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Mahesh Tutorials Science 86

ELLIPSE.
Q-2) Find the lengths of the axis,
GROUP-(A) CLASS WORK EXAMPLES
eccentricity, co-ordinates of the
Q-1) The equation of ellipse is
foci, equation of directrices, length
9x 2 + 4y 2 = 36. Find the (i) lengths of
of latus-rectum, co-ordinates of the
axes (ii) eccentricity
ends of latus rectum for each of
(iii) co-ordinate of foci (iv) equation of
ellipse
directrices v) length of L.R.
2 2
x2 y2
x y (i) + =1
Ans. 9x 2 + 4y 2 = 36. ⇒ + =1 25 9
4 9
x2 y2
x2 y2 Ans. (i) + =1
Comparing with + =1 25 9
a2 b2
2 2
Hence a 2 = 25,b2 = 9 and a > b
⇒ a =4&b =9 ⇒ a =2&b=3
l (major axis)= 2a =10, l (minor axis) =
⇒ a<b
2b = 6
(i)Lengths of axes :
Eccentricity =
Length of major axis = 2b = 2 × 3 = 6 units
a 2 − b2 25 − 9 16 4
Length of minor axis = 2a = 2 × 2 = 4 e= 2
= = =
a 25 25 5
units
(ii) Eccentricity: 4
ae = 5   = 4, foci ≡ ( ±ae,0 ) ≡ ( ±4,0 )
5
( )
a 2 = b2 1 − e 2 ⇒ 4 = 9 1 − e 2 ⇒ ( ) a
Equations of directrices are x = ±
4 e
= 1 − e2
9 25
i.e. x = ±
9−4 5 5 4
⇒ e2 = ⇒ e2 = ⇒ e =
9 9 3 2b2 2 ( 9 ) 18
latus-rectum = = =
iii) Co-ordinates of Foci : a 5 5

 5 Extremities of latus rectum are


foci ≡ ( 0, ± be ) ⇒ Foci ≡  0, ± 3 × ⇒
 3   b2   9 
 ae,   5 
= 4, and
 a 
(
Foci ≡ 0, ± 5 )
 b2   9
iv) Equation of directrices:  ae, −  =  4, − 
 a   5
Equation of directrices are y = ± b/e ⇒
 b2   9
3 9  − ae,  =  −4,  and
y=± ⇒ y=±  a   5
5 /3 5
v) Length of L.R.  − b2   −9 
 −ae,  =  −4, 
 a   5 
2a 2 2 × 4 8
= = = units
b 3 3

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Q-3) Find equation of ellipse in standard Q-5) Find the equation of the ellipse
form of its vertices are ( ±4,0 ) and (referred to its principal axes)

length of minor axis is 6. whose minor axis = 8 and


3
x2 y2 eccentricity=
Ans. Let equation be + = 1 …( a > b ) 5
a2 b2
Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be
Vertices ≡ ( ±a,0 ) ≡ ( ±4,0 ) ⇒ a = 4
x2 y2
length of minor axis = 2b = 6. ⇒ b = 3 + =1
a2 b2
x2 y2 Since minor axis = 8 ⇒ 2b = 8 ⇒ b = 4
Required equation is 2
+ 2
=1
4 3
3
2 2 ⇒ eccentricity = e =
x y 5
⇒ + =1
16 9
(
b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ⇒ )
Q-4) Find the equation of the following  9  16a 2
16 = a 2 1 − = ⇒ a 2 = 25.
 25  25
ellipse whose foci are ( ±5,0 ) and
x2 y2
5 The equation of the ellipse + =1
eccentricity . 25 16
8

x2 y2
Ans. Let equation of ellipse be + =1 Q-6) Find the equation of the ellipse
a2 b2
(referred to its principal axes) such
foci ≡ ( ±ae,0 ) ≡ (± 5,0 )
that distance between foci = 2 and
5 5
ae = 5 and e = ⇒ a × = 5 ⇒a = 8 vertices are ( ±2,0 )
8 8
Ans. Let equation of the ellipse
 25 
( )
⇒ b2 = a 2 1 − e2 ⇒ b2 = 82 1 −

⇒
64  x2 y2
+ =1 ……..…(i)
a2 b2
 64 − 25 
b2 = 64  2
 ⇒ b = 39
 64  Given 2ae = 2 ⇒ ∴ae = 1

Equation of ellipse 2 +
x2
y2
=1
( )
b 2 = a 2 1 − e 2 = a 2 − a 2e 2 = 4 − 1 = 3
8 39
Also a = 2 ⇒ a 2 = 4,b 2 = 3
2 2
x y
⇒. + =1 put these values in (i), the equation of
64 39
x2 y2
the ellipse is + =1
4 3

Ellipse
Mahesh Tutorials Science 88

Q-7) Find the equation of the ellipse Q-9) Find the equation of the ellipse
(referred to its principal axes) passing through ( 15, −1 ) and
Distance between directrices = 32
distance between whose foci is ‘8’.
1
and eccentricity = Ans. ∵ Distance between foci = 8
2
∴ 2 ae = 8
Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be
ae = 4
x2 y2
+ =1 …(i)
a2 b2 ∵ Ellipse passes through ( )
15, −1 ,
a a 1
Given 2 = 32 ⇒ = 16 But e = x2 y2
e e 2 ∴ + =1
a2 b2
⇒ a=8
15 1
+ =1
Here a 2
b2
 1 3
( 
)
b2 = a 2 1 − e2 = 64 1 −  = 64   = 48
4 4
15
+
1
=1
a 2
a 2
(1 − e ) 2

⇒ a 2 = 64 and b2 = 48
15 1
from (i) the equation of the ellipse is + =1
a 2
 16 
a 2 1 − 2 
x2 y2  a 
+ =1
64 48
15 1
+ =1
a 2
(a 2
− 16 )
Q-8) Find the equation of the ellipse
(referred to its principal axes) (
15 a 2 − 16 + a 2 = a 2 a 2 − 16 ) ( )
Distance between foci = minor axis,
15a 2 − 240 + a 2 = a 4 − 16a 2
latus rectum = 10.
a 4 − 32a 2 + 240 = 0
Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be
a 4 − 20a 2 − 12a 2 + 240 = 0
x2 y2
+ =1 …(i)
a2 b2 (a 2
)(
− 20 a 2 − 12 = 0 )
2ae = 2b ⇒ ae = b …(ii)
a 2 = 20 or a 2 = 12
2
2b
and = 10 …(iii)
a ∴ b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ( )
From (ii) and (iii), we get a 2 = 100 and b 2 = a 2 − a 2e 2
b2 = 50 When a 2 = 20 ,
From (i), the equation of the ellipse is
b 2 = 20 − 16
x2 y2 =4
+ =1
100 50
∴ equation of ellipse is,

x 2 y2
+ =1
20 4

If a 2 = 12 ,

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b 2 = 12 − 16

b 2 = −4 b2 = 27.
Put these values in (i) the equation of
But b 2 ≠ −4
Equation of ellipse is, x2 y2
the ellipse is + =1
36 27
x 2 y2
+ =1
20 4
Q-13) Find eccentricity of the ellipse, if
its latus rectum = (1/2) major axis.
Q-11) Find the equation of the ellipse
Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse be
(referred to its principal axes) such
x2 y2
that latus rectum = 39/4 and + = 1 major axis = 2a,
a2 b2
eccentricity = 5/8.
2b2
Ans. Let equation of the ellipse is eccentricity = e; Latus rectum =
a
x2 y2
+ =1 …(i) 2b2 1 a2
a2 b2 ⇒ = ( 2a ) ⇒ b2 = ⇒
a 2 2
39
Since latus rectum = …..(ii) and a2
4 (
b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ⇒ ) 2
(
= a 2 1 − e2 )
5
e= ...(iii)
a2 1
8 ⇒
2
( 2
)
= a 2 1 − e2 ⇒ = 1 − e 2 ⇒ ( )
2
2b 39
= and 1 1
a 4 e2 = ⇒ e=
2 2
 25  2  39 
b2 = a 2 1 − =a  
 64   64  1 1
e2 = ⇒ e=
3 3
We get a 2 = 64 and b2 = 39 .

x2 y2
Equation of the ellipse is + =1 Q-14) Find eccentricity of the ellipse
64 39
(referred to its principal axes) such
its Distance between
Q-12) Find the equation of the ellipse
directrices=3(distance between its
(referred to its principal axes) such
foci)
Focus at (3,0) and whose directrix is
Ans. 2a 1
x = 12. Here = 3 ( 2ae ) ⇒ 3e ⇒ 1 = 3e 2
e 3
Ans. Let equation of the ellipse is 1 1
e2 = ⇒ e =
x2 y2 3 3
+ =1 …(i)
a2 b2
a
Given ae = 3 …(ii) and = 12 …(iii)
e

from (ii) and (iii) we get a 2 = 36 and

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Mahesh Tutorials Science 90

Q-15) Find focal distance of the point Q-16) The length of latus rectum of the

(
A 5,4 3 ) on ellipse parabola y 2 = 4x is equal to length

of m in or axis of ellipse. If ( 3,0 ) is


16x 2 + 25y 2 = 1600
Ans. The equation of ellipse is one vertex of this ellipse, find
equation of ellipse. Also find its
2 2x2 y2
16x + 25y = 1600 ⇒ + =1 eccentricity.
100 64
Ans. The equation of parabola is y 2 = 4x
⇒ a 2 = 100 & b2 = 64 ⇒ a = 10 &
b = 8 ⇒ ∴a > b ⇒ 4A = 4 ⇒ A = 1
length of latus rectum = 4A = 4 x 1 = 4
(
b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ⇒ ) Length of minor axis = 4 ⇒ 2b = 4 ⇒ b
64 2 2
(
64 = 100 1 − e2 ; ) 100 = (1 − e ) =2
Also (3,0) is one vertex of ellipse a = 3
 64 
= 1 − 
 100  x2 y2
Equation of ellipse is + =1 ⇒
32 22
36 2 9 3
e2 = ;e = ;e =
100 25 5 x2 y2
+ −1 (∵ a > b )
a 9 4
Equation of directrices are x = and
e
( ) (
b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ; 4 = 9 1 − e 2 )
−a
x= 4 4 5 5
e ∴ = 1 − e2 ;e2 = 1 − ;e2 = ; e =
9 9 9 3
10 10 50
⇒ x= and x = − ⇒ x= 5
3/5 3/5 3 eccentricity =
3
50
and x = −
3
Q-17) P is any point on the ellipse
50 50
⇒x − = 0 and x + =0 x2 y2
3 3 + = 1, S and S' are its foci.
25 9
50
5− Find the perimeter of ∆SPS ' .
3 3 = 7 units
⇒ SP = ePM = Y
5 12 Ans. d
d'
P (x,y)
M' M
⇒ S'P = ePM'
A' O A X

50 S
(h,0)
5+
3
= . 3 = 3 × 15 + 50 = 13 units x= -a/e x= a/e
5 12 5 3

x2 y2
Given equation of ellipse is + =1
25 9

S and S’ are foci. Here a 2 = 25,b2 = 9 ;

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a2 − b 2 25 − 9 4
e= = = ⇒
a 2 25 5 ( ( ) (
Q ≡ r2 cos 90 + α , r2 sin 90 + α ))
4 ≡ ( −r2 sin α + r2 cos α )
ae = 5. =4
5
x 2 y2
⇒ S ≡ (4,0) and S’ ≡ (-4,0) Now P lies on the ellipse + = 1, ⇒
a 2 b2
If P is any point on ellipse SP = ePM
2  cos α sin2 α 
2

⇒ SP = ePM & SP ' = ePM' r1  +  =1


 a
2
b 2 
∴ SP + S'P = e ( PM + PM') = e ( ZZ ')
cos 2 α sin2 α 1
⇒ 2
+ 2
= 2⇒
2a a b r1
=e = 2a = 2 × 5 = 10
e
1 cos 2 α sin2 α
4 = + …(i)
SS' = 2ae = 2 × 5 × = 8 OP 2 a2 b2
5
Similarly Q lies on the ellipse
Perimeter of ∆SPS' = SP + S'P + SS' =
x 2 y2 2  sin α cos 2 α 
2
10 + 8 = 18 units. + = 1, ⇒ r2 
 +  =1
a 2 b2  a
2
b 2 

Q-18) P and Q are two points on the sin2 α cos 2 α 1


⇒ 2
+ 2
= 2⇒
a b r2
x2 y2
ellipse + = 1, such that seg PQ
a2 b2 1 sin2 α cos 2 α
= + …(ii)
subtends a right angle at the centre OQ 2 a2 b2

O of the ellipse. Show that Adding (i) and (ii), we get

1 1 1 1 1 1 cos 2 α + sin2 α sin2 α + cos 2 α


+ = + . + = +
ΟΡ2 ΟQ2 a2 b2 ΟΡ 2 ΟQ 2 a2 b2
Y 1 1 1 1
Ans. ∴ 2
+ 2
= 2+ 2
Y Q ΟΡ ΟQ a b
P
(90+ )
X
O
x 2 y2
Q-19) P (θ) is a point on ellipse + = 1,
a 2 b2
whose foci are S & S ' prove that
Seg PQ subtends a right angle at the (i) SP .S ' P = a 2 sin2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ
centre O, ∴ the line OP ⊥ OQ. If line (ii) SP + S ' P = 2a
OP makes an angle α with the x-axis, Ans. Y
d' d
 P
then OQ makes an angle 90 + α with M' M

A' A X
the x-axis. O
Z' S' S Z
(a/e,0)
 ( OP ) = r1 &  ( OQ) = r2 . Then (-a/e,0)

P ≡ ( r1 cos α ,r1 sin α ) and


The equation of the ellipse is

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x 2 y2 x 2 y2
+ =1 Q-20) S is focus of the ellipse + =1
a 2 b2 4 3
Its foci are S (ae,0 ) and S ′(− ae ,0 ) . corresponding to directrix x = 4 .

The equation of its directrices are Find the equation of the circle
x = ±a / e which passes through S, centre of

Let PM and PM’ be the length of the ⊥ the ellipse and the point (3,3) .

from P on the directrices. Ans. Comparing we get a 2 = 4 , b 2 = 3


a a 2 − b2 4 − 3 1 1
a cos θ − e2 = = = ⇒ ∴e = ⇒
Then, PM = e and a 2
4 4 2
1
1
ae = 2  = 1
a 2
a cos θ +
PM ' = e Focus S (ae,0 ) ≡ (1,0 )
1
Let required equation of the circle be

By the focus – directrix property of the x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0 … (i)

ellipse. Since it passes through centre O(0,0);


SP = ePM & S ' P = ePM ' where e < 1 focus S(1,0) and (3,3)

∴ SP = e a cos θ − a / e = a e cos θ − 1 ⇒ c = 0 … (ii)


= a (1 − e cos θ) ⇒ 1 + 0 + 2g + 0 + 0 = 0 ⇒ 2g = −1 ⇒
S ′P = e a cos θ + a / e −1
g= …(iii)
= a e cos θ + 1 = a (1 + e cos θ) 2

(i) SP .S ' P = a (1 − e cos θ) = a (1 + e cos θ ) ⇒ 9 + 9 + 6g + 6 f + 0 = 0 ⇒ 6g + 6 f = 0

−5
( )
= a 2 1 − e 2 cos 2 θ = a 2 − a 2e 2 cos 2 θ ⇒ f =
2
( )
= a 2 − a 2 − b 2 cos 2 θ Equation of required circle
2 2 2 2
(∴ a e = a − b )  −1 −5
is x 2 + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 0 = 0
= a 2 − a 2 cos 2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ  2   2 

( )
= a 2 1 − cos 2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ ⇒ x 2 + y 2 − x − 5y = 0

= a 2 sin2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ.
ii)
SP + S ' P = a (1 − e cos θ) + a (1 + e cos θ)
= a − ae cos θ + a + ae cos θ
= 2a

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Q-21) Find the Cartesian co-ordinates of

the point P 60 ( ) lying on the


( x1 − 3)2 + y12 = 64 − 16
x 2 y2
ellipse + = 1 and the eccentric ( x1 + 3)2 + y12 + ( x1 + 3 )2 + y12
25 9
 5 3  x12 − 6x1 + 9 + y12 = 64 − 16
angle of the point Q  , 
 2 2
( x1 + 3 )2 + y12 + 6x12 + 6x1 + 9 + y12
Ans. (i) Comparing a = 5, b = 3 ; Given that
−12x1 − 64 = −16 x12 + 6x1 + 9 + y12
θ = 60 
5 Dividing by -4,
x = a cos θ = 5 cos 60 = &
2 3x1 + 16 = 4 x12 + 6x1 + 9 + y12
3 3
y = b sin θ = 3 sin 60 = Squaring both sides,
2
5 3 3 
(
9x12 + 96x12 + 256 = 16 x12 + 6x12 + 9 + y12 )
Cartesian co-ordinates are  , 

2 2 9x11 + 96x12 + 256 =
 
5 16x12 + 96x1 + 144 + 16y12
(ii) x = a cos θ = 5 cos θ = ⇒
2
7x12 + 16y12 = 112
1
cos θ = x12 y12
2 + =1
16 7
3 1
y = b sin θ = 3 sin θ = ⇒ sin θ = ∴ equation of locus of P is an ellipse,
2 2
x 2 y2
Hence θ = 45 + =1
16 7

Q-22) If A and B are two fixed points such GROUP-(B): CLASSWORK PROBLEMS
that l (AB)=6. Then show the locus Q-1) Find equation of the tangent to the
of the point P which moves so that ellipse x 2 + 4y 2 = 100 at ( 8,3 )
l(PA) + l(PB) = 8 is an ellipse
x2 y2
Ans. Let A ≡ ( 3,0 ) and B ≡ ( −3,0 ) Ans. Equation of the ellipse + =1
100 25
Let P ≡ ( x1, y1 ) Equation of the tangent to the given

∵ l(PA) + l(PB) = 8 xx1 yy1


ellipse at (8,3) is + 2 =1
a2 b
( x1 − 3)2 + (y1 − 0 )2 + 8x 3y
2 2 i.e. + =1
( x1 + 3 ) + ( y1 − 0 ) = 8 100 25
2x 3y
⇒ + =1
( x1,3)2 + y12 =8− ( x1 + 3)2 + y12 25 25

Squaring both sides, ⇒ 2x + 3y = 25

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Mahesh Tutorials Science 94

Q-2) Find equation of the tangent to the

ellipse 9x 2 + 16y 2 = 144 at 9



x 7 4 =1
(4 cos θ, 3 sin θ). ∴ +
16 a
x 2 y2 7x y
Ans. Equation of the ellipse is + =1 + =1
16 9 16 4
Equation of the tangent to the given 7x + 4y = 16
ellipse at (4 cos θ, 3 sin θ).

xx1 yy1 Q-4) A tangent to b 2 x 2 + a 2y 2 = a 2b 2 cuts


⇒ + 2 =1 ⇒
a2 b
the co-ordinate axis A and B and
4 cos θ.x 3 sin θ
+ =1 touches the ellipse in the first
16 9
quadrant at the mid-point of AB.
⇒ 3cos θ x + 4sin θ y = 12
Show that its equation is
bx + ay = ab 2 .
Q-3) Find equation of tangent to ellipse

9x 2 + 16y 2 = 144 at point L. Where L x2 y2


Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1
a2 b2
is end of Latus Rectum in 1st
Let equation of tangent at
Quadrant
x cos θ y sin θ
x 2 y2 P (θ) ∴ + = 1 …(i)
Ans. 9x 2 + 16y 2 = 144 ⇒ + =1 a b
16 9
 a 
Tangent meet x axis at A ≡  ,0
∴ a = 16 & b = 9 ⇒ a = 4 & b = 3
2 2
 cos θ 

b2 = a 2 1 − e 2 ( ) 
Tangent meet y axis at B ≡  0,
b 

 sin θ 
9 = 16 − 16e 2
P (a cos θ,b sin θ ) is mid point of AB
16e 2 = 7
a b
7 +0 0+
2 cos θ sin θ
e = a cos θ = & b sin θ =
16 2 2
7 a b
e= a cos θ = & b sin θ =
4 2 cos θ 2 sin θ
 b2  1 1
∴ L ≡  ae ,  ⇒ cos2 θ = & sin2 θ =
 a 
 2 2

 9 1 1
≡  7,  ⇒ cos θ = ± & sin θ = ±
 4 2 2

Equation of tgf is but P lies in first quadrant∴ θ is acute

xx1 yy1 1 1
+ =1 ∴cos θ = & sin θ =
2 2 2 2
a b
Hence equation of tangent becomes

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x 1 y 1
. + . =1
a 2 b 2 2 2
 a   b 
∴   +   = 1
x y bx + ay  2 x1   2y1 
+ = 1⇒ = 1⇒
a 2 b 2 ab 2
a2 b2 a2 b2
∴ + = 4 ⇒ ∴ + =4
bx + ay = ab 2 4x1
2
4y1
2
x12 y12
This is equation of required tangent ∴ Equation of locus of M ≡ (x1 ,y1 ) is

a 2 b2
Q-5) Show that the equation of the locus + =4
x2 y2
of the mid point of the portion of a

x2 y2
tangent to the ellipse + =1 x2 y2
a2 b2 Q-6) A tangent to ellipse + =1
a2 b2
intercepted by the co-ordinate axis
meets the co-ordinate axes at L and
a 2 b2
is 2 + 2 = 4 . M respectively. If a tangent to
x y
x2 y2
x 2
y 2 ellipse + = 1 meets the
Ans. The equation of ellipse is + 2 =1 a2 b2
2
a b
co-ordinate axes at L and M
Let P (θ) be any point on ellipse.
respectively. If CL = p , CM = q where
∴Equation of tangent at P
C is centre of ellipse. Show that
x cos θ y sin θ
is + =1 a2 b2
a b + =1
p2 q2
This tangent meet x- axis suppose at A
and y- axis at B. x2 y2
Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1
a2 b2
 a   b 
A ≡  , 0  and B ≡  0,  Equation of tangent at P ( x1 , y1 ) is
 cos θ   sin θ 
Let M ≡ (x1 ,y1 ) be point on locus xx1 yy1
2
+ =1
a b2
∴ M is mid point of AB
It meet x axis in point L.⇒ put y = 0
By mid point formula
xx1 a2  a2 
a b = 1⇒ x = ⇒ L≡ ,0 
+0 0+ a2 x1 x 
cos θ sin θ  1 
x1 = and y1 =
2 2
Tangent also meet Y-axis ⇒ put x = 0
a b
x1 = and ∴ y1 = in the equation of tangent
2 cos θ 2 sin θ
yy1 b2  b2 
=1 ⇒ y = ⇒ M ≡  0,
cos θ =
a
and sin θ =
b
b2 y1  y 
2 x1 2 y1  1

Centre ≡ ( 0,0 )
cos 2θ + sin 2 θ = 1

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Mahesh Tutorials Science 96

a2 b2
p = CL = ; q = CM =
x1 y1  a 2m 2 + b 2 − ae 
∴ P12 + P22 =  +
 2 
a2 b2 a2 b2 x12 y12  m + 1 
∴ + = + = +
p2 q2  a2 
2
 b2 
2
a2 b2 2
     a 2m 2 + b 2 + ae 
 x1   y1   
 m 2
+ 1 
a 2 b2  
= + =1
p2 q 2
a 2m 2 + b 2 + 2ae a 2m 2 + b 2 + a 2e 2
+
x2 y2 m2 + 1
∵ (x1 ,y1 ) lies on ellipse 2 + 2 = 1
a b 2a 2m 2 + 2b 2 + 2a 2e 2
=
x1
2
y
2
m2 + 1
2
+ 12 = 1 Hence proved.
a b
=
(
2a 2m 2 + 2a 2 1 − e 2 + 2a 2e 2 )
m2 + 1
Q-7) Prove that the sum of the squares
2a 2m 2 + 2a 2 − 2a 2e 2 + 2a 2e 2
of the perpendiculars drawn on any =
m2 + 1
tangent to the ellipse
2 2 2 2 2 2 =
(
2a 2 m 2 + 1 ) = 2a 2
b + x + a y = a b , from the 2
m +1
point (o, ae ) and (o, −ae ) is P12 + P22 = constant
constant.
Ans. For ellipse b 2 + x 2 + a 2y 2 = a 2b 2 , Q-8) P and Q are two points on the
Equation of tangent is, x2 y2
ellipse + = 1 such that their
25 16
y = mx + a 2m 2 + b 2
π
eccentric angles differ by . Show
Let P1 be the ⊥r distance between 2
(0, ae) and tangent, that the locus of the point of

m ( 0 ) − (ae ) + a 2m 2 + b 2 intersection of the tangents drawn


P1 =
from P and Q is also an ellipse
m2 +1
x2 y2
a 2m 2 + b 2 − ae given by + = 2.
= 25 16
m2 +1
x2 y2
Ans. Equation of ellipse is + = 1 …(i)
Let P2 be the ⊥r distance between 25 16

(0, ae) and tangent, ∴ a 2 = 25, b 2 = 16 ⇒ a = 5, b = 4

m ( 0 ) + (ae ) + a 2m 2 + b 2 π 
P2 = Let P (θ) and Q  + θ  be points on
2 
m2 + 1
ellipse such that their eccentric angle
2 2 2
a m + b + ae π
= differ by .
2
m +1 2

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97 Mahesh Tutorials Science

∴ Equation of tangent at P and Q are Q-11) Show that the line x + 3 2y = 9 is


x cos θ y sin θ
+ . =1 x2 y2
a b tangent to the ellipse + =1
9 4
π  π  Ans.
x cos  + θ  y sin  + θ  Here a 2 = 9, b2 = 4
and 2 + 2 . =1
a b Equation of the line x + 3 2y = 9
x cos θ y sin θ
⇒ + . = 1 …(ii) −x 9 1
5 4 ⇒ y= + ⇒ m=− and
3 2 3 2 3 2
− x sin θ y cos θ
and + . = 1 ……(iii) 9 3
5 4 c= =
3 2 2
 π  π  
∵cos  2 + θ  = − sin θ ;sin  2 + θ  = cos θ  Now y = mx + c is tangent to the
     
To find the locus of point of ellipse if c2 = a 2m2 + b2
intersection of tangents 2
 3 
2 9
(ii) and (iii) we have to eliminate θ, ⇒ c =  = and
 2 2
∴ Squaring and adding equations (ii) 2
2 2  21  1 4 9
and (iii) a m + b = 9 −  +4 = + =
 3 2 2 1 2
2
 x cosθ y sin θ  2  −x sinθ y cos θ 
 + . + +  =2
 5 4   5 4  Hence c2 = a 2m2 + b2

x 2 cos2 θ 2xy.cos θ .sin θ y 2 sin2 θ ∴ The line is tangent to the ellipse.


+ +
25 20 16
x 2 sin 2 θ 2xy. sin θ. cos θ y 2 cos 2 θ Q-12) Find k , if the line x + y + k = 0
+ + + =2
25 20 16
touches the ellipse x 2 + 4y 2 = 20.
x2 y2
25
[cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ +]16
[ ]
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 2
Ans. The line x + y + k = 0
x2 y2

25 16
+ (
= 2 … ∵sin2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 ) ⇒ put x = − y − k in x 2 + 4y 2 = 20.
2
This is equation of required locus. ⇒ ( − y − k ) + 4y 2 = 20.

⇒ y 2 + 2ky + k 2 + 4y 2 − 20 = 0
Q-9 and Q-10 is given in notes
⇒ 5y 2 + 2ky + k 2 − 20 = 0( )
Since the line touch the ellipse
This equation has two equal roots
∴ ∆=0

( 2k )2 − 4 × 5 ( k 2 − 20 ) = 0
4k 2 − 20k 2 + 400 = 0

−16k 2 = −400 ⇒ k 2 = 25 ⇒ k = ±5

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Mahesh Tutorials Science 98

Q-13) Find equation of tangent to ellipse Q-15) Find the equation of the tangents to

x2 −1 x2 y2
+ y 2 = 1 having slope is the ellipse + = 1 making
4 2 64 36
x2 y2 equal intercepts on the co-ordinate
Ans. Equation of ellipse is + =1
4 1 axes.
⇒ a 2 = 4,b2 = 1 ⇒ a = 2,b = 1
x2 y2
Ans. + = 1 ⇒ a 2 = 64,b2 = 36,
−1 64 36
slope of tangent m =
2 Tangents making equal intercepts
Equation of ellipse is in the form
( k,0 ) & ( 0,k ) on the co-ordinate axes.
2 2
x y
+ =1 k −0
a 2
b2 ⇒ Slope = = −1
0−k
then equation of tangents is
The equation of the tangent line is
y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2
y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2
2
−1  −1  2
y = − x ± 64 ( −1) + 36
∴y = x ± 4  +1
2  2 
y = − x ± 100
−1
∴y = x ± 1+1
2 y = − x ± 10
−1 ⇒ Equations of tangents be
∴y = x± 2
2
x + y + 10 = 0 and x + y − 10 = 0
∴ 2y + x = ±2 2

Q-16) If the line y = mx + a 2m2 + b2


Q-14) Find equations of tangent to the
touches the ellipse
x2 y2
ellipse + = 1, parallel to
144 25 b2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 2b2 at P ( a cos θ ,b sin θ )
x + y −3 = 0 −b
show that tan θ =
Ans. Slope of the line x + y − 3 = 0 …(i) am

is -1 x2 y2
Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1
a2 b2
Slope of the tangent line parallel to (i)
and P (a cos θ, b sin θ) is on ellipse.
is -1
∴ Equation of the tangent line is Equation of tangent to ellipse at P is
x cos θ y sin θ
y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2 + =1 …(i)
a b
m = −1,a 2 = 144,b2 = 25 − cos θ
−b
y = − x ± 144 + 25 ∴ slope of tangent = a = cot θ .
sin θ a
y = − x ± 169 ⇒ y = − x ± 13 b
But equation of tangent at P is
x + y + 13 = 0 and x + y − 13 = 0

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99 Mahesh Tutorials Science

y = mx + a 2m2 + b2 …(ii)
∴ Area of
∴ slope of tangent = m
1 1
Equation (i) and (ii) represent same ∆ OAB= l (OA ) × l (OB ) = ×4×2 = 4
2 2
tangent
square units.
∴ slopes are equal
−b −am 1
∴m= cot θ ⇒ = ⇒ Q-18) The line x − y − 5 = 0 touches the
a b tan θ
ellipse whose foci are S ≡ (3,0 ) &
b
tan θ =
−am S ≡ (− 3,0 ) . Find the equation of the
ellipse
−1 Ans. Let the equation of the ellipse
Q-17) A tangent having slope to the
2
x2 y2
be + =1 …(i)
ellipse 3x 2 + 4y 2 = 12 interacts a2 b2
the x and y axes in the point A and The foci of the ellipse are ( ±ae,0 ) ⇒
B respectively. If O is the origin, ae = 3 …(ii)
find the area of the ∆OAB .
( )
b 2 = a 2 1 − e 2 = a 2 − a 2e 2 = a 2 − 9
Ans. The equation of the ellipse is
Now slope of the given tangent is
x2 y2
+ = 1 ⇒ a 2 = 4, b2 = 3 …..(i) m =1
4 3

−1
Given slope of the tangent is m =
2
2
(
a2m2 + b2 = a2 (1) + a2 − 9 = 2a2 − 9 )
The equation of the tangents with But line x − y − 5 = 0 condition for

slope m are y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2 tangency

2 c 2 = a 2m 2 + b 2 ⇒ 2a 2 = 34 ⇒ a 2 = 17
1  1
Here y = − x ± 4 −  + 3 ⇒
2  2 from b 2 = 17 − 9 = 8

1 1 x 2 y2
y=− x ± 1+ 3 ⇒ y = − x ± 4 Equation of the ellipse is + =1
2 2 17 8
1
y=− x ± 2 ⇒ 2y = −x ± 4 ⇒
2
x + 2y = ±4
Let the tangent x + 2y = ±4 meet the
x-axis in A and y-axis in B.
∴ x = ±4 ⇒ A = (± 4,0 ) ⇒
2y = ±4 ⇒ B = ( 0, ±2)

Ellipse
Mahesh Tutorials Science 100

Q-19) Find the equation of tangent to the Q-20) Show that the locus of the foot of

x 2 y2 the perpendicular drawn from the


ellipse + = 1 from (3,-2).
7 4 ellipse b 2 x 2 + a 2y 2 = a 2b 2 to any
x 2 y2
Ans. The equation of ellipse is
7
+
4
=1 tangent is x 2 + y 2 ( )2
= a 2 x 2 + b 2y 2 .

⇒ a 2 = 7, b 2 = 4 ⇒ a = 7 ,b = 2 x 2 y2
Ans. The equation of ellipse is + =1
a 2 b2
Equation of ellipse is in the form
Equation of a tangent with slope m
x 2 y2
+ =1 is, y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2
a 2 b2
Let equation of tangents Let P (x1,y1 ) be the foot of the

be y = mx ± a 2m2 + b2 perpendicular from centre (0,0 ) on

This passes through (3,-2) ⇒ tangent.


P (x1,y1 ) lies on tangent⇒
−2 = 3m ± 7m2 + 4
y1 = mx1 ± a 2m 2 + b 2 …(i)
⇒ − 2 − 3m = ± 7m 2 + 4
slope of tangent = m
4 + 12m + 9m 2 = 7m 2 + 4
−1
2m 2 + 12m = 0 ⇒ slope of OP =
m
∴ m 2 + 6m = 0 −1
Equation of OP is y = x
∴ m (m + 6) = 0 m
−1
∴ m = 0 or m = −6 ∵ P (x1,y1 ) lies on OP ⇒ y1 = x1 ⇒
m
If m = 0 and line passing through
− x1
(3,-2) then equation of tangent is m= …(ii)
y1
y − (−2) = −6(x − 3)
Put in (i) ⇒
y +2=0
2
 −x   −x 
If m = −6 and line passing through y1 =  1  x1 + a 2  1  + b2
 y1   y1 
(3,-2) then equation of tangent is
y − (−2) = −6(x − 3) − x12 a 2 x12 + b2 y12
⇒ y1 = +
y + 2 = −6x + 18
y1 y12

6x + y = 16 ⇒ y12 = − x12 + a 2 x12 + b2 y12


∴ Required equations are y + 2 = 0
⇒ x12 + y12 = a 2 x12 + b2 y12
and 6x + y = 16
2
(
⇒ x12 + y12 ) = a 2 x12 + b2 y12

⇒ Equation of locus of P ( x1, y1 ) is


2
(x 2
+ y2 ) = a 2 x 2 + b2 y 2 .

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101 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Q-21) At the point P on the circle Q-24) Find the equation of the tangents to

x 2 + y 2 = a 2 and the point Q on the the ellipse 2x 2 + 3y 2 = 5 which are

x2 y2 perpendicular to the line


ellipse + = 1 tangents drawn
a2 b2 3x + 2y + 7 = 0
to respective curves. If x- Ans. Equation of Ellipses,
coordinates of P and Q are the
2x 2 + 3y 2 = 5
same, Prove that two tangents will
2x 2 3y 2
intersect at the point on the x-axis + =1
5 5
Ans. Let P ≡ (a cos θ ,sin θ ) and
x 2 y2
+ =1
Q ≡ (a cos θ ,b sin θ ) 5 5
2 3
∴ equation of tangent at P to circle,
∴ a 2 = 5 , b2 = 5
2 3
x cos θ + y sin θ = a
x cos θ + y sin θ = 1 …………..(i) Slope of 3x + 2y + 7 = 0 is − 3
2
a a
2
∴ Slope of tangents is, m =
∴ equation of tangent at Q to ellipse. 3
x cos θ y sin θ ∴ equation of tangent is,
+ =1 ………….. (ii)
a b
y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2
Subtract Equation (i) and (ii),
2 5 4 5
y sin θ y sin θ y= x± × +
− =0 3 2 9 3
a b
1 1 2 10 5
y sin θ  −  = 0 y= x± +
a b  3 9 3

y sin θ = 0 2 10 + 15
y= x±
3 9
y =0
2 5
∴ tangents drawn to circle at point P y= x±
3 3
and intersects the tangent drawn to
3y = 2x ± 5
ellipse at point Q at point on x-axis
2x − 3y ± 5 = 0 .. equation of tangent

Q-22 and Q-23 is given in notes

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Mahesh Tutorials Science 102

Q-25) If P and Q are two points on the Q-26) Find the locus of point of

x2 y2 intersection of the two tangents


ellipse + = 1 such that PQ
a2 b2 x2 y2
drawn from to the ellipse + =1
passes through centre of the ellipse. a2 b2
If R is any other point on the such that
ellipse, prove that i) sum of slopes = 2
( Slope of PR ) × ( Slope of QR ) = Constant ii) cot θ1 + cot θ2 = 3 where θ1 and

θ2 are inclinations of tangents.


Ans.
Ans. Equation of tangent

y = mx ± a 2m 2 + b 2

P ( x1, y1 )

∴ y1 − mx1 = ± a 2m 2 + b 2
Squaring

(y1 − mx1 )2 = a 2m 2 + b 2
Let P ≡ (a cos θ ,a sin θ ) and

Q ≡ ( −a cos θ , −a sin θ ) (x1


2
) (
− a 2 m 2 − 2x1y1.m + y12 − b 2 = 0 )
Let R ≡ (a cos α ,a sin α ) ∴ Let above quadratic equations has
roots m1 and m2 , which are slopes of
b ( sin α − sin θ )
Slope of PR =
a ( cos α − cos θ ) tangents,
2x1y1
b ( sin α + sin θ ) m1 + m2 =
Slope of QR = x12 − a 2
a ( cos α + cos θ )

∴ Slope of PR × Slope of QR y12 − b 2


m1.m2 =
x12 − a 2
b ( sin α − sin θ ) b ( sin α + sin θ )
= × i) Sum of Slopes = 2
a ( cos α − cos α ) a ( cos α + cos θ )
m1 + m2 = 2

=
(
a 2 sin2 α − sin2 θ ) 2x1y1
a 2
(cos 2
α − cos 2
θ) x12 − a 2
=2

=
( 2 2
b 2 1 − cos α − 1 + cos θ ) x1y1 = x12 − a 2
a2 cos2 α − cos2 θ ∴ equation of locus of point is,

=
b2
×
(cos 2
α − cos θ 2
) xy = x 2 − a 2
a2 cos2 α − cos2 θ
x 2 − xy − a 2 = 0
2
b
=− ii) If cot θ1 + cot θ2 = 3
a2
= constants 1 1
+ =3
tan θ1 tan θ2

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103 Mahesh Tutorials Science

1 1
+ =3
m1 m2

[m1 = tan θ1 and m2 = tan θ2 ]


m1 + m2
=3
m1m2

2x1y1
x12 − a 2
=3
y12 − b 2
x12 − a 2

2x1y1
=3
y12 − b 2

2x1y1 = 3y12 − 3b 2
∴ equation of locus of Point P is,

2xy = 3y 2 − 3b 2

*****

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