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09/04/15

PRESENTATION ON

ENZYME

PRESENTATED BY:
Gul Ahad
09/04/15

What is Enzymology?
The study of enzymes is known as enzymology.

What is Enzymes?
Enzymes are micro molecular biological catalysts that speed up reaction
without them selves being consumed in reactions.

OR

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Enzyme is defined as biological catalysts which speed up the chemical


reactions by lowering activation energy without undergoing any permanent
change.

Discovery of Enzymes.
The word enzyme means in yeast
because it was first discover in yeast,
in 1879 the word enzymes was
suggested for a substance that speed
up reactions.
Payen & Persoz discovered 1st
enzyme in partially purified form called
diastase.

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Characteristics of Enzymes
Enzymes are protein in nature.
All Enzymes are three dimensional globular
proteins.
They are formed inside a living cell.
Being protein they are enclosed in DNA.
Enzymes are biological catalyst (organic
catalyst).
They are required in small quantity.
Reaction catalyzed by enzymes are reversible.
Enzymes can be isolated or crystalized. In crystal
form enzymes are fairly pure.

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Classification of Enzymes
The comission on enzymes,appointed by
international union of biochemistry
classified enzymes into six main types:
Oxidoreducteases
Transferases
Hydrolases
Lyases
Isomerases
ligases

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Structure of a single enzyme


It has a three dimensional globular structure.

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Active site of Enzyme


Part of enzyme where substrate binds to catalyze a reaction is
known as active site.it is the charge bearing site of an
enzyme..
It has two regions:
1.BINDING SITE
2.CATALYTIC SITE

BINDING SITE:
IT helps enzymes in recognizing the proper substrate for
binding.

CATALYTIC SITE:
It catalyse the specific reaction and converts the substrate into
product

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ENZYMES CO_FACTOR
The non protein part of Enzymes
which is essential for its activities is
known as co_factor.

There are three types of co_factor.


1. Inorganic ions
2. Prosthetic group
3. Coenzymes

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1. Inorganic ions:
the co-factors which are organic ions they are also known as
activators.

2. Prosthetic group:
Tightly bounded cofactor which can not be detached and is
permanently bonded with enzyme.

3. Coenzymes:
a non protein organic molecule which acts as cofactor called
coenzyme. They are not bound with enzymes or they are
loosely attached to the protein part.

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Mode of Action of Enzymes


To explain the mechanism of action of enzymes there are
two hypothesis
1.Lock in key model
2.Induced fit model

Lock and key hypothesis

According to this hypothesis every specific enzyme


has a specific substrate enzymes are not flexible
they cant change there shape but this hypothesis
didnt worked on all the enzymes.

Induced fit model


Induced fit model was proposed by koshland in 1959,
according to this model enzymes and active site are
flexible structure which can be modified as the substrate
binds enzymes. Due to this modification enzymes
performs there functions very effectively.
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Importance of Enzymes
Enzymes has great biological importance
and helps in diagnosis of certain diseases.
LDH_1 is raised in heart disease.
Many enzymes have proved very usefull
drugs.
L-asperginase has proved very useful in
treatment of blood cancer in children.

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