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# , , .

(, ), (, ,
), .
, ,
.

1. ,
(
) .
.
1 ( ). f (x) .
y = F (x),
dy
= f (x).
(1)
dx
y, ,

(, ) ,

Z x
y=
f (x) dx,
(2)
x0

x0 .

## 1. , (1)? f (2) : , f (x) = x,

2
2
x2 + const. , , f (x) = ex , ,

, (2)
.
2 ( ).
v = (a(x, y), b(x, y)). ?

x = x(t),

y = y(t),

t . ,
dx
= a(x, y),
dt
, a =

k2
x,

dy
= b(x, y).
dt

b = ky ,
x2
y2
+
= const,
2k2 2l2
1

a =

k2
x,

b=

k2
y

y2
x2
2 = const.
2
2k
2l
a b, ,
, .
3 ( ). F =
(f (x, y), g(x, y)). m F F = ma, a .
- ( ),
d2 x
d2 y
m 2 = f (x, y), m 2 = f (x, y).
(3)
dt
dt
, , M , m, ,

x
d2 x
= 2
,
2
dt
x + y2

d2 y
y
= 2
,
2
dt
x + y2

. (,
, ),
.
2. , (3) m . , , - .
4 ( ). , ( ) .
m.
x , ,
d2 x
= kx,
k > 0.
(4)
dt2
(4)
r
r
k
k
x = A cos
t + B sin
t,
(5)
m
m
A B . , ,
.
m

5. ,
d2 x
d2 y
=
0,
= g,
dt2
dt2
g .
1
x = t + , y = gt2 + t + ,
2
. , , , . ( , )
.
.

6. y = f (x). f ,
, , k : l?
x,
lf k
+ = 0.
f
x

y l xk = const.
,
.

2.
, , ()
( ) .
1.
dy d2 y
dk y
, 2,..., k) = 0
(6)
dx dx
dx
. k (6). y = f (x) (6),
F (x, y,

F (x, f,

df d2 f
dk f
, 2,..., k) = 0
dx dx
dx

1 .
3. , , 1, : x, t
..
4. 1 ,
, .
,

dy1
dyn dk y1
dk yn

## F1 (x, y1 , . . . , yn , dx , . . . , dx , dxk , . . . , dxk ) = 0,

(7)
...

dy1
dyn dk y1
dk yn
Fn (x, y1 , . . . , yn , dx , . . . , dx , dxk , . . . , dxk ) = 0
( k), -
y = (f1 (x), . . . , fn (x)) , yi fi (x) (7) .
5. , ,
. ,
. ,
T
2T
=
t
x2
. .
1 (6) .

.
,
. : , (7), , nk
c11 , . . . , c1k , c21 , . . . , c2k , . . . , cn1 , . . . , cnk .

(8)

, ,
(7) nk . .
.
2. x0 R. (7) y = (y1 , . . . , yn ),
(k1)

(x0 ) = c1k ,

(k1)
c22 , . . . , y1
(x0 )

## y2 (x0 ) = c21 , y1 (x0 ) =

.....................................

= c2k ,

cij ( ).
7. 3
. , , n ,
4n 2n 2n . , ,
6n .
, , ,
. , .
-, pij , pij j-
yi . (7)

(9)
...

## Fn (x, p10 , . . . , pn0 , p11 , . . . , pn1 , p1k , . . . , pnk ) = 0.

-, , = (x0 , p011 , . . . , p0nk )
F1
F1
p
.
.
.
p
1k
nk
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fn . . . Fn
p1k

pnk

. (9)
p1k , . . . , pnk , ..

.............

## pnk = fn (x, p10 , . . . , pn0 , p11 . . . , pn1 , . . . , p1,k1 , . . . , pn,k1 ).

(k)
(k1)
(k1)

, . . . , yn
),
y1 = f1 (x, y1 , . . . , yn , y1 . . . , yn , . . . , y1
(10)
.............

(k)
(k1)
(k1)

yn = fn (x, y1 , . . . , yn , y1 . . . , yn , . . . , y1
, . . . , yn
),

.
.

1 ( ). (10) , .
f1 , . . . , fn ,
1) ,
2) pij , i = 1, . . . , n, j = 0, . . . , k 1,
.
(8) (x0 , x0 +) y = (y1 , . . . , yn ), , .. ,

di y
= ci,j+1 ,
i = 1, . . . , n, j = 0, . . . , k 1.
dxi x=x0

6. ,
(x0 , x0 + ), , x0 . ,
y = 1 + y2
y(0) = 0, y = tg x,
x = k.
8. , .
yy = 1.
, , y = 0.
1
y=
x x0 ,
2
(x0 , 0) .
9 ( ). v =
(v1 , v2 ) (. 2)2
(
dx1
dt = v1 (x1 , x2 ),
(11)
dx2
dt = v2 (x1 , x2 ).
( 1).
(x1 , x2 ) R2 ( (11))
x1 = x1 (t), x2 = x2 (t),
, x1 (0) = x1 x2 (0) = x2 . t R
Ft : R2 R2 ,

2, , v + v .
1 x
2 x
1

, :
F0 = id,

## Ft1 +t2 = Ft1 Ft2 .

{Ft } ( ) v. ,
.
, (v1 , v2 ) , {Ft } , 3.

v = x2
+ x1
.
x1
x2

x1 = R cos t,

x2 = R sin t,



sin t cos t
,
cos t sin t

.. t ( t) .
7 ( ). 1 (
),
, 4.

y = f (x, y)

(12)

c10 = y0 x = x0 .
, (12) [x0 , x1 ].
n
x1 x0
h=
.
n
, ,
,

x0 + h, x0 + 2h, . . . , x0 + ih, . . . , x0 + nh = x1 ,

## y1 = y(x0 + h) = y0 + f (x0 , y0 )h,

y2 = y(x0 + 2h) = y1 + f (x0 + h, y1 )h,
y3 = y(x0 + 3h) = y2 + f (x0 + 2h, y2 )h,
.................

(13)

## yi+1 = y(x0 + (i + 1)h) = yi + f (x0 + ih, yi )h

.................
(x0 + ih, yi ) , ,
. , 1, n (.. h 0) (12)
.
3 , -

.
4 .

y1 = f1 (x, y1 , . . . , yn ),
....................

yn = fn (x, y1 , . . . , yn )

: (13)
....................
y1 )i + f1 (x0 + ih, (
y1 )i , . . . , (
yn )i ),
y1 (x0 + (i + 1)h) = (
....................
yn (x0 + (i + 1)h) = (
y1 )i + fn (x0 + ih, (
yn )i , . . . , (
yn )i ),
....................
8. k,
. ,

y = f (x, y, y )
y1 = y, y2 = y
(
y1 = y2 ,
y2 = f (x, y1 , y2 ),

y = f (x, y, y , y )
y1 = y, y2 = y , y3 = y

y 1 = y 2 ,
y2 = y3 ,

y3 = f (x, y1 , y2 , y3 )
..

3.
, ,
. ,
.
. y = f (x), 1.
.

3.1.

y = f (x)g(y)
. g(y),

y
= f (x),
g(y)

dy
= f (x) dx.
(14)
g(y)

Z x
Z y
dy
=
f (x) dx,
y0 g(y)
x0

G(y) = F (x) + c,

(15)

G(y) F (x) - g1 f , c .
, (15) y x.
, g(y), , , y = a,
a g(a) = 0.
10.
y = (y 2 1)x,

(16)

y
= x.
y2 1

(14),

..

 1
1 

dy = 2 dx.
y1 y+1
y 1

ln
= x2 + c,
y+1

(17)

c = const,

y=

1 + kex
,
1 kex2

k = const.

(18)

y 2 1, y = 1. y = 1
(18) k = 0, y = 1 .
, (16) (18), y = 1.
11.
y = x3

dy
, ,

y2

1 y2.

= x3 dx,

1 4
x + c,
c = const.
4
, (19)
arcsin y =

y = sin


1 4
x + c, ,
4

y = 1.

(19)

3.2.

(20)

P =

F
,
x

Q=

F
.
y

(21)

## F P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy.

1. (20) ,

P
Q
=
.
(22)
x
y
F ,

F (x, y) = c,

(23)

c = const.

12.
y +

x + y
= 0,
x + y

, , , = const,

6= 0,

(24)

(x + y) dx + (x + y) dy = 0.

(25)

(22), (24)
, = , ..
y +

ax + by
,
bx + cy

a, b, c = const,

ac 6= b2 .

(26)

(25):
F (x, y) =

1
(ax2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ).
2

(26)
ax2 + 2bx + cy 2 = d,

d = const.

, :
2. (26)
1) ac b2 > 0 ( d = 0),
2) ac b2 < 0 ( d = 0).
13. ,
y +

ax2 + 2bxy + cy 2
=0
bx2 + 2cxy + dy 2

,
ax3 + 3bx2 y + 3cxy 2 + dy 3 = const.

10

9 ( ). ,

P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy = 0
. ,
= (x, y) ,
(P )
(Q)
=
y
x

(27)

 Q P 

P
+

.
x
y
x
y
,
(.. ) . ,
Q

P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy = 0,
, . , (27), .
14.
y +

y 2 + xy + 1
x2 + xy + 1

(x2 + xy + 1) dy + (y 2 + xy + 1) dx.

(28)

2
((x2 + xy + 1) = 2x + y,
(y + xy + 1) = 2y + 1,
x
y
. , (28) x + y,

1 
1 
x+
dy + y +
dx,
(29)
x+y
x+y
, ,
1

x+
=
(xy + ln|x + y|), y +
=
(xy + ln|x + y|).
x+y
y
x+y
x
(28) ,
xy + ln|x + y| = c,

c = const,

x + y = kexy ,

k = const.

3.3.

y = f (x, y)
, R

(30)

## f (x, y) = f (x, y).

y
u= .
x
,
y
f (x, y) = f (1, ).
x

(31)

11

, (31) ,
y = xu + u,
(30)
xu + u = (u),
(u) = f (1, u). :
Z u
du
F (u) =
= ln|x| + const.
u0 (u) u

F (u) u xy , (30).
10. (u) = u .
15.
x + y
y +
,
6= 0,
x + y
12. , .
+ u
,
xu + u +
+ u

u +
dx
du +
= 0.
2
u + ( + )u +
x
, , , , , . ,

xy
y +
x+y

u+1
dx
du +
= 0,
2
u +1
x

1
ln(u2 + 1) + arctg u + ln|u| = const,
2
..
y

x2 + y 2 = ke2 arctg x ,

k = const.

,
r = ke .
, -
= arcctg k.
16. , : , ?
, x
5 .
q
2
1 + xy 1

y =
.
y
x

5 .

12

(31),

1 + u2 1
.
xu + u =
u

, w =

dw
dx
=
.
1w
x
,
x(w 1) = c,
c = const,

1 + u2 =

1 + u2 .

c
+ 1.
x

,
y 2 = c(2x + c).
, ,
.

3.4. ,
p = y . , ,
, .
F (x, y , y ) = 0,

(32)

y.
p = y

(33)

F (x, p, p ) = 0.
, y , , .
17.
y + (y )2 = 0.
(33)
p + p2 = 0,

dp
+ dx = 0.
p2

,
..

1
= x + c1 ,
z
y =

1
x + c1

y = ln|x + c1 | + c2 ,
c1 , c2 = const.
, y = const, p2 .

18. :
p
3
Ry = 1 + (y )2 ,

13

R = const.

(33)

dx =

R dp
3

(1 + p2 ) 2

p
x c1 = R p
.
1 + p2
,
y
x c1 = R p
.
1 + (y )2

(34)

, t y = tg t. (34) ,
tg t
= R sin t,
x c1 = R p
1 + tg2 t

dy = y dx = tg t(R cos t dt) = R sin t dt.
,
x c1 = R sin t, y c2 = R cos t,

(x c1 )2 + (y c2 )2 = R2 .
, R
.
, .
F (y, y , y ) = 0,

(35)

x .
p = y,

(36)

-:
y =

dy
dy dy
dp
=
=p .
dx
dy dx
dy

(37)

, (35)
dp 
=0
dy
p, y .
F y, p, p

19 ( ). , (, ) x a (,
), v, .
?
, ,

a (y )2 p
y =
1 + (y )2 .
(38)
v
y
(35) ,
.

14

(38) (36), 6
a dy
dp
p
(39)
= .
2
v y
p 1+p
, p = y ,
dp
p

1 + p2

= q

dp
p2

1+

1
p2

, (39)
1 r 1
 a
ln
+
+
1
= (ln|y| + c).
p
p2
v
,
y0 ,
r
 y a
1
1
v
+
+
1
=
.
p
p2
y0
,
2  y  av  y  va
=

,
p
y0
y0

1  y  av  y  va 
dx =

.
2 y0
y0
, a < v, .. ,
a
#
" y 1+ a
y 1 v
v
1

1
y 0 y0
y
x=
0
+ x0 ,
2
1 + av
1 av
x0 .
av
x1 = x0 + y0 2
,
v a2

y0 v
T = 2
.
v a2

3.5.
3.
ak (x)y (k) + ak1 (x)y (k1) + + a1 (x)y + a0 (x)y = b(x)

(40)

. , b(x) = 0, ,
. ,

(k)
(k)
1
n
1
n

## a1k (x)y1 + + a1k (x)yn + + a10 (x)y1 + + a10 (x)yn = b1 (x),

(41)
......................

(k)
(k)
1
n
1
n
ank (x)y1 + + ank (x)yn + + an0 (x)y1 + + an0 (x)yn = bn (x)
, , b1 , . . . , bn ,
, .
. .
6 p, y = const, ,

, .

15

3. (40). :
1) y1 , y2 , 1 y1 +2 y2
1 , 2 R;
2) y1 y2 , ;
3)
.
1 .
, 3
A(x)y + B(x)y = C(x)
. A(x),
y + P (x)y = Q(x).

(42)

y + P (x)y = 0

(43)

y = ke

Rx

x0

P (x) dx

(44)

k = const.

3 3, (42) (44)
- . ,
. .
, (44) k , x: k = k(x).

k(x)e

Rx

x0

P (x) dx

(42),
R
R


x P (x) dx
x P (x) dx
k(x)e x0
) + P (x)k(x)e x0
= Q(x),

Rx

P (x) dx

k = Qe x0
.
, k(x)
Z x Rx
P (x) dx
Qe x0
dx
x0

4. (42)
Z x Rx
R
R
xx P (x) dx
P (x) dx
xx P (x) dx
0
y= e 0
Qe x0
dx +
ke
=
|
{z
}
x0

|
{z
}

=e

Rx

x0

P (x) dx

Z

k+

x0

Rx

Qe

x0

P (x) dx


,

k = const. (45)

20 ( ). , i
E
di
L + Ri = E,
(46)
dt

16

t , R L ( ).

R

i = ke L t .

R Z
R
e L t t
Ee L t dt.
L
t0
(46)
1 Z t
 R
R
i=
Ee L t dt + k e L t ,
L t0

k = const.

(47)

. . (47)
 R
E
i=
+ k e L t .
R
, t = 0 ,
k.
R 
E
i=
1 e L t .
R
.
E = E0 sin t.

LE0 sin(t )

,
R 2 + 2 L2
= arctg

L
R ,

R
LE0 sin(t )
i = ke L t +
,
R 2 + 2 L2

k = const.

21 ( ).
dy
+ P (x)y = Q(x)y n .
(48)
dx
. n = 0 ,
n = 1 . n .
,
z = y 1n .

(49)

, (49) ,
dz
dy
= (1 n)y n .
dx
dx
7
(48)
dy
y n
+ P y 1n = Q,
dx
(49) (50) z:
dz
+ (1 n)P z = (1 n)Q,
dx
7 y = 0!

(50)

17

.
, ,
x

dy

4y = x2 y.
dx

n = 12 . , (49) z =

y. ,
dz
2z
x

= .
dx
x
2

z = kx2 ,

z=

1 2
x ln x.
2

1
ln x).
2
y,
z = x2 (k +

1
k = const.
ln x)2 ,
2
y = 0, .
y = x4 (k +

3.6.
, , ,
. (. 7).
,
.
22.
m

d2 x
= kx,
dt2

k > 0,

(. 4). , (.. )
t = 0
x = x0 + x1 t + x2 t2 + + xi ti + =

xi ti .

i=0

t,

X
d2 x
= 2x2 + 6x3 t + 12x4 t2 + + (i + 2)(i + 1)xi+2 ti + =
(i + 2)(i + 1)xi+2 ti .
2
dt
i=0

,
m

X
X
(i + 2)(i + 1)xi+2 ti = k
xi ti .
i=0

i=0

(51)

18

, m 2x2 = k x0 ,
m 6x3 = k x1 ,
m 12x4 = k x2 ,
......................
m (i + 2)(i + 1)xi+2 = k xi ,
......................

k
i = 0, 1, 2, . . .
xi ,
m(i + 2)(i + 1)
xi+2 8 , , . ,

k  x0
x2 =
,
m 2!
k 2 x0
x4 =
,
m 4!
k 3 x0
x6 =
,
m 6!
......................
k i x0
x2i =
m 2i!
......................
xi+2 =

k  x1
,
m 3!
k 2 x1
,
x5 =
m 5!
k 3 x1
x7 =
,
m 7!
......................
k i x1
x2i+1 =
m (2i + 1)!
......................
x3 =

k
x1
, A = x0 , B =
.
m

, , (51)

X
X
X
X
X
(t)2i
(t)2i+1
x=
xi ti =
x2i t2i +
x2i+1 t2i+1 = A
(1)i
(1)i
+B
.
2i!
(2i + 1)!
=

i=0

i=0

i=0

i=0

i=0

, cos t,
sin t. ,
r
r
k
k
x = A cos
t + B sin
t,
m
m
8 , , .

19

A B .
23 ( ).
y = y 2 + R(x),

(52)

,
, .
11.
y = P (x)y 2 + Q(x)y + R(x),

y = y 2 + R(x).
, , ,
.
12. , . , R = 0,
, P = 0
.
, ,
(2)
. yi , yi ri y(x), y 2 (x) R(x)
:

X
X
X
(2)
y=
yi xi , y 2 =
yi xi , R =
ri xi .
(53)
i=0

i=0

i=0

(53) (52)
x,
(2)
(i + 1)yi+1 = yi + ri ,
i = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(54)
,

X
X
(2)
i 2
(
yi x ) =
yi xi
i=0

i=0

(2)

y0 = y02 ,
(2)

y1 = 2y0 y1 ,
(2)

y2 = 2y0 y2 + y12 ,
(2)

y3 = 2(y0 y3 + y1 y2 ),
(2)

y4 = 2(y0 y4 + y1 y3 ) + y22 ,
.......................
(2)

(2)

## y2i+1 = 2(y0 y2i+1 + y1 y2i + + yi yi+1 ),

.......................
(54) ,
2(y0 y2i + y1 y2i1 + + yi1 yi+1 ) + yi2 + r2i
,
2i + 1
2(y0 y2i+1 + y1 y2i + + yi yi+1 ) + r2i+1
=
.
2i + 2

y2i+1 =
y2i+2

20

. ,
y1 = y02 + r0 ,
y03 + y0 r0 + r1
,
2
2y 4 + 3y02 r0 + y0 r1 + r02 + r2
y3 = 0
3
y2 =

..

4.

an y (k) + ak1 y (n1) + + a1 y + a0 y = f (x)

(55)

, a0 , . . . , an . f , , ,
; .
(. 4.2).
, , .

4.1.
4.1.1.
(55) ..
an y (k) + an1 y (k1) + + a1 y + a0 y = 0.

(56)

k, an 6= 0 , an , ,
y (k) + an1 y (k1) + + a1 y + a0 y = 0.

(57)

(57)
y = ex .

(58)

y = ex , y = 2 ex , . . . , y (n) = n ex ,
, (58) (57),
(n + an1 n1 + + a1 + a0 )ex = 0
, .. ex 6= 0,
,

n + an1 n1 + + a1 + a0 = 0.

(59)

5. ex (57), (59).
(59) (57)
P (). , (56).

21

. (.. 1)
y = Cex ,
1 2

C R,

y = C1 e1 x + C2 e2 x ,

(60)

C1 , C2 R,

.. , k ,
(57)
y = C1 e1 x + C2 e2 x + + Ck ek x .
24.

y y = 0.
P () = 2 1

1,2 = 1. ,

y = C1 ex + C2 ex .
m.
m > 0. m-

## y = (C0 + C1 x + + Cm1 xm1 )ex ,

C0 , C1 , . . . , Cm1 R.
(61)
, = 0,
y = C0 + C1 x + + Cm1 xm1 .

, (58) (61) m = 0.
25.

y y y + y = 0

P () = 3 2 + 1 = ( 1)2 ( + 1),
1 = 1 2 2 = 1 1.
y = (C0 + C1 x)ex ,

y = C2 ex .
,
y = (C0 + C1 x)ex + C2 ex .
. = p + iq
1.
y = ep+iq = epx (cos qx + i sin qx).
=
, P () ,
p iq
y = epiq = epx (cos qx i sin qx).

y = epx sin qx,
y = epx cos qx,

22

, , - iq

y = epx (C1 cos qx + C2 sin qx),
C1 C2 R .
26 ( ).
d2 x
+ a2 x = 0,
a R.
dt2
(. 4).
.

P () = 2 + a2 x
1,2 = ia , ,
x = C1 cos at + C2 sin at.
A =

C12

C22

= arctg

C1
C2 ,

x = A sin(at + ).

A , a , .

2
T =
,
a

a
=
.
2
27 ( ).
d2 x
dx
+ 2b
+ a2 x = 0,
2
dt
dt
. , b ( , b < a)
P () = 2 + 2b + a2 = 0,

p
1,2 = b i a2 b2

p
p
x = ebt (C1 cos a2 b2 t + C2 sin a2 b2 t),

p
x = Aebt sin( a2 b2 t + ).

, .
28. , , , .

y + y = 0.

1 = 1,

2,3

1
3
= i
.
2
2

23

,
x

y = C1 e

+e

x
2

3
3 
x + C3 sin
x .
C2 cos
2
2

m. = p iq ),
= p + iq m ( ,



## y = epx (C0 + C1 x + + Cm1 xm1 ) cos qx + (C0 + C1 x + + Cm1

xm1 ) sin qx =

= epx A0 sin(qx + 0 ) + A1 x sin(qx + 1 ) + + Am1 xm1 sin(qx + m1 ) .
29.

y IV 4y + 8y 8y + 4y = 0.

P () = 4 43 + 82 8 + 4 = (2 2 + 2)2
1,2 = 1 i 2. ,

y = ex (C0 + C1 x) cos x + (C0 + C1 x) sin x .

.
2.
y (k) + ak1 y (k1) + + a1 y + a0 y = 0

(62)

1 , . . . , s l1 , . . . , ls 1 = p1 iq1 , . . . , n = pn iqn m1 , . . . , mn ,
l1 + + ls + 2(m1 + + mn ) = k.
(62)
y = F1 + + Fs + G1 + + Gn ,

## Fi = ei x (C0i + C1i x + + Clii 1 xli 1 )


Gj = epj x (D0j + D1j x + + Dmj 1 xmj 1 ) cos qj x + (E0j + E1j x + + Emj 1 xmj 1 ) sin qj x .

4.1.2.

3,
, - . ,

y (k) + ak1 y (k1) + + a1 y + a0 y = f (x)

(63)

,
Pr (x)ex ,

## epx (Pr (x) sin qx + Qr (x) cos qx),

Pr (x) Qr (x) r.

(64)

24

6.
y (k) + ak1 y (k1) + + a1 y + a0 y = Pr (x)ex

xm Rr (x)ex
m ,

y (k) + ak1 y (k1) + + a1 y + a0 y = epx (Pr (x) sin qx + Qr (x) cos qx)

## xm epx (Rr (x) sin qx + Sr (x) cos qx),

m = p + iq 9 .
Rr (x) Sr (x) r. , , .
13. y1 (63) f1 , y2 ,
f2 . y1 + y2 f1 +f2 . 6 (63),
(64).
30.
y + y = x2 + 1 + 3xex .
:
y + y = x2 + 1

y + y = 3xex .
P () = 3 +2 ; 1 = 0
( 2) 2 = 1 ( 1). ,
y1 = x2 (a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 ),

y2 = ex (b0 + b1 x),
ai , bj . y1 ,
1 + x2 = y1 + y1 = (a0 x2 + a1 x3 + a2 x4 ) + (a0 x2 + a1 x3 + a2 x4 ) =
= (6a1 + 24a2 x) + (2a0 + 6a1 x + 12a2 x2 ) = (6a1 + 2a0 ) + (24a2 + 6a1 )x + 12a2 x2 .
,

,
a2 =
,

6a1 + 2a0 = 1,
24a2 + 6a1 ,

12a2 = 1,

1
,
12

1
a1 = ,
3

3
a0 = .
2

3
1
1
y1 = x2 x3 + x4
2
3
12
.
, y2 ,


3xex = y2 + y2 = ex (b0 + b1 x) + ex (b0 + b1 x) =
9 , .

25

## = (3b1 + b0 + b1 x)ex + (2b1 + b0 + b1 x)ex = (5b1 + 2b0 + 2b1 x)ex

, ,

5b1 + 2b0 = 0,
2b1 = 3.

3

15 
.
2
4
,
3
3
1
1
15 
y = C1 ex + C2 + C3 x + x2 x3 + x4 + ex x
,
|
{z
}
2
3
12 {z
2
4 }
|

y2 = ex

C1 , C2 , C3 .
31.

y y = ex x cos x.

= 1 i P () = 2 1,


y = ex (a0 + a1 x) cos x + (b0 + b1 x) sin x .

,

  x

ex x cos x = ex (a0 + a1 x) cos x + (b0 + b1 x) sin x
e (a0 + a1 x) cos x + (b0 + b1 x) sin x =




x
=e
2a1 + 2b0 + 2b1 a0 + (2b1 a1 )x cos x + 2b1 2a0 2a1 b0 (2a1 + b1 )x sin x .
,

## 2a1 + 2b0 + 2b1 a0 = 0,

2b a = 1,
1
1
2b1 2a0 2a1 b0 = 0,

2a1 b1 = 0,

1
2
14
2
a1 = , b1 = , a0 = , b0 = .
5
5
25
25
,


1
14 
2
2
y=
C1 ex + C2 e1
+ ex x +
cos x + x +
sin x .
|
{z
}
5
25
5
25
|
{z
}

32. (. 26),
.
d2 x
+ a2 x = p sin t,
(65)
dt2
a, p . 1,2 = ai,
.
1: 6= a. ,
.
x = cos t + sin t.
(65),
= 0,

p
.
a2 2

26

,
p
sin t.
(66)
2
, . ,
a.
x = A sin(at + ) +

a2

2: = a. .

x = t( cos t + sin t).

p
= , = 0,
2a
..
p
cos at.
x = A sin(at + )
2a
, .
.
33. (. 27)
.
d2 x
dt
+ 2b
= p sin t.
(67)
2
dt
dx
- b < a , (67).

p
p
sin(t + ),
x = Aebt sin( a2 b2 t + ) + p
2
2
2
2
2
(a ) + 4b

2b
= arctg 2
.
a 2
,
. , , a,
- b.
. .

d2 x
+ qx = f (x),
q 6= 0.
dt2

a0 X
+
(ak cos kx + bk sin kx)
2
k=1

.
.

1: q 6= n2 .


a0 X  ak
bk
y=
+
cos
kt
+
sin
kt
.
2q
q k2
q k2
k=1

, .

27

2: q = n2 . q n2 - n,


X  ak
bk
bn
a0
an
y= 2+
cos
kt
+
sin
kt
t cos nt + t sin nt.
2n
n2 k 2
n2 k 2
2n
2n
k6=n

, n .
: ( ) (, ),
.

4.2.
, (. 8) (.. ) . ,

dy1

## dx = a11 y1 + a12 y2 + + a1n yn + f1 (x),

dy2 = a y + a y + + a y + f (x),
21 1
22 2
2n n
2
dx
(68)

.
.
.
.

dyn
dx = an1 y1 + an2 y2 + + ann yn + fn (x),

aij R . f1 , . . . , fn , , .
,
.
y = (y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ) = (1 ex , 2 ex , . . . , n ex ),

1 , 2 , . . . , n , R.

(69)

(69) (68),

## 1 ex = a11 1 ex + a12 2 + + a1n n ex ,

ex = a ex + a + + a ex ,
2
21 1
22 2
2n n

.
.
.
.

## (a11 )1 + a12 2 + + a1n n = 0,

a + (a ) + + a = 0,
21 1
22
2
2n n

.
.
.
.

## an1 1 + an2 2 + + (ann )n = 0,

.. 1 , . . . , n .
, , , ..

a11
a12
...
a1n

a21
a22 . . .
a2n

(70)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 0.

an1
an2
. . . ann

n . . 2 2.

28

,
(
dy1
dx
dy2
dx

= a11 y1 + a12 y2 ,
= a21 y1 + a22 y2 .

(71)

a11
a
12
= 2 (a11 + a22 ) + a11 a22 a12 a21 .
P () =
a21
a22

(72)

= (a11 + a22 )2 4(a11 a22 a12 a21 ) = (a11 a22 )2 + 4a12 a21 .

1: < 0. 1,2 = p iq .

y1 = k1 e(p+iq)x = k1 ep (cos qx + i sin qx),

## y1 = k1 e(piq)x = k1 ep (cos qx i sin qx), y2 = k2 e(piq)x = k2 ep (cos qx i sin qx),

.

y1 + y1
y2 + y2
, y2 =
(73)
y1 =
2
2

y1 y1
y2 y2
y1 =
, y2 =
.
(74)
2i
2i
34.
(
dy1
dx + 7y1 y2 = 0,
dy2
dx + 2y1 + 5y2 = 0.

7
1

= 2 + 12 + 37.
2
5

1,2 = 6 i.

y1 = k1 e(6+i)x ,

y2 = k2 e(6+i)x

y1 = k1 e(6i)x , y2 = k2 e(6i)x .
k1 k2
,

(1 + 7)k1 k2 = (1 + i)k1 k2 = 0.
(2 + 7)k1 k2 = (1 i)k1 k2 = 0.
k1 = 1,

k2 = 1 + i,

k1 = 1,

k2 = 1 i.

y1 = e(6+i)x ,

y2 = (1 + i)e(6+i)x

y1 = e(6i)x ,

y2 = (1 i)e(6i)x .

29

(73) (74)
y1 = e6x cos x,

y2 = e6x sin x

## y2 = e6x ((C1 + C2 ) cos x + (C2 C1 ) sin x).

2: > 0. , 1 2 .
y1 = k11 e1 x ,

y2 = k21 e1 x

y1 = k12 e2 x , y2 = k22 e2 x ,

(
(
(a11 1 )k11 + a12 k21 = 0,
(a11 2 )k12 + a12 k22 = 0,
a21 k11 + (a22 1 )k21 = 0,
a21 k12 + (a22 2 )k22 = 0.
35.
(

y1
dx
y2
dx

= 2y1 + 2y2 ,
= 2y1 y2 .

2
2

P () =
= 2 6.
2
1
1 = 3 2 = 2. ,
y1 = k11 e3x ,

y2 = k21 e3x

y1 = k12 e2x ,

y2 = k22 e2x ,

k11 = k21 ,

2k12 + k22 = 0.

,
y1 = C1 e3x + C2 e2x ,

## y2 = C1 e3x 2C2 e2x .

3: = 0. 2.
y1 = (k11 + k12 x)ex , y2 = (k21 + k22 x)ex ,

(
k12 + (k11 + k12 x) = a11 (k11 + k12 x) + a12 (k21 + k22 x),
k22 + (k21 + k22 x) = a21 (k11 + k12 x) + a22 (k21 + k22 x).
36.
(

dy1
dx
dy2
dx

= 4y1 + y2 ,
= y1 + 2y2 .

4
1

P () =
= 2 6 + 9.
1 2

30

= 3 2. ,

:
k12 + k22 = 0,

## k11 + k21 = k12 .

k12 = C1 k21 = C2 ,
y1 = (C1 C2 + C1 x)e3x ,

y2 = (C2 C1 x)e3x .

. , , , 2 2 .

(
dy1
dx = a11 y1 + a12 y2 + f1 (x),
(75)
dy2
dx = a21 y1 + a22 y2 + f2 (x)
2 2 . a12 ,
y1 .
, y2 ,
.
a12 6= 0,
dy1
dx

a11 y1 f1 (x)
.
(76)
a12
, y1 :
y2 =

d2 y1
dy1
(a11 + a22 )
+ (a11 a22 a12 a22 )y1 = a12 f2 a22 f1 + f1 ,
2
dx
dx
10 . (76), y2 , , .
37. 34 :
(
dy1
2
dx + 7y1 y2 = x ,
dy2
x
dx + 2y1 + 5y2 = e .
,
dy1
+ 7y1 x2 .
dx
,
y2 =

(77)

d2 y1
dy1
+ 12
+ 37y1 = ex + 5x2 + 2x.
2
dx
dx
y + y ,
y = C0 ex ,

y = C1 + C2 x + C3 x2 ,

d2 y
dy
+
12
+ 37y = ex
dx2
dx
10, -

31

dy
d2 y
+
12
+ 37y = 5x2 + 2x.
dx2
dx

(78)

(C0 + 12C0 + 37C0 )ex = ec ,
.. C0 =

1
50 ,

2C3 + 12(C2 + 2C3 x) + 37(C1 + C2 x + C3 x2 ) = 5x2 + 2x,

..

37C3 = 5,
24C3 + 37C2 = 2,

## 2C3 + 12C2 + 37C1 = 0.

5
46
182
, C2 = 2 , C1 = 3 .
37
37
37
2 +12+37 1,2 = 6i,
(78)
1
182
46
5
y1 = e6x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x) + ex + 3 2 x + x2 .
50
37
37
37
y2 (77).
C3 =

38. 35 :
(
dy1
3x
dx = 2y1 + 2y2 + xe ,
dy2
dx = 2y1 y2 + sin x.

1 dy1
1
y1 xe3x .
2 dx
2
(79) ,
y2 =

d2 y1 dy1
6y2 = (1 + 4x)e3x + 2 sin x.

dx2
dx
, y + y ,
y = x(C0 + C1 x)e3x ,

d2 y dy

6y = (1 + 4x)e3x
dx2
dx

d2 y dy

6y = 2 sin x.
dx2
dx
5C1 = 2,

..

y = C2 cos x + C3 sin x,

2C1 + 6C0 = 1,

2
1
C1 = , C0 = .
5
30
(
7C2 + C3 = 0,
C2 7C3 = 2.
C2 =

1
,
25

C3 =

7
.
25

(79)

(80)

32

, (80)

1
1
2 
7
cos x
sin x.
y1 = C1 + x + x2 e3x + C2 e2x +
30
5
25
25
y2 y1 (79).
39. 36, :
(
dy1
5x
dx = 4y1 + y2 + e ,
dy2
dx = y1 + 2y2 + x.

y2 =
, ,

dy1
4y1 e5x
dx

(81)

dy1
d2 y1
6
+ 9y1 = 3e5x + x.
2
dx
dx

3 5x 1
2
e + x
4
9
27

3
1
2
y1 = (C0 + C1 x)e3x + e5x + x .
4
9
27
y2 (81).

5.
, , .

5.1.
5.1.1.
f (t) F (p) p = s + i,
+
Z
F (p) =
f (t)ept dt.

(82)

## f (t) , F (p) . (82)

f (t) F (p).

.
f (t) : F (p),
f (t)
. F (p).
(82) f (t)
t,
1) f (t) ;
2) f (t) = 0 t < 0;
3) t + f (t) , , ,
, M > 0 s0 > 0 ,
|f (t)| 6 M es0 t t.

33

F (p) Re p = s > s0
.
40. ,
(
e2t sin 3t
f (t) =
0

t > 0,
t < 0

. 1)3).
1) ,
Zt2

e2t sin 3t dt

t1

t1 t2 . 2) , f (t) = 0 t < 0. ,
3) , t |e2t sin 3t| 6 e2t .
M 3) 1, s0 = 2.
,
(
1 t > 0,
(t) =
0 t < 0.
14. f (t) t < 0.
41. ,
f (t) = e3t .
f (t) = e3t s0 = 3. , F (p) , Re p > 3. F (p) (82):
+
+
+
Z
Z

1
3t pt
(p3)t
(p3)t
e
F (p) =
e e dt =
e
dt =
,

(p 3)
0
0

Re p = s > 3. , F (p) =

1
p3 .

5.1.2.
. 1
. 34.
n N, a, R.
5.1.3.
, .
.

## f (t) + g(t) F (p) + G(p),

f (t) F (p),

(83)

g(t) G(p).

. > 0
1 p
f (t) F
.

(84)

34

F (p)

f (t)
1
sin at
cos at
et
sh t
ch t
at
e
sin t
at
e
cos t
tn
t sin at

1
p
a
2
p +a2
p
p2 +a2
1
p+

p2 2
p
p2 2
a
(p+)2 +a2
p+
(p+)2 +a2
n!
pn+1
2pa
(p2 +a2 )2
2
p a2
(p2 +a2 )2
1
(p+)2
1
(p2 +a2 )2
n!
(p)n+1
p

2 arctg
a

p
e

1 e p sin p
p

1 e p cos p
p

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

t cos at
tet
1
2a3 (sin at at cos at)
tn et
sin at
t
a2
1
e 4t
t
1 sin 1
2t
t
1 cos 1
2t
t

1.
. f (t), f (t), f (t), . . . , f (n) (t) , f (t) F (p),
f (t) pF (p) f (0),

## f (t) p2 F (p) pf (0) f (0),

(85)

....

f (n) (t) pn F (p) pn1 f (0) pn2 f (0) pf (n2) (0) f (n1) (0),

## f (k)(0), k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1, lim f (k) (t).

t0+

42. ,
f (t) = sin2 t.
f (t) F (p). f (t) pF (p) f (0). ,
f (0) = 0,

(. . 1),
sin 2t
,
p2

2
= pF (p),
+4

sin2 t

p2

2
.
+4

F (p) =
2
.
+ 4)

p(p2

2
.
+ 4)

p(p2

35

. t :
tf (t) F (p)
(86)

(87)

n N.

43.
f (t) = t2 et .
et

1
p1 ,



1
1
1
=
,
tet
.
2
p1
(p 1)
(p 1)2


1
(p 1)2

t2 et

2!
,
(p 1)3

2
.
(p 1)3

.
p: f (t) F (p),
Zt
F (p)
.
(88)
f ( ) d
p
0

Rt

44.

Zt
0

e d

e d . et

1
p1

1
p1 ,

1
.
p(p 1)

F (p) dp , -

f (t)
t :

f (t)

F (p) dp.

(89)

## 45. sint t . sin t p21+1 ,

Z
sin t
d

= arctg |
arctg p = arcctg p.
p =
2
t
+1
2
p

. f (t) F (p), p0

ep0 t f (t) F (p p0 ).
(90)

36

## 46. f (t) = et cos 2t: cos 2t

( p0 = 1)
p+1
et cos 2t
.
(p + 1)2 + 4

p
,
p2 +4

. f (t) F (p),

f (t ) ep F (p).

,
.
47. f (t 1) = (t 1)2 . f (t) = t2
f (t)

2
.
p2

(t 1)2
(t 1)2 ep

2
.
p2

, , f (t1), t < 1
(t 1 < 0 , . 14).
( ).
f (t) F (p),

(t) (p).

F (p) (p) ,
Zt
0

(91)

## f (t) (t) f (t) (t):

Zt
0

f ( )(t ) d =

Zt

f (t )( ) d = (t) f (t).

48.
(t) =

Zt
0

(t )e d.

(t) (p),

, ,
Zt
0

(t )e d

1
1
1

= 2
p2 p 1
p (p 1)

1
.
1)

p2 (p

37

## f (t) + g(t) F (p) + G(p)

2

f (t) 1 F p
P
ni f (i1) (0)
3

f (n) (t) pn F (p) n1
i=1 p
n
(n)
4
(t) f (t) F (p)
Rt
F (p)
5

0 f ( ) d p
R

f (t)
6

t p F (p)
7

ep0 t f (t) F (p p0 )
8

f (t ) ep F (p)
Rt
9

0 f ( )(t ) d F (p) (p)
2.

5.1.4.
f (t) F (p) , . 2.
f (t) F (p)
11
, F (p) = Q(p)
R(p) .
.
49.
1
.
p(p 1)(p2 + 4)
:
A
B
Cp + D
1
= +
+ 2
.
2
p(p 1)(p + 4)
p
p1
p +4
F (p) =

## 1 = A(p 1)(p2 + 4) + Bp(p2 + 4) + (Cp + D)p(p 1)

1
A= ,
4

A + B + C = 0,

A + C D = 0,

4A + 4B D = 0,

4A = 1.
1
B= ,
5

C=

1
,
20

1
D= .
5

1
1
1
1
p
1
1
+
+
2
2
.
4p 5 p 1 20 p + 4 5 p + 4
, ,
1
1 ,
p
1
et
,
p1
F (p) =

11, , , -

, .

38

p
,
p2 + 4
2
sin 2t 2
.
p +4

cos 2t

, ,
1 1
1
1
cos 2t
sin 2t.
f (t) = + et +
4 5
20
10
e
1
50. F (p) = p+1
f (t). et p+1
.
p
e = 1.
p

e(t1)

ep
.
p+1

,
f (t) = e1t .

5.2.
.
5.2.1.
n

dn x(t)
dn1 x(t)
dx(t)
+
a
+ + an1
+ an x(t) = f (t)
1
n
n1
dt
dt
dt

(92)

a0

(n1)

(93)

, (92) (93)
(n1)

a1 (p

n2

x0 +

pn3 x0

+ +

(n2)
x0
)

an2 (px0 +

x0

(94)
X(p) =

F (p) + n1 (p)
,
n (p)

(95)

(n1)

## n1 (p) = a0 (pn1 x0 + pn2 x0 + + x0

(n2)

) + a1 (pn2 x0 + pn3 x0 + + x0

) + ...

39

## (95) x(t) (92). X(p)

x(t), (92).
, ..
(n1)
x0 = x0 = = x0
= 0,
(94)
X(p) =

F (p)
.
a0 pn + a1 pn1 + + an1 p + an

, (92)
.

d2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ a1
+ a2 x(t) = f (t)
dt2
dt
x(0) = x0 , x (0) = x0 . , x(t) X(p) f (t) F (p),

a0

## (a0 p2 + a1 p + a2 )X(p) (a0 px0 + a0 x0 + a1 x0 ) = F (p),

F (p) + a0 px0 + a0 x0 + a1 x0
.
a0 p2 + a1 p + a2
X(p) x(t), .
X(p) =

51.
d2 x
dx
+3
+ 2x = t
dt2
dt
x0 = x0 = 0.
x(t) X(p).

dx
pX(p) x(0) = pX(p),
dt
d2 x
p2 X(p) px(0) x (0) = p2 X(p)
dt2

,
t

1
,
p2

X(p)(p2 + 3p + 2) =
..

1
,
p2

1
.
+ 3p + 2)
, , ,
:
1
A
B
C
D
= + 2+
+
,
2
2
p (p + 3p + 2)
p
p
p+1 p+2
A, B, C, D ,

A + C + D = 0,

3A + B + 2C + D = 0,

A + 3B = 0,

2B = 1.
X(p) =

p2 (p2

40

3
A= ,
2

B=

1
,
2

C=

5
,
2

D = 1.

3 1 1 1
5
1
1
X(p) = + 2 +

.
2 p 2 p
2 p+1 p+2
1 2,
3 1
5
x(t) = + t + et e2t .
2 2
2
52.
x + x = 2 cos t,

x (0) = 1.

x(0) = 0,

x(t) X(p),

## x (t) p2 X(p) px(0) x (0) = p2 X(p) + 1,

p
cos t 2
.
p +1

p2 X(p) + 1 + X(p) =

2p
,
+1

p2

X(p) =

(p2

2p
1
2
.
2
+ 1)
p +1

1
2p
sin t,
t sin t,
2
+1
(p + 1)2
X(p) (t 1) sin t,
p2

x(t) = (t 1) sin t.

5.2.2.

,
. , ,

n 
X
d2 xk
dxk
aik 2 + bik
+ cik xk = fi (t),
dt
dt
k=1

xk (0) = k ,

xk (0) = k .

## Xk (p) Fi (p) xk (t) fi (t) ,

n
n
X
X


aik p2 + bik p + cik = Fi (p) +
(aik p + bik )k + aik k ,
k=1

k=1

.

41

53.

x = 3(y x + z),
y = x y,

z = z

x(0) = 0,

x (0) = 0,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1,
z (0) = 0.

z(0) = 1,

x(t) X(p),

y(t) Y (p),

z(t) Z(p).

## p X(p) = 3(Y (p) X(p) + Z(p)),

p2 Y (p) + 1 = X(p) Y (p),

2
p Z(p) p = Z(p).

## X(p), Y (p), Z(p),

3(p 1)
,
p2 (p2 + 4)
3(p 1)
1
Y (p) = 2 2
2
,
2
p (p + 1)(p + 4) p + 1
p
Z(p) = 2
.
p +1

X(p) =

.
.

A
B
C
3(p 1)
= + 2+ 2
,
2
2
p (p + 4)
p
p
p +4

A + C = 0,

B + D = 0,
4A = 3,

4B = 3.

3(p1)
p2 (p2 +4)

A=

3
,
4

3
B= ,
4

D=

3
,
4

C=

3
4

3 1 3 1
3
p
3
1
2 2
+ 2
.
4 p 4 p
4 p +4 4 p +4
,
X(p) =

x(t) =

3 3
3
3
t cos 2t + sin 2t.
4 4
4
8

3(p 1)
A
B
Cp + D Lp + M
= + 2+ 2
+ 2
,
2
+ 1)(p + 4)
p
p
p +1
p +4

p2 (p2

3(p1)
p2 (p2 +1)(p2 +4)

42

A + C + L = 0,

B + D + M = 0,

5A + 4C + L = 0,

5B + 4D + M = 0,

4A = 3,

4B = 3.

,
3
3
1
1
A = , B = , C = 1, D = 1, L = , M = ,
4
4
4
4
..
3 1 3 1
p
1
p
1
1
Y (p) = 2 2
+

.
4 p 4 p
p + 1 4 p2 + 4 4 p2 + 4

1
1
3 3
y(t) = t cos t + cos 2t sin 2t.
4 4
4
8
, Z(p) = p2p+1
z(t) = cos t.
, :
3 3
3
3
x(t) = t cos 2t + sin 2t,
4 4
4
8
3 3
1
1
y(t) = t cos t + cos 2t sin 2t,
4 4
4
8
z(t) = cos t.