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1

. . , . . , . .
: 3 2012 .

1
c

. . , . . , . . . 6.01


1
1.1
1.2 . . . . . . . .
1.3 , , . . .
1.4 . . . . . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . .
1.6 .
1.7 . . . . . . .

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2
2.1 . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . .
2.3
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 . . . . . . . .

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3
3
5
8
11
16
20
22

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27
27
30
31
33
41
43

3
47
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.3 . . . . 52
4
4.1 . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 ; n- . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 , . . . . . .
4.5 . . . . .
4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7
5
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . . .
2

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56
56
57
62
64
68
73
75

78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


5.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

6
92
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2
7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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99
99
100
102
105

1

1.1

1. X
K:
1. K = R, X x > 0, (.. );
2. K = R, X ,
, ; ;
3. K = R, X ,
; ;
4. K = Q, X = R; ;

5. K = R, X = (0, +), +
= uv,
u+v

u = u ;

(1.1)

6. K = C, X ; ;
7. K , X K n, n N
; ;
8. K , X K n N; ;
9. K , X K; ;
10. K , X K n m;
;
11. K = R, X ;
;

12. K = Q, X = {a + b 2 | a, b Q}, ?
4

1.1.

.
1. X , :
v, , X,
v X.
2. X , , , .
X ;
Ax + By + Cz = 0,

(1.2)

A, B C . P = (x0 , y0 , z0 )
(1.2), (x0 , y0 , z0 )
(1.2).
.
. X .

, X .
, X , .
3. ,
, ,
: , (1, 1) + (0, 1) = (1, 2).
4. R R ; , (,
, Q). , X ,
, .
5. X = (0, +) , (1.1). , .
, , +

1 R. , X +.
, R u X;
(u) = u = (u ) = u = ()u,
.. . : 1u = u1 = u.
: , , u, v X.
= u+
u,
( + )u = u+ = u u = u +u

= (uv) = u v = u+
v.
(u+v)

1.
, X
R (1.1).
6. C, (.. ).
7. ()
, , ,
.
8. Kn [t] K
n. 0,
. ,
K. , Kn [t]
.
9. K[t] K
( ).
10. Matnm (K) n m K ,
, , , A
A.
11. C[a, b],
[a, b] R.
, , . , .. , ,
f f ,
. , C[a, b] .
12. X ,
, ,



.

0 + 0 2, a + b 2 a b 2.

1.2

2. x, (0, x, 1), (x, 0, 1)


(1, 1, x) R3 ?
R3 Q3 ?
.

1.2.

;
, ,
:

0
x 1
0
1 = x3 + 2x = x(2 x2 ).
det x
1 1
x

, , x = 0 x = 2.
, R3 Q3 , ; ,

, x = 2
.
, Q3
x = 0.
3.
(n > 0):
1. 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn ;
2. 1, ex , e2x , . . . , enx ;
3. 1, ln x, ln 2x, . . . , ln nx.
.
1. , 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn . ,
a0 , a1 , . . . , an , ,
a0 1 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn = 0,
, .. , . , a0 + a1 x + + an xn , . ,
.
2. , 1, ex , e2x , . . . , enx , .. a0 , a1 , . . . , an , ,
a0 1 + a1 ex + a2 e2x + + an enx = 0.
, , 0, 1, 2, . . . , n. , :

a0 + a1 + a2 + + an = 0

a
0 + a1 e + a2 e2 + + an en = 0
a0 + a1 e2 + a2 e4 + + an e2n = 0
(1.3)

...

a0 + a1 en + a2 e2n + + an en = 0.

1.
a0 , a1 , . . . , an
:


1 1 1
... 1
a0
0
1 e e2 . . . e n a1 0


1 e2 e4 . . . e2n a2 0

= .
..
.. ..
..
.
.
. .
1 en e2n . . .

en

an

, , . ,

1 1 1
... 1
1 e e 2 . . . en

Y
2
4

. . . e2 n
(ein ejn ),
0 = det 1 e e
=
..

..
.
06i<j6n
.
n
2n
n2
1 e e
... e
(. [1],
. 84). , , ..
(1.3) . , .
3. 1, ln x, ln 2x, . . . , ln nx.
ln nx = ln n + ln x = ln n 1 + ln x,
n > 1, .
,
. n = 1, ,
1 , ln x , ,
.
4. - :
v1 = (1, 2, 1, 5),

v2 = (2, 1, 1, 1),

v3 = (0, 1, 1, 3),

v4 = (1, 1, 0, 2)

.
-
, .. .
.
.
. ,
, . ,
,
.

1.3. , ,

:

1 2
0
2 1
1

1 1 1
5 1
3

1
1
2
0
1
0 3
1
1
1

0
3 1
1
0
0 9
3 3
2

0
0

2
0 1
3 1 1
;
0
0 0
0
0 0

e1 , e2 . , 2, , , v1 v2 .

1.3

, ,

5. ,
e1 = (1, 0, 3),

e2 = (5, 3, 1),

e3 = (1, 1, 2)

R3 v = (1, 1, 2)
.
.
, , , , , , ..
, , . ,
, -, . , v
e1 , e2 e3 : v = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 . ,
:

1
1
5
1
1 = x1 0 + x2 3 + x3 1 ,
2
3
1
2
:

1
x1
1 5 1
1 = C x2 , C = 0
3
1 .
2
x3
3
1
2
C 1 , :

1
5 9
2
x1
1
8
x2 = C 1 1 = 3 5
1 1 =
4 .
x3
2
9 16 3
2
13
, C , .. ,
( ). , R3 . (8, 4, 13)
v .

10

1.

6. , 1, t 1, (t 1)2 , (t 1)3
R3 [t] p(t) = t3 2t2 + 5t 1 .
.
, . , ..
a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 , ,
a0 + a1 (t 1) + a2 (t 1)2 + a3 (t 1)3 = 0
( ). ,
a3 t3 + (a2 3a3 )t2 + (a1 2a2 + 3a3 )t + (a0 a1 + a2 a3 ) 0;
. ,
, a3 = 0; t2 , a2 = 0.
, , a1 = a0 = 0. , . , ,
3 .
, :
p(t) = p(1) + p0 (1)(t 1) +

p00 (1)
p000 (1)
(t 1)2 +
(t 1)3 = 3 + 4(t 1) + (t 1)2 + (t 1)3 ,
2
6

.. p (3, 4, 1, 1) {1, t 1, (t 1)2 , (t 1)3 }.


7. ,

1
0
8 2
M=
, N=
,
2 1
3
1

P =

0 4
1 2

Q=

7 1
5 0

Mat2 (R) 2,

1 5
A=
0 2
.
.
Eij , 1 i, j 2, (i, j)- ,
, Mat2 (R). ( , , : E11 , E12 , E21 , E22 ) M , N , P , Q A

1
8
0
7
1
0
2
4
1
5

2 , 3 , 1 , 5 0
1
1
2
0
2
. 5, , Mat2 (R), .

1.3. , ,

11

M , N , P Q , 4 4 ,
A,
:

1
8
0 7
1
47
31 72 98
1
6
0 2

4 1
11 26 35

5 = 17
5 = 2 .
2
3 1 5 0 15
10 23 31 0 3
1
1
2 0
2
26 17
40
54
2
3
8. {e01 , e02 , e03 } {e001 , e002 , e003 }
R3 , :






1
5
3
3
2
1
e01 := 2 , e02 := 3 , e03 := 7 , e001 := 1 , e002 := 2 , e003 := 1 .
1
6
1
4
1
3
.
{e01 , e02 , e03 } {e001 , e002 , e003 }
; C 0 C 00 {e1 , e2 , e3 } (.. ,
) {e1 , e2 , e3 } {e001 , e002 , e003 } .
;
(C 0 )1 ,
C 00 :
0

00
x1
x1
x1
x1
x02 = (C 0 )1 x2 , x2 = C 00 x002 .
x03
x3
x3
x003
(C 0 )1 C 00 . C 0 C 00 ,
:

18 7
5
3 5 1
27 71 41
20
9 .
(C 0 )1 C 00 = 5 2 1 1 2 1 = 9
3 1 1
4 1 6
4
12
8
9. 3
{1t+t3 , t+t2 +t3 , 1+t2 +t3 , 1+tt2 } {t+t2 t3 , 1t2 +t3 , 1+tt2 , 1+tt3 }.
.
{1, t, t2 , t3 } R3 [t]

(1, 1, 0, 1),
(0, 1, 1, 1),

(0, 1, 1, 1),
(1, 0, 1, 1),

(1, 0, 1, 1),
(1, 1, 1, 0),

(1, 1, 1, 0)
(1, 1, 0, 1)

12

1.

. , C 0 C 00 :

0
1 1
1
1 0 1 1

1 1 0
0
1
1
1
, C 00 = 1
.
C0 =
0 1 1 1
1 1 1
0
1
1
0 1
1 1 1
0
8,


1 1
0
1
0
1 1
1

2 1
1
1 1
0
1
1
(C 0 )1 C 00 =

3
2 1 1 1 1 1
0
1
1 1
0
1
1
0 1

1.4

2
0 0 3
1 2 0 4
=
.
2
3 0
6
0
2 1
2

10. Matn (R) n , :


1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. .
.
1.
,
, ..
Matn (R).
2. , , , , Matn (R).
3. , (.. , , )
4. Matn (R)

.

1.4.

13

5. A B R.

tr(A + B) = tr(A) + tr(B) = 0 tr(A) = tr(A) = 0,


Matn (R) , , .
11. Rn [t] n , p(t), :
1. p(1) = 0;
2. p(1) = 1;
3. 3p(0) = 2p(1);
4. p(1 t) = p(1 + t);
5. p(t) > 0 t > 2.
Rn [t]?
.
1. , (,
, t = 1)
. , ,
t = 1,
Rn [t].
1, t 1, (t 1)2 , . . . , (t 1)n
Rn [t]; , ,
p(1) = 0. , n,
t 1, (t 1)2 , . . . , (t 1)n .
2. p(1) = 1
.
3. p(t)
p(t) = a0 + a1 t + a2 t2 + + an tn ;
3p(0) = 2p(1)
3a0 = 2(a0 + a1 + + an ) a0 + 2a1 + + 2an = 0,

(1.4)

.. a0 , a1 , . . . , an , . , 3p(0) = 2p(1)
Rn+1 ,
,

14

1.
(1.4). . (1.4);
, , :



2
2
2
1
0
0



0
1

, ,..., 0 .
..
..
..
.
.
.
0
0
1
, Rn [t] :
2 + t,

2 + t2 ,

2 + t3 , . . . , 2 + tn .

n.
4. , p(1t) = p(1+t) t = 1. (
) . Rn [t], ,
. ,
t 1; ,
1,

t 1,

(t 1)2 ,

(t 1)n

Rn [t]. (t 1)k , k . ,
. ,
p(t) p(1t) = p(t+1), (
) p0 (1 t) = p0 (1 + t). , p(k) (1) = 0 k, ..
t 1 . , , t = 1,
(t 1)k , k , ..
. (n + 2)/2.
5. , p(t) > 0 t > 2, , .
12. :
v1 = (1, 0, 0, 1),

v2 = (2, 1, 1, 0),

v3 = (1, 1, 1, 1),

v4 = (1, 2, 3, 4),

v5 = (0, 1, 2, 3)

. ;

1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
2 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 ,

0 0 0 0
1 2 3 4
0 0 0 0
0 1 2 3

1.4.

15

, 3. ,
, - .
1.
,
v1 , v2 , . . . , vn .
, , , , .
13. :

3x1 2x2 + 5x3 + 4x4 = 0


6x1 4x2 + 4x3 + 3x4 = 0 .

9x1 6x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 = 0


.
:

3 2 5 4
6 4 4 3 3 2 5 4 .
0
0 6 5
9 6 3 2
x2 x4 ; x2 = 3 x4 = 0,
,
. x2 = 0 x4 = 6,
( 3, ).
, ,
(2, 3, 0, 0),

(1, 0, 15, 18)

.
2. , .

( ,
, ).
, . 14
, ,
.
1. B -, Ax = 0 ( x ).
B T y - A.
.
B Ax = 0,
AB = 0, B T AT = 0.
, B T

16

1.

, AT (.. A) . ,
-, AT ,
B T y = 0. C T ,
A ;
B T C T = 0, , , CB = 0. ,
B Ax = 0, Cx = 0,
Ax = 0 , , . , C
A, .. Cx = 0
, Ax = 0. , B
Cx = 0 . , B T y = 0
A . .
14. , :
v1 = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1),

v2 = (1, 1, 0, 0, 3),

v3 = (3, 1, 1, 1, 7),

v4 = (0, 2, 1, 1, 2).

.
I.
,
,
{v1 , v2 }:

1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1

2 1
1 2
1
0
0 3

0
.
(1.5)
3
0
1
1 1 7
4 2
2 4
0
2 1
1 2
0
2 1
1 2
x hv1 , v2 i x = 1 v1 + 2 v2 . (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 )
; , ,
:
x1 = 1 + 2 ,

x2 = 2 1 ,

x3 = 1 ,

x4 = 1 ,

x5 = 1 + 32 .

, 1 2 ,
x hv1 , v2 i:

x1 x2 2x3 = 0
x1 = 2x3 + x2
x3 + x4 = 0
x4 = x3
.
(1.6)

3x2 + 4x3 x5 = 0
x5 = x3 + 3x2 + 3x3
II.

(x1 , x2 , . . . xn ).

1 1 x1
1 1 x2

1 0 x3 ;

1 0 x4
1 3 x5

1.5.

17

, , . , (. [1],
. 63), (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
.
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ). :

1 1
x1
0 2

x1 + x2

0 0 2x3 x1 + x2 .

0 0

x3 + x4
0 0 x5 3x2 4x3
III.
, 1 . A
(. (1.5)). Ax = 0

1
1
2
1
1
1

2 , 0 , 0 .

0
2
0
0
0
1
, 1, :

x1 + x2 + 2x3 = 0
x1 x2 + 2x4 = 0 .

2x1 x2 + x5 = 0
, (1.6).

1.5

15. V1 V2 :
V1 = h(1, 2, 1), (1, 1, 1), (1, 3, 3)i,
.

:

1 2
1 1

1 3

2 3

1 2
1 1

V2 = h(2, 3, 1), (1, 2, 2), (1, 1, 3)i.

1
1
3
1
2
3

1
0
0
0
0
0

2
1
0
0
0
0

1
2
1
0
0
0

18

1.

, .. ,
, , (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) (0, 0, 1).
V1 V2
. A1 V1 ,
:

1 2
1
1 2 1
1 1 1 0 1 2 .
1 3
3
0 0 0
(3, 2, 1)
, 1 V1
3x1 2x2 + x3 = 0.
, V2
8x1 5x2 + x3 = 0.
, ..

3x1 2x2 + x3 = 0
8x1 5x2 + x3 = 0
, , ..
V1 V2 , : V1 V2 = h(3, 5, 1)i.
3. ,
, , . 1 :
Vi Ai Bi , i = 1, 2. A1 A2 ,
, V1 V2
B1 B2 .
16. V1 V2 :

2x1 3x2 + x3 + x4 + 2x5 = 0


x1 + 6x2 7x3 10x4 + 7x5 = 0 .
V1 = h(1, 0, 3, 2, 1), (0, 4, 7, 4, 4), (2, 4, 1, 0, 2)i, V2 :

x1 + x2 2x3 3x4 + 3x5 = 0


.
V1
:

1
0
3 2 1
1 0
3
2 1
0 4

7 4 4

.
0 4 7 4
4
2
4 1 0
2

1.5.

19

, v1 = (1, 0, 3, 2, 1) v2 = (0, 4, 7, 4, 4) V1 .
V1 v1 + v2 , V2 . ,
3 = 0. , 3v1 + v2 = (3, 4, 2, 2, 1).
V2 :

2 3
1
1 2
1 1 2 3 3

1
6 7 10 7

.
0 5 5 7 4
1
1 2 3 3
, V2 :
V2 = h(1, 1, 1, 0, 0), (8, 7, 0, 5, 0), (11, 4, 0, 0, 5)i.
:

1 0
3
2 1
1 1
1
0 0
0 4 7 4

1 1
0 1 2 2 1 .
1
0
0

0 0
1
4 0
8 7
0
5
0
0 0
0 43 1
11 4
0
0 5
, V1 + V2 ,

(1, 1, 1, 0, 0),

(0, 1, 2, 2, 1),

(0, 0, 1, 4, 0),

(0, 0, 0, 43, 1).

17. R7 [t] 7 :
V1 = {p(t) R7 [t] | p(1) = p0 (1) = p00 (1) = 0} V2 = {p(t) R7 [t] | p(2) = p0 (2) = p00 (2) = 0}.
.
.
V1 , t = 1
3, V2 , t = 2
, 3. , V1 V2
7, t = 1 t = 2, ..
, (t + 1)3 (t 2)3 .
, V1 V2
(t2 t 2)3 ,

t(t2 t 2)3 .

(. [1], . 189),
dim(V1 + V2 ) = dim V1 + dim V2 dim(V1 V2 );

20

1.

, , ,
dim(V1 + V2 ) = 8, .. R7 [t].
V1 + V2
1, t, t2 , . . . , t7 .
18. R4 :
U := h(1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 2, 0, 1)i,

V := h(1, 1, 1, 1), (2, 2, 0, 1)i.

, R4 = U V w = (4, 2, 4, 4) U
V .
.
, U V
, ,
, . ( ,
R4 , , U V .) :

1 1
1
1
1
1 1
1

1 2 0
1
0 1 1 2 .

0 0
1 1 1 1
1
0
0 0
0
1
2
2 0
1
, R4 = U V .
w U V . , U ,
v V (.. ) , w v , V . w v .
(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) U ; :

x1 =

x2 = 2
.
x3 =

x4 = +
,

x1 + x4 = 2x3
,
x2 + 2x4 = 3x3

(1.7)

U . V

1
2
1
2

v =
1 + 0 ;
1
1
w v (1.7), , = 3, = 4.
, w v = (1, 3, 1, 3) .

1.6.

1.6

21

19. Rn [t]
n ?
1. p(t) 7 p(0) t;
2. p(t) 7 p00 (t);
R

1
3. p(t) 7 0 p(u)du t3 , n > 3;
4. p(t) 7 p(1)p(2) 1;
5. p(t) 7 tn p(1/t)?
.
1. p1 (t), p2 (t) Rn [t] , .

p1 (t) + p2 (t) 7 (p1 (0) + 2 (0)) t = p1 (0) t + p2 (0) t,


.. .
2. p(t) 7 p00 (t) .
3. p1 (t) p2 (t) , :

Z 1

Z 1
Z 1
3
3
p2 (u)du t3 ,
p1 (u)du t +
(p1 (u) + p2 (u))du t =
p1 (t) + p2 (t) =
0

.. . n > 3 , t3 Rn [t].
4. p(t) 7 p(1)p(2) 1 n, , , 1 7 1 1, 2 7 4 1, 1 + 2 7 9 1 (
n).
5.
p1 (t) = a0 + a1 t + + an tn ,

p2 (t) = b0 + b1 t + + bn tn

, .

n
n
n
X
X
X
bk
ak
ak
bk
n
n
p1 (t) + p2 (t) 7 t
+ t
,
k + k = t
k
t
t
t
tk
k=0
k=0
k=0
n

.. .
20. Matn (R) n
. ?

22

1.

.
;
A = (aij ), B = (bij ), :
tr(A + B) =

n
n
n
X
X
X
(aii + bii ) =
aii +
bii = tr(A) + tr(B),
i=1

i=1

i=1

.. .
n > 1, , , E
:
det(E + E) = ( + )n 6= + = det E + det E
( = = 1). n = 1 ,
1 .
21. = 2x1 3x2 + x4 , xk : R4 R
k- .
.
v R4 ,
(v) = 0, ..
2x1 3x2 + x4 = 0.
, - , . ,
:

3
0
1
2

, 0 , 0 .
0
1
0
0
0
2
22. Rn [t] n li , i = 0, 1, . . . , n,
li (p) = p(i) (t0 ) p Rn [t], t0
. ,
(Rn [t]) , Rn [t].
.
, , l0 , l1 , . . . , ln (Rn [t]) , , Rn [t]. p0 , p1 , . . . pn ,
i
pi (t) = (tti!0 ) . , k < i

(t t0 )ik
(t t0 )i
k
=
= 0;
l (pi ) = i(i 1) (i k + 1)

i!
(i k)! t=t0
t=t0
k > i lk (pi ) = 0,
(k)
pi (t) 1. , . ,
, ,
Rn [t], Rn [t].

1.7.

1.7

23

23. , Y X, , , V , Y ,
:
1. X , Y
X;
2. X R2 , Y {(x, y) R2 | ax + by > 0};
3. X R2 , Y ;
4. X R[t] , Y
p(t), p(1) + p(2) = 3;
5. X R[t] , Y
p(t), p(1)p(2) = 3.
.
1. , ( ). Y X
A + V , A X, V , Y
(.. A), V (
Y A, B Y , v V ,
B = A + v, ).
2. , Y X V R2 , X .
A = (x1 , y1 ) Y v V , O + v = A,
O . B, B = O + (v),
Y ; B = (x1 , y1 )
a(x1 ) + b(y1 ) = (ax1 + by1 ) < 0.
, B Y . Y R2 .
3. v Y , V .
A, B Y B = A + AB, AB V .
, Y X,
V .
4. p q, Y , s = pq s(1) + s(2) = 0. , Y
X, ,
s(1) + s(2) = 0.

24

1.

5. p(t) = 3 q(t) = 2t 1, Y
s = q p. , Y
X, , ,
= p + 2s Y .
r
, : r(1) = 2 3 r(2) = 6 3. , Y
X.

24.

3x1 2x2 + 4x3 6x4 + x5 = 4


.
x1 + 3x2 + x3 3x4 + 2x5 = 1

.
, . ,
:

1
3 1 3
2 1
3 2 4 6 1 4

.
1
3 1 3 2 1
0 11 1
3 5 1
(0, 0, 1, 0, 0) : x2 = x4 = x5 = 0;

(14, 1, 11, 0, 0),

(6, 0, 3, 1, 0),

(7, 0, 5, 0, 1).

,
:

x1
0
14
6
7
x2 0

0
0
1

x3 = 1 + t1 11 + t2 3 + t3 5 .

x4 0

1
0
0
x5
0
0
0
1
25. ,

A1 (3, 1, 2, 2, 4), A2 (1, 5, 4, 1, 4), A3 (3, 5, 5, 5, 1).
, .
.

, , ,
:

6
2
3
x1
4
4
x2 1

x3 = 2 + t1 2 + t2 7 .

7
3
x4 2
3
0
4
x5

1.7.

25

, .
, A1 A2 A1 A3 ;
:

2
4
2
3 0
2 4
2 3 0

.
6 4 7 7 3
0 8 13 2 3

:

18x1 13x2 + 8x3 = 0


4x1 + x2 4x4 = 0
.

6x1 3x2 8x5 = 0


(, A1 )
:

18x1 13x2 + 8x3 = 51


4x1 + x2 4x4 = 3
.

6x1 3x2 8x5 = 11


26.
(1, 1, 0, 1),

(0, 0, 2, 0),

(3, 1, 5, 4),

(2, 2, 3, 3).

.
, , .
,
v1 = (1, 1, 2, 1),

v2 = (3, 1, 3, 4),

v3 = (2, 2, 5, 3).

(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) v1 + v2 + v3 ;
, :

1 3
2 x1
x2
1 1
2
1 1

2 x2
1 1 x1 + x4

0
.
2
0 4
3 5 x3
4 x1 + x2
1
4 3 x4
0
1 1 2x2 + x3
,

x1 2x2 x3 + x4 = 0
;
5x1 + x2 + 4x4 = 0
(0, 0, 2, 0) :

x1 2x2 x3 + x4 = 2
.
5x1 + x2 + 4x4 = 0

26

1.

27. :

1 :

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5

1
3


= 5 + t1

4
2

2
3

0
0
3
1

+ t2

0
2
4
2
2

2 :

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5

6
2
2
2
3

+ t

4
3
7
5
3

.
(6 13 , 1, 3, 6, 5), ,
-, .

19 2
0
4
3
3
1 0 2 3

3 0 4 7

6 3 2 5
5 1 2 3
, 4. ,
,

1
19
2


x1
0
4
3
3
3
x2 3
1
0
2
3




x3 = 5 + t1 3 + t2 0 + t3 4 + t4 7 .




x4 4
6
3
2
5
2
5
1
x5
2
3
28. Rn n > 6.
.
P1 + V1 P2 + V2 , P1 P2
Rn , V1 V2 ,
.
1. V1 = V2 P1 P2 V1 , .
2. V1 = V2 , P1 P2 6 V1 , .
3. dim V1 V2 = 2 P1 P2 V1 + V2 , .
4. dim V1 V2 = 2, P1 P2 6 V1 + V2 , .
5. dim V1 V2 = 1 P1 P2 V1 + V2 , .
6. dim V1 V2 = 1, P1 P2 6 V1 + V2 , .
7. dim V1 V2 = 0 P1 P2 V1 + V2 , .
8. dim V1 V2 = 0 P1 P2 6 V1 + V2 , ,
n > 6.
29. :
1 : (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 ) = (1, 1, 2, 1, 0) + h(2, 3, 1, 0, 4), (3, 2, 1, 0, 1)i
2 : (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 ) = (0, 1, 1, 0, 1) + h(4, 1, 4, 0, 7), (7, 5, 8, 0, 1)i

1.7.

27

.
V1 V2 ,
. , ,
, 1 2 :

2
3
4 7 1
3 2 1 5
2

1
.
1
4
8
3

0
0
0 0 1
4
1
7 1
1
, 4, ,
, 3, .. ,
, , . , 1 2 . V1 + V2
, , .
V1 V2 . , .

x1 2x3 x5 = 0
4x1 5x2 3x5 = 0
5x2 + 11x3 x5 = 0
4x1 20x2 + 9x3 = 0

x4 = 0
x4 = 0
.

x1 2x3 x5 = 0

5x2 + 11x3 x5 = 0
4x1 5x2 3x5 = 0 ;

4x1 20x2 + 9x3 = 0

x4 = 0
, , : (5, 1, 0, 0, 5). ,
(5, 1, 0, 0, 5).

2

2.1

30. R3 ( ), x 7 (x, a)a, a = (3, 2, 1), R3 b1 = (1, 1, 1), b2 = (0, 1, 1), b3 = (0, 0, 1).
.
,
, e1 , e2 , e3 :
e1 7 3a, e2 7 2a, e3 7 a.

9 6 3
6 4 2 .
3 2 1
b1 , b2 , b3 , ,
b1 7 6a,

b2 7 3a,

b3 7 a.

,
b1 , b2 , b3 , a .
: a = 3b1 b2 + b3 . ,

18
9 3
6 3
1 .
6
3 1
31. R5 [x] d
T : p(x) 7 p(x+1) 1, x, x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 .
dx
.
28

2.1.

29

, :

Ad

dx

0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0

0
2
0
0
0
0

0
0
3
0
0
0

0
0
0
4
0
0

0
0
0
0
5
0


(x + 1)k :

AT =

1
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0
0

1
2
1
0
0
0

1
3
3
1
0
0

1 1
4 5

6 10
.
4 10

1 5
0 1

32. e1 , e2 , e3

3 2
2
0 .
A = 2 1
3 3 2
f1 = e1 + 2e2 + e3 , f2 = 7e1 + 4e2 2e3 , f3 = 3e1 e2 + e3 .
.
,
:

1 7
3
4 1 .
C= 2
1 2
1

C 1

2 1
5
2 7 ,
= 3
8
5 18

17 9
9
B = C 1 AC = 22 20 15 .
54 44 35

30

2.

33. f a1 = (2, 3, 5), a2 = (1, 0, 1), a3 = (3, 1, 1)

2 1 2
A = 3 11 1 .
3 2
4
b1 = (1, 0, 2), b2 = (3, 1, 5), b3 = (2, 4, 1).
.
C1 C2 R3 a1 , a2 , a3
b1 , b2 , b3 :

1
3 2
2 1
3
4 .
0
1 , C2 = 0 1
C1 = 3
5
1 1
2
5 1
C = C11 C2 {a1 , a2 , a3 } {b1 , b2 , b3 }.

,
C11 , C2 ; C1 C2
C2 , :

2 1
3 1
3 2
3
10 11
1 0 0
3
0
1 0 1
4 0 1 0 22 76
91 .
5
1 1 2
0 0 1 9 31
5 1
37
,

3
10 11
91 .
C = 22 76
9 31
37

, , f :

9
29 74
2 1 2
3
10 11
72
115 182
31 3 11 1 22 76
91 = 61 156 56 .
C 1 AC = 5 12
2 3
8
3 2
4
9 31
37
36 111 101
34. ,
, a1 , a2 a3 b1 , b2 b3 .
, :
a1 = (4, 1, 1)
b1 = (2, 3, 1)

a2 = (1, 4, 5)
b2 = (1, 1, 1)

a3 = (2, 0, 1)
b3 = (1, 0, 1)

.
A B .
f C , , i = 1, 2, 3 Cai = bi . ,

2.2.

31

CA = B, .. C = BA1 A .

4 1 2
2
1 1
4
0 B= 3
1
0
A= 1
1
5
1
1 1
1
; ,

2
1 1
4
9 8
2 3
3
1
0 1 2
2 = 11 25 22 .
C = BA1 = 3
1 1
1
9 19 17
14 30 27

2.2

35. f , :

1
3 5
0 4
2 1 3
1 2

2 0
4 5
Af = 1
.
4
1 9
5 10
3
1 7 2 2
.

1
3
5
0
4
0 7 7
1 6

0
5
5
4
9
Af

0
3
3
3
6
0 8 8 2 10

1 3 5
0
4

0 1 1
3
4

0 0 0 6 6

0 0 0 11 11
0 0 0
22
22

1
0
0
0
0

3
1
0
0
0

5
1
0
0
0

0
1
1
0
0

4
2
1
0
0

, , , ..
(1, 2, 1, 4, 3),

(3, 1, 2, 1, 1),

(0, 1, 4, 5, 2)

f .
Af x = 0.
, :
v1 = (2, 1, 1, 0, 0),

v2 = (1, 1, 0, 1, 1).

, Ker f = hv1 , v2 i.
36. , Rn [x] n:

32

2.
1. T : p(x) 7 p(x + 1);
2. R : p(x) 7 p(x);
3. D : p(x) 7 x2 p00 (x);
4. P : p(x) 7 p(0)x.

.
1. , T 1 p(x) = p(x 1), Rn [x], .
2. R : R2 = id;
Rn [x], .
3. , D , x2 ,
.
4. R , x, ..
Im P = hxi, , x = 0, ..
x.

2.3

37. P V1 V2 R
V1 V2 .
.
V : V = V1 V2 , ..
v V v = v1 + v2 , v1 V1 , v2 V2 . ,
v V :
P (v) = v1 , R(v) = v1 v2 .
, V1 ,
= 1 , V2 , = 0 P ,
= 1 R.
38. ,
f , :

5 2 0
Af = 4 1 0 .
8 4 1

2.3.

33

.
:

5
2
0
1
0 = 3 + 52 7 + 3 = ( 1)2 ( 3).
f () = det 4
8
4
1

, = 1 = 3 f 2
1 . :

2 1 0
4 2 0
0 0 ,
Af E = 4 2 0 0
0
0 0
8 4 0

.. V1 , = 1, : V1 = h(1, 2, 0), (0, 0, 1)i.


= 3 :

1 1
0
2 2
0
2 1 ,
0 0
Af 3E = 4 4
0
0
0
8 4 2

.. V3 = h(1, 1, 2)i.
39. ,
f , :

3 1 0
0
1
1 0
0
.
Af =
3
0 5 3
4 1 3 1

.
f -,

f () = ((3 )(1 ) + 1)((5 )(1 ) + 9) = ( 2)4 ,


.. = 2 4.
Af 2E ( , ):

1 1 0
0
1 1 0
0
1 1 0

0
0 1 1

1
.
3

0 3 3
0
0 0
0
4 1 3 3
0
0 0
0
, V2 : V2 = h(1, 1, 0, 1), (0, 0, 1, 1)i.

34

2.4

2.

40. ,

0 2
3
2
1
1 1 1
.
A=
0
0
2
0
1 1
0
1
.
A A () = 4 43 + 42 = 2 ( 2)2 .
= 0 = 2 ,
V0 V2 .
= 0; (0, 1, 0, 1). :

0 4 8 4
0
0 0 0
;
A2 =
0
0 4 0
0 4 4 4
, 2 (1, 0, 0, 0). ,
= 0 , V0
V0 = h(0, 1, 0, 1), (1, 0, 0, 0)i.
= 2,
(1, 0, 0, 1).

4 4 4 4
4 0
4
4
,
(A 2E)2 =
0 0
0
0
4 0
4
4
2 (1, 0, 1, 0). , V2 = h(1, 0, 0, 1), (1, 0, 1, 0)i.

, .
f : V V Af .
f (). .
A. .
f () = n , f . ,
k 6 n, f k = 0. , k
, f . , k
f . ,
f . , f
, - .
, n r, n , r
. ,

2.4.

35

. rj j f .

r1 + r2 + + rk = n rk Af .
A2f ; ,
, , . ,
2 A2f
2 ( ). ,
2 2 A2f
, 1 1. , :
r1 + 2(r2 + r3 + + rk ) = n rk A2f .
, A3f . , ,
, 3, . ,
3 3 (
). :
r1 + 2r2 + 3(r3 + + rk ) = n rk A3f .
,

r1 + r2 + r3 + + rk =
n rk Af

r
+
r
+
r
+

+
r
=
n

rk
A

1
2
3
k
f

r2 + r3 + + rk =
rk Af rk A2f

r1 + 2(r2 + r3 + + rk ) = n rk A2f
r3 + + rk =
rk A2f rk A3f (. 2.1)
r1 + 2r2 + 3(r3 + + rk ) = n rk A3f

...

...

r1 + 2r2 + 3r3 + + krk = n rk Af

rk = rk Ak1
rk Akf
f
,
, . ,
.
, , ,
,

-
n r1 + r2 + + rk . ,
(2.1) ,
rk Akf = 0; , ,
(. ).
. (k) (k)
(k)
{e1 , e2 , . . . , erk }, Ker f k ( V ), Ker f k1 Ker f k . , Ker f k1 ( , - Ker f k / Ker f k1 Ker f k

36

2.

: Ker f k Ker f k / Ker f k1 ). k;


. f

(k1)

e1
(k1)

(k1)

, e2

, . . . , e(k1)
,
rk

(2.2)

(k)

ej
= f (ej ) j = 1, 2, . . . rk , Ker f k1 . (k1)
(k1)
Ker f k1 erk +1 , . . . , esk1 , sk1 = rk + rk1 ,
,
(k1)
(k1)
e1
, e2
, . . . , e(k1)
sk1
Ker f k2 . , (2.2), k1
k 1. : ,
(j1)

e1

(j1)

, e2

, . . . , e(j1)
sj

(2.3)

j, sj = rk + rk1 + + rj .
f Ker f j1 , Ker f j2 , j 1.
, 1, .. . (2.3),
j- .
Ker f k

(k)

..
.

e1
f
(k1)
e1
f
..
.

Ker f

(1)
e1

Ker f k1

(k)

e2
f
(k1)
e2
f
..
.

...
...

...

(1)
erk

f
(1)
e2

(k)

erk
f
(k1)
erk
f
..
.
f

(k1)

erk +1
f
..
.

(k1)

erk +2
f
..
.

(k1)

...

esk1
f
..
.

...

(1)
erk +1

(1)
erk +2

(1)
esk1

...

(1)

es2 +1

(1)

es2 +2

...

(1)

es1


, . , .
, (
) .. ,
2, .. ,
, , , ,
.
B. .
f () = ( 0 )n , g = f 0 Id . g , f
g ,

2.4.

37

0 . ,
f f 0 Id.
C. .
, .. f () = ( 1 )1 . . . ( q )q
, V Vi f , i , f . i = 1, 2, . . . , q
f |Vi Vi , i .

f |Vi . ,
i f i Id.
i = 1, 2, . . . , q; f i Id
k, rk(Af i )k+1 = rk(Af i )k . , k , ; , 0 < k < n, i
(
, ; ,
, ). ,
i (2.1), f f i Id. , Vi ,
:
Ker(f i Id)k ,
Ker(f i Id)k1 , f i Id,
Ker(f i Id)k1 , ..
, Ker(f i Id)k
V , ,
.
3

d
41. dx
3 R12 [x] 12.

.
, . , = 0
d3
. dx

( 2),
3 2
d
, .. 3 ,
. dx
3

d3
;
dx3

, . ,

dim Ker

d3
dx3

=9

dim Ker

d3
dx3

4
= 12,

2 3. ,
dim R12 [x] = 13,

38

2.

J d3 =

J4 (0)

J4 (0)

dx3

J5 (0)

e1 , e2 , . . . , e13.
3

d
e13 dx
(..
3
3 4
12
d
. e13 = x12! .
R12 [x]), dx
2
4, :

d3
x9
e
=
;
13
dx3
9!
3 4
d
Ker dx

3
3 4
3 3
d
d
Ker dx
, .. e4 e8 Ker dx
, e12
3
3
3 3
3 4
d
d
Ker dx

Ker
. ,
3
dx3

x11
x10
e4 =
e8 =
.
11!
10!
, 4,
, .
: 3
e12 =

e3 =

d3
x8
e
=
,
4
dx3
8!

e7 =

d3
x7
e
=
,
8
dx3
7!

e11 =

d3
x6
e
=
.
12
dx3
6!

e10 =

d3
x3
e
=
11
dx3
3!

2
e2 =

d3
x5
e
=
,
3
dx3
5!

e6 =

d3
x4
e
=
,
7
dx3
4!

1 (.. )
e1 =

d3
x2
e
=
,
2
dx3
2!

e5 =

d3
x
e
=
,
6
dx3
1!

e9 =

42. ,

2 0 1
1 0 0
1 1 1
0 1 0

1 0 0
0 0 1
Af =
0 0 0
2 0 1

0 0 0
1 1 1
0 0 0 1 0 0

d3
e10 = 1.
dx3

2.4.

39

.
, 3 3-
. ,
, , :

2
0
1
1
0
0

1 1
1
0
1
0

0
0
1
=
det(Af E) = det

0
0
0 2
0
1

0
0
0
1 1
1
0
0
0
1
0

2
0
1
2
0
1
1 1
1 = (1 )6 .
1 1
1 det
= det
1
0
1
0
, = 1
6. Af E :

Af E =

1
1
1
0
0
0

0
1
1
0
1
0
0 1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0 1

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0 1

1
0
1
1
0
0

0 0 0 1 0 1 .

0 0 0 0 1 1

, rk(Af E) = 3, , = 1,

x1 + x3 + x4 = 0
x4 + x6 = 0
.
(2.4)

x5 + x6 = 0
= 1 3, Af .
(Af E)2 :

(Af E)2 =

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2 0
2
0
2 0
2

0 2 0 2
0 0 0 1 0 1 .
0
0 0
0

0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0

, rk(Af E)2 = 1,
2 x4 + x6 = 0.
Af E 2, 1,

40

2.

6 6, 1, 2
3. ,

J3 (1)
.
J2 (1)
J =
J1 (1)
{e1 , e2 , . . . , e6 }, . (Af E)3 = 0, 3, .. e3 3, .. ,
x4 + x6 = 0;
e3 = (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1).
e2 = (f id)e3 = (0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1),

e1 = (f id)e2 = (2, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0).

e5 2, e2 , ..
x4 + x6 = 0, e2 , e2 e5 .
e5 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1); e2 , ,
e2 + e5 (2.4) 6= 0. , (2.4), ,
= 0.
e4 = (f id)e5 = (1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0)
e1 1. , {e1 , . . . , e5 } .
(.. (2.4)) e1
e4 . , e6 = (1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1) .
, e1 , . . . e6 .
f = 1,
3, mf ()
mf () = ( 1)3 .
43. ,

Af =

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2 2
2
2 1
8
0 2
1
0 2
16

0
1 1 2 1 14

0
0 1 3 2 9
.
0
0
1
1 1
2

0
0
0
1
1
3

0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

2.4.

41

, f () : = 0 = 1. ,

0 0 0 0
3
6 1
23
0 0 0 0
3
7
1
34

0 0 0 0 2 6 4 32

0 0 0 0 1 4 4 22
2

.
Af =

0
0
0
0
1
2
1
6

0 0 0 0
0
1
2
7

0 0 0 0
0
0
1
2
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
1
Af 6, A2f 4; ,
f , = 0.
, Af E 7; ,
= 1 . ,

J2 (0)
,
J2 (0)
J =
J4 (1)
f : mf () = 2 ( 1)4 .
. e2 e4 (.. 2) , ,
R8 . ,


1
0
2
0
0
1
2
0


0
0
1
0


0
0
0
1


e1 = f (e2 ) =
0 , e2 = 0 , e3 = f (e4 ) = 0 , e4 = 0 ,


0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
, = 0.
-
4, .. , (Af E)4 ,
(Af E)3 .

1
3
6 6
0 3
2
1
0 1
0 6 3 11 4
8

0
0
1
3
1
4
1
4

0
0
0 1 1 2 1 1
3

(Af E) =

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

42

2.

4
(Af E) =

1 4 8
8
1
4 2
3
0
1
0
8
5 15
6 5

0
0
1 4 2 6 2
2

0
0
0
1
1
2
1
0
,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

e8 = (1, 5, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1); :

3
6
8
3
7
11

2
6
12

1
4
9

e7 = (f id)(e8 ) =
, e6 = (f id)(e7 ) = 2 , e5 = (f id)(e6 ) = 1 .
2

0
1

0
0

1
0
0
0

2.5

44. A50 ,

A=

1 1
1 3

.

, . ,
A = 2; rk(A 2E) = 1,
J A 2.
e2 = (1, 0) ( , );

1 1
1
1
e1 = (A 2E)e1 =
=
1 1
0
1
e1 . :

1 1
C=
.
1 0
J = C 1 AC, A = CJC 1 ;
A50 = (CJC 1 )50 = CJC 1 CJC 1 CJC 1 = CJ 50 C 1 .

2.5.

43

2 1
0 2

50

250 50 249
0
250

50

50

= CJ C

1 1
1 0

250 50 249
0
250

0 1
1 1

=2

50

24 25
25 26

45. cos A,

3 8 3
A = 1 3 1 .
0 1 0

.
. , A () = 3 . , = 0
A.

1 3
1
0
0
A2 = 0
1
3 1
1, :

0 1 0
J = 0 0 1 .
0 0 0
3: = 0 ,
3 , A2 . e3 = (1, 0, 0);

e2 := Ae3 = (3, 1, 0), e1 = Ae2 = (1, 0, 1).


,

1 3

0 1
C=
1 0

1
0
0 1
0 C 1 = 0
1
0
0
1 3
1

.
cos ; cos0 = sin cos00 = cos,

1 0 21
0 .
cos J = 0 1
0 0
1

44

2.

21
1
0 .

1
2

3
2

cos A = C cos J C 1 = 0
1
2

46. exp A,

A=

0 2
2 0

32

3
2

.
. A exp A = E + A , , + t et A. ,
A = 2i. , :

+ 2i = e2i
.
2i = e2i
e2i = cos 2 + i sin 2, , = cos 2,
= 12 sin 2. ,

cos 2 sin 2
.
exp A =
sin 2 cos 2

2.6

47. ,

7 4 4
Af = 4 1 4 .
2
2 1
.
. f
f () = 3 + 72 15 9 = ( 1)( 3)2 . , , = 1, e1 = (2, 2, 1),
, = 3, e2 = (1, 1, 0) e3 = (1, 0, 1). ,
f l e1 , ,
, x1 x2 + x3 = 0 (..
, ).
f . W . , {u, v}
u = e1 + ae2 + be3 ,

v = ce2 + de3 ,

2.6.

45

a, b, c, d . W f
, x1 , x2 , y1 , y2 ,
f (u) = x1 u + x2 v,

f (v) = y1 u + y2 v.

, v = 3 , y1 = 0,
y2 = 3. , ,
:

1 = x1
3a = ax1 + cx2

3b = bx1 + dx2

-.

1 0 1
B = a c 3a .
b d 3b
, 2 B ,
. det B = 2(ad bc),
(a, b)
(c, d). , {u, v} W {e1 , v},
.. W , l.
d
48. dx

Rn [x] n .

.
p Rn [x] k 6 n ,
U .
d
d2
dk
(p), 2 (p), . . .
U,
dx
dx
dxk

dm
(p)
dxm

k m. ,

d2
dk
d
p, (p), 2 (p), . . . k = h1, x, x2 , . . . , xk i.
dx
dx
dx
, p
U , , U = h1, x, x2 , . . . , xk i, ..
d
.
dx
47 , , , . , (n 1) , n . f : V V

46

2.

;
f : V V ,
f (l)(v) = l(f (v))
l V , v V .
1. f : V V Af {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } V . f
{e1 , e2 , . . . , en } ATf .
.
Af = (aij ), B = (bij ) f .
i, j = 1, . . . , n :

f (e )(ei ) =

n
X

bkj e (ei ) =

k=1

n
X

bkj ik = bij ;

k=1

,
!
n
n
X
X
j
j
j
aki kj = aji .
aki ek =
f (e )(ei ) = e (f (ei )) = e
k=1

k=1

, B = ATf .
(n 1)-
.
2. V n, f : V V
. (n 1)- f
Ker l l f .
Ker l, l f , f .
.
U (n 1)- f .
l = 0 l V . v U , U :
f (v) U . ,
f (l)(v) = l(f (v)) = 0,
U l = 0. , v,
l f (l) , , , .. , f (l) = l. , l
f .
l f
. (n 1)- U , l = 0.
v U :
l(f (v)) = f (l)(v) = l(v) = 0,
.. f (v) U . , U f .

2.6.

47

49. (n 1)-
{e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 }

1
2
0
1
1 1
2
0
.
Af =
0
1 1
2
2
0
1 1
.
ATf , .
f () f
f () = 4 + 43 22 12 16 = ( 2)( + 4)(2 + 2 + 2),
.. f 1 = 2 2 = 4.
(1, 1, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1, 1) , , l1 = e1 + e2 + e3 + e4 l2 = e1 e2 + e3 e4
f . ,
f ,
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0 x1 x2 + x3 x4 = 0.

3

3.1

50.
(x, y) = x1 y 1 + 2x1 y 2 + 2x1 y 3 2x2 y 1 + 3x2 y 2 + x2 y 3 + x3 y 1 5x3 y 2 3x3 y 3 .
.

1
2
2
3
1
B = 2
1 5 3

(3.1)

,
(x, y) = X T B Y,
X Y x y .
R y , (x, y) = 0
x. , y,
B Y = 0. , R ,
B . :

1 2 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
1 0
7
5 0 7 5
1 5 3
0 7 5
0 0 0

(3.2)

, , R
(4, 5, 7).
L x , (x, y) = 0
y. , x,
X T B = 0 , , BT X = 0. ,
L ,
48

3.2. 49
BT . :

1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
1
2
1 1
3 5 0
7 7 0
2
1 3
0
5 5
0
0
0

(3.3)

, , L
(1, 1, 1).
51. , Q
:
Q(x) = x21 + 2x22 + 3x23 + 2x1 x2 2x1 x3 + 4x2 x3 .
. , , .
Q .

1 1
1
= 2 2 ; 3 = |BQ | = 4 32 .
2 ; 1 = 1; 2 =
BQ = 2
2
1 2
3
, 2 > 0 3 > 0
(
2 2 > 0;
4 32 > 0.

( 2, 2),
( 34 , 0). , . , Q ,
43 < < 0.

3.2

52 (1175 [2]).
x21 + x22 + 3x23 + 4x1 x2 + 2x1 x3 + 2x2 x3 .
. .
, x1 :
x21 + 4x1 x2 + 2x1 x3 = (x1 + 2x2 + x3 )2 4x22 x23 4x2 x3 .
,
(x1 + 2x2 + x3 )2 3x22 + 2x23 2x2 x3 .

50

3.

, x2 ,
:
2

1
1
2
3x2 2x2 x3 =
3x2 + x3 + x23 .
3
3
,
2

1
7
2
(x1 + 2x2 + x3 )
3x2 + x3 + x23 .
3
3

7
x2 = x3 ,
3

x1 = x1 + 2x2 + x3 ,

x3 =

1
3x2 + x3
3


x21 + x22 x23 .

53 (1182 [2]). , ,
x1 x2 + x1 x3 + x2 x3
. , 52,
: x21 , .
x1 x2 ,
x1 = x1 + x2 ,

x2 = x1 x2 ,

x3 = x3


x21 x22 + 2x1 x3 .
52, :
x21 x22 + 2x1 x3 = (
x1 + x3 )2 x22 x23 .

x1 = x1 + x3 ,

x2 = x2 ,

x3 = x3

(3.4)


x21 x22 x33 .
.
1
1
x1 = x1 + x2 ,
2
2

1
1
x2 = x1 x2 ,
2
2

x3 = x3

(3.4),
1
1
x1 = x1 + x2 + x3 ,
2
2

1
1
x2 = x1 x2 ,
2
2

x3 = x3 .

3.2. 51
54 (1257 [3]). f g ,
, f g ( ).
1) f = 2x21 + 9x22 + 3x23 + 8x1 x2 4x1 x3 10x2 x3 ,
g = 5y12 + 6y22 + 12y1 y2 ;
2) f = 2x21 + 3x22 + 6x23 4x1 x2 4x1 x3 + 8x2 x3 ,
g = 4y12 + y22 + 9y32 12y1 y3 ;
. . , , 52 53. ,

1) f = x21 x22 , , , x1 = 2x1 + 2x2 2x3 , x2 = x2 x3 ;

g = y12 y22 , , , y1 = 6y1 + 6y2 , y2 = y1 ;

2) f = x21 + x22 , , , x1 = 2x1 2x2 2x3 , x2 = x2 + 2x3 ;

g = y12 + y22 y32 , , , y1 = 2y1 3y2 , y2 = 3y3 , y3 = 8y2 .


, 2)
f g ,
f g .
1) , , f
g.
, A ,
f , B , g . f g ,
B 1 A f g.

55. , Q1
Q2 :
Q1 (x) = x21 + 2x1 x2 x22 2x2 x3 + x23 x24 ;
Q2 (x) = x1 x2 + 2x1 x3 + 6x1 x4 + 4x2 x3 + 4x2 x4 ?
.
I . Q1 Q2 , Q1 Q2 ,
. Q1 Q2 .
Q1 :

52

3.

Q1 (x) = (x1 + x2 )2 2x22 2x2 x3 + x23 x24 = (x1 + x2 )2 + (x3 x2 )2 3x22 x24 =
= x21 + x22 x23 x24 ,

x1 = x1 + x2 ;

x2 = x3 x2 ;

x3 =

3 x3 ;

x4 = x4 .

, , Q1 2.
Q2 ,

x1 = x01 + x02 ;

x2 = x01 x02 ;

x3 = x30 ;

x4 = x04 .

:
2

f = x01 + 6x01 x03 + 10x01 x04 x02 2x02 x03 + 2x02 x04 =
2

= x01 + 2x01 (3x03 + 5x04 ) x02 2x02 x03 + 2x02 x04 =

2
0
0
0
0
0 2
02
= x1 + 2x1 (3x3 + 5x4 ) + (3x3 + 5x4 ) (3x03 + 5x04 )2 x02 2x02 x03 + 2x02 x04 =

= (x01 + 3x03 + 5x04 ) x02 2x02 x03 + 2x02 x04 9x03 30x03 x04 25x04 =
2

= x001 x002 2x002 x003 + 2x002 x004 9x003 30x003 x004 25x004 =

2
2
2
2
= x001 x002 + 2x002 (x003 x004 ) + (x003 x004 )2 + (x003 x004 )2 9x003 30x003 x004 25x004 =

2
2
000 00
000 2
000 2
000 2
000 2
000 00
000 2
000 2
000 2
+8x4000 = y12 y22 y32 +y42 ,
+
32x
x
+
32x

8x
x
=
x
32x
x
24x
8x
x
= x000
3 4
4
3
2
1
3 4
4
3
2
1

00
x1 = x01 + 3x03 + 5x04 ;

x00 = x0 ;
2
2
00

x3 = x03 ;

00
x4 = x04 .

000
x1

x000
2

x000

000
x4

= x001 ;
= x002 + x003 x004 ;
= x003 ;
= x004 ;

y1 = x000

1;

y2 = x000
2;
000
000

y
=
2
2x
+
4
2x4 ;
3

000

y4 = 2 2x4 .

, , Q2 2, , Q1 . , , Q1
Q2 .
II . , ,
Q1
Q2 , -, .
Q1 Q2

1
1
0 0
0 12 1 3
1 1 1 0
1 0 2 2
2
;

BQ1 =
B
=
Q2
0 1
1 2 0 0
1 0
0
0
0 1
3 2 0 0

3.3.

53

, 1 , . . . , 4 BQ1 01 , . . . , 04 BQ2 :

1
0
0

1
0

1
1 1 1
1
0

1 = 1; 2 =
= 2; 3 = 1 1 1 = 3; 4 =
= 3;
1 1
0 1
1
0
0 1

1
0
0
0 1

0 1 1 3

1
2

1 0 2 2
0 1
01 2 1
1
0
0
0
0
= 16.
4 = 2
1 = 0; 2 = 1 2 = ; 3 = 2 0 2 = 2;

0
1
2
0
0
4
2

1 2 0
3 2 0 0
1, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 1, 01 , 02 , 03 , 04
, , , . 1, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
1, 01 , 02 , 03 , 04 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 1, 0, 41 , 2, 16. 2. , Q1 Q2
2. , 4 6= 0 04 6= 0, , Q1 Q2
. ,
4. , Q1
Q2 2. Q1 Q2 .

3.3

56.
(x, y) = x1 y 2 x2 y 1 + 2x1 y 3 2x3 y 1 + 2x1 y 4 2x4 y 1 + x2 y 3 x3 y 2 + x3 y 4 x4 y 3
; .
.
V e1 , e2 , . . . , en . , V V . e1 , e2 , . . . , en
V ei , ei (x) = xi , x1 , . . . , xn x e1 , . . . , en . , V
, V :
( )(x, y) = (x)(y) (x)(y).
, = = 0.
V ei ej , i < j.
(ei ej )(x, y) = xi y j xj y i .

54

3.

= e1 e2 + 2e1 e3 + 2e1 e4 + e2 e3 + e3 e4 .

. , e1 :
= e1 (e2 + 2e3 + 2e4 ) + e2 e3 + e3 e4 .

1
e

e2
e3

4
e

= e1 ;
= e2 + 2e3 + 2e4 ;
= e3 ;
= e4 ;

1
e

e2
e3

4
e

= e1 ;
= e2 2
e3 2
e4 ;
= e3 ;
= e4 .

,
= e1 e2 + (
e2 2
e3 2
e4 ) e3 + e3 e4 = e1 e2 + e2 e3 + 3 e3 e4 .
, e2 :
= (
e1 e3 ) e2 + 3 e3 e4

1
e

e2

e3

4
e

= e1 e3 ;
= e2 ;
= e3 ;
= e4 ;

1
e

e2

e3

4
e

= e1 + e3 ;
= e2 ;
= e3 ;
= e4 .

,
= e1 e2 + 3 e3 e4 .
, , e1 e2 , e1 , e2 .
.

e1 = e1 ;

e2 = e2 ;

e3 = e3 ;

e4 =

1 4
e .
3

,
= e1 e2 + e3 e4 ,
,
(x, y) = x1 y2 x2 y1 + x3 y4 x4 y3 .

3.3.

55

, ,

e1 = e1 + e3 ;

e2 = e2 2e3 e4 ;
3
3
3

e = e ;

4 1 4

e = e .
3
, ei ei x xi xi . ,

x1 = x1 + x3 ;

x2 = x2 2x3 x4 ;
3
3
3

x
=
x

x4 = x4 .

3
57.
(x, y) = x1 y 1 + i
x1 y 2 i
x2 y 1 + 2
x1 y3 + 2
x3 y 1 2
x2 y 2 + x3 y 3
( ).
.

. , x1 y 1
l(x)l(y), l :
(x, y) = x1 y 1 + x1 (iy 2 + 2y 3 ) + (ix2 + 2x3 )y 1 2
x2 y 2 + x3 y 3 =
= (x1 + ix2 + 2x3 )(y 1 + iy 2 + 2y 3 ) (ix2 + 2x3 )(iy 2 + 2y 3 ) 2
x2 y 2 + x3 y 3 =
= (x1 + ix2 + 2x3 )(y 1 + iy 2 + 2y 3 ) x2 y 2 + 2i
x2 y 3 2i
x3 y 2 + x3 y 3 .

01
1
2
3

x = x + ix + 2x ;
2
x0 = x2 ;

03
x = x3 ;

1
01
02
03

x = x ix 2x ;
2
x2 = x0 ;

3
3
x = x0 .

, y , x. :
1

(x, y) = x0 y 0 x0 y 0 + 2i
x0 y 0 2i
x0 y 0 + x0 y 0 .

56

3.

, x0 1 y 0 1 , x1 ,
y 1 . :
1

(x, y) = x0 y 0 x0 y 0 + x0 (2iy 0 ) + (2ix0 3 )y 0 + x0 y 0 =


1

= x0 y 0 (x0 2 2ix0 3 )(y 0 2iy 0 ) + (2ix0 3 )(2iy 0 ) + x0 y 0 =

3
3 3
1 1
3
3
1 1
2
2
= x0 y 0 (x0 2 2ix0 3 )(y 0 2iy 0 ) + 5
x0 y 0 = x0 y 0 (x0 2 2ix0 3 )(y 0 2iy 0 ) + ( 5x0 3 )( 5y 0 ).

00 1
01

x = x ;
2
2
3
x00 = x0 2ix0 ;

00 3 0 3
x = 5x ;

1
1

x0 = x00 ;

2i 3
02
2
x = x00 + x00 ;
5

1
3
3

x0 = x00
5

:
1

(x, y) = x00 y 00 x00 y 00 + x00 y 00 .


, , x1 , x2 , x3 x00 1 , x00 2 , x00 3 :

1
2

x1 = x00 ix00 ;

2i 3
2
2
x = x00 + x00 ;
5

1
3

x3 = x00 .
5

4

4.1

58. , x y ,

1
1
1
1 2 1 2
y
x
y
(x, y) = x x
, x =
, y=
,
2 5
y2
x2
y2
. (1, 0)
(0, 1) .
.
, , ,
. , , (x, x) > 0
x. ,
2
2
2 2
(x, x) = x1 + 4x1 x2 + 5 x2 = x1 + 2x2 + x2 > 0.
(x, x) = 0 x1 + 2x2 = 0
x2 = 0, x = 0. , .
x = (1, 0), y = (0, 1)
. ,


1 2
1
(x, x) = (1 0)
= 1;
0
2 5


1 2
0
(x, y) = (1 0)
= 2;
2 5
1


1 2
0
(y, y) = (0 1)
= 5.
2 5
1
,
|x| =

|y| = f (y, y) = 5,
f (x, y)
2
cos =
= .
|x||y|
5

f (x, x) = 1,

, = arccos 25 .
57

58

4.

59. , (A, B) = tr AT B Mat2 (R) 2;

1 1
1 2
A1 =
A2 =
0
0
0
1
.
.
, (A, B) (B, A) = (A, B).
, (A, A) > 0 A. A = (aij ).

A A=

a11 a21
a12 a22

a11 a12
a21 a22

a211 + a221
a11 a12 + a21 a22
a11 a12 + a21 a22
a212 + a222

tr AT A = a211 + a221 + a212 + a222 > 0,

tr AT A = 0 A = 0. , (A, B) = tr AT B
.
(A1 , A1 ), (A1 , A2 ) (A2 , A2 ):

(A1 , A1 ) = tr

(A1 , A2 ) = tr

(A2 , A2 ) = tr

1 0
1 0
1 0
1 0
1 0
2 1

1 1
0
0
1 2
0
1
1 2
0
1

= tr

= tr

= tr

1 1
1
1
1 2
1
2
1 2
2
5

= 2;

= 3;

= 6.

,
kA1 k =

kA2 k = (A2 , A2 ) = 6,

(A1 , A2 )
3
cos =
=
.
kA1 kkA2 k
2

(A1 , A1 ) =

2,

, = 6 .
4. A kAk, |A|,
|A| A.

4.2

60. e1 =
R3 .

1 (1, 1, 2)
6

e2 =

1 (1, 1, 1)
3

4.2.

59

.
, e1 e2
. , R3 ,


1
2 1 1 1
1
1
1
2
,
,
= , ,0 .
[e1 , e2 ] =
1 1 1 1 1 1
3 2
2 2
[e1 , e2 ] [e1 , e2 ]; , e1 e2 R3 , .
61. e1 = 14 (1, 2, 1, 3, 1) e2 = 21 (1, 0, 1, 1, 1) R5 .
.
, e1 e2
. U , e1 e2 . , e1 e2 R5 ,
U . - U . U ,
e1 e2 ; :

1 0 1 1 1
1 2 1 3
1

0 1
0
2 0
1 0
1 1 1
x1 x2 ,
x3 , x4 x5 . a1 = (1, 0, 1, 0, 0), a2 = (1, 2, 0, 1, 0),
a3 = (1, 0, 0, 0, 1). U .
. , b1 = a1 .
b2 = a2

(b1 , a2 )
b1 .
(b1 , b1 )

, (b1 , b1 ) = 2, (b1 , a2 ) = 1, ,
1
b2 = a2 b1 =
2

1
1
, 2, , 1, 0 .
2
2

: (b1 , a3 ) = 1, (b2 , a3 ) = 12 , (b2 , b2 ) =


b3 = a3

11
,
2

(b2 , a3 )
1
1
1
(b1 , a3 )
b1
b2 = a3 + b1 + b2 = (5, 2, 5, 1, 11).
(b1 , b1 )
(b2 , b2 )
2
11
11

b1 , b2 b3 , , U . ,

q . (b1 , b1 ) (b2 , b2 ); , b1 = 2,
|b2 | =

11
.
2

|b3 | =

4 .
11

, ,

60

4.

e1 e2 R5 ,

e3 =

b1
1
b2
1
b3
1
= (1, 0, 1, 0, 0), e4 =
= (1, 4, 1, 2, 0), e5 =
= (5, 2, 5, 1, 11).
|b1 |
|b2 |
|b3 |
2
22
4 11

62. e1 = (i, i, 1, 1) e2 = (1+i, 1i, 1+i, 1i)


C4 .
.
, e1 e2 :
(e1 , e2 ) = i(1 + i) + i(1 i) + (1 + i) (1 i) = 0.
U , e1 e2 . , U ,
e1 e2 . , U

(
iz 1 iz 2 + z 3 z 4 = 0;
(1 i)z 1 + (1 + i)z 2 + (1 i)z 3 + (1 + i)z 4 = 0.
,
(, ):

i
i 1 1
i
i
1
1
.

1 i 1 i 0
1i 1+i 1i 1+i
( 1, ,
1 + i 2.) z 2 z 4
, z 1 z 3 .
, U : a1 = (1, i1, 0, 1), a2 = (0, i, 1, 2).
(
): b1 = a1 ,
b2 = a2

(b1 , a2 )
3i
1
b1 = a2
a1 = (i 3, 3, 4, i + 5).
(b1 , b1 )
4
4

, e1 e2 C4
b1 b2 .
, , ,
b2 , b1 a2 :
(b1 , a2 ) (a2 , b1 ),
.
63. R2 [t] 2
Z 1
(p, q) =
p(t)q(t) dt.
0
2

t R2 [t].

4.2.

61

.
p1 (x) = t2 - R2 [x]:
, , p2 (x) = x, p3 (x) = 1. (p1 , p2 , p3 )
:
q1 = p1 ;
(q1 , p2 )
q1 ;
(q1 , q1 )
(q1 , p3 )
(q2 , p3 )
q3 = p3
q1
q2 .
(q1 , q1 )
(q2 , q2 )
q2 = p2

(4.1)
(4.2)

:
Z 1
Z 1
1
2
(q1 , p2 ) =
t t dt =
t3 dt = ;
4
Z0 1
Z0 1
1
(q1 , q1 ) =
t2 t2 dt =
t4 dt = .
5
0
0
(4.1),
5
5
q2 (t) = p2 (t) q1 (t) = t2 + t.
4
4
:
Z 1
1
(q1 , p3 ) =
t2 dt = ;
3
0

1
Z 1
5 3 t2
1
5 2
(q2 , p3 ) =
= ;
t + t dt = t +

4
12
2 0 12
0
2

Z 1
Z 1
25 4 5 3
5 2
2
(q2 , q2 ) =
t t + t dt =
t + t dt =
4
16
2
0
0

1
5 5 5 4 1 3
1
=
t t + t = .
16
8
3
48
0
(4.2),

5
5 2
5 2
10
q3 (t) = p3 (t) q1 (t) 4q2 (t) = 1 t 4 t + t = t2 4t + 1.
3
3
4
3
, p1 (t) = q1 (t) = t2 R2 [t]
t2 4t + 1.
q2 (t) = 45 t2 + t q3 (t) = 10
3
64.

2 0
1
A = 2 4 1
1 2
3
U R
.

62

4.

.
, A , . . A a1 = (2, 2, 1)T , a2 = (0, 4, 2)T ,
a3 = (1, 1, 3)T . , :

2/3
a1
1
b1 =
= a1 = 2/3 .
(4.3)
|a1 |
3
1/3

4/3
b2 = a2 (b1 , a2 )b1 = a2 2b1 = 8/3 .
8/3

b2 ,

1/3
1
1
1
b2 = b2 = a2 b1 = 2/3 .
4
4
2
2/3

(4.4)

2
b3 = a3 (b1 , a3 )b1 (b2 , a3 )b2 = a2 + b1 b2 = 1 ;
2

2/3
1
1
1
1

1/3 .
b3 = b3 = a3 + b1 b2 =
3
3
3
3
2/3

(4.5)

a1 , a2 a3 (4.3), (4.4) (4.5) ,


a1 = 3b1 ;
a2 = 2b1 + 4b2 ;
a3 = b1 + b2 + 3b3 .
:

3 2 1
1
(a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (b1 , b2 , b3 ) 0 4
0 0
3
A, , , R3 ,
. ,
A. b1 , b2 b3 , A = U R,

2 1
2
3 2 1
1
2 1 ;
1 .
R= 0 4
U= 2
3
1
2
2
0 0
3

4.3. ; N -

4.3

63

; n-

65. ,
a1 = (1, 0, 1, 0),

a2 = (1, 2, 0, 1),

a3 = (3, 2, 4, 1).

.
I . , a1 , a2 a3 ,
. :
(a1 , a1 ) = 2;
(a2 , a2 ) = 6;
,

(a1 , a2 ) = 1;
(a2 , a3 ) = 2;

(a1 , a3 ) = 1;
(a3 , a3 ) = 30.

2 1 1
G = 1 6 2 .
1 2 30

,
. ,

2 1 1 0 11 3

2 = 11 28 + 3 4 = 320.
|G| = 1 6 2 = 1 6
1 2 30 0 4 28

, V = 320 = 8 5.
II . , ,
.
:
b1 = a1 = (1, 0, 1, 0);

(b1 , a2 )
1
1
1
b2 = a2
b1 = (1, 2, 0, 1) (1, 0, 1, 0) =
, 2, , 1 ;
(b1 , b1 )
2
2
2

(b1 , a3 )
(b2 , a3 )
1
3 1
1
b3 = a3
b1
b2 = (3, 2, 4, 1) (1, 0, 1, 0)
, 2, , 1 =
(b1 , b1 )
(b2 , b2 )
2
11 2
2
8
= (5, 2, 5, 1).
11
b1 , b2 , b3 ,
:
r

11 8 5
V = |b1 ||b2 ||b3 | = 2
= 8 5.

2
11
66. R3 [t] 3
Z 1
(p, q) =
p(t)q(t) dt.
1
2

, 1, t, t , t .

64

4.

.
1, t, t2 , t3 e0 , e1 , e2 , e3 ( , ). C = (cij ) e0 , e1 , e2 , e3
e0 , e1 , e2 , e3 , , ej = cij ei . (
, ej .)
, C = G1 , G = (gij ) e0 , e1 , e2 , e3 . ,

kj = (ej , ek ) = (cij ei , ek ) = cij (ei , ek ) = cij gik ,
1
kj . , C = GT
, G
1
, , C = G .
G. :

2
Z 1
Z 1

, m + n ;
m
n
m
n
m+n
(x , x ) =
x x dx =
x
dx = m + n + 1

1
1
0,
m + n .
,

2 0 23 0
0 2 0 2
3
5
G=
2 0 2 0 .
3
5
0 52 0 27
C = G1 . G :
2 2,
. , G
2 2:

!1

!1

2
2
2 32
1
1
9 15
75 105
3
5
=
;
=
;
2
2
2
2
45
175
8 15
8 105
3
5
5
7

9
0
15
0
1 0
75
0 105
.
C = G1 =

15
0
45
0
8
0 105 0
175
C ei e0 , e1 , e2 , e3 . ,
9 15 2
t;
8
8
15 45 2
2
e (t) = + t ;
8
8
e0 (t) =

75
105 3
t
t;
8
8
105
175 3
e3 (t) =
t+
t.
8
8
e1 (t) =

5. ,
. e0 e2 ,
1, t2 , e1 e3 ,
t, t3 .
.

4.4. ,

4.4

65

67. xk x
x = (2, 5, 4, 3) U = h(1, 2, 1, 0), (2, 1, 4, 5)i.
.
3 .
, ;
.
I . a1 = (1, 2, 1, 0), a2 = (2, 1, 4, 5). xk U , ,
xk = a1 + a2
.
x = x xk = x a1 a2 = (2 2, 5 2 , 4 4, 3 + 5).
, x U , , a1 a2 . :
(x , a1 ) = (2 2) + 2(5 2 ) + (4 4) = 6 8 4;
(x , a2 ) = 2(2 2) + (5 2 ) + 4(4 4) 5(3 + 5) = 8 46 + 30.

(

6 + 8 + 4 = 0,
,
8 + 46 30 = 0,

(4.6)

= 2, = 1. ,
xk = 2a1 + a2 = (0, 3, 2, 5);
x = x xk = (2, 2, 2, 2).

II . , , xk x
xk = a1 + a2 ;

x = x a1 a2

(x , a1 ) = (x , a2 ) = 0. ,
(x , ai ) = (x, ai ) (a1 , ai ) (a2 , ai ),
,
(
(a1 , a1 ) + (a1 , a2 ) = (x, a1 );
(a2 , a1 ) + (a2 , a2 ) = (x, a2 ),

!
!

(x, a1 )
G
=
,

(x, a2 )

i = 1, 2.

(4.7)

66

4.

G a1 , a2 . : (a1 , a1 ) = 6, (a1 , a2 ) = 8, (a2 , a2 ) = 46,


(x, a1 ) = 4, (x, a2 ) = 30. , (4.7) (4.6).
, .
III . a1 = (1, 2, 1, 0) a2 = (2, 1, 4, 5) , , U . . U .
, b1 = a1 = (1, 2, 1, 0),
b2 = a 2

(b1 , a2 )
4
1
b1 = a2 b1 = (2, 5, 8, 15).
(b1 , b1 )
3
3

b1 , b2 U , x

xk =

(b1 , x)
(b2 , x)
b1 +
b2 .
(b1 , b1 )
(b2 , b2 )

: (b1 , b1 ) = 6, (b1 , x) = 4, (b2 , b2 ) =

106
,
3

(b2 , x) =

106
.
3

2
xk = b1 + b2 = (0, 3, 2, 5);
3

x = x xk = (2, 2, 2, 2).

68. xk x
x = (1, 5, 2, 5)
U = h(1, 1, 2, 1), (1, 3, 1, 13), (2, 1, 0, 1), (1, 3, 1, 9)i.
.
, U ;
:

1 1
2 1
1
1
2 1
1
1
2 1
1

3 1 13
2 3 12

0
0 2 3 12
(4.8)
2 1
0 3 4
0 0
1
2
0 1
1
1 3
1
9
0 4 1
10
0 0
0
0
, U 3, , . x U U .
x U
x U .
U , , (4.8) . U
(4.8).
a = (2, 3, 2, 1),

4.4. ,

67

U . x
, a
k

xU =

(a, x)
a = a = (2, 3, 2, 1).
(a, a)

x U
x U . ,
k

x = xU = (2, 3, 2, 1);

xk = x x = (1, 2, 4, 4).

69.
Mat2 (R) 2 2 T
(A, B) = tr A B . X k 3 4
X X =
U ,
2 5

(
tr(A) = 0,
tr(JA) = 0,

0 1
J =
.
1 0
.

a11 a12
A =
. , U , a21 a22

(
a11 + a22 = 0,
a21 a12 = 0.

1
0
0 1
, U A1 =
, A2 =
. 0 1
1 0
, A1 A2 ,
, X U
Xk =

(A1 , X)
(A2 , X)
A1 +
A2 .
(A1 , A1 )
(A2 , A2 )

:
(A1 , A1 ) = tr

AT1 A1

1 0
0 1

= tr
= 2,

T
3
4
(A1 , X) = tr A1 X = tr
= 2,
2 5

T
1 0
= 2,
(A2 , A2 ) = tr A2 A2 = tr
0 1

T
2 5
= 2.
(A2 , X) = tr A2 X = tr
3 4
,

X = A1 + A2 =

1 1
1 1

X =X X =

4 3
3 4

68

4.

70. v = (1, 1, 3, 1)
U = h(1, 0, 1, 2), (1, 1, 1, 3)i.
.
I .
e1 = (1, 0, 1, 2) e2 = (1, 1, 1, 3); U .
h v U , v, e1 e2 , , e1 e2 . ,
h , v, e1 e2 , () , e1
e2 . , ,
, ,
s
g3 (v, e1 , e2 )
h=
,
g2 (e1 , e2 )
g3 (v, e1 , e2 ) g2 (e1 , e2 ) v, e1 , e2 e1 , e2 . :
(v, v) = 12;
(e1 , e1 ) = 6;

(v, e1 ) = 2;
(e1 , e2 ) = 4;

(v, e2 ) = 8;
(e2 , e2 ) = 12.

12

2
8

6 4

6 4 = 112;
g3 (v, e1 , e2 ) = 2
g2 (e1 , e2 ) =
4 12
8 4 12
q

1 ,e2 )
, h = gg32(v,e
= 2.
(e1 ,e2 )
II .
v
e1 = (1, 0, 1, 2) e2 = (1, 1, 1, 3) U ,

v k = e1 + e2 = ( + , , + , 2 + 3)

= 56.

U .
-

. v U
v = v v k = (1 , 1 , 3 , 1 + 2 3).
, v e1 e2 :
(v , e1 ) = 2 6 + 4 = 0;
(v , e2 ) = 8 + 4 12 = 0.
= 1, = 1.
v ,
v = (1, 0, 1, 0). ,

v U |v | = 2.

4.5.

69

71. v = (1, 0, 1, 0) U ,

(
x1 2x2 2x3 + x4 = 0;
2x1 x2 3x3 + 2x4 = 0.
.
|v k |
cos = |v| , v k v U . v k h v
U . U , , U ,
e1 = (1, 2, 2, 1) e2 = (2, 1, 3, 2). , v
U g3 (v, e1 , e2 ) g2 (e1 , e2 )
v, e1 , e2 e1 , e2 . ,
(v, v) = 2;
(e1 , e1 ) = 10;

(v, e1 ) = 1;
(e1 , e2 ) = 12;

(v, e2 ) = 1;
(e2 , e2 ) = 18.

2 1 1

g3 (v, e1 , e2 ) = 1 10 12 = 68;
1 12 18
,

s
h=

4.5

10 12
g2 (e1 , e2 ) =
12 18

g3 (v, e1 , e2 )
=
g2 (e1 , e2 )

= 36.

17
3

17
h
= arccos
= arccos
|v|
3 2

72. , M (6, 1, 2, 4, 1)
, A(4, 2, 3, 6, 0), B(6, 0, 1, 3, 3), C(8, 4, 3, 4, 0).
.
,

A, B C, a1 = AB = (2, 2, 2, 3, 3), a2 = 21 AC = (2, 1, 0, 1, 0).


,

x1 = 4 + 2s + 2t;

x = 2 + 2s t;
x3 = 3 2s;

x4 = 6 3s t;

x5 = 3s.

70

4.

, s t N ,
M . M N a1 a2 . ,

M N = (10 + 2s + 2t, 3 + 2s t, 1 2s, 10 3s t, 1 + 3s).




M N , a1 = 0 M N , a2 = 0

(
15 + 30s + 5t = 0;
13 + 5s + 6t = 0.
, s = 1, t = 3. N
s t . , N = (0, 3, 1, 6, 3).
p

|M N | = 62 + 22 + (1)2 + 102 + 42 = 157


1

+6
73. x 15 = x1
=
A(3, 2, 1, 4), B(5, 1, 2, 6) C(4, 3, 0, 5).

x3 1
2

x4 +2
0

.

. a = (1, 1, 2, 0), U

e1 = AB = (2, 1, 3, 2) e2 = AC = (1, 1, 1, 1).


a U
h2 =

g(a, e1 , e2 )
,
g(e1 , e2 )

g(a, e1 , e2 ) g(e1 , e2 ) a, e1 , e2 e1 , e2 . ,

6 3 2

18 6
= 36,
6 = 180,
g(a, e1 , e2 ) = 3 18
g(e1 , e2 ) =
6 4
2

6
4

h = 5. , a U
r
r
h
5
5
=
;
= arcsin

sin =
|a|
6
6
74. `, A(1, 4, 2, 4)
B(2, 1, 1, 5), , C(4, 2, 0, 1), D(4, 1, 1, 1)
E(4, 1, 1, 2).
.

` AB = (1, 3, 1, 1).
CD = (0, 1, 1, 0)

4.5.

71

CE = (0, 1, 1, 1). `
AC = (5, 2, 2, 3) ,

AB, CD CE. P , AB,


CD, CE AC. AC

P , (3- ), AB,

CD CE. ,


V4 AB, CD, CE, AC

=
,
V3 AB, CD, CE
V4 V3
,


. V4 AB, CD, CE, AC ,

AB, CD, CE AC:

1
1
1 3

0 1 1
0

V4 AB, CD, CE, AC =


= 20.
1
1
0 1

2 3
5 2

V3 AB, CD, CE

AB, CD CE:
v

u
u 12 2 5

u
V3 AB, CD, CE = t 2 2 0 = 10.
5 0 3
, =

20
10

= 2 10.

75. ` :
` = (5, 0, 2, 4) + h(0, 1, 3, 2)i;
(
x1 2x2 3x3 + 4x4 = 3;
:
x1 4x2 2x3 + 4x4 = 5.
.
` A = (5, 0, 2, 4); ,

, , B = (9, 0, 2, 0). , AB = (4, 0, 4, 4). U V


` .
` AB

U + V , , AB
(U + V ) .
(U + V ) = U V . V , , ,

72

4.

v1 = (1, 2, 3, 4) v2 = (1, 4, 2, 4). , V


v = v1 + v2 = ( + , 2 4, 3 2, 4 + 4).
, v U ,
a = (0, 1, 3, 2):
0 = (v, a) = 2 4 + 3(3 2) + 2(4 + 4) = 3 2.
= 2, = 3.
, (U + V ) v = 2v1 + 3v2 = (1, 8, 0, 4).
, `
AB v:

AB, v
20
=
= .

|v|
9
76. ` A(3, 1, 2, 4) B(4, 2, 3, 6),
C(2, 1, 3, 1), D(6, 1, 0, 2) E(3, 0, 2, 0). ` .
.

` a = AB = (1, 1, 1, 2);
b1 = CD = (4, 0, 3, 3)

b2 = CE = (1, 1, 1, 1). , ` :
1
1
x = 2 + 4s + t;
x
=
3
+
r;

2
2

x = 1 t;
x = 1 + r;
P :
`:
3

x3 = 3 3s t;
x = 2 + r;

4
4
x = 1 + 3s + t.
x = 4 + 2r;

, M N M ` N , r
s t ,

M N = (1 r + 4s + t, r t, 1 r 3s t, 5 2r + 3s + t).
M N ` P

, M N a, b1 b2 .

7r + 7s + t = 10;

7r + 34s + 10t = 22;

r + 10s + 4t = 7,
r = 43 , s = 16 , t = 11
. ,
6
` M `, . :
r = 34 , N , s = 16 , t = 11
6

4.5.

73

3 1

5 5 1
M = 35 , 31 , 23 , 43 , N = 19
,

,
,
,
M
N
=
,

,
1,
1
. 6
6 3 3
2
2
M N
x1
3

5
3


r
MN =

x2 + 13
x3
=
1
2

2
3

x4 43
,
2

9 1
3
+ +1+1= .
4 4
2

77. , A1 (2, 4, 5, 1),


B1 (1, 6, 6, 2) C1 (2, 9, 4, 3), , A2 (8, 4, 20, 10),
B2 (7, 5, 28, 11) C2 (13, 4, 19, 17).
.
1 2 , U1 U2
1 2 . 1

2 A1 A2 = (10, 0, 15, 11) U = U1 + U2 . U

A1 B1 = (1, 2, 1, 1), A1 C1 = (4, 5, 1, 2), A2 B2 = (1, 1, 8, 1) A2 C2 = (5, 0, 1, 7).


U :

1 2 1
1
1 2
1
1
1
2
1
1
4 5 1

0 3 5 2 0 1 3 0
(4.9)
1 1
0
0 0 2 1
8 1
3
9
0
5 0 1 7
0 10 6 12
0 0 0
0
, U (1, 2, 1, 1), (0, 1, 3, 0)

(0, 0, 2, 1). A1 A2 L

A1 A2 U . U (4.9) (
U ).

n = (3, 3, 1, 2). , U , n.
, 1 2

A1 A2 n,

A1 A2 , n

23
=
= = 23.

|n|
23
78. R3 [t]
Z 1
(p, q) =
p(t)q(t) dt.
1

`, t3 + at + a, , bt2 + 2t + c.

74

4.

.
t3 `, 2t .
` t + 1; 1 t2 . `
t3 2t U , 1 + t, 1 t2 . , U
2. , 2t U , , t3 2t U
t3 U . ,
. t3 U = h1, t, t2 i t3
hti. f t, t3 :
3)
f (t) = t3 t, = (t,t
. ,
(t,t)
Z

2
t dt = ,
(t, t ) =
5
1
3

Z
(t, t) =

2
t2 dt = ,
3
1

, f (t) = t3 53 t. ,
2

Z 1
2 10 2 25 2
152
5
10 4 25 2
3
6
(f, f ) =
t +
t dt =
+
=
t x dt =
t
3
3
9
7
3 5
9 3
189
1
1
Z

,
=

4.6

2
(f, f ) =
3

38
21

79. n- 1
Rn , rn n
(n 1)- .
.
n- Rn+1
A1 = (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0), A2 = (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0), A3 = (0, 0, 1, . . . , 0), . . ., An+1 = (0, 0, 0, .
. . , 1). n
, 1, 2.
(
),

2.
, X1 , X2 , . . . , Xk m1 , m2 , . . . , mk
(, m1 + m2 + . . . + mk 6= 0) X -

m1 OX1 + m2 OX2 + . . . + mk OXk


;
OX =
m1 + m2 + . . . + mk

4.6.

75

O.
I n ( 1), , -
I

OA1 + OA2 + . . . + OAn+1


1
1
1
OI =
=
,
,...,
.
n+1
n+1 n+1
n+1
( O Rn+1 .)
I ,
, A1 . :


n
1
1
;
IA1 = OA1 OI =
,
,...,
n+1 n+1
n+1

2
2
n
1
n2 + n
1
n
IA1 =
+
+
.
.
.
+
=
=
2
2
2
n+1
(n + 1)
(n + 1)
(n + 1)
n+1
{z
}
|
n

p n
, n n+1
.
q n- 1,

n
.
2; , Rn = 2(n+1)
n n + 1 , n 1; (n 1)- , A1 , . . . , An+1 , - Ai . Ii , Ai , A1 , . . . , An+1 , Ai , ,

1 X
1 1
1
1
1
OAj =
, , . . . , , 0, , . . . ,
,
OIi =
n j6=i
n n
n
n
n
0 i- .


1
1
1
1
1
1
,
,...,
,
,
,...,
.
IIi = OIi OI =
n(n + 1) n(n + 1)
n(n + 1) n + 1 n(n + 1)
n(n + 1)
n IIi . :

1
1
1
IIi =
+n 2
=
2
2
(n + 1)
n (n + 1)
n(n + 1)
, n

1
,
n(n+1)

n- 1 rn = 1
.
2n(n+1)

IIi Fi n , Ai . , n Fi Fj ,


IIi IIj . IIi IIj ,
1
n + 1 , n 1 n2 (n+1)
2 , 1
i- j- n(n+1)2 . ,


IIi , IIj =

2
1
n1

= 2
2
2
+ 1)
n(n + 1)
n (n + 1)

n2 (n

76

4.


IIi , IIj
1
cos =
= n
IIi IIj

,
n = = arccos

4.7

1
n

80.

x1 + x2 + x3 = 2,

1
2
3

x x x = 2,
x3 = 0,

x2 + x3 = 1,

x1 x2 = 1.
.
Ax = b,

1
1
1
2
1 1 1
2

0
1 ,
A= 0
b=
0 .
0
1
1
1
1 1
0
1
Ax = b x R5 ,
|Axb|2 . Ax
b Im(A), Ay, y R3 .
, Ax b Ay, y R5 :
0 = (Ay, Ax b) = (Ay)T (Ax b) = y T (AT Ax AT b).
y R5 , , x AT Ax = AT b. (, AT A
A.) :

3 1 0
3
AT A = 1 4 3 ;
AT b = 2 .
0 3 4
1

3 1
1 4
0 3

AT Ax = AT b:

0
1
4
3 2
1 4 3 2
1 4 3 2
3
9 0 1 7
5 0 1 7
5
3 2 0 11 9
4 1
0
3
4 1
0 3 4 1
0 0 17 16

4.7.
, x3 = 16
, x2 = 5 7x3 = 27
, x1 = 2 4x2 3x3 =
17
17
x = 26
, 27
, 16 .
17
17 17

77
26
.
17

81.
R1
[1, 1] (f, g) = 1 f (t)g(t) dt ( ) et 1 (t) = 1, 2 (t) = t, 3 (t) = t3 .
.
f (t) = et
L(t) = a1 1 (t) + a2 2 (t) + a3 3 (t) = a1 + a2 t + a3 t3

(4.10)

a1 , a2 a3 . a1 , a2 a3 (L f, i ) = 0,
i = 1, 2, 3. (4.10) ,
(L, i ) = a1 (1 , i ) + a2 (2 , i ) + a3 (3 , i ).
(L f, i ) = 0

(1 , 1 ) (1 , 2 ) (1 , 3 )
a1
(f, 1 )
(2 , 1 ) (2 , 2 ) (2 , 3 ) a2 = (f, 2 )
(3 , 1 ) (3 , 2 ) (3 , 3 )
a3
(f, 3 )
( k, l 0):
Z
k

(t , t ) =

k+l

t
1

2
, k + l ;
dt = k + l + 1

0,
k + l .

, 1, t, t3

2 0 0

0 23 52

0 25 72
et 1, t t3 :
Z
t

(e , 1) =
Z
t

1
1

(e , t) =
Z
t

1
1

(e , t ) =

et dt = e e1 ;
Z
1

te dt = (te )
t

t e dt = (t e )
3 t

3 t

1
1

et dt = (e + e1 ) (e + e1 ) = 2e1 ;
1
Z
Z 1
1
2 t
1
2 t
3
t e dt = (e + e ) 3 (t e ) + 6
1
1

= (e + e ) 3(e e ) + 12e

= 2e + 16e .

1
1

tet dt =

(4.11)

78

4.

, (4.11)

2a1 = e e1 ;

2
2
a2 + a3 = 2e1 ;
3
5

2
2

a2 + a3 = 2e + 16e1 .
5
7
,
a1 =

e e1
,
2

a2 =

105e 765e1
4

a3 =

1295e1 175e
.
4

,
L(t) =

e e1 105e 765e1
1295e1 175e 3
+
t+
t.
2
4
4

5


5.1

82. L e1 , e2

2 1
.
AL =
1 0
AL L .
. , L L
(Lv, w) = (v, L w),

(5.1)

( , ) , v w .
. v (v1 , v2 ), w (w1 , w2 ),

w1
v1
w1
(v, w) = v1 w1 + v2 w2 = (v1 v2 )
=
.
w2
v2
w2
(5.1)

T

T

v1
w1
v1
w1
AL
=
AL
,
v2
w2
v2
w2

w1
v1
w1
v1
T
.
AL
=
AL
w2
v2
w2
v2

(5.2)

v w , (5.2) AL = ATL .
,

2 1
2 1
AL =
=
.
1 0
1 0

79

80

5.

83.
f1 = (0, 1, 1),

f2 = (1, 1, 1),

f3 = (1, 0, 1).

3 1 1
AL = 1 5 0
3 2 7
f1 , f2 , f3 . AL L .
. 82 L L (5.1),
AL L f1 , f2 , f3 , .
G ,

(f1 , f1 ) (f1 , f2 ) (f1 , f3 )


2
2 1
3 2 .
G = (f2 , f1 ) (f2 , f2 ) (f2 , f3 ) = 2
(f3 , f1 ) (f3 , f2 ) (f3 , f3 )
1 2 2
v w f1 , f2 , f3 , (v1 , v2 , v3 ) (w1 , w2 , w3 ).

v1
w1
(v, w) = v2 G w2
v3
w3
(5.1)

T

v1
w1
AL v2 G w2 =
v3
w3

v1
w1
v2 G AL w2 ,
v3
w3

w1
v1
w1
v1
v2 ATL G w2 = v2 G AL w2 .
w3
v3
w3
v3

(5.3)

v w , (5.3) GAL = ATL G,



AL = G1ATL G.
:

1
T

2
2 1
3 1 1
2
2 1
7
16 21
3 2 1 5 0 2
3 2 = 2 15 27 .
AL = 2
1 2 2
3 2 7
1 2 2
1 13 23

5.2.

5.2

81

84 (1585 [2]).
B ,
e1 , e2 , e3

11 2 8
A = 2 2 10 .
8 10 5
. , , A, ,
,
, .
A.

11
2
8

2
2 10 = 3 + 182 + 81 1458.
P () =
8
10 5
, P () ,
1458. , 1458 = 2 36 . , , 9 P ().
P () 9,
P () = ( 9)(2 + 9 + 162).
2 + 9 + 162 9 18. ,
A 1 = 9, 2 = 9 3 = 18.
, , ,
.
. ,
, . ,
, 85.
f1 , f2 f3 . f1 (x1 , x2 , x3 )
e1 , e2 , e3 ,

x1
(A 1 ) x2 = 0.
x3
1 = 9,

2
2 8
x1
2 7 10 x2 = 0.
x3
8 10 4
, .
x1 = 2x3 , x2 = 2x3 , x3 = x3 , e1 , e2 , e3 , f1 (2x3 , 2x3 , x3 ).
, ,

q
(2x3 )2 + (2x3 )2 + x23 = 1,

82

5.

x3 = 13 . . , , x3 = 13 ,
, f1 e1 , e2 , e3 , ( 23 , 23 , 31 ).
e1 , e2 , e3 ,

2 2 1
f1 =
, ,
.
3 3 3
,

f2 =

1 2 2
, ,
3 3 3

f3 =

2 1 2
, ,
3 3 3

f1 , f2 , f3 B,
, :

9 0 0
B = 0 9 0 .
0 0 18
f1 , f2 , f3 C :
f1 e1 , e2 , e3 , f2 , f3
:
2

1
32
3
3

1
C = 23 23
.
3
1
3

2
3

2
3


B = C T AC,
C e1 , e2 , e3 ,
f1 , f2 , f3 .
, det C = 1, .
, ,
2 1 2
: , f3 = 3 , 3 , 3 .
85 (1586 [2]).
B ,
e1 , e2 , e3

17 8 4
A = 8 17 4 .
4 4 11
. , A, , , .
84 A.

17
8
4

17
4 = 3 + 452 567 + 2187.
P () = 8

4
4
11

5.2.

83

, , 2187 = 37 . , ,
9. P () 9
P () = ( 9)(2 + 36 243).
2 + 36 243 : 9 27.
, A 1 = 9, 2 = 9 3 = 27.
84 , .
3 = 27 1. 84. f3
(x1 , x2 , x3 ) e1 , e2 , e3 ,

x1
(A 3 ) x2 = 0,
x3

10 8
4
x1
8 10 4 x2 = 0.
x3
4
4 16

x1 = 2x3 , x2 = 2x3 , x3 = x3 ,
e1 , e2 , e3 , f1 (2x3 , 2x3 , x3 ).
, x3 = 13 . , , x3 = 31 ,

2 2 1
f3 =
, ,
.
3 3 3
1 = 2 = 9.

8 8 4
A 9E = 8 8 4
4 4 2
, 1, , .

8 8 4
x1
8 8 4 x2 = 0
(5.4)
4 4 2
x3
. f1 f2 ,
1 . ,
.
(5.4), (1, 1, 0). ,
f1 ,

1 1
f1 = , , 0 .
2 2
f2 . .

84

5.

, ,
f1 f3 ,
:

e1 e2 e3

1
1
4
2 2 1
f2 = [f3 , f1 ] = 3
, , .
3
3 =
1

3 2 3 2 3 2
1

0
2
2
( ) , f2
(5.4), f1 . (
(5.4) )

4
1
2

4 2
1
0
2

x1
x2 = 0.
x3

14 x3 , 14 x3 , x3 .
x3 = 34 2 . , , x3 = 34 2 ,

f2 =

1
1
4
, ,
3 2 3 2 3 2

, .
x3 , .
84 C
e1 , e2 , e3 , f1 , f2 , f3 ,
f1 , f2 , f3 :

C=

1
2
1
2

31 2
1

3 2
4

3 2

2
3

32
.
1
3

9 0 0
B = C T AC = 0 9 0 ,
0 0 27
.
, det C = 1, , . , ,
1 .

5.3.

5.3

85

86 (1578 [2]).

4 + 3i
4i
6 2i
1
4 3i 2 6i
A = 4i
9
6 + 2i 2 6i
1

(5.5)

B Q ,
B = Q1AQ.
. , , ,
. , . 84 85.
. A (
91 (5.5)!)
4+3i

4i
62i
9
9
9

43i
26i
4i

P () = det(A E) =
= 3 + 2 + 1.
9
9
9

26i
1
6+2i

9

, ,
: P () .
, 1. P () 1,
P () = ( 1)(2 1).
, 2 1 i i. ,
A 1 = 1, 2 = i 3 = i.
, , .
, ,
. , , .
, , .
, 85. f1 , f2 , f3 ,
.
f1 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

x1
(A 1 ) x2 = 0,
x3

4+3i

9
4i
9
6+2i
9

4i
9
43i
1
9
26i
9

62i
9
26i
9
1

1
9

x1

x2 = 0.
x3

86

5.

(2ix3 , 2x3 , x3 ). ,
, ,
q
(2ix3 )(2ix3 ) + (2x3 )(2x3 ) + x3 x3 = 1,

|x3 | 4 + 4 + 1 = 1,

x3 = 13 ei . , , x3 = 13 ,

2
2 1
f1 = i, ,
.
3
3 3
(
, 1)

2
1 2
1 2 2
f2 =
i, ,
, f3 = i, ,
.
3
3 3
3 3 3
Q f1 , f2 , f3 ,
f1 , f2 , f3 :
2

3 i 23 i 31 i

2
Q = 23 31
.
3
1
3

2
3

2
3

,
.

1
1

0
B = Q AQ =
0

QQT = E,

0 0
i 0 ,
0 i

B ,
, .
87 (1571 [2]). ,
2
2
1

3
3
3

2
A = 32 13
,
3
2
3

31

2
3

, B . .
. A.

2
2
3
31
3

2
13
P () = det(A E) = 23
= 3 + 2 + 1.
3

2
2
1

3

5.3.

87

, 1 P (). P () 1,
P () = ( 1)(2 + 1).
2 + 1 1 1. ,
1 = 2 = 1 3 = 1.
, , , .
, , .
f1 , f2 , f3 ,
.
, , 88.
f3 , 3 = 1 1. f3 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

x1
(A 3 ) x2 = 0,
x3

5
3
2
3
13

2
3
32
2
3

31
2
3
5
3

x1

x2 = 0.
x3

(x3 , 2x3 , x3 ). , x3 = 16 . , , x3 = 16 ,

f3 =

1
2 1
, ,
6
6 6

f1 f2 , 1 = 2 = 1 2.

x1
(A 1) x2 = 0,
x3

13
2
3
13

2
3
34
2
3

x1
2
x2 = 0,
3
x3
31
31

(5.6)

( ). (2x2 x3 , x2 , x3 ).
, (1, 0, 1). , , f1 ,

1
1
f1 = , 0, .
2
2

88

5.

, f2 (5.6), f1 ,
( (5.6),
(5.6) )
! x

1
31 23 13

= 0.
x
2
12 0 12
x3
(x3 , x3 , x3 ). ,

1 1 1
f2 = , , .
3 3 3

1 0
0
0 ,
B= 0 1
0 0 1
,
,
.
C
f1 , f2 , f3 , ,
1 1

1
2
3
6

1
2 ,

C= 0
3
6
1
2

1
3

1
6

, B = C 1 AC.
88 (1574 [2]). B
2
2
13
3
3

2
31
A = 23
3
13

2
3

2
3

Q , B = Q1AQ.
. 87 A.

2

2
3 31

2
1
3 = 3 + 22 2 + 1.
P () = det(A E) = 3
3

2
2
1

3

, 1 P (). P ()
1,
P () = ( 1)(2 + 1).

5.3.

89

1
2 + 1
+ 23 i 12 23 i.
2
, 1 = 1, 2 = 12 + 23 i 3 = 12 23 i.
, , ,
.
87 ,
. , ,
A, , f1
A 1 = 1. f1 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

x1
(A 1 ) x2 = 0,
x3

1

2
3 31
3
x1

2
3 31 31 x2 = 0.
2
x3
1
1
3

(x3 , x3 , x3 ). f1
, x3 = 13 . , , x3 = 13 ,

1 1 1
f1 = , , .
3 3 3
v, 2 =
(x1 , x2 , x3 ),

x1
(A 2 ) x2 = 0,
x3

1
6

3
i
2

2
3

13

13
1
6

2
3

2
3

3
i
2

31
1
6

3
i
2

1
2

3
i.
2

x
1

x2 = 0.

x3

( 21 23 i)x3 , ( 12 + 23 i)x3 , x3 . ,
x3 ,

. ?

3
3
1
1
x3 = 1, v = 2 2 i, 2 + 2 i, 1 .
Av = 2 v, Av = 2 v. A , 2 = 3 ,
Av = 3 v,
v 3 .
.
,

1 1
1
Re v = (v + v) = , , 1
2
2 2

90

5.


Im v =

1
(v v) =
2i

3 3
,
,0
2 2

, ,
2 2 . ,
f2 f3 :

1
1 2
1 1
f2 = , , , f3 = , , 0 .
6
6 6
2 2
Q f1 , f2 , f3 ,
:
1

16 12
3

Q = 13 16 12 .
1
2
0
3
6

1
0
1
0
1
B = Q AQ =
2

0 23

3
2

1
2

f1 , f2 , f3 , ,
A .

5.4

89 (1600 [2]).

4 2
2
4 1
A= 4
2
4
2

.
. ,
A = SO,
S , O .
AAT = SOOT S T = SES = S 2 .
, S AAT . , S
AAT , S
AAT = S 2 .

5.4.

91

O
O = S 1 A.
S O O :
OOT = S 1 AAT S 1 = S 1 S 2 S 1 = E.

24 6 12
AAT = 6 33 6 .
12 6 24
, CBC T , C , B , . 84 85.
. AAT
P () = det(AAT E) = 3 + 812 1944 + 11664.
11664 = 24 36 , 9. P () 9

P () = ( 9)(2 + 72 1296).
2 +721296 36 36. , AAT 1 = 9, 2 = 3 = 36.
1, 84. , ,
( )

2 1 2
1 2
4 5 2 5 5 5
f1 =
, ,
, f2 = , , 0 , f3 =
,
,
.
3 3 3
15 15 15
5 5
f1 , f2 , f3 , , C f1 , f2 , f3 :

4 5
2
1

15
5

2
5 .
1
2

C = 3

15
5

5 5
2
0
3
15
B = C T AAT C, B
,

9 0 0
B = 0 36 0 .
0 0 36

AAT = CBC T . B
B,

3 0 0

B = 0 6 0 .
0 0 6

92

5.

S = C BC T AAT . ,


S 2 = C BC T C BC T = C B BC T = CBC T = AAT .

S=

14
3
2
3
43

2
3
17
3
2
3

43
2
3
14
3

3, 6 6.

2
2
1

3
3
3

2
1

O = S 1 A = 23
.
3
3
13

2
3

2
3

A = SO,

14 2 4 2 1
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4 2
2
2 17

2
2
2
4

13 .
4 1
= 3 3

3
3
3
2
2
2
4
2
43 23 14
13
3
3
3

6.1

90 (1243 [2]). ,

3x22 + 3x23 + 4x1 x2 + 4x1 x3 2x2 x3


(6.1)
, .
. , :

0 2
2
A = 2 3 1 .
2 1 3
, - . , . 84 85. ,
. ,
. .
A


2
2

P () = det(A E) = 2 3 1 = 3 + 62 32.
2
1 3
32 = 25 , 2 . P () + 2,
P () = ( + 2)(2 + 8 16).
2 + 8 16 4 4. ,
A 1 = 2 2 = 3 = 4.
93

94

6.

2 0
0 4
0 0

(6.1)

0
0 ,
4


2
x21 + 4
x22 + 4
x23
, , ,
4
x21 + 4
x22 2
x23 .

91 (1248 [2]). ,
6x21 + 5x22 + 7x23 4x1 x2 + 4x1 x3
(6.2)
.
. , :

6 2 2
A = 2 5 0 .
2
0 7
90, -
.
, . 84 85.
A

6 2
2

0 = 3 + 182 99 + 162.
P () = det(A E) = 2 5
2
0
7
162 = 2 34 , 3
. P () 3,
P () = ( 3)(2 + 15 54).
2 + 15 54 6 9. ,
A 1 = 3 2 = 6, 3 = 9.
(6.2)

3 0 0
B = 0 6 0 ,
0 0 9

6.1. 95

3
x21 + 6
x22 + 9
x23 .

(6.3)

, , (6.2) (6.3). f1 , f2 , f3 A.
84 85, .
84. f1
(x1 , x2 , x3 ),

x1
(A 1 ) x2 = 0.
x3
1 = 3,

3 2 2
x1
2 2 0 x2 = 0.
2
0 4
x3
, .
(2x3 , 2x3 , x3 ). ,
, x3 = 13 . .
x3 = 31 ,

2 2 1
f1 = , ,
.
3 3 3
,

1 2 2
2 1 2
f2 = , ,
, f3 =
, ,
.
3 3 3
3 3 3
C f1 , f2 , f3
f1 , f2 , f3 , :

32 13

C = 23
1
3

2
3
2
3

2
3
13
2
3

,
B = C T AC.
xi xi :

x1
x1
x2 = C x2 ,
x3
x3

96

6.


2
x1 = x1
3
2
x2 = x1 +
3
1
x3 =
x1 +
3

1
x2 +
3
2
x2
3
2
x2 +
3

2
x3 ,
3
1
x3 ,
3
2
x3 .
3

, (6.2) (6.3).

6.2

92 (1226 [2]). ,
f = 8x21 28x22 + 14x23 + 16x1 x2 + 14x1 x3 + 32x2 x3 ,

g = x21 + 4x22 + 2x23 + 2x1 x3

. , ,
, .
. , , . f

8 8
7
F = 8 28 16 ,
7 16 14
g

1 0 1
G = 0 4 0 .
1 0 2

, , .
f ,

8 8

8 28 = 288 < 0.
g ,

1 0 1

1 0
= 4 > 0, 0 4 0 = 4 > 0.
1 > 0,

0 4
1 0 2

6.2.

97

F G,

8
8
7

= 43 + 362 + 324 2916.


28 4
16
P () = det(F G) = 8

7
16
14 2
, pq , p
2916 = 22 36 , q 4 = 22 . , ,
, 9. P () 9,
P () = ( 9)(42 + 324).
42 + 324 9 9. ,
F G 1 = 2 = 9, 3 = 9.
f1 , f2 , f3 , .
1. (F i G)fi = 0,
2. f1 , f2 , f3 , , G.
i 6= j , fi fj (F i G)fi = 0 (F j G)fj = 0
,
G.
3 = 9 1. f3
(x1 , x2 , x3 ),

x1
(F 3 G) x2 = 0.
x3
3 = 9,

17 8 16
x1
8 8 16 x2 = 0.
16 16 32
x3
(0, 2x3 , x3 ). ,
1 ,
G,

1
0
1
0

0 2x3 x3 0 4 0 2x3 = 1.
1 0 2
x3
,
18x23 = 1,
x3 = 31 2 . , , x3 = 31 2 ,

1
2
f3 = 0, , .
3 2 3 2

98

6.
1 = 2 = 9 2

1 8

8 64
F 9G =
2 16

2
16 .
4

, f1 f2
x1 + 8x2 2x3 = 0.

(6.4)

, (2, 0, 1).
, G,

1
0
1
2

2 0 1 0 4 0 0 = 2.
1 0 2
1

1, 2

1
f1 = 2, 0, .
2
f2 (6.4), f1 , G,

x1

1 0 1
2 0 12 0 4 0 x2 = 0,
1 0 2
x3

2
x1 = 0.
(6.5)
2
(6.4) (6.5).
(0, 14 x3 , x3 ). , 1
, G,

1
0
1
0

0 41 x3 x3 0 4 0 14 x3 = 1.
x3
1 0 2

9 2
x = 1,
4 3

x3 = 23 . , , x3 = 23 ,

f2 =

1 2
0, ,
6 3

6.2.

99

C f1 , f2 , f3 ,
:


2 0
0

0 16 32 2
C=
.
1
2

9 0
0
0 ,
C TF C = 0 9
0 0 9

2
3

3 2

1 0 0
C TGC = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1

xi xi :

x1
x1
x2 = C x2 ,
x3
x3

x1 = 2
x1 ,
1
2
x2 = x2 x3 ,
6
3 2
2
1
1
x3 = x1 + x2 + x3 .
3
2
3 2
,
f = 9
x21 + 9
x22 9
x3 ,

g = x21 + x22 + x23 .

7.1

93. [, ] : R3 R3 R3 , {e1 , e2 , e3 }
R3 . , akij , [ei , ej ] = akij ek ,
.
.
{
e1 , e2 , e3 } R3 a
kij . C = (cij )
, D = C 1 = (dij ) .
:
[
e , e ] = ci cj [ei , ej ] = ci cj akij ek = ci cj akij dk e .
, [
e , e ] = a
e . , a
= ci cj dk akij , ..

12 (R3 ).
94. ,

0, i1 , i2 , . . . , in
i1 i2 ...in =
sgn(i1 i2 . . . in ), i1 , i2 , . . . , in
.
.
, , ,
,
. , , {e1 , e1 , . . . , en } {
e1 , e1 , . . . , en }, :
e1 = 2e1 , e2 = e2 , . . . , en = en .
C = (cij ) , c11 = 2, cii = 1
i > 1. , i1 i2 ...in , , ,

12...n = ci11 ci22 . . . cinn i1 i2 ...in = 212...n .
100

7.2.

101

, 12...n = 12...n = 1 . , i1 i2 ...in


.
95. {e1 , e2 , e3 } V .
T = (e1 + e2 3e3 ) (2e1 e2 + e3 ) (3e1 2e2 + e3 ) (e1 e2 e3 )
{ej ej } 20 (V ).
.
, :
T = 2e1 e1 e1 e2 + e1 e3 + 2e2 e1 e2 e2 + e2 e3 6e3 e1 + 3e3 e2 3e3 e3
3e1 e1 + 3e1 e2 + 3e1 e3 + 2e2 e1 2e2 e2 + 2e2 e3 e3 e1 + e3 e2 + e3 e3 =
e1 e1 + 2e1 e2 + 4e1 e3 + 4e2 e1 3e2 e2 + 3e2 e3 7e3 e1 + 4e3 e2 2e3 e3 .
96. u, v V , , V ,
T :

(u) (u)
T (u, v, , ) = det
.
(v) (v)
T {ei ej ek el } 22 (V ).
.
T = Tijkl ei ej ek el , Tijkl = T (ei , ej , ek , el ) i, j, k, l,
T
. :
k

e (ei ) el (ej )
kl
k l
Tij = T (ei , ej , e , e ) = det
= ik jl il jk ,
ek (ej ) el (ej )
ji . , T = (ik jl il jk )ei ej ek el .

7.2

ijk
= 3m.
97. {e1 , e2 , e3 } T 32 (V ) Tlm
123

e1 , e2 , e3 },
T31 {

e1 = e1 + 3e2 2e3 ,

e2 = e2 + 4e3 ,

e3 = e3 .

.
C {e1 , e2 , e3 } {
e1 , e2 , e3 }:

1 0
0
0 ;
C= 3 1
2 4 1

102

7.

D = C 1

3
D=
14

0
0
1
0 .
4 1

T :
ijk l m 1 2 3
123
T31
= Tlm
c3 c1 di dj dk ,

(7.1)

C = (cij ), D = (dij ). , C D , i = 1
l = 3 (7.1). , j 1 2.
, T , :
1jk m 2 3
1jk m 2 3
123
c1 (d1 d1 + d22 d31 + d21 d32 + d22 d32 + d21 d33 + d22 d33 ) =
c1 dj dk = T3m
= c33 d11 T3m
T31

= 3(c11 + 2c21 + 3c31 )(d21 + d22 )(d31 + d32 + d33 ) = 198,


98. 2, .
.
, 2, , . : , , T . ,
, T = ci cj Tij , C = (cij )
. , 2;
C , .. :
T = c c T = 22n T ,
n = dim V . , T = 0, .. T
. ,
.
T 11 (V ). = 1, 2, . . . , n
e = 2e ,

e = e

6= .

D = (dij ) = C 1 ; :
T = cj di Tji = c d T ,
.. T = 0 6= .
, = 1, 2, . . . , n
e = e ,
:

e = e ,

e = e

6= , .

T = c d T = T .

, T ji , ,
, . ,
T Tji = c ji , c = const.

7.3.

7.3

103

99. {e1 , e2 , e3 } V , {e1 , e2 , e3 }


.
T = e1 e3 2e2 e1 + e3 e2
F F (v1 , v2 , v3 ) = det(vji ), vji j-
vi {v1 , v2 , v3 }. (T F )13212 (F T )13212 .
.

(T F )13212 = T (e1 e3 ) F (e2 , e1 , e2 ) = 1 0 = 0,
F . , :
(F T )13212 = F (e3 , e2 , e1 ) T (e2 e1 ) = 1 (2) = 2.
6. , ,
: .
100. {e1 , e2 , e3 } V , {e1 , e2 , e3 }
.
= (e1 2e2 + 5e3 ) (4e2 2e3 ) (e3 7e2 )
v1 , v2 , v3 , {e1 , e2 , e3 }:
v1 = (1, 2, 4),

v2 = (0, 1, 3),

v3 = (1, 2, 1).

.
:
= 4e1 e2 e3 + 14e1 e3 e2 = 10e1 e2 e3 .

1 2 4
1
5
1 3 = ,
e1 e2 e3 (v1 , v2 , v3 ) = det 0
3!
6
1
2 1
: (v1 , v2 , v3 ) = 25
.
3
101. {e1 , e2 , e3 } V
T Tijk = i 3j + 2k,

1
2 3
2 4 .
G= 2
3 4
5
1
, R T .
R32

104

7.

.
k
, Rij
= g ks Tsij , (g ks ) ,
.

3
1
1
2

2
2
G1 = 12 1 12 ,
12 12 21
R :
3
1
1
1
R23
= g 11 T123 + g 12 T223 + g 13 T323 = 1 + 2 3 = 2.
2
2
2
102. V , T 20 (V ) R 04 (V )
:
T 11 = 1, T 12 = 2, T 21 = 1, T 22 = 3, R1121 = 1, R1222 = 1, R2211 = 2, R2111 = 2
( R ). R T
:
.
.
S 20 (V ) .
Skl = R11lkT 11 + R21kl T 21 + R12kl T 12 + R22kl T kl
k, l. R T , :
S11 = 2 1 + 2 3 = 4,

S12 = 0,

S21 = 1 1 = 1,

S22 = 1 2 = 2.

103. {e1 , e2 , e3 } V , {e1 , e2 , e3 }


.
T = (e1 2e2 + e3 ) (2e1 + e2 3e3 ) (4e1 + e2 + e3 ) (e1 e2 e3 ).
.
T , s(T )
, .. , T11 + T22 + T33 .
Tji = T (ej , ei ), :
T11 = 2 4 = 2,

T22 = 2 + 1 = 1,

T33 = 3 + 1 = 2.

, s(T ) = 5,
104. u, v V , , V , T
:

(u) (u)
T (u, v, , ) = det
(v) (v)
V n. T .

7.3.

105

.
22 (V ),
:
: s(T ) = Tijij . 96
,
Tijkl = T (ei , ej , ek , el ) = ik jl il jk ;
, Tijij = ii jj ij ji . , Tijij = 1 i 6= j Tiiii = 0. ,
s(T ) (i, j), i 6= j. ,
s(T ) = n2 n,


[1] . . . . ., , 1999.
[2] . . . . ., ???, ???.
[3] . . , . . ., , 2005.

106