Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Topic 2.1 to 2.1.

4 practice questions key


1.

C
[1]

2.

B
[1]

3.

D
[1]

4.

A
[1]

5.

C
[1]

6.

Diagram showing at least three organisms (two links) [1]


e.g. Grevillea leaves caterpillar kookaburra;
Spinifex seeds ants lizard snake eagle;
grass cow human;
The names of organisms are not actually required in the question so a
generalized diagram is acceptable:
green plant/producer herbivore/primary consumer carnivore/secondary
consumer;
Do not award credit for a food web diagram; arrows must be in correct direction.
explanation [1]
a series of organisms at different trophic levels (that occur in the same
environment/ habitat)/OWTTE;
2 max
[2]

7.

(a)

(i)

species diversity = number of species of organisms per unit;


habitat diversity = number of habitats/ecological niches per
unit area/within an ecosystem;

Topic 2.1 to 2.1.4 practice questions key


(ii)

(c)

generally the higher the habitat diversity, the higher the


species diversity;
generally in a high mountain range the complexity of
vegetation decreases with altitude;
complex tropical forest communities at base provides
variety of ecological niches for many species;
or
less complex vegetation at higher altitudes provides fewer
ecological niches;
and thus can support fewer bird species;
Any other appropriate points

2 max

Humans interfere with ecosystems in the following ways:


removing some organisms for food or other uses (hunting,
timber-cutting);
habitat destruction e.g. forest clearance/wetland drainage;
and resultant substitution of artificial ecosystems for natural
systems;
artificial systems often have a single dominant food-chain;
e.g. grass cow human;
this contrasts with complex food-webs of forest ecosystems;
pesticides remove both target species and others;
artificial ecosystems have lower habitat diversity (farmland,
plantations);
and therefore lower species diversity;
crops/livestock have very low genetic diversity;
simplified systems have fewer energy/matter pathways/
feedback loops;
and may thus suffer changes from which recovery is impossible;
Any other reasonable suggestion
[2 max] for simple statement of activities

5 max
[20]

8.

(a)

(i)

[1] for every two correctly placed in the table.


Producer

phytoplankton

(ii)

(iii)

Primary
Consumer
zooplankton

Secondary
Consumer
jellyfish

3 max
Tertiary
Consumer
puffins
dolphins

energy is lost as heat/through respiration at each stage in


the food chain;
so after 4 or 5 trophic stages there is not enough energy to
support another stage;
sand eels are the only source of food for mackerel, puffin and
gannet;
so numbers of these species may decline/they may have to
switch food source;
seals will have to rely more on herring, possibly reducing
their numbers/may have to switch food source;
amount of zooplankton may increase improving food supply
for jellyfish and herring;

Decomposer
crustaceans

3 max
2

Похожие интересы