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, .

. , ,
.

1.

a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an , . . .
.
a1 + a2 + a3 + + an + =

(1)

an

n=1

, an .
A1 = a1 ,

A2 = a1 + a2 , A3 = a1 + a2 + a3 , . . . ,
An = a1 + + an , . . .

(1).

1.
A = lim An
n

(1) . ,
, (..
).
.
1. ( !)
a + aq + aq 2 + + aq n1 + . . .
(2)

a aq n
sn =
.
1q
:
a
;
1) |q| < 1, (2) 1q
2) q > 1, a;
3) .
.
am+1 + am+2 + + am+k + =
(1) m- .

an

(3)

n=m+1

1. (1), . ,
- (3), .
1

2. (1) (3) m . lim m = 0.


m
P
P
3. n=1 an c .
n=1 can

X
X
can = c
an .
n=1

n=1 bn

n=1

(an bn ) =

n=1

n=1

an

n=1 (an

bn ),

bn .

n=1

4 ( ). ,
.
P
.
n=1 an , an > 0 n > 1.

1. . ,
, .
2.

X
1
1
1
1
= 1 + s + s + + s + ...
s
n
2
3
n

(4)

n=1

s > 1 s 6 1. s = 1 (4) .
.

X
X
(A)
an

(B)
bn .
n=1

n=1

2. n an 6 bn ,
(B) (A), (A) (B).
3.
lim an
n bn

= K,

0 6 K 6 ,

(B) K < (A), (A)


K > 0 (B). , 0 < K >
.
4. n
an+1
bn+1
6
,
an
bn
(B) (A), (A) (B).
.
P
(n!)2
1
3.
n=1 (2n)! .
(n!)2
n!
1
= n
< n,
(2n)!
2 (2n 1)!!
2
, , 2.

1 (2n 1)!! 2n 1.

4.

x
sin ,
n
n=1

0 < x < .

lim sin nx :

1
n

= x,

3 2.
. , . -

X
(A)
an
n=1

5 ( ). (A) ,

C = lim n an .
n

C < 1 , C > 1 .
 2
P
1 n
5.
.
n=1 1 n
q
 n2
n
n
= lim 1 n1 =
C = lim
1 n1
n

1
e

< 1.

, .

6 ( ). (A) ,
an+1
.
n an

D = lim

D < 1 , D > 1 .

P
x n
6.
n=1 n! n .
n+1
x
(n+1)! n+1
n
D = lim
= lim
x
n

n!

x 
n
1
n 1+ n

= xe .

, x < e x > e.

7 ( ). ,
f (x), [1, +), f (n) = an
n.
R +
(A) 1 f (x) dx.
R + dx
P 1
7.
n=1 ns . 1
xs
, s > 1, s.
.
.
:
P
8.
n=1 an , > 0
N , n > N m > 0
|an+1 + + an+m | < .

, , , , .
P
P
2.
n=1 an ,
n=1 |an |.

9 (). , .
, , , .
.
P
3.
n=1 an , an an+1 < 0 n > 1.

10 (). , .
8.

n=1

(1)n+1
n

. !

.
11 ( ).

n=1 an

(a1 + + an1 ) + (an1 +1 + + an2 ) + + (ank +1 + + ank+1 ) + . . .


.
, ,
. .
9.
1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + ...
,
(1 1) + (1 1) + (1 1) + . . .
, .
.
12 (). , , , .
, .
13 (). . 6
L 6 + , L.
.
(A)

n=1

(C)

n=1 cn ,

an

(B)

bn

n=1

cn = a1 bn1 + a2 bn2 + + an1 b1 .

14 (). (A) (B) , (C)


.

2.

f1 (x), f2 (x), . . . , fn (x), . . .

n=1

fn (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x) + + fn (x) + . . .

(5)

, fn (x) .
x (5) , . X R, ,
P .
f (x) = n=1 fn (x) .
. , , (,
) , . , -.
, .
4. (5) f (x) X > 0
N , n > N x X
|f1 (x) + + fn (x) f (x)| < ,
X .
15. (5) X , , > 0 x N , m > 1

|fn+1 (x) + + fn+m (x)| <

x X .

16 ( ). (5)
X
|fn (x)| 6 cn ,
n = 1, 2, . . . ,
P
n=1 cn , (5) X .
.
P17. f1 (x), . . . , fn (x), . . . X =
[a, b]
n=1 fn (x) f (x) . f (x)
X .
.
18. (5) X = [a, b] .
f (x), X ,
.
19 ( ). fn (x) X
lim fn (x) = cn . ,
xa
.
P
1)

n=1
P
Pcn ;
2) lim n=1 fn (x) = n=1 lim fn (x).
xa

xa

20 ( ). fn (x) X =
[a, b] (5) ,
Z bX

Z b


X
fn (x) dx =
fn (x) dx .
a

n=1

n=1

21 ( ). fn (x) X = [a, b]
, (5)
P .

, n=1 fn (x),

X
 X
fn (x) =
fn (x).
n=1

n=1

3.

X
an (x x0 )n = a0 + a1 (x x0 ) + a2 (x x0 )2 + + an (x x0 )n + . . . ,
n=0

a1 , . . . , an , . . . ( ) x0 .
, x0 = 0,

X
an xn = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn + . . .
(6)
n=0

22. (6) R, 0 6 R 6 ,
1) |x| < R ;
2) |x| > R .

(R, R) , R .
.
10.
1+

X
xn

n=1

n!

(, +), .. R = .
11.
1+

xn

n=1

R = 1, (1, 1), .
12.

(1)n1

n=1

x2n1
2n 1

R = 1, ,
.
13.

(1)n

n=1

xn
n

[1, 1); .

14. ,

X
xn

n=1

n2

[1, 1], .
. 1722 :
1) R (6), [r, r], 0 < r < R.
2) .
3)

X
X
n
an x
bn xn
n=0

n=0

x = 0, , .. an = bn n. ,
.
4) [0, r], |r| < R, :
Z rX


X
an n+1
an xn dx =
r
.
n+1
0
n=0
n=0

5) :

X
 X
n
an x
=
nan xn1 .
n=0

n=1

6) , f (x),
,
f (0)
f (0)
f (n) (0)
, a3 =
, . . . , an =
,...
2!
3!
n!
, ,
.
a0 = f (0), a1 = f (0), a2 =

. , f (x)
,
f (0) +

f (0)
f (0) 2
f (n) (0) n
x+
x + +
x + ...
1!
2!
n!

(7)

f (0)
f (0) 2
f (n) (0) n
x
x
x
1!
2!
n!
( n).
rn (x) = f (x) f (0)

(8)

23. , (7) f (x) x, ,


lim rn (x) = 0.

(9)

(9) , (8)


f (n+1) (x) n+1
rn (x) =
x
(10)
(n + 1)!


rn (x) =

f (n+1) (x)
(1 )n xn+1
(n + 1)!

(11)

( 0 6 6 1).
.
x
x2 x3
xn
+
+
+ +
+ ...,
(12)
1!
2!
3!
n!
x3 x5
x2n1
sin x = x
+
+ (1)n1
+ ...,
(13)
3!
5!
(2n 1)!
x2 x4
x2n
+
+ (1)n
+ ...,
(14)
cos x = 1
2!
4!
(2n)!
x3 x5
x2n1
arctg x = x
+
+ (1)n1
+ ...,
(15)
3
5
2n 1
1 x3 1 3 x5
1 3 (2n 1) x2n+1
arcsin x = x +
+

+ +
+ ...,
(16)
2 3
24 5
2 4 2n 2n + 1
m(m 1) 2
m(m 1) (m n + 1) n
(1 + x)m = 1 + mx +
x + +
x + ...,
(17)
12
n!
x2 x3
xn
ln(1 + x) = x
+
+ (1)n1
+ ...
(18)
2
3
n
.
ex = 1 +

1. (15) :

1
1 1 1
= arctg(1) = 1 + + + (1)n1
+ ...
4
3 5 7
2n 1

(19)

2. 23. ,
.
( 1
e x2 , x 6= 0,
f (x) =
0,
x = 0.
,
. , f (x)
.

4.
,
() ( ).
, f (x) , T 6= 0,
x
f (x + T ) = f (x).

(20)


, . ,
(20), , , [ T2 , T2 ].
. sin x
cos x. 2, , ,
[, ].

, f (x) T , f (x) = f ( TTx )


T . 2 [, ],
.
.
5.
0 , 1 , . . . , n , . . .
[a, b],
(
Z b
0, n 6= m,
n (x)m (x) dx =
1, n = m.
a
, [a, b] f (x)

f (x) = c0 0 (x) + c1 1 (x) + + cn n (x) + . . .
,

Z b
cn =
n (x)f (x) dx, n = 0, 1, . . .
(21)
a

6.
c0 0 (x) + c1 1 (x) + + cn n (x) + . . . ,
(21), f (x), 0 , 1 , . . .
[, ].
24.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, . . . , cos nx, sin nx, . . .

2
[, ].
, f (x). ,
a0 +

(an cos nx + bn sin nx),

n=1


Z
Z
Z
1
1
1
a0 =
f (x) dx, an =
f (x) cos nx dx, nn =
f (x) sin nx dx,
2


n = 1, 2, . . . an bn f (x).
,
.
25. [, ],
.

10

3. 25 . , , , , .
,

f (x + 0) = lim f (t),
f (x 0) = lim f (t).
t0+

t0

-
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
.
2
. , .
5. ,
a0 +

an cos nx,

n=1

.. , ,

bn sin nx,

n=1

.. .

4. [0, ],
[, ],
f (x) = f (x),

x > 0,

,
f (x) = f (x),

x > 0,

. , 5, ,
[0, ], , .
.
15.
x
2
[0, 2].
Z 2
1
x
dx = 0,
2 0
2

Z 2
Z 2
1
x
1
sin nx 2
1
cos nx dx =
( x)
+
sin nx dx = 0,
2 0
2
2
n 0
2n 0

Z 2
Z 2
1
x
1
cos nx 2
1
1
sin nx dx =
( x)

cos nx dx = .
2 0
2
2
n 0
2n 0
n
f (x) =


a0 =
an =
bn =

x X sin nx
=
,
2
n
n=1

0 < x < 2.

(22)

11

16. x 2x
,

x X sin 2nx
=
,
0 < x < .
(23)
4
2
2n
n=1

(22) (23),

X sin(2n 1)x
=
,
0 < x < .
4
2n 1
n=1
, x =

1 1 1
= 1 + + ...
4
3 5 7
17.

x2 x

4
2
[0, ].
Z
Z
1  x2 x 
2  x2 x 
a0 =

dx, an =

cos nx dx,
0
4
2
0
4
2

x2 x
2 X cos nx

= +
.
2
4
2
6
n
n=1
f (x) =

, x = 0

X
2
1
=
.
6
n2
n=1

(24)