circle Q-24) Find the equation of the tangents to

ellipse + = 1 tangents drawn

a2 b2 3x + 2y + 7 = 0

to respective curves. If x- Ans. Equation of Ellipses,

coordinates of P and Q are the

2x 2 + 3y 2 = 5

same, Prove that two tangents will

2x 2 3y 2

intersect at the point on the x-axis + =1

5 5

Ans. Let P ≡ (a cos θ ,sin θ ) and

x 2 y2

+ =1

Q ≡ (a cos θ ,b sin θ ) 5 5

2 3

∴ equation of tangent at P to circle,

∴ a 2 = 5 , b2 = 5

2 3

x cos θ + y sin θ = a

x cos θ + y sin θ = 1 …………..(i) Slope of 3x + 2y + 7 = 0 is − 3

2

a a

2

∴ Slope of tangents is, m =

∴ equation of tangent at Q to ellipse. 3

x cos θ y sin θ ∴ equation of tangent is,

+ =1 ………….. (ii)

a b

y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2

Subtract Equation (i) and (ii),

2 5 4 5

y sin θ y sin θ y= x± × +

− =0 3 2 9 3

a b

1 1 2 10 5

y sin θ − = 0 y= x± +

a b 3 9 3

y sin θ = 0 2 10 + 15

y= x±

3 9

y =0

2 5

∴ tangents drawn to circle at point P y= x±

3 3

and intersects the tangent drawn to

3y = 2x ± 5

ellipse at point Q at point on x-axis

2x − 3y ± 5 = 0 .. equation of tangent

Ellipse

Mahesh Tutorials Science 102

Q-25) If P and Q are two points on the Q-26) Find the locus of point of

ellipse + = 1 such that PQ

a2 b2 x2 y2

drawn from to the ellipse + =1

passes through centre of the ellipse. a2 b2

If R is any other point on the such that

ellipse, prove that i) sum of slopes = 2

( Slope of PR ) × ( Slope of QR ) = Constant ii) cot θ1 + cot θ2 = 3 where θ1 and

Ans.

Ans. Equation of tangent

y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2

P ( x1, y1 )

∴ y1 − mx1 = ± a 2m 2 + b 2

Squaring

(y1 − mx1 )2 = a 2m 2 + b 2

Let P ≡ (a cos θ ,a sin θ ) and

2

) (

− a 2 m 2 − 2x1y1.m + y12 − b 2 = 0 )

Let R ≡ (a cos α ,a sin α ) ∴ Let above quadratic equations has

roots m1 and m2 , which are slopes of

b ( sin α − sin θ )

Slope of PR =

a ( cos α − cos θ ) tangents,

2x1y1

b ( sin α + sin θ ) m1 + m2 =

Slope of QR = x12 − a 2

a ( cos α + cos θ )

m1.m2 =

x12 − a 2

b ( sin α − sin θ ) b ( sin α + sin θ )

= × i) Sum of Slopes = 2

a ( cos α − cos α ) a ( cos α + cos θ )

m1 + m2 = 2

=

(

a 2 sin2 α − sin2 θ ) 2x1y1

a 2

(cos 2

α − cos 2

θ) x12 − a 2

=2

=

( 2 2

b 2 1 − cos α − 1 + cos θ ) x1y1 = x12 − a 2

a2 cos2 α − cos2 θ ∴ equation of locus of point is,

=

b2

×

(cos 2

α − cos θ 2

) xy = x 2 − a 2

a2 cos2 α − cos2 θ

x 2 − xy − a 2 = 0

2

b

=− ii) If cot θ1 + cot θ2 = 3

a2

= constants 1 1

+ =3

tan θ1 tan θ2

Ellipse

103 Mahesh Tutorials Science

1 1

+ =3

m1 m2

m1 + m2

=3

m1m2

2x1y1

x12 − a 2

=3

y12 − b 2

x12 − a 2

2x1y1

=3

y12 − b 2

2x1y1 = 3y12 − 3b 2

∴ equation of locus of Point P is,

2xy = 3y 2 − 3b 2

*****

Ellipse

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