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GENERATOR PROTECTION

GENERATOR PROTECTION
GENERATOR MAIN-SYSTEMS
STATOR
ROTOR
TRANSFORMER

GENERATOR PROTECTION
GENERATOR SUB-SYSTEMS
STATOR
ROTOR
PRIME MOVER
EXCITATION SYSTEM
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
GOVERNOR
COOLING SYSTEM

GENERATOR PROTECTION

EXTERNAL

FAULTS
INTERNAL FAULTS
ROTOR EARTH FAULT
FAULTS RELATED TO SUB SYSTEMS

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EXTERNAL FAULTS
OVER LOADING
UNBALANCE LOADING
SHORT CIRCUIT
EARTH FAULT

GENERATOR PROTECTION
INTERNAL FAULTS

PHASE TO PHASE FAULTS IN


WINDINGS
PHASE TO EARTH FAULTS

GENERATOR PROTECTION

UNDER VOLTAGE
OVER VOLTAGE
UNDER FREQUENCY
OVER FREQUENCY
REVERSE POWER
LOSS OF EXCITATION
LOW-FORWARD POWER

GENERATOR PROTECTION
TYPES OF FAULTS (STATOR SIDE)

GENERATOR PROTECTION
VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT
THERMAL OVER LOAD
CURRENT UNBALANCE
OVER VOLTAGE
UNDER VOLTAGE
OVER FREQUENCY
UNDER FREQUENCY
LOSS OF FIELD
REVERSE POWER
UNDER POWER
OUT OF STEP
INADVERTANT ENERGISATION
EARTH FAULT (100%)
EARTH FAULT (95%)
GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL
OVER EXCITATION (V/Hz)

GENERATOR PROTECTION

TYPES OF FAULTS (ROTOR SIDE)


ROTOR EARTH FAULT
EXCITATION UNDER VOLTAGE
EXCITATION UNDER CURRENT
DIODE FAILURE

GENERATOR PROTECTION
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
GENERATOR PROTECTION

11 kV
11000/110v

27
49

400/5

51V 46

400/5
87G
6.6 MW

400/5

59
40

81
32

37

64

GENERATOR PROTECTION

PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY
TYPE OF GENERATOR
GENERATOR SIZE
NATURE OF GROUNDING
ECONOMY
TYPE OF CONNECTION
TYPE OF LOADS

GENERATOR PROTECTION

ANOTOMY OF FAULTS

STATOR FAULTS (EXTERNAL )


1.0

OVER CURRENT PROTECTION

PLAIN OVER CURRENT


( SMALL MACHINES)
VOLTAGE DEPENDANT OVER CURRENT
(LARGE MACHINES)

STATOR FAULTS (EXTERNAL )


1.0

PLAIN OVER CURRENT PROTECTION

RELAY ON BREAKER SIDE


RELAY ON NEUTRAL SIDE

STATOR FAULTS (EXTERNAL )


1.0

PLAIN OVER CURRENT PROTECTION

FAULT AWAY FROM TERMINALS


(PLAIN O/C PROTECTION)
FAULT CLOSE TO TERMINALS
(VOLTAGE DEPENDENT O/C)

STATOR FAULTS

VOLTAGE DEPENDENT OVER CURRENT

- WHEN O/C FAULT, TERMINAL VOLTAGE REDUCES.


- RELAY MAY NOT TRIP, SINCE FAULT CURRENT
THROUGH RELAY MAY BE LESS THAN SET POINT
NECESSARY TO VARY THE O/C PICK UP SETTING
WITH RESPECT TO VOLTAGE

STATOR FAULTS
VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OVER CURRENT

HAS TWO TRIP CHARACTERISTICS


THE TERMINAL VOLTAGE DECIDES
WHICH CHARCTERISTIC WILL BE
FOLLOWED BY THE RELAY WHEN
A FAULT OCCURS

STATOR FAULTS
VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OVER CURRENT
Pick up level

I>

kI >

Vs >

Voltage Level

GENERATOR PROTECTION
VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT

I*/ [I>]
1.0

0.2
0.2

0.8

V/Vs

STATOR FAULTS
EARTH FAULT

DEPENDS ON HOW
THE GENERATOR IS EARTHED

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS

GENERATOR NEUTRAL IS EARTHED


-

for stator protection


for operator safety

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS DIRECT EARTHING
Stator Windings

RELAY

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS
IMPEDANCE EARTHING
Stator Windings

TYPES OF IMPEDANCES

RESISTOR
(CURRENT BASED PROTECTION)
B) TRANSFORMER
(VOLTAGE BASED PROTECTION)
C) TRANSFORMER
D) (CURRENT BASED PROTECTION)

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS
RESISTANCE EARTHING
Stator Windings

CURRENT
RELAY

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS
TRANSFORMER EARTHING (VOLTAGE BASED)
Stator Windings

VOLTAGE
RELAY

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS
TRANSFORMER EARTHING (CURENT BASED)
Stator Windings

CURRENT
RELAY

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS
TRANSFORMER EARTHING (OPEN DELTA)
Stator Windings

OPEN
DELTA PT
VOLTAGE
RELAY

VOLTAGE
RELAY

STATOR FAULTS
EARTH FAULT

WHEN A FAULT OCCURES CLOSE TO NEUTRAL,


WITH IMPEDANCE GROUNDING, THE
E/F CURRENT MAY BE LESS THAN THE
PICK UP THRESHOLD OF THE NORMAL
E/F RELAY OR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

GENERATOR PROTECTION

STATOR EARTH FAULT

95% EARTH FAULT

NORMAL RELAY

100% EARTH FAULT

SPECIAL RELAY
SENSES ABSENCE
OF 3RD HARMONICS

GENERATOR PROTECTION

STATOR EARTH FAULT

95 TO 100%

95%

0%

GENERATOR PROTECTION
EARTHING OF GENERATORS
(Close to neutral faults)
Stator Windings

a
CURRENT
RELAY

If

If = aV / R

GENERATOR PROTECTION

100% STATOR EARTH FAULT

Measurement of third harmonic voltage


across the earthing impedance
Use of low frequency voltage injection
between star point & earth

GENERATOR PROTECTION
LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS
GENERATOR WILL OVER SPEED &
OPERATE AS AN INDUCTION GENERATOR
(OVER SPEEDS OF THE ORDER OF 2 TO 5% )
GENERATOR WILL CONTINUE TO DELIVER POWER
WILL DERIVE EXCITATION FROM THE SYSTEM
STATOR CURRENT WILL BE 200%
THERE WILL BE HEAVY ROTOR CURRENT
RESULTS IN OVER HEATING

GENERATOR PROTECTION

REVERSE POWER GENERATORS


GENERATOR WILL BECOME MOTOR
HARMFUL TO THE PRIME MOVER
( STEAM TURBINE WILL OVER HEAT)
(DIESEL ENGINE WILL EXPLODE DUE
TO UNBURNT FUEL)
(HYDRAULIC TUBINE WILL HAVE CAVITATION)

GENERATOR PROTECTION

INADVERTANT ENERGISATION
- APPLICATION OF FULL VOLTAGE AT
STANDSTILL
COASTING TO STOP
BEFORE SYNCHRONISM
- PRESENCE OF UNBALANCE VOLTAGE DUE TO
FLASH OVER AT IONE OR TWO POLES OF BREAKER
GENERATOR FORCED TO START AS
INDUCTION MOTOR RESULTING IN MECHANICAL
DAMAGES TO PRIME MOVER AND EXCESSIVE
HEATING IN THE ROTOR

GENERATOR PROTECTION

V/Hz PROTECTION
- INCORRECT VOLTAGE REGULATOR ACTION
- LOAD THROW - OFF
- SUDDEN OVER VOLTAGE / OVER FREQUENCY
RESULTS IN OVER FLUXING OF GENERATOR
AND OVER HEATING