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1951, . 5556; 1969, . 5261] (. [ 1969, . 36, 62-63]).
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1951, . 3536].
5
praudhapraksakatejah. . (,
. 114-115).
6
Avypti ( . [ 1969, . 53, 72]).
7
at ivy apt i. . [ 1951 >
. 81, 93].
8
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1964, . 183].
16
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, ,
(manusya-tva jti). Jti
vyakti ()
(samavya). , jti
,
.

,
. (updhi),
.
(samavya), (visesanat-visesa-sambandha). , . Updhi
( ,

, ). , (svarpa-sambandha).
,
, , ,
.
updhi jti *. : sm* smnya [77].
5.5

-. -.

(Ayodhya-vasitva),
, , ,
.
,
upadhi smnya.

smnya : smnya smnya
. ,
updhi, ,
updhi
smnya. smnya
? smnya, ,
-. ,
,
, -,
. . , smnya *.
smnya , ,
, ,

, , ;
,
, . (smnya) , , smnya
, - .
,
smnya,
.
. .
, , (
, ).
* . , , , , , , , - [ 1906, . 276].
56

, ,

(para) , . . - .
()
, .
,
('. ), , , .
para ,
, satt ( ) visesa (),
smny , .
[7] 1: []
.
. . .. 2
[ ] . .
[] .

1
visesa.
(
) visesa
smnya .

,
.
,
,
. ,

. visesa ,
, , ,
visesa ,
,
. , 57

-. -

visesa -.
2
paramnu. viesa,
, visesa
, ,
, . . visesa
(antya-visesa).

visesa
sm (). visesa .
, visesa , ,
vigesa. .
Visesa smnya :
.
: smnya,
visesa ,
(visayb smnya-visesa-tadvad-bhedt-tredha).
Visesa ,
a smnya , .
- smnya-visesa .
-
, satt (), smnya-visesa visesa ( , , dravyatva). visesa
,
.

visesa visesa .
visesa
, ,
(jti) smnya. , smnya
: (anuvrtti) (vyvrtti).
visesa
. ,
viesa .
.
58

,
satta () , satt
smnya, visesa. . , , smnya,
.
:
(avayavin),
(avayava).

. (, ), avayava? , . visesa -
,
. , ,
antya-visesa.
, satt (smnya m. eva), a (antya-visesa, visesa eva). ,
visesa, - , : anty a-visesa
.
, --.
, antya-visesa
.
-.
, , visesa ,
(, , ). ,
visesa?
, ,
, .

[8] .

, []
: . . ..
59

-. -

1
samavya.
, , .

samavya , . samavyastveka eva .



samavya, () ,
,
.
, samavya : dharma-dharmi-bheda avayava-avayavibheda. , samavya -.
79
.
,
samavya ,
, , .
samavya - ? ?


- (ayuta-siddha). : (, , ) , . samavya

.
, . . samavya, , -.
: (, avayava dravya) samavyin (. .
samavya), (avayavin

60

, ,

guna) samaveta (
- samavya).
samavya samyoga (), : samyoga
samyogin (
samyogin) *.
: samyoga ,
, samavya - .

samavya,
, . ,
, , ,
samavya .
samavya , , ,
, , :
(dhra dheya).
samavya
, , samavya , .
. ,
, . samavya
,
-
.
: , ,
(vyakti-jti-krti),
samavya ,

( ).

* samyogin , samyukta (. . samyoga).


61

-. -

[9] : ,
, , .
[] . . ..

1
abhva.

- ,
: , ,
, .
. ,
,
- ,
, -
.
, abhva.

, .
, .

, : .

abhva
, ,
( ).
: prgabhva ( , ), pradhvamsbhva ( , ), atyantbhva (,
, ) anyonyabhva ( ).
,
. ,
, .
kryadravya , . ,
62

, ,

,
, . , ,
. .
:
anyonybhva atyantbhva
abhva , . . (nitya, sadtana). ,
.
abhva
-? : , , , , , ,
,
dharma-dharmi-bheda. .
, .
,
, dhra () dheya (),
samavyin-samaveta,
(dhrat).
samavya.
-
,
,
? abhva.
abhva
. -
abhva .
,
. , ,
.
, abhva,
,
(
).
viista jiana ( ).
63

-.

abhava uddesa , samgraha.


,
uddesa TG.
7 padrtha
()

9 dravya

24 guna

{- ()
)

5 karma
()

2 samanya
()

oovisesa

1 samavya

4 abhava

()

(
)

()



-,

.


.

()


.
(lksana).
, ,
, ,

, . . dravyatva, dharma-dharmi-bheda avayavaavayavi-bheda
-, visesa, ,

.
-
- ,
, ,
64

, ,

() . , lksana
parks,

.
[ (laksana)]
[ ]
[10] 1 . :
. .
[]- 2 . []
, , . . : , .
. : , .
[] 3
4 [] . . ..

. 5 [ ].
[ ] 6 - ,
.
, [ ] . [] [
] .
? []: [ ]
,
.
7 ?
: . [] -
.
[ ]
, [] 8
?
: , ,
[ ] , ,
5

815

6$

-. -

[ ] [] .. .
9 .
1 0 . [ ] [] . . ..
. ,
, . , .
,
,
, .
.
, , .
, [}
. , , [
].
[ ] . . .
. . .. :
. . . [] .
[ , ] .

1
gandhavat prthiv. : , .
gandhavat -,
gandha, samavyi-krana. ,
, -vat
-mat .
,
:
, . . dhra dheya, .

.
2
anitya kryarpa. , .
3
uddesa, . . , samgraha.
, .
66

, ,
4

, .
5
, , ,
(-, ) . , , .
6
avypti; vypti ( )
.
.
, avypti
, ,
.
7
ativypti,
,
, . . .
8

mahkla (, . . ) , , , .
9 1
nityatvam dhvamsapratiyogitvam, dhvamsapratiyogitvam anityatvam.
, - pratiyogin

sambandha ( , ) abhva, . . , , , . .
11
visesagun , . , ,
.

, , , , . ,

, -.
( ) ,
, .
67

5*

-. -


, : ,
. ,
, ()
. :
avayavin, avayava,
, ,
- , .
. avayava-avayavi-bheda: , ,
, . . , ,
.
, . . ,
(?
). , , , . . .
, .
,
.
, , , , , .

,

, .
, . ,,
, , , ,
. , ,
, , .

. , ,

68

, ,


.
, , . (avayavin) ,
(avayava) .
, avayava , avayavin,
: ,
,
avayavin.
(mnu), .
, , - , (krya). ,
. ,
(, . 274). , .
, ,
,
.
paramnu,- , ,
, , , , ,
, , , . ,

,
(
).
, ,
, krya , krya. ,
, dvyanuka, .
. tryanuka ,
, .
Dvyanuka , sarnyoga (), samyogatva.
krya , 6

-. -

, ,
(paramnudravyasamyogansa). ,


samyoga .
,
, ,
( ), .
visesa, .

antyavisesa.
, krya .
krya , ,
,
, , . , , , .

(yonija ayonija). , , ,
, ,
.
(indriya), ,
ghrna. , . .
, , ,
, . .
(visaya), , ,
.. . ,
. visaya
,
, . .
,
.
,
,
, ( ).
:
70

, ,
:

: ,
, ,
(-

:/<
(; t
)

[ ] 1 .
: . . -
[]-. []
, , . -
2 . ; . ?
.

[ ] , . .
, , []:
[ ]
,
3 . :
; .
, .

1
stasparsavatya pah. .
2
.
3


71

^. -

. ,

,
, , .

() ,
, (rasana).
,
,
, , -, rasana , .
, , , . . , .
- ,

.
, , ,
, , . . :
:

,
-

, *

:

:
(, ,
, )

[12] .
: . ,
72

, ,

[]-. []
, , .
. , , ; . [] ,
, . .
, .
.
.
[] . . .. [ ] 1 ; [ ] .
[] . . ..
[] , ?
: , [] ,
-
,
, 2 ,
, , , , . , []
,
. ,
3
. , [],
[] , 4
. []
. , ,
, [ ]
- 5 6 ,
, , [ ] .

1
.

. .
2

, . . .
3
naimittika , .
73

-. -
4

, .
5
-,
.
6
,
.

(tejas) ,
, .
, , ,
. , ,
, (caksu), .
. . . : () ( ) ,
: , .
[ 1975, . 85]. ,
, , , , , . , , ,
[ 1975, , 8489].
, . ,
, , ,
.
- .
, ,
. , ,
.
, , , . , ,
,
.
. ,
,
- ,
74

, ,

(, ). , ,
, ,
.
;

)

I , ,


| -

_<

[13] , . : . . []-. []
, , .
. ,
; .
. ?
. ,
2 , . .
[] . . ..
[] [
] .
[ ] [
] .
[ ]
?
[ ] : . . . .
, -

-. -

, . . [
].
3
, []
. , , []
, ,
, [] [] , [] [ ]
.
, [], , [] ,
.
[] [ ] ,
.
, [ ], [ ] [], .
[ ],
[]
. [] [ ], [] .
, [] ? [] ,
, .
: . [ ]:
[] , ,
, [] , ,
4
[ ] . ,
, 5
[]
6
: [] 7
.
, [], .
[] ,
[ ]-.
[] .
8
[ ] .
9
.
10
[]
. .
, , .
[ ] -,
, [] .
[]
[] , []
76

, ,

. ,
{ ] .

,
.
[], - .

?
- 1 2 : , ,
, ,
, . -
[],
. [] , [] ,
. ,
[ ]. ,
.

[] ?
,
13 , [ ] .
. [ ].

1
(prna)
.
,
.
2
updhi ( )
smnya.
3
.
- , . ,
, ,
, , . .
, , .
77

-. -
4 5

sadhya sadhana,
, , , , . .
6
paksa.
7
, , . . , ,
.
8-10
^
,
( ),
: ,
.
11
asamavyikrana, . .
, , .
12
*
13
yathprvam.

(vyu) ,
. Vyu (sparsa), .
, .
vyu.
, vyu ,
, , . , , , .
,
- , ,
, , , , , .
, , ,
. , , ,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, () .
78

, ,

, ,
, , .
. : vyu
,
. , , , (tvak). (hetu)
. .
vyu , .
,
1975, . 88].
,
( )
vyu. vyu, , .
,

: , ,
, ,
,
.

, .
,
.
(prna) ;
() ; (samna) ;
(udna) ; (vyna)
. ,
, (, . 115).


.
,
dravya.
- , ,
, , , . -
79

-. -

,
, , .

yathprvam, . . .

- , , , . . , . , ,

, .
, , -9
,
,

.
[14] , . , .
[ ] .
, ?
[] : . . ..
[] : .
,
.
[] : .
.

.
, .
: .

1
mrtatva; murta
parimna () ,
,
.
mrtatva ,
, ,
(. , . 18).

, , -,
80

, ,

,
.
(sruti),
. -
. , .
(dik).
, dik ksa
,
. ,
dik ksa , .
, ksa,
, dik.
ksa dik
.
(dik) . , , , , dik , .
.
, ,
- .
,
,
.
.

, .
[15] . .
, .
[] . . ..
* 2

1
sarvdhra.
, - mahkla,
2
nimittakrana.
6

815

81

-. -

(kla)

(vyavahara), . , , . , kla,
,
, ,
.
hetu ,
. . hetu
asdhrananimittakrana ( ) ,
, .
vyavahra,
vyavahara (

) , .
vyavahara,
vyavahara , [sdhranakrana].
vyavahra
, , vyavahara, .
, hetu
kla
kla,
.
kla .
, ,
.
, . : , , ( II, 2, 6).

: , . ,
, , , dravya.
, , . : ,
, , .
82

, ,


( , . .) (, . 6364),
,
sthlakla, klapinda.
,
,
,
.
kla, ,

, .
kla, , hetu
, .
[16] . ,
, .
[] . . ..
.

(dik)
, , . .
hetu, asdhrananimittakrana ( )
(vyavahra), ^; .
(-
) ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
, . dik
,
, . . , . 83

6*

-. -

,
. ,
, ,
.
, , :
, .
, ,
[14], ,
dik.
.
,
, ,

.
.
[17] . :
.
, [] .
.
[] [] . []
. . ..
.
2
* ?
, 3 4 .
[ ]
5 []. 6 , [] ,
[ ].
[
] 7
.
[]: . , 8
[ ] ,
. [ , ],
.

9
10
,
. []
. []
. .
84

, ,

[] 1 2 ; [] .
[] []
. . ..
[] 13 .
[ , ] ,
. . , [. . ], ,
- ?
: . ,
,
, 14 .
, []: , [] []
, ,
, [] 15 ,
.
, ;
[] .
, [], 16 , [ ]
, [], .
1 7 , ,
[] [] 1 8 .
, .

1
adhikarana, , sraya.
. : "

( , . 20).
2
pramnam .
3
, . . (, . 189).
4
. . (,
. 190).
5
arupidravyatvat.
, ,
(, . 190).
6
.
nntyam, , .
7
lingbhva, ,
85

-. -

(vyapya) , (sadhya)
(, . 190).
: [ ]
(upamna), []
. (sabda) [ }
[ ], ,
,
[]
[ ] (. 56).
8
kryatva, . . ,
.
9
aparoksajfina .
10
,
(visayaka)
(, . 192).
11
sksmadarsitva.
. , . 192.
12
.
13
sukhdysrayatvam.
14
prasangt,
.
15
anusandhna.

(, . 194-195).
16
na paramnub (. , . 432433).
17
: , , [ ] (, . 197].
18
: ,
[],
. []
, [], (, . 197).

(tman) ( ,
) .
jfndhikarana, . .
.

tmatva,
.
86

, ,

atmatvasamanyavan, . . atmatva
(, . 104). , , , ,
(, . 37). , , , , .

,
atmatva dravyatva,
.
, , , ,
, ,
, .
,
,
. ,
, paramtm
( ).
, . . ,
.
paramtm
: .

.
.
, ( ),
. , (jivtm).
, , , jivtm
, . .,
.

, "
jivtm.
i
;
, ,
dharma-dharmi-bheda,
. 87

-. -

, -
.
, ,
. , ,
( )

( ).
, - , ,

.
[18] , 2 . . 3
[] , ;
[] ^ . . .
4 ,
5 . [ ] . . ..
: []
[ ].
. . .. , 6
[ ].
, , 7
, ,
?
: ,

.
,
, [ ]
8 .
[ ]: [ ,
] 9 , , . , ,
, .
88

[ ], . ,
[] .

1
sdhanam , : []. . . ,
(kranatvat)
. .. . . (, . 20).
2
upalabdhi, , . ,
(jnna), . .
( . .)
(, . 20, . 90 ).
3
anantam, . .
, .
4
kriyvattvam, .
5
sparsa. . 1 [4].
6
. 17 [17].
7
sparsarahitadravyatva;
-

. -,
.
8
susupti.
-
. [ 1930, . 276].
9
purtat. , -,
-
(. , . 15).
, .

- padrtha,
. , ,
, .
,
avayavin, avayava.
avayava .
89

-. -

: . ,
(indriya).
vega (, ). ,
, . (, . .) .
: (,
. 29), . .
. - :
[] ,
(, . 16).
, , .
, .
,
, ,

,
,
-.
, ,
-;
, ( )
;
. , , .

[]
[19] , . , ,
, , , . [] , . [] ,*
-, -.
90

[] .
[ ] , [] . . []

.
2
[], ?
:
[ ] , 3 .
[
] [] ?
,
. , 4
[], , [], 5 [ ],
6 .
,
- 7
[-] .
[] . ...
, . . ..

1
:


. [] . . .".
.
2
samudya (. , . 203).
3
,
,
(. , . 152153, . ).
4
samavetatvam (. , . 204).
5
pratyaksatvaprayojakam, (,
. 204),
6
gauravt, : . Gaurava
,
[ 1951, . 47].
7
anupapatty.
. , . 204
205.
91

-. -

() , (caksurmtragrahyagunarpam).
, , mtra guna,
. mtra
,
, a guna ,
rpatvajti abhva , , .
,
.
.
, ; , .
. (9
. 152) , ,
vypyavrttidharma, . . , [] ; , rpa ,
. ,
, , -
, vypyavrttidharma , , ' svasamndhikarantyantbhvapratiyogi dharma, , . ,
.

. , . ? avayava, ,
; avayavin (),

. avayavin , -, citrarupa ().
, .

, .
: krakavisesa prakraka (
, krti ).
92

, ,

rupa (,
), ,
. , , -
bhsvarasulda, . . -, abhsvarsukla, . . -. bhsvara abhsvara . -,
sukla,
. , (bhsvarasukla bhsvararnsuklam),
(, . 154).
[20] , .
, , ,
, , . ,
, .
[ ] .
[] , [, ] .
. , [ ] [ ] .

, -, (rasa) ( }..
; , , . - , avayava-avayavi-bheda.
- , , ,
avayavin, ,
, ,
avayava, . .
, .
, avayavin , avayava ( ),
, , ^
, rasa.
[21 ] ,
: ;
.
93

-. -

[] . # [] ,
[, ] .

rasa, (gandha)
mtra (), ,
, .
,
, .
avayavin-avayava.
. ,
, , -, , .
jtivisista,
.
[22] ,
. : ,
, -. ,
, , . , , >
-.
[] .
[] ,
[, ] .
[] ,
[, ] . .

,
, .
-
citrasparsa () .
.
mtra, sparsa,
, , , ,
, .
94

, ,

[23] [] , [!
, ; [ ] , .
;
.
. . . . [].
[ ] , .
,
[]
[ ] .
,
2 , 3 . []
[] , 4 .

, [. . ] ,
, 5 . [ ]
.
. . . [] .
. . . : 6 9
. . . :
.
[] . ., ^
; , . , 7 . .

1
dvyanuka , . , (hrasva). (tryanuka) , ( . , . 329
133).
2
asamavyi-krana, . . ,
.
3
adrsta, , .
95

-. -


( ) .
4
plupkavdino vaisesikh.
,
, . plupka, . . .
5
pitharapkavdino naiyyikb. ,
, . ., .
6
paramnugatam,
.
7
prayojaka.

,
, , ,
, .
, .
,
. ,
.
plupka,
plupkavda. pitharapkavda
(, ).

,
, , : . -
;
.
Plupkavda ,
,
dharma-dharmi-bheda:
.

.
.
,
96

, ,

dvyanuka avayavin
. ,
, avayava.
(asamavyikrana) ;
(nimittakrana), ,
, .
, .
Pitharapkavda , avayavin
( ) .
avayava ,
, ,
. dharma-dharmin, avayava-avayavin,
,
, .
,
, , , . , pkaja, .
(anyatra) , ,
pkaja. , ,

, . ,
,
.
[24] , .
, ,
. : , . .
[] . . ..

(samkhy) (, . 111). hetu,
asdhrana, asdhrananimittakrana,
. . , ,
7

815

97

-. -

,
; nimitta, ,
(vyavahra) .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , .
,
,
. ,
, : ,
?
. ,
, ,
. ,,
, ,
(, . 118119). ,
,
. , .
- sanikhy . ,
,
. Samkhy, , (caturvimsatirgunJi).
(apeksbuddhi):
, ,
. . , apeksbuddhi
, : ayam
ekah, ayam ekah, hatya dvau. apeksbuddhi -
(d vit va) ,
. visesaguna, . . , .
[25] . [] . : ,
, .
98

, ,

[ ]
. . .. [
]: , ,
.

1
, ,
-, .

(parimna)
samkhy ,
parimna (,
. 130). . yvad-dravyabhvin, , . . ,
,
.

parimna, (anu), (mahat),
(drgha) (hrasva). Anu hrasva, a
mahat drgha , . . ,
, [ 1964, . 295], :
anutva mahattva.
, ,
, . .
mahat :
, , ,
- .
mahat , ,
.

mahat .
, , ,
mahat (parama-mahat-parimna).
.
, : anu-parimna, (anutva); anitya-mahat-pari99

7*

-. -

mana, ,
; nitya-mahat-parimna ( parama-mahat-parimna).

, (1964, . 296).
Parimna

I
1
|
anu-parimna
anitya-mahat-parimna
raahat-parimna
,
nitya-mahat-parimna

(parama-mahat-parirnna)

murta-parimna
[26] . [] .
[] .
[]: .

(prthaktva)
. prthaktva abhva, anyonybhva .
.
(ghatab pato na) , , ghata, pata,
. Ghatab pato na, ,
, . . . patdghatab
prthak
. Prthaktva, ,
,
anyonybhva, prthaktva , .
,
dharma-dharmin. -, ,
, ,
, ,
prthaktva. ,

100

, ,

, ,
. ,
prthaktva , anyonybhva -.
, prthaktva,
. (,
) - prthaktva
anyonybhva , prthaktva ( anyonybhva) ,
.
[27]
. .
[] .
[] . [ ]
,
[]: 1.
: . [, ], []
, .
.
2 .
3 []
.

1
asdhrana [hetu].
(,
, ).
2
avyapyavrttili samyogaii.
avyapya . , , , . , , ,
.
3
avypyavrttitva .

.
(smndhikrana),

101

-. -

, . . .
,
,
.

(samyoga)
-.
. :
, ,
avayavin , , .
Samyoga samavya .
samyukta ().
samyukta (hetu) .
avayava
avayavin, samyoga.
- . , avayavin ,
avayavin samyoga , , samyoga . samyoga
.

avayavvayavivda.


, ,
:
avayava avayavin? ,
,
, .
avypya-vrtti .
(sm-paricchedaka).
,
,
avayavin.
, , , ,
, . ,
102

, ,

,
, .
, .
, .
[28] , .
.
[] [] . [ ], [ ]
. 2 [ ] .
:
. [, , ] , .

.

1

, , . .
,
.
2
,
,
, ,
. .
.

(vibhga) . ,
vibhga, . ,
samyoga. , ,
. vibhga
, samyoga.
103

-. -


- . ,
.
: ,
; karma. .
vibhga. samyogmsa, a ,
, aparadesasamyoga. , vibhga
samyogansa , .
, , ,
samyoga. ,
avayavin avayava. avayava -
, avayavin . samyoga
vibhgaja-vibhga, . . ,
. avayavin.
, , vibhga
, samyoga.

[29]
. , [ ],
, .
: . , ,
. , , .
, , 2 . , , 3 .
[] . . .. 4 , []
[
].
[] 5 []
. . ,.
: ,
,
104

, ,


1

: !
, , .
: ,
.
2-3

.
4
*
(asdhranakrana) ,
.
5
,

.
, ?
, .
: dvityo hastapustakavibhgtkyapus takavibhgah.

(paratvparatva) .
,
, , ,
, mrta-parimna.
paratvparatva dikkrta, . ,
paratvparatva.
(paratva), (aparatva)
- .
( , ), - ,

.
105

Tapva-. -

[30 ] [ ]
. [] .

[] []. . ..
f ] [, ] 2 , [] .

1
asamavyi-krana, . .
.
2
vega , samskra,
.

(gurutva) (dya) . dya , -


, , , (vega),
.
,
, -,
, ,
(, . 168).
gurutva
, , -,
: (. ).
gurutva laghutva (). gurutva
. ,

, . , , , ,
.
106

, ,

[31 ] [ J
. [] , .
: * 2 ,
[] ; [ ] .
[ ] [, , , ]
.
[ ]
.
[ ] [ ] . . . *
[] . : .

1
smsiddhika ,
. . ,
- .
2
naimittika, . . ,
(nimittakrana);
.

(dravatva) , ^
, vega ().
(smsiddhika)
(naimittika) dravatva.
, ,
,
, .
, .

,
, . . . ,
, ,
, naimittika,
107

-. -

,
. , , - , , ,
, , , ,
, .
.

() ( . .).
,
.

, , ,
, ( ) .

,
, , . ,

(. , . 218219).
[32] , [] . [] .
[] . . .. []: 2 []
,
[ ] 3 .

1
curndipindbhvahetu
, . .
, .
2
(
) ,
, mahkla, ,
, . 108

, ,

, . ,
. . .kldau , -,
,
-, (dravyatva) .
, - .
, Iietu () ,
asdhranahetu.
.
3
,

.

(sneha) , .
, .
, , , . . , .
sneha . , , , , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
(. , . 220221).
gurutva, dravatva, sneha
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,

. ,;
109

-. -

. , .
[33] , ; .
: ,
[] .
[]
[],
[] . 1
[] [
] ; 2 [] .
[ ]:
, [] 3 .
[ ] , [], . []
, [], ,
[ ] -.
[] , [] , , [], .

1
,
sabdatva.
, , -,

,
.
2

, .
3

, , .
.

(abda) , ^
.
110

, ,

,
, ,
, .
, , ,
, ,

. abda , guna.
, .
, (
) ( ), .
, . , (prna), .
,
,
.
.
: ,
.
, (
).

-. , ,
, , , . , .
, , .
, ,
, , ,
, . .
, .
111

-. -


.
[34] , [ ]
[] . : .
, .
, .
[] : . . ..
2 , ,
[] [ ].
: . . .>.
: .
[] .
[]: 3 . . . . 4
[] . 5 . . .
.
[] . 6
, , [
].

1
samskra;
, bhvan , . . ,
. bhvan . ,
(, . 381).
2
jnnatva. ,
.
(anuvyavasya) .
3
,
.
4
, .
112

, ,
5


,
!
(pratyabhijna).
6
anubhava ,
. . ,
.

(buddhi) (jnna). jnnaf


, , ,
. hetu (),
, asdhrananimittakrana ( ),
(, , . .).
(vyavahra) ,
, , . . .

,
, )
.
, , -*
, hetu, , .
, , :
-, , , ,
; -, . ,
, , .
, ,
. , ( ) 8

jsf 815

-. -

. , - - ,

, . . . ,
, , -, ,
,
, ;
, , .

: .

.
,
, , , ,
,
.
(smrti) , (mtra) .
mtra smrti
pratyabhijfia (). Pratyabhijn
, ,
.
Smrti (bhvan), (
). Bhvan ,
, -
.
, smrti bhvan:
, ,
,
, ,
smrti (.
, . 223-224).
Pratyabhijn smrti ,
:
, , , .

bhvan,
114

, ,


(. , . 223-224).
Bhvan
(tatt-devadattat). pratyabhijn smrti.
(anubhava)
, (anubhava) (smrti) . Anubhava
, bhvan.
[35] , [], : .
[] , [] , [ ] 2*
, : [] 3 .
, [ ], .
[] , []
, [ ] 4 . , : [ ]
5 . , [ ].,
.

[] .
,
[ ] [] 6 :
?
, [] : , -[] 7 , [ ] [] . ;
[ ] .
. . .
[ ].
[] .
[ ] 8
?
, [] ,
[] , [ ]
[ ], [ }
. [ ]
[] , [] 9 .
115

8*

-. -

1
prakraka ( [ 1951, . 43, 46]),
.
2
tadvati, ; , .
visesyatva, . . .
., , : tatra. . . ghat visesya (H, . 34)
, (. , . 33
34; , . 33). , tadvati
, .
. (, . 181).
3

, .
. (, . 34;
, . 34).
4
tadabhvavati. . , . 35 , . 3435.
5

,
.
6
, -, ,
.
. , (, . 226).
7
sambandha,
( . [ 1951, . 5052], [ 1969,
. 35-37]).
8
idam samyogi. samyoga
-
. ,
,
(, . 227). , , . [
1951, . 110, 111, 126].
9
(,
. 228).

(yathrthnubhava) , ,
, , .
116

, ,

prakaraka, ,
. ,
yathrthnubhava - .
yathrthnubhava prakaraka.
, yathrthnubhava
, (pram). ,
,
: (pramt),
(prameya) (pramna).
pramt , guna
. Pramt , .
prameya , .
prameya , .

.

. pramna , . Pramna , pram . Pramt, prameya, pramna, pram ,
. Yathrthnubhava, , .

pram:
,
, . , . , , ,
.

abhva ().
,
-, .
ayathrthnubhava . ,
117

-. -

, ^
.
[36]
, , [] [ ].
[] , , [] [ ].
[] ....
2 [ ] . . .. []:
[] . 3 .

1
karana .
2
prasangtpramkaranam vibhajate?
. . prasanga , .
, prasanga .
3
pramna,
, , :
pramna.

pram, . .
-. pram: (pratyaksa), . . ;
(anumiti),
(upamiti) (sabda).
yatharthanubhava
, pramt prameya,

pratyaksa, anumiti, upamiti, sabda. ,
yatharthanubhava pram
, . . pramna.

118

, ,

pramana ,
(pramyli karanam).
Pramna
. Pramana , .
Pramana pram. pramna
.
[37] -

[ ]
. . .. []
[]
[]
3 , .

1
karana nimitta-krana, , .
, ,
, . (karana) (kartr) .
{, 1951, . 30].
2
asdhrana krana, , , . :
,
(prakrtakrya) (, . 229).
3
. 1
sdhrana krana , .
4

: , , . . (,
. 229).
[38] [ , ]
.

[ ] [ ]
. . . . [ -119

-. -

, , ] [, ]
. ., . . .. []
[]
[] , .
*
, [ ]?
[: ] , -
2 .

[] 3 . :
4 .
, , [ ] , [ ]
[] [], ,
[]. , [ ] , [
] [ ], [
] [ ] 5 .
, , [ , ] , [. . ], ,
[]. , [ ,
] , 4!
, [ ] 6 .
, [] , , [], [ ] . , [] 7 .
,
[ ] 8 .

1
TG niyataprvavrtti. - niyatam
(, . 230; , . 229).
2
ananyathsiddhatva, ,
. . , (, . 230); . 120

, ,
a n a n y a t h s i d d h i

(, . 193194).
(abhva-vda)
ananyathsiddha
[ 1969, . 130].
3
anyathsiddhi, , . -
, (krana) ,
.
4
,

(, . 232233). . ,
, ,
(
anyathsiddhi)
- (, . 195). , , .
5

,
.
(, . 230231)
{, . 231).
6
. , . 231232.
7
. , . 232-233.
8
. , , ,
[ 1969, . 130].
[39 ] 2 .
[] . . ..

1
. - : . . .abhvavirahtmatvam vastunab pratiyogit ity caryab [ ] [ ]
121

-. -

(. [ 1951^
. 104], ^
, I I I , 2).
2
prgabhva
, (. [80]).
[40] , .
,
. , [ ]
, .
2 , , [
],
[ ] . ,
[ ] ,
.
3 ,
. , , , . . [ ] .
[] ....

. . . 4 . []: [ !
.
. . .
[ ]
.
, . . ,
[ ]. . . . [] :
. ,
. . ,
.
[ ] [ ] . ,
.
5 ; [].

1
samavyikrana. ,
, (padrtha).
(avayavin) (avayava), (guna) ^
122

, ,

, (gunin) . . . [ 1969, . 3840].


2
asamavyikrana, . . , . . ,
. 3839.
3
. 1 [37].
4
yatsamaveta.
5
bhvakryasyaiva.
m , .
[41 ] ,
[ ] \
.
[] 2 []
. . ..

1
. 2 [37].
2
upasamharati.


. ,
(pramna)
(prama) - . :
, ,
,
(, ,
).
, , (, , , ). , (niyataprvavrtti). , ,
, ( niyatam).
-123

-. -
. (anyathsiddhi). .
,
.
,
,
. ,
.

,
.

. , ,

.
, , ,
. ,
.
. :
. , , . . , , .
, ,
. ,
,
(ananyathsiddhatva).
kryam prgabhvapratiyogi.
pratiyogin. -
: prati
, yoga ,
in
. ,
virodha ().

-
. , , . pratiyogin .
124

, ,

. pratiyogin.
, , (abhva), (sambandha).
pratiyogin
, - ,
abhva.
, karma (),
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , . ,
,
(),
() .
: , ,
, , .
[42 ] [ ] 2 . ,
. : .
? ,
4 , : .
,
5 , : , ,
.
[] . . ..
: .
, ,
. . .. [] .
.
. . , [ ],
[ ].
125

-. -


[] [] 6 ?
[ ] 7 :
, , [] - 8 . [ ] ,
. [ ] .
[] [ ] .
: , ,
. [] . . ..

1)3
tatra;
, . . .
(pramna); (pramiti).
2
pratyaksajnna, . . , .
: pratyaksa pramna, pratyaksajnna pramiti.
4
nisprakraka (); , ,
.
5
saprakraka ()
.
6

,
pramna. :
(atndriyatay)

, [] (, . 237).
7
, , 1 : , , ,
-. : 126

, ,

.
,

. ,
, ,
,
. , . ,
, , . ,
.
8
dand ( ); -.

(pratyaksa)

, avayava-avayavi-bheda, .
,
,
. , ,
.
: .
,
?
-, avayavin ,
-
. ^
avayavin , . . avayava
, avayava-avayavi-bheda , ,
, .
, . , , .
. avayavin (avayava-samha),
127

-. -

, avayava
. , . .,
, , ,
, -, .

, ,

.
,
(samnikarsa), .
samnikarsa
.
( ,
- samyoga). samnikarsa : ,
,
.
. -
{laukika , ). (alaukika ).
, , ,
(laukika),
.
, -, : (bhya) (mnasa).
bhya , ,
, , . mnasa . tara pratyaksa. ,
, ,
.
,
.
128

, ,

: . , .

. , , .
(nirvikalpaka)

, (prakraka) . , , . , , , ,
, . nirvikalpaka
, , .
, nirvikalpaka, , .
nirvikalpaka ,
. , .
, .
nirvikalpaka . , , . ,
,
,
, , , ,
,
.
nirvikalpaka
, - ,
(smnya), (satt). , , .
nirvikalpaka 9

N5 Si5

120

-. -
. nirvikalpaka
.
(savikalpaka) ,
. Nirvikalpaka
savikalpaka :
, , , , -, (smnya), -,
, .
.
,
(visesya
) (visesana ). : visesyavisesanayofr sambandhvaghi jflnam (,
). .
. , ,
.
savikalpaka
,
[43] , !
[] 2 , :
; ;
, ;
[] ;
[
.
3 [ , ], .
4
[ ]
, .
,
5 , [ ] 6 : ,
,
.
7

[ ]
, ,
[-], , 8 , [-],

, ,

, , [-],
.
9 [ ] 1 0 , .
[ ] [ ] : ,
1 2 , [] .
, ,
[] , [. . ].
. , , []
, .
[] , [. .
], [] .
. [ ]
[].
; ;
.
1 .
[] . . .
.
,
.
[]
. . . [ ] .
?
[]: , , : 13




[] 1 5 .
[]
- [ ] [ . . .. [ [ ] . .
131

9*

-. -

[ ].
1 6 [ ] 1 7
1 8 .
, [ ] [], [ ]
[ ]. [] , [ ] 1 9 . ,
[ ] [] 2 0
2 1 , [. . 2 2 . ]

. []

, ,
[, ] [ ], 2 3 .

2 4 ,
[-] 2 5 .
2 6 [] , []
. . ..

[]. []
. . ..

1
samnikarsa, ,,

.
- ^
.
2
pratyaksajnna.
3
samyoga . (. [ 1951, . 7475;
1969, . 38]).
4
samyukta-samavya.
5
samyukta-samaveta-samavya.
6
rpatva, . . .
7
samavya.
8
karnavivaravrtti.
9
samaveta-samavya.
10
sabdatva;
.
132

,
11

12

visesana-visesya-bhava.

bhutale.
, .
13
: , .
14
vctaranganyyena.
15
kadambamukulanyyena.
16
, etena
abhvapramay
(, . 242). , ,
etena visesanat, . .
(, . 243).
17
,
( ) anupalabdhi (,
. . )

(, . 243; , . , . 228231).
18
pramnntaratvam, . .
( . .) (, . 243).
19
darsanbhvt. .
20
sahakrtendriya. ,
, (anupalabdhi),
; , (sahakr)
,
(. , . 244245).
21
tarkita, ,
(, . 244; , . 244; , . , . 229).
22


(, . 244245).
23
ayoga; y ,
, ayuktatva, apramnikatva (,
. 245).
24
svarpa, . . .
25
ntiriktafe sambandha.
26
upasamhra.

, , %
, , .
133

-. -

,
?
, , .
, -, laukika. , dvyanuka, . , , . ,
a laukika,
.
, .
,
, , . ,
janynni janaka.li.

, :
.
, , , ( ) , (mnasa).
laukika tryanuka,
.
. , ,

(, , , ).
. -,
-.
^, .
,
.
(samyoga), .
, ,

, ,
- , , , ,
[ 1939, . 173174].
, -,
, -
-
134

, ,

, ,
:
().
,
, - . , -, , .
-
,
.

,
.
.
, , ,
, , , , ,
. ,
,
udbhta, . . , , ,
(mahadvrttitva). , (samyukta-samavya),

.
samyoga sarpyogin samyukta.
, , (samavya).
. ,
. samyoga,
,
.
,
.
(samyukta-samavya).
,
, , [ 1939, . 175].
135

-. -

.
, , ,
-, , , , , , .
, , , , .
.
, , .
.
. . , (catustayasamnikarsa). , : )
, , ; ) ; ) ; ) .
,
, ,
.
, , , ,
, , , , , , .
. ,
. .
, , , ,
(laukika)
(manasa antara pratyaksa).
, ,
.
, samyoga .
samyukta
samavya.
. ,
, .
-, , ,
136

, ,

, . ,
. ,
, .
,
.
.
, , . , , ,
,
. , ,
.
,
,
(samyuktasamavya). .
, ,

, (sarpyukta-samaveta-samavya), , , samyoga.
, ,
(samavetasamavya),
, , , .
-
, ,
, , , . ,
. ,
, .
.


. ,
,
. , .
,
,
, .
*
137

-. -

(visesana-visesya); (
, ) visesanat.
: , , (), (, ). ,
, ,
(visesana), a ,
(visesya). , ,
visesanat .
. -
. (. .
), (. . ).
, .
-, ,
.
,
.
(, )
, (visesana), ,
, (visesya).
, visesana ,
samyoga .
, , .
,

(anupalabdhi)
, .
,
(anupalabdhi)
(krana) .
, ,
,
. ,
.
138

, ,

[44]
, . [,
], , [
] . : , .
, [. . ],
.
[] : , , .
[] , [].
[ ] . [] 1.
[ ] 2 , ?
, , [] ,
" . , , [}
[ ] 3 , [
, ].
: , [ ], [ ]
4
.
, [. . , ],
5 . , [ ] ,
. [
6
7
] ,
8

,
[] [ ] 9 . [ , ],
,
[ ] ,

, 10
.
[ ] . , , [].
139

-. -
[ ] . . .,
[ ] . . ..
.
, . . ..
, , , , [
]: 1 2 . 1 3 ,
. . . , , , , 1 4
.
[] ,
[] , . . ..

1
parmarsa , . .
() , .
. (, . 249) (, . 249250) ,
parmarsa
(, . 249).
2
pratyaksa. , : purusa eva.
3
anuvyavasya
-
- . .
[34].
4


(paksadharmat).
5
sisdhayisviraha.
(, . 252).
6
()
,
(sabda).
7
, , anuminomi
.
8
uttejik, . . uttejaka, icch.
9
anumitidarsant, utpatti, (. , . 252).
10

. ,

, ,

. .
(, . 252).
11
abhiniya. : , . . . (, . 255).
12
sahacryaniyamab. . (, . 255).
13
smndhikaranyam.
14

. [ 1951, . 5557].

(anumna)
, . ,

.

,
,
.
anumiti , anumiti , , . .
.

.
, -t (i),
,
(anumiti-inferentia).
,
-t(i) , , . . , .

, , , -t(i), (, pramiti, anumiti, upamiti). anumiti ,
.
anumna
, , , , .
, 141

-. -

- (. . ),
.
, anumna pratyaksa
. 1

, ,
. ,
, ,
. , , , ,
,
.
(parmarsa),
(paksa) (vypti).

. .
, .
,
, , ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
paksavcakasabda, a
paksa (, . 244).

. -
;
,
.

, , .
.
.
paksadharma. , ,
142

, ,
paksadharma. ,
, paksadharma,
, ,
.
(paksadharmata)
( hetu). :
, .
, paksadharmata,
hetu: , ,
, (anumiti) .
(vypti) , , , , (vypya),
,
(vypaka), . ,
vypya, vypaka.
vypya, vypaka.
: vypti
,

( ).
, . vypti
asamavypti,
,
, vice versa. ,
, .
vypti,
: vypti
, . .
vypti samavypti, .
vypya vypaka : , , .
, , asamavypti , .
, samavypti ,
.
143

-. -

, (paramarsa) ,
.

paksadharmata; ,
, (vypya),
(vypaka). ,
parmarsa, :
vahnivypyadhmavn ayam parvatafe.
,

vyptivisistapaksadharmatjnnam,
vyaptivisistaya paksadharmata tasy jnnam. , ,
, ,
. . visista paksadharmata, jnna [ 1951, . 209]. , -,
, , , ,
vyptivisistam ca tatpaksadharmatjnnam ca,
,
. ;
paksadharmata ,
vyptivisista, a .
[ ] [] .
,
, .
, -, - . paramarsa
: vypti visayaka at paksadharmatjnnam.
, (visesana) (), prakra,
. . , paksadharmatjna; ,
vypti , . .
,
vyptivisista paksadharmata.

.
.
(visesanatsambandha), . .
144

, ,

, vyapti (hetu).
parmarsa
, (hetu) ,
, vyptivisista, paksadharmatvisfista, . . (hetut) paksadharmata
.
(vyapti) . , , vyapti , ,
vyapti vyapti , . ,
sahacryaniyama.
Sahacrya smndhikaranya, . .
(hetu) , (sdhya).
,
sahacrya niyata (niyamena vartamna), . .
. ,
, , vypaka.
(vyapaka); ,
, vyapti, , , : ,
, , ,
. . , . ,
vyapti ,
.
vyapaka
, vypya, . ,
, vypti
.
, ,
vypya vypaka,
, sahacryaniyama
vypya, vice versa, a , ,
vyapaka (hetu), . .
hetu .
, sdhya vypaka?
niyama: smndhikarantyantbhvapratiyogi. : sdhya
, (pratiyogi) , hetu. ^

. hetu-bhva,,
JMS 815

145

-. -

,
.
,
(niyama) ,
.

, hetu sdhya , ,
, ?
, ,
vahnivypya, dhmarekh, ?
vypti
.
vypti ,
, ,
.
.
paksadharmat,
(
) vypyasya parvatdivrttitvam paksadharmat.
,
parmarsa, , .
Paksadharmat
( ) vypti-vypya, (vyptismarana).

,
, ,
-.
[45] : *.
[] .
, , [ ]
2 ,
, [ ]
. ,
[] ,
, . [ ]
, [ ] .
. []
3 ,
[. . ]. .
146

, ,

, , [ ] ,
4
5
, [ ] .
:

;
, , , .
.
, .
[ ], [ ]
[] .
[] . . ..
. . ..
: [] , , , , 6 .
, ,
7 , [ ] ?
?
[ ]
, 8 [ ] [ ].
.
[] 9
10
, .
, ,

.

?
[]: [] 1 2 .
. . . : .
[]
. . ..
. . . [ ] [ ] ;
[] [ ].
[ ] . . ..
147

10*

-. -

1
svrtham parrtham ca (.
, . 4748).
2
bhyodarsanena.
3
jnnamanumiti (.
, . 52).
4
parapratipattyartham.
5
pancvayavavkyam
.
6
. , ,
, (, . 259),
,
.
7
vyabhicra.
. . : [53] .
8
viraha. . ,

, . 261-262).
9
tarkt.
10
svatah siddha, . .
.
11
sannikarsa
(. . 134137 ).
12
pratysatti
. , - (apprehensional connection) [ 1969, . 109].


anumna .
- (, . 221).
Svrthnumna ,
, parrtha : svasya parasya
va arthab prayojanam yasmt tat. , ,
, , , svrtha
.
, ; parrtha
148

, ,

,
svrtha .

, ,
- -.
Svrthnumna parrthnumna ,
, , , , .
svrtha , . ,
. parrtha ,
- .
,
. - , ,
anumna.
,
() anumna: , [- .
anumna : ?
svrtha (
) parrtha ( ).
.
-
(vypti),
. .
:
prvavat, sesavat smnyatodrsta. , ,
.
,
vypti. , ,
.
kevalnvayi, kevala-vyatireki
anvaya-vyatireki.
.
149

-. -

.
, ,

, vypti
.
, ,
, .
,
, , , . -:
, .
- , ,
vyptismarana ( ) paksadharmatajnna ( ). (lingaparmar'sa)
.
, , : (linga) vypya ,
vypya . parmasa
(svrthnumiti).
Parrthnumna
vacana, . . lingajfana
.
, anumna
svrtha, svrtha (karana) (anumiti).
Hngajnna, vyptijnna parmarsana jfimtmaka, svrthnumna. parrtha, sabdtmaka, sabdapramna
.
parvato vahnimn parrtha ,
,
, . sabdabodha.
vahnivypyadhumavn parvatab,
parmarsa svrthnumna
, svrtha, vypti paksadharmatjnna. , anumiti parmarsajanyam.
jnnam svrtha, parrtha.
150

, ,

[46] , , , ,
[] 1 .
;
;
, , , ,
;
;
, .
[] [] . . ..
2 [] . . ..
3 4 , 5 .
,
[].
, [] .
, .
, , 6 .
7 .

1

(pancvayava
vkya),
,
parrthnumna, . . .
2

, .
3
vacanam, ,
, .
4
paksa.

(. [49] ). ,
, ,
, , , : , , (sdhya).
5
sdhyavattay; () (151

-. -

, ).
.
6
hetusdhyavattay; , , , , ,
. ,
, .
7
1903 .
[46] : . . . (paksadharmat) (. 13). ,
nyya
, .
8 paksadharmatjnnrthamupanyali (. 39) ,
: (prcna) [,
]
" (. 271). artha prayojana.

. Parrthnumna nyya.
nyya : anumiticaramakaranalingaparmarsaprayojakasabdajnnajanakavkyam
, ,
[ ] , [ ]
, , ,
(), , ,
.
nyya. .
, . . , . nyya
, , .
: parvato vahnimn. nyya (pratijn)
152

, ,

sadhyanirdesa [] ,
. pratijn sdhyavattaypaksavacanam, . .
, . (hetu)
.
, nyya
.
:
( )
. nyya
:

parrtha
; ,
.
,
nyya . (udharana)
. ,
(upanaya), , .
(nigamana)
, , .
, nyya
. Svrtha nyya
,
. svrtha
, anumna, , ,

, svrtha
.
svrtha , , jnnnij ]
.
[47]
, . [] .
[]
. . ..
153

-. -

[ ] ?
[] . 2 [] [] , 3 [ ]
[ ] 4 [ ] 4 . - 5 . . , , 6
, . . .
, .
[] . . ..

1
visistaparmarsa;
,
(. . , . 40: vyptivisistalingaparmarsa),
2
sabdaparmarsasthale; parrthnumna, svrtha;
, , .
3
vahnivypyavnayam (. .
, . 40: vahnivypyadhmavnayam).
, ,
vypya, . . ,
.
4

,
kalpanlghavenetyarthah (. 273) vaisistyvaghiniscaya (. 276).
5
attdau vyabhicrt.
. , . 289 .,
[53].
6
vypravatkranam (. 274).
,
(premamata), , , (. , . 276,
, . 274, ).
154

(lingaparmarsa)
svrtha,
parrtha ,
parartha
. , : .
Parrthnumna, - , ,
.
svrthnumna
, , parrtha , -
.
.
, svrtha parrtha
. svrtha parrtha [
1981, . 159], .
[48] : -,
.
- [ ],
, : . * ,
, 1 : , ,
; ,
, .
[] ,
. :
,
.
[] ,
. : 2 . [ ] ,
, . , ,
155

-. -

[]:
, ,
[ ] .
[] . . ..
- . . ..
[] , .
.
[ ] [ ] . . .. - [],
, .

[]. : , [. . ].
[ ] [ ] . . .. . . ..
,
, ?
, , [ ] , [. . ]. [ ]
.
- ,
, [ ] ?
[] . -
3
[] .
, [ ]:
[ ]
4
5 . [],
, []
, .
[ ] , [] , , [].

1
sdhye (loc. sing.)
, . 156

, ,

,
,

.
2
,
, ,
, , . . - .
3
pratiyogin, . . .
, ,,
. ,
.
4 5
~
: yadyapyastadravyasatpadrthnm bheda eva prthivym sadhanyab. . . (,
. 283).
(. , . 289).

svrtha parrtha. , (linga),


linga .
(hetu).
, ,
(saddhetu) (asaddhetu).
, ,
, . .
(paksa). , : . linga, ,
anumna.
- (vaya-vyatireki), (kevalnvayi),
(kevalavyatireki).
[45] anumna : anvayavyatireki, kevalnvayi, kevalavyatireki.
anumna 157

-. -

,
anumna
linga.
sdhya (vypti) ,
, . . linga
vypti, ,
linga.
() anvaya
(hetu) , (sdhya), a vyatireka hetu sdhya. vypti vypya vypaka.
(anvayavypti): vypya, vypaka.
(vyatirekavypti): vypti vypaka
, . '. vypya , , , vypaka.
.
,
; ,
, .

anvayavyatireki
<, . 286).

vhni

vahnyabhva

, ,
vahni, dravya.
AF vahni.
dhma.
dhma
vahni, yatra yatra dhmastatra vahnib.
158

, ,

, , , mahnasa.

EKG ,
taptyabpinda, . . ,
. (vypti),
updhi rdrendhanasamyoga,
vypti, yatra yatra vahnistatradhmah.
BFD , , dhmbhva vahnyabhva. , ,
, vypti yatra vahnyabhvastatra dhmbhva.
, EKG BFD, , vahni
, dhuma (vahni vypaka dlima).
BKD, dhmbhva,
, BFD,
vahnyabhva, , dhmbhva vypaka
vahnyabhva. vypti , EKL updhi. , vyatireka vypti
: yatra yatra vahnyabhvastatra
dhmbhvah yath hrde.
(kevalnvayi linga) , sdhya kevalnvayi. Sdhya kevalnvayi ,
(atyantbhva) . , , abhidheyatva () sdhya .
, kevalnvayitva, atyantbhvapratiyogitva ( ), , sdhya,
hetu, kevalnvayi anumna atyantbhva (hetu).
, : ghatbhidheyabghatatvt [ ] . kevalnvayi anumna,
vyatireka vypti.
,
: yatrbhidheyatvam nsti tatra ghatatvamapinsti,
hetu atyantbhvapratiyogi,
ghatbhva .
kevalnvayi, , ,
sdhya .

, ,

.
159

-. -

- : ,
, , , .
(kevalavyatireki)
, sdhya -. anvayivypti yatra yatra gandhavattvam
tatra prthivitara bhedab (, , , [] ), , ,
, , . ,
, .
, , , sdhybhva,
. . prthivtarabhedbhva, prthivtaratva,
gandhbhva: -
, ,
.
kevalavyatireki,
,
kevalavyatireki: sdhya
paksa , sdhya ,
asdhranadharma ( ) paksa.
: ?
,
,
, .
. Asdhranadharma
, .
kevalavyatireki. .
linga, a , anumna , , sadharmya
vaidharmya ( ). hetu udharana, upanaya nigamana.
,
, hetu , .
[49] [ ], ,
[ ] . , ^
( ].
160

, ,

[] .
[ ] 1
2
, 3
? [ ] ,
[]
- [ ]. [
] 4 [ ]
, [ ] .
- []: [
] 5
[].

1
avypti;
, , (mna). , . ,
.
2
mananasthale; manana
, ,
. , manana (ptasabda) .
, , manana sabdabuddhi, . .
(, . 288).
3
sravana; , , : (vedavkya) ,
, ,
,
, .
4
pratyakse'pi vahnau; nicite'pi vahnau, . .
(, . 288).
,
, ,
H

161

-. -

(pratyaksa).
, : ,
.
5
paksata (
, ,
); :
,
, - .


. , , ,
. , , .

. (vypti) ,
, anumna. Vypti
(linga), , , linga, ,
. ,
.
linga
, , ,
? paksata,
- . Paksata .
, paksata ,

. - , , (linga)
( ).
siddhyabhvavn, . . 162

, ,

-,
sdhya, ,
. sdhyavn paksab, siddhyabhvavn paksah?
( , ), , , . ,
, sdhya (sdhybhva), sadhya. , ,
, ,
, paksata.
paksata, ,
, ,
(sadhya), .
, , , , , [45],
, .
, anumna
.
, paksat.
, , paksata,
: , ,
;
siddhyabhvavn,
. , parrthnumna , ,
sdhya .
,
anumna
, . ,
: )
sdhya ; ) , ; ) , .

.
,
anumna, . . .
"

163

,:,

"

11*

-. -

[50] 1 [ ,] ,
. , [].
[] . . .

1
, . . ,
sapaksa ()
.
, ,
,
, -.
, .

, . . ,
, , sapaksa: sa sama (), paksa .
,
,
sdhya. ,
, , , ,
. , , , , :
, , ,
, .
,
,
(sdhya
sdhana), vypti 7 ^
. ,
,
.
vypya-vypaka,
sdhana (, ),
sdhya.

164

, ,

[51 ] 1 [ , ] , , , [].
[] . . .

1
vipaksa ,
sapaksa.

, . . , ,
. (vipaksa)
, , , sapaksa.
,
,
sapaksa. sapaksa
,
.
vipaksa , sapaksa, . .
, (sdhya).
,
.
, ,
(vyatirekavypti),
.
[52] []: , , , , [, ],
, [
] []: . . ..
[ ], , , [] 2 .
165

-. -

1
hetvbhsak, (, . 57).
2
: anumitipratibandhaka yathrthjnnavisayatvam
hetvbhsatvam. , , . .
pramna, . :

(,
. 57).


, . ,
.

,
,
(svrtha) (parrtha).
- , ,
.
, .
[53] [] .
,
.
[ , ]
[ ], ,
. :
. [ ]
, .
[ , ] [ ] .
: .
, ,
[] [].
[ , ] -. :
. [] ,
-.
166

, ,

[] []
. . ..
[ ]
. . .. . . ..
[ ] [ ] [ ] . . .. [ ] -[].


(savyabhicra). :
(sdhrana), (asdhrana) (anupasamhri). ,
,
vypti ,
, sdhya. anaikntika^
.
, hetu sdhya,
sdhybhva.

hetu , sdhya, , hetu
sdhya, .
, , .
[54] [ , ] , . : . - , !
[] [] [] , .



(. , . 306). ,
, .
, viruddha
, ,
167

-. -

. ,
, ,
(sdhya). , , (sdhya),
, (sdhana), ,
, , , /.
sdhybhva sdhana.
[55] 1 [] [], ,
, . :
, , , .
[] [] . . ..

1

: [] []
, []
(, . 60).

(satpratipaksa) ,
,
, .
, ,
. , .
[56] [] : ,
.
:
, [] .
[ ] , -
.
168

, ,

:
.
, []
.
[ ]>.
1 .
, ,
, .
, 2 .
, ,
, , .
, ,
, , , .
[ ,
:]
:
. , [] ,
, ,
.
, ,

, ,
.
, , ,
, [ ]
, , .
[]
[ ]
.
[] [] . . .. [],
, . . .. [, ] .
[] [], , . . .. , . . ..
:
169

-. -

, , ;
, , ,
[] ;
, , , , ;
, [], , ,
, .
[ ] .
. [ ]
,
, 3 .

. [ ]
, [] , .
. [ ]
, [] , .

1
. [48] .
,
.
2
: sdhyavypakatve sati sdhanavypaka updhib.
: , "
(avypaka) , " (sdhana),
, " (vypaka) , " (sdhya).
.
3
(vyu) . [13] , .
^ ^

\
(asiddha) (sraysiddha), (svarpsiddha) (vypyatvsiddha).

170

asrayasiddha ,
locus standi. Svarpsiddha ,
hetu , , .
Vypyatvsiddha , , ,,
, sdhya
. , , .
(updhi) updhi
.
,
-tva,
. Updhi
, ,
, .

[57] [] [], , , 2
3 . :
. ,
, ; , . . *
. [ ].

[ ]
. . .. [] #
: - , 5 , []
[!
[] 6 .
[ ]
[] 7 . [ ]
: (1) 8 [
, ] 9 ; (2) [
, ] 1 0 ; (3) [ , ], ; (4) [ ] 1 2 .
m

-. -
, - ,
,
13
, []
. 1 4
[ ,
].
1 5 , [ ]
,
, ,
, []. ,
, [ ], []
[ ] 1 6 .
.

1
bdhita, , . . ,
(, . 62).
2
niscita.
- . , . 62; , . 303.
3
. : ( . . .) hetu,
sdhya, (, . 318319).
4
Skst tibandhakatvam, , ,
.
(parampar) (. [ 1951, . 82]).
5
grhya. (, . 304).
6
, (prcmamate) (, . 304).
7
parmarsapratibandhakatvam. (parmarsa) ,
(anumiti). .
(, . 304).
8
sdhrana ( . [53]).
9
. .

(sa-vyabhicra).
172

, ,

,
( . [
1974 (II), . 2 1 8 - 2 1 9 ] ) .
10
smndhikaranybhva (.
[ 1951, . 123]).
11
visistavypybhva (
. , . 305).
12
asdhrannupasamhrino.h. . [53]
(, . 295296)
(, . 306).
13

sraysiddhasvarupsiddhayob.
(, . 309311).
14
updhi. . [ 1951, . 4042].
15
siddhasdhana.
16
(nigrahasthna)
. [81 ] .

bdhita ( )
, , ,
, (anumna),
(pramna).
, , , bdhita ,

,
(hetu) (paksadharmat),
, .
[58] 1 2 .
3 . .
, , , .
, [], , ,
. [] [ ] 4 ,
.
: [] ".
[ ] .
173

-. -

1
upamna,
, ,
.
2
upamiti, . .
.
pramna
, ,
, , ,
, .
3
samjnsamjfiisambandhajfinamupamiti, samjii samjni .
4
pindam (, ) .

(upamna), , -
, .

,
. : ? ( )
? (
).
, (karana) (atidesa-vkyrthajnna), a
(sadrsyajnna), , (sahakri). ,
-. : ,
, ,
; , . :
, , , (krti). ,
174

, ,

.
,

, - , .

,
().
.
-
. ,
-, . ,
,
, . . .
, . . , .
. ,
- ( )
upamiti ( )
.
.
- ,
-,
: ",
", :
, : , ,
[] ; -, [], []
(, . 6364).
(kraka) , , ,
. . ;
, ,
, . . -
. (prakraka)
, . , , 175

-. -

(samanya jati) (visesa),


. , .

( ), . . ,

:
() (krti).
[59] . , ,
.
, : . , .
: .
[] : []
. ,
2 .
3 ,
.
4 .
[ ]
[ ]. , -,
, . .
.

. .,
[]
?

[] 5 .
, , ; [, , ] [] , []
[] . [ ]
. [ ], , 176

, ,

[ ], ,
, 6
[ ], , .
[ ] - [] , .
,
[ ] 7
, , ,
.
,
, ,
8?
[]: ! , [ ] . [ ] . . [
] 9
, , [. . ], . .
[
]. ,
. , [ ] [ .
, ] .
[ ,] [ ] 1 0
. . , .
: [ ],,

.
, [12
] , : .
, [] ,
13
: . ,
, , [ ] ,
: .
1 5 , . . ,
, [:] .
16

17
. [12

M 815

177

-. -

] [] .
18

[ 19
] .
[] [].

. - [ ] [ ] 2 0 .
, [
] 2 1 .

[]
[ ]
[ ]?
,
[] , . [ ] , []
2 2 .
[] , [. . ], . .
2 3 . , 2 4 ,
[. . ].
, [].
. . [ ] .
[]
[, ],
. []
[], 25 ,
[ ] 2 6 .

1
svarasanketa. ,
-,
, .
. - ,
sanketa ,
178


. ,
, .
.
2
saktam
(sakti). , - .
3
padapadrthasambandha.
padrtha ,
padasya artha (. ,
. 98, , . 97
98).
4
-
, .
5
ksept (. 317). , ,
arthpattipramna,
. .
(, . 317).
6
vrddha madhyamavrddha (, . 319).
7
vpodvpa, ,
, samgraha tyga (, . 321).
(, . 321).
8
-, siddha (,
) sdhya (, ).
-
sdhya, :
, (. , . 413424;
, . 321).
9
vyutpattidarsana (. 323). ,
, saktigraha, . . (, . 323).
10
, ,
, ,
, . saindhava.
179

12*

-. -
11

jahallaksana, ajahallaksana jahadajahallaksana


(, . 325).
12
mancji krosanti. :
" (lksanika)
(, . 325). .
13
chatrino gacchanti.
, . .
-. chatrin
.
14
,
().
15
gaun.
. . : guna.h. . .
dharmamtram (Pp, . 327); , . 328.
16
vyafijan.

(. ,
vyafijan [ 1963,
. 277315]).
pramna,
,
. pramna
,
, , ,
. , vyanjan , .
17
. : ,
[

], : (sabdasaktimla)
(arthasaktimla)
{, . 328).
18
ttparynupapatti.
ttparya
(, . 320321).
19
laksanbjam (, . 330), laksanprayojaka , (. , . 331, ).
20
, (, . 333), -

80

, ,

, ,
(. , . 332333).
21
sabddhyhra.
sabdakalpan (, . 333).
22
ghata.h karmatvam nayanam krtiJi.
, ,

,
.
23
yogardhi.
. , . 335.
24

avayava-avayavi-bheda ,
,
, . , , , ( ).
25
anvayasya vkyrthatay . . . anvaymse'pi.
(, . 338) (, . 338).
26
iti gautamy.h []
, . . .

,
,
.
, . .
, (sabda)
pramana (pada)
. (sabda) , . . , .
, . . .
181

-. -

.
, .
-, ,
, . . .
,
, .
,
. , , .
, , ,
. , :

.

.
, . , , .
, (),,
.
.


.
, . , ,
, -
: ,
, . .
, .
,
, ,
182

, ,

, . . . ,

.
. :
(
). ,
, , , ,
, . . .
, : . . . , .

, , ,
-
.

, , , .
, ,
, ,
, .
, .
, , , , ,
, ,
, . . . , ,
.

,
.
,
, 183

-. -

,

, . '
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
( ) ,
.
.
.

, ,
. , .

:
- [ ] [ ]. , ,
; , , ,
.
, , ,
, ( )
.
-?
.

. , ,
, . ,
. ,
( -), ,
.
184

, ,

.
.
,
. . .
. , ,
, ,
, .

, . ?
.

:

.
, , ,
, .
,

, .

[60] - [] ,
[ ].
2 []
3
[
], [ ].
4
[ ].
5

[ ] .
. . .
. .
, [ ]. []
[] . . ..
185

-. -


[] . . ..

[] . . . .
[- ] 6.
[ ] 7 ;
.

1
vkyrthajfinahetuti.
.
, . 66-67.
2
knks. . : knks
(, . 339).
3
ananubhvakatva,
- anupadhyakatva,
(, . 37).
4
yogyat. ,

(, . 67).
5
samnidhih.

. , . 3738.
6
avilambena padrthopasthiti.
7
uktam. .
(, . 343).
[61] , []
. ., . ,
[ ] , , ,
, [ ].
1 [ ] - .

, . .

[ ].
[] , , , ., : 2
.
186

, ,

1
agnin sincati.
2
. 22 [59].

knks,
yogyat samnidhi, -
, .
knks
,
.
(,
, , ) ,
, ,
, , .
,
. , knks , . ,
,

.
yogyat, ,
. ,
(drstatvt).
, samnidhi satti, ,
,
,
knks yogyat.
,
ttparya,
, -, .
, [59] .
,
[60] [61] . ,


.
187

-. -

[62] : .
[] , ,
[
], .
[] [] .
[] [] . . ., .
;
?
[: ] 2 , [] 3 . [ ] .
, [] , 4 ,
[ ] -
[] , [ ]
[ ] 5 .
[ ]: 6 .
! "
[ ].
?
, [
] ,
[] .
", [] . [
]:
[
], [ ].
, [] [
] , [] 7 .
.
[] , &
,
. - ,
9
,
.
[] - [] ,
[ ]?
188

, ,

, - [ ] .

1
, (,
. 344).
2
pauruseya, purusapranta. . . janya iti yvat, . .
(, . 346).
3
, ,
di (,
. 346).
4
smaryamnakartrkatva. . (, . 346).
5
sisyaparamparay (. 345346).
6
tepnt ( [?]),

(, . 347).
7
anupurvvisista. . (, . 348).
8
cra.
. , . 349.
9
skhb, . .
.


(pramnatva).
(vaidika) - pramna, . .
.
- : .
(laukika)
, ,
, . : , , , [58], , ?
189

-. -

.
, :
, ,
, ,

.
(pramnavda), ,
.
,
.

. ,
[59], .

: ,
?
, ,

. , ,
, .
[63] ;
, [ ], .
[ ] , 2
, [ ] 3 ,
.
, : ,
, 4 :
[]
[ ] 5 .
6 ? ,
,
[] .

, ,

. , ,
. []
.
.

: , ,
.
, - .
[] 7 .
[] , , [], *
[] [ ]
.
[] 8 : [ ]
, [] 9 ,
, []?
1 0 [,
] , []
; 1 1 [, ]
, 1 2 .

,
[ , ] .
-
[] .
[ ]
, 1 3 . [ , ] , [], [ ] .
[
] [ ] [ ].
?
[] 91

-. -

[],
[] , , , .
[ ]
1 4 .
, [ ].

, [, ]
- 1 5 [ ]? [
] .
, [ ] [] []
. , , [] 1 6 , , [] ,
, 1 7 . , .
[] , , , [ ] ,
, 1 8 .

-

[ ].
,
[] . 1 9 , [. . ],
, [ ] . ,
, ,
, [] , , [] .
.

, [ ] ,
[] 2 0 .
[], ,
[ ] .
, . ,
192

, ,

( )
[] ,
,
[].
, ,
21 , [ ]
. . .
, [], , , , ; [ ] [ ]
[]
.

1
smritrthasamsarga. . ,
. 352; , . 352-353.
2
, sabdajilna , , (pada), , ,
(padajnna), -.
3
padakadambaka padasamuha (. , . 352).
4
anuvyavasya, .
5
, ( )
.
6
arthpatti, , ,
.
7
atha pramnyavdah.
(pramtva),
() , (, . 358; , . 358).
8
vipratipatti (. , . 358359),
. 13

815

193

-. -
(prvapaksa), (uttarapaksa siddhnta).
9
smagr, . . , . -, (vypra)
,
(pramtr) (prameya),
, (, . 16). ^ . ^ ^ . ^
10
-^^--, ,
[ ] , . . (,
359).
.'/^'
11
*metHta~k^f%, ,
[ ] > . . (
. 359-360).
12
svatastvam paratastvam. , (svatabprmnya), ,
'
(samvda) .
13
anuvyavasya, ,
(ami) (vyavasya).
, ,
.
: , (. . 795).
14
prakrasambandhasya. . . padrthatvt. . ,

(, . 365).
15
anabhysadasym.
16
jalalbhe.
17
saphalavrttijanakatvt.
18
(vyatireki) . . 157158
, vyatireki
.
19
guna
. ., , , guna , (,
. 369).
20
purovartini. .
(, . 371).
21
pravartaka.
194

, ,

[63 ]
.

,
,

.
.
.

pramna :
, .
, ,
[59] .

, , ,
pramna. -.
,
, ,

.
, . . ,

.
,
,
.
,
, .
:
. . . [] ,

, , , . ,
, ,
. , .
195

13*

-. -
, , , .

, . . , . , , ,
.
.
164]
, *.
, 2 3 , :
, .
4 ; : .

, [] 5 ; :
, .
[] . . ..
, 6 , [ ].
[ ] []. [] [] . [] [
] [].
[] ,
[]
[ . . . ].
[ ]
[]. : 7 , [ I
.
[] ,
[] . , ,
[] .

1
tarka, ,
, .
196

, ,
2

vaisistya.
dharnini, . .
.
4
mithyjnna, .
5
: vypyropena vypakropastarkah.
6
mnasaviparyaya;
,
: [] (, . 375).
7
prakraka, . . , .
3

(ayatharthanubhava)
. ,
, (apram);
ayatharthanubhava buddhi ( ),
apram ,
, , .
-
apram: (samsaya),
(viparyaya) (tarka). , , ( ), .

, .
, . .
.
,
(. . )
(bhrama).
(samsaya)

.
, ( ) samsaya. ( : , ), ( ).
197

-. -

samsaya : , ,
,
. , samsaya (abhva)
, , , (anavadhrantmaka). Samsaya
,
. samsaya buddhi ( ).

: ekasmin dharmini viruddhanndharmavaisistyvaghijnnam samsayah.
: visistavaisistyvaghi-jnnni, . . ,
(vaisistya) (visista). , , :
( ) (avaghi)
( ),
(vaisistya) (visista ). samsaya
, , (visista)
, (visista-ekasmin dharmini virudhanndharma).

(visesasmrtyapeksa). (pram).
(anubhava) ,
(yathrtha), a
. samsaya (viparyaya), samsaya , .
,
. Samsaya
,
, .
(viparyaya) .

(tattvnubhava),
(atattvnubhava). ,
, (tadabhvavati tatprakraka).
18

, ,

,
, ., , . .
. ,
(apram), (bhrama). ,
.
( ),
,
viparyaya.
. ,
, (, IV, 2, 35).
, ; ,
viparyaya, , .
, .

.
(tarka)
,
-
. Tarka ,
pranina ;
-
(
).
tarka , (vypaka) ,
(vypya). asamavypti ( ),
tarka ,
. , , ,
. tarka -.
, tarka .
:
. tarka (anumna), tarka .
Tarka , .
199

-. -

[65] : 1 2 .
[ , ] 3 , 4 .
[] . . ..

1 2
yathrtha-ayathrtha.
34
pram-apram.

, [3464]
(anubhava) (pram)
(apram). , . . . (smrti) pram, apram, .
,
anubhava. smrti
anubhava. (yathrtha) ~ ,
, , -,
, .
,
pram, pratyaksa,
anumna, upamna, sabda.
(ayathrtha) ayathrthnubhava, . . , , samsaya, viparyaya, tarka apram,
pramna.
, smrti ()
, . Smrti , - .

(bhvan).
(vnubhava), : smrti ?
- 23 : 1) (pranidhna);
200

, ,

2) (nibadha),
; 3)
(abhysa), ; 4) (linga), ; 5)
(laksana), ; 6) (sdrsya), ; 7) (parigraha); 8) (asrayasritasambandha) ; 9) (nantarya), ; 10)

(viyoga), ; 11) (ekakryya) ; 12) (virodha) ; 1-3) (atisaya) ; 14) (prpti) , ; 15) (vyavadhna)
, ; 16)
(sukhadu.hkha); 17)
(icchdvesa);
18) (bhaya); 19) (arthitva),
; 20) (kriy);
21) (rga); 22) ; 23) ,
.
.
, .
, .
, :
(buddhi)
(nubhav)
I
' (pram)

(smrti)

(aprama)

(yathrtha)
,

(samsaya)

(ayathrtha)
,
I

(vcparyaya,^

(tarka)

pram ana

(pratyaksa)

(anumhna.)
(upamna)
(sabda)
201

-. -
[66]
.

[] . ,
2 , [ ]
. . 3 4 [,
].

1
anukulatay,
abhilasitay, . . (, . 379).
2
anuvyavasyagamyam.
3
yathsrutam (, ).
4
svarpakathanam.
(, . 380).
[67 ]
.

1
pratiklat ().

du.hkha ()
. ,

,

, . . .

(sukha) (duhkha)
, . . ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
202

, ,

, . ,
sukha duhkha , : -,

, . . ,
-,
sukha duhkha, , .
[68] .
[69] .
[70]

1
krtLh; ,
(prakra)
(, . 380).

(icch), (krodha), (prayatna)


, , . , ,
, , [ 1951, . 262263].
. , ,
, . , -
, , ,
,
, ,
.

, , , , . ,

.
203

-. -


:
.

: . (dvesa) (kma) .
, icch krodha, , .
icch krodha
, , , . sukha dubkha
, icch krodha ,

.
(prayatna) , . Icch krodha prayatna. .
(,
) , .
[71] [ ],
[] .
[72] [ ], .

- , .

. ,
, - ,
(dharma) (adharma).
, .
204

, ,

. , .
. , , .
1.73] ,
] .

[-

174] , :
. ;
.

, , , , , .
.

(), ,
-
, buddhi prayatna
.
icch . ,
, .
. Icch . -.
(, . 5457).
, , ,
.
[75] : , .
[]:
, .
, ^
; [ ] .
[] . [ 1
[] .
205

-. -

[ ] - . . .. , 1 .
[] . . ..
,
2 .
[ I [] . [] .
[] .
, , [ , ] [].
[ ]
[].
[ ] ,
, [ ]
3 .
. 4
.

1 2
, .
.
,
,
.
( )
,
3
smnyagunh (smnya ). ,
( ), . , , , ;
; . .
4
, ,
, , .
, .
,
; ,
206

, ,

.
, , . (,
. 383).
[76] . . .
. . []. .
[] []
, .
[] .
. . .
. .

(karma)
. - karma.
, , (samyoga) (vibhga).
karma : (vibhga),
(prvadesasamyogansa), (uttaradesasamyoga). ,
,
karma , . .
samyoga. ,
karma , hetu. karma -
, .
, , , (gamana), karma, .
, karma
, 207

-. -
, , gamana
, , , ,
.
[77] ; [] ,
. ,
. . , .
[] . [] []
. [ ]
, . ., [ ] . , 1 ,
;
[ ] . .

samavetatva;
. samavyin, , , samaveta.
smnya ()
saniavya ( ); .


smnya (); smnya , ,
(aneknugata).
smnya (dravya, guna, karma)
, .
, (artha), , ,
(smnya), (visesa) (samavya) padrtha. Artha,
, satt (). , satt
, padrtha (smnya, visesa, samavya)
. , 208

, ,

, -, . . ,
,

{satt artha), smnya visesa
(smnya visesa iti buddhyapeksam) (,

I, ).

- , samanya
visesa
: , dravyatva () smnya prthivtva (,
),
dravyatva visesa (satt).
, ,
(visesa) (smnya).
.

dravya, guna karma, .
smnya, , .
smnya .
Smnya ,
, jti.
, smnya,
, , ,
.
, ,
, . smnya;
jti , .
, , ,
, smnya .
, ,
. . dravya, guna karma
(samavya) ( samavyin,
smnya samaveta, 14

815

209

-. -

).
, , .
satt
, .
satt
. , -,
, satt . .
[78] 1 .
[]

[].

1
: nityadravyavrttayo vyvartak visesb ( , [] ), visesa . ,
(antya-visesa).


(vyavartaka),
, . . . , visesa avayavin-avayava,
visesa
, , . . visesa
avayava.
visesa
antya-visesa .
(
). antya-visesa .
-
, , , antya-visesa,
.
210

, ,

[79] , - []. /- , [ ], ,
, .
[]: , ,
, , , .
[ ] []. . .. [] ,
.
.
[] , -, [ ]. . .. ; [] . : [] . ,
.

1
dand. . [80] 11.


(samavya)
- (ayuta-siddha), ayutasiddha samavya.
, , samavya. , , ,
samavya.
samavya .

(bhvakrya) . samavya .
samavya ad infinitum.
211

14*

-. -
,
, . . (
samavya). samavya :
, ,
.
samavya ayuta-siddha. ayuta-siddha,
, samavya
ayuta-siddha ( ) ,

, , , ,
samavya. ,
samavya, : avayavaavayavin ( ), gun a
gunin ( ), jti vyakti (
).

[80] , [] : [] .
, [] :
[ ] .
[ ] , 1 . :
.
[ ] , 2 . : .

[ ] . . .. []
[ ] . . [] [ ]: .
3 :
, 4 .
[ ] 5 . . .. [] []
[ ]: . [] [ ] . .
: , .
212

, ,

[ ] 6. 7 []
[ ] . [] [ ] .
[ ] [ ] 8 . - 9 []
[ ] []
[ ] [] 1 0 .
[ ]
[ ] [ ] 1 2 .
1 3
[ ] ,
.
[ ], , [. . ].
[ ] ;
[ ]
. [ , ], , .
[ ]
. [] , ,
,
[ ] , . [].
[ -] , [ ], 15
.
16


[] . [],
[ ]
[ ]
, ,
[ ]; [ ] [ . ] :
[] [ ] .
[ ]: [
]
[ ] .
[ ] .
213

-. -
,
[], [ ].
, , ,
[] . ,
[], [ ] 1 7 .

[]. [],
[] 1 8 ; [] [].

1
traiklikasamsargvacchinnapratiyogitka.
2
tdtmyasambandhvacchinnapratiyogitka.
3
Vyavahra, .
[15] [16].
4
pratiyogijanako bhavisyati.
, (, . 387).
5
dhvamsa, , . , :
,
.

. [ 1969, . 108].
6
traiklika , . . (nitya). , , , , ,
(asat) (HK, . 230).
7
samsarga;
, .
8
tdtmya.
, , .
- tat-svarpat.
9
ropya; .
[ 1969, . 24]. . , . 390.
10
prayojaka;
(,
. 390).
214

,
11

. : . . .
, ", " (, . 390).
12
. . : , ,
,
[ 1951, . 56].
13
ekasattve dvau na stah. . , . 390.
14
atiriktatva,
. .
12 , . 392.
15
kevalnvayi.
. [48] .
16
smayikbhva. . ,

(, . 372).
17
anavasthprasangt (
. [ 1969, . 83]).
18
-
. . [ 1951, . 6869].

(prgbhva) . .
, , , .

, .
.
Prgbhva , ,
( )
. , prgbhva , , - .
-,
. ,
prgbhva .
, - (pradhvamsa),
215

-. -

-. pradhvamsa , , . .
(pratiyogi).
,
, , pradhvamsa ,
. pradhvamsa, ( ), .
prgbhva -
- .
Prgbhva pradhvamsa , . . .
' - (krya) ,

prgbhva, pradhvamsbhva.
(atyantbhva), abhva, , . .
(dharma-dharmin).
,

, atyantbhva
pratiyogitka,
.
(samsarga)
, .
, .
- , , ,
(traiklika) , . atyantbhva
, :
.
,

- .
(anyonybhva) pratiyogitka ( ).

, (
216

, ,

prthaktva ),
, . ,
-.
, anyonybhva
.
: .
, , .
abhva :
abhva:
I

atyantbhava

pragabhva

pradhvamsabhva

aayonybhva

( -

,
, , - .
[81 ] , , [ -],
[ ].
,
- :
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , [], []
*?
[] . . ..
[] []. , , , , , , , ,
217

-. -

, , [ ], ,
. [ 2
] .
. , , .
.
.

.
. .
, . .
. [ ] . . ,
. ,
, [ ]
.
, ,
.
, , [ ].

. ,
, [] . , []. 3, [ . ] , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , ^ , , , 4 .
. , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
. [
].

5

6?
,
-
218

, ,

. [
] .
, [ ] . . , , 7?
,
[ ]
. ., .
8 ,
[ ]

.
. . 9 .
1 0 . , , [,
], . []
[
]. , 1 2 , , [ ] ,
. [
] . ., [, , ]
[] 13 , [
]. [ ] [
] ,
[] ,
; 1 5 [ ], , [ ] [] ,
,
, [ . .].
16
[ ] ,

[ ], [] .
17
,
, ,
,
, .
, [ ]
-
[ ] .

[] . [ ] [ ] , [ , ] .
219

-. -

[ ] []
1 8
, [] . [] [ ] ,
. . 1 9 ,
[]
[] .
,
, 2 0 . [ ] 2 1 [] [ ]. [] ? [ ]
[] -[ ]-, , . , , . , [] ,
",
2 2 .
[]
[]
2 3 .
[] [] , []:
. . [] ?
[]: , [ ]

,
[ ] 2 4 .

[ ] ,
, [] , []. , [. . ] []
[ ],
? , [] .
.
; ,
[ ] [].
[ ]
. [ . . ] 220

, ,

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(, . 399).
4
, sama (),
,
24 (, . 399).
5
. 1969,
. 55].
6
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7
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8
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(, . 374).
10
, (vidhi)
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11

lin, .
. [, 1980, . 7677].
12
krtyasdhya.
13
pravrtti . [ 1931, . 419].
14
kmya, , .
15
nitya, , . ; 1

222

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,
[ 1975(11), . 467].
16
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17
lghavena. , ,
.
18
, ( . [ 1975 (I),
. 84]).
19
apurva
.
,
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[ 1969, . 266267]).
20
savisayatva ( .
. 418).
21
. [60]
.
22
sampadyate (., , , . 418).
23
. . . .
[, 1980, . 88].
24
. 19.
25 g sakti.
26
-,
IV, 4, 5.
27
abhimna.
28
dosa . . [ 1975].
29
-, VI, 15.
30
, (tattvajfna) (, . 427).
31
. , I, 1.2.




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815

Nyya-darsanam. Edited with the Bhsya of Vtsyyana, Uddyotakara's


Vrttika, Vcaspati Misra's Vrtti by Amarendramohan Tarkatirtha and Taranath Tarkatirtha. Calcutta, 1936 (Calcutta Sanskrit Series 18).
Nyyakandal of Srdhara. A Commentary on the Padrthadharmasamgraha,
also called Prasastapda-bhsya. Edited by V. Dvivedin. Benares, 1895
(VSS 6).
Nyyakosa or A Dictionary of the Technical Terms in Indian Philosophy.
Edited by MM. Bhimcrya Jhalakikar. Bombay, 1893 (BSS 49).
Nyyamanjari of Jayanta. Edited by G. Sastri Tailanga. Benares, 1896 (VSS 10).
Nyyasutra of Gautama and Nyya-bhsya of Vtsyyana. Edited by Ganganatha Jha. Poona, 1939 (Poona Oriental Series 58).
Nyyastras with Vtsyyana's Commentary. Benares, 1896 (VSS 9).
Prasastapdabhsyam with the Commentary Kiranaval of Udayancrya.
Edited by Jitendra S. Jetly. Baroda, 1971 (Gaekwad's Oriental Series, 154).
Sarvadarsanasamgraha of Mdhava. Edited by V. S. Abhyankar. Poona, 1961.
Tarka-sangraha of Annambhatta with the Author's Dpik and Gowardhana's
Nyyabodhin, by G. V. Athalye. Revised and carried through the Press
by M. R. Bodas." Bombay, 1897 (BSS 55).
Tarka-sangraha of Annambhatta with the Author's Dpik, by B. N. Bahulikar. Poona, 1903.
Tarkasamgraha with Nyayabodhini, Vkyavrtti, Nirukti and PattabhirmaLippan, Tarkasamgrahadpika, Nlakaiilhapraksika, Rmarudrya, Nrsimiapraksik and Pattabhirmapraksik. A New Edition by S. Ch. Sastrigal.
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1975 (II). Gonda J. The Ritual Sutras. A History of Indian Literature. Vol. I, Fasc. 3. Wiesbaden, 1975.
1930. Dasgupta S. Yoga Philosophy. Calcutta, 1930.
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. 1951. Ingalls D. . . Materials for the Study of Navya-Nyya
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, 1980. . ., . . . . .
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1921. Keith . . Indian Logic and Atomism. Oxf., 1921.
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1969. Matilal . . The Navya-Nyya Doctrine of Negation.
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and Petitio Principii. JlPh. 1974, vol. 2, 3/4.
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Leningrad, 19301932 (Bibliotheca Buddhica, XXVI).

-
H
-
HM
-

- ()

--

- (--)

-
230

Pp

IIJ
BSOAS
BSS
JAOS
JlPh
JRAS
VSS


-
--
-
-
-
-
Indo-Iranian Journal
Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies,
London' Institution (University of London)
Bombay Sanskrit Series
Journal of the American Oriental Society
Journal of Indian Philosophy
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
Ireland
Vizianagram Sanskrit Series

akuncana 52
akhyti
agra
anga
atirikta 215
ativypti 41, 67
atndriya 126
atyantbhva 62, 63, 92, 159, 216,
217
adharma 48, 204
adhikaraa 41, 85
adhikaranat
adhyavasya
anatirikta-vrtti
ananugatat
ananta 89
anantargatatva
ananyathsiddha 120, 121, 124
anavasth 215
anitya 65, 67, 99, 100
aiiu 99, 100
anugata 208
amipalabdhi 133, 138
anupasamhrin 167, 173
anumna 141, 159, 173, 199
anumiti 118, 140, 141, 143, 148, 150,
166, 172
anumeya
anubhava 113, 115, 198, 200, 201
anuyogin
anuvyavasya 112, 140? 194, 202
anaikntika 167
antargatatva
antya-visesa 58, 59, 70, 210
anyatarbhva
anyatbsiddhi 121, 124
anyima-vrtti
anyonybhva 62, 63, 100, 216, 217
anvaya 41, 149, 181
anvaya-vyatireka 32, 149, 157
anvayavypti 158
ap

apaksepana
apara 53, 57, 105
aparatva 105
apkaja
aprva 223
apeksbhva
apram 199201
aprasiddha
abhva: 39, 54, 62, 64, 67, 92? 100 r
125, 198, 217
visesbhva
smnybhva
sam n dhikaran bh va
abhva-bheda
abhvatva 16
abhvbhva
abh v vacchedaka
abhidheya (tva) 37, 38, 42 159
ayathrtha 117, 200, 201
ayuta-siddhi 60, 211, 212
197, 214
artha 38, 39, 51, 152, 179, 180, 208
arthpatti 179, 193
arthabodha
alaukika 32, 45, 128, 134
avaghin 130, 154, 198
avacchinna (tka) 214
avaccheda (kat, tva) 42
avayava 16, 45, 49, 50, 59, 69, 89,
92, 104, 122, 127
avayavin 16, 45, 49, 50, 52, 54, 59,
69, 89, 92, 104, 122, 127
avrtti
avyabhicra
avyabhicritatva
avypti 41, 67, 161
avyp3^av,rttitva 101, 102
asaddhetu' 157
asdhrana 42, 97, 101, 160, 167, 173
asdhrana-krana 82, 105, 113
asamavyikran 51, 78, 95, 97? 123

* ,
-
. ,
- (
).
232


asamanadhikaraaya
asambandha
asambhava 41
asiddha 170
asiddha-betu
knks 186, 187
kra 175
ksa 81
khyta
tman 12, 13, 86
tmsraya
dhra 61, 63, 65
cl ha r dhey bh va
dheya 61, 63, 65
a nantya
pah 71
pta 161
loka
sraya 48
sraysiddha 170, 171, 173
satti 187
icch 140, 201, 203, 204, 205
svara; 113, 178
utkepana 52
udharana 153, 160
upanaya 153, 160
upanigamana 153
upamna 174, 201
upamiti 118, 141, 174, 175
updhi 55, 56, 77, 170, 17<
upodghta
ubhayatTa
usna
ekatva
aika dhikaranya
karana 1 1 8 f ' l l 9 , 150
kartr
karma 49, 51, 52, 64, 104, 125, 207
kya
karana 119, 121, 138
krariat 89
kranatva
krya 44, 49, 50, 52, 69, 70, 123
kSryatva 86
krya-k rana-bh va
kla 82
klika-sambandha
klopdhi
kevala
kevalnvayi 149, 157, 159, 160
kevalavyatireki 149, 157
koti 194
kriya 201
kriyvant 89
krodha 203, 204
gandha 65, 94
gamana 52
guna 4.8, 50, 64, 92, 111, 122, 180,
208, 212

gunin 122, 212


gurutva 106
gaurava 91
grhaka 35
ghatatva 159
ghr'na 70
calana
citra-rpa 94
chala
jala 32
jti 46, 48, 53, 55, 58, 61, 92, 176,
212, 222
jati-badhaka
jihv
jva
jvtman 45, 87
jnsLtat
jnna 86, 89, 113, 148, 150, 153
jnpaka
jneya
jneyatva 38
tattva 198, 223
tarka 34, 148, 196, 199, 200, 201
ttparya 180, 187
tdtnya 214
tejas 41, 74
tryanuka 49, 69, 95
tvak 79
dandi (tva) 127, 211
d i k ' 8 1 - 8 4 , 105
drstanta
dii'hkha 35, 202, 203
dosa 223
dravatva 107, 109
dravya 42, 4 3 - 4 5 , 49, 64, 79, 82,
158, 208
dravyatva 16, 43, 45 -t9, 55, 64, 87,
109, 158

dvitva 98
dvesa 201, 204
dvyanuka 49, 69, 95, 97
dhrma 42, 44, 48, 52, 92, 180, 204
dharmin 18, 44, 52
dharmadharmibheda 17, 44, 45,
52, 60, 63, 96
dhrana 35
dhyna 33
dhvamsa 67, 214
dhrti
nsa
nitya 63, 67, 100
nigamana 153, 160
nigrahasthna 173
nidr
nimitta-karana 81, 97, 119
niyata 120, 127, 145
niyatatva
niymaka 146
niravacchinna-vrtti
233


nirpaka
nirpita
nirvikalpajn na
nirvikalpaka 129, 130
nivesana
niscaya 154
niscita 161, 172
nisiddha
nisedha 194
nisprakraka
naimittika 73, 107
nyya 133, 152, 153
paksa 142, 151, 157
paksat 162, 163
paksat vacchedaka
paksa-dharmat 140, 143146, 150,
151, 173
pada 38, 179, 193
padrtha 32, 35, 37, 38, 51, 64, 89,
122, 179, 208
para 33, 53, 57
paratah-prakasa
paratva 105
paramtman 87
paramnu 49, 70, 86, 96
parampar-sambandha 172
parmarsa 140, 142, 144, 146, 149,
150, 154, 172
parrtha 148, 149, 150, 153, 155, 166
parrthnumna 149, 150, 155, 163
parimna 99
parks 37
paryavas ya
parypta
pkaja 97
pitharapka(vda) 96
pupka(vda) 96
purt-t. 89
purusa 140
prthiv 65, 157
prthaktva 100, 101, 217
prakra 194
prakraka 92, 116, 117, 175, 197
prakrat
pratijn 152, 153
pratipatii 148
pratiyogin 37, 39, 67, 92, 124, 125,
145, 157, 214
pratiyogit 67, 121, 159
pratiyogitka 214, 216
pratyaksa 91, 118, 126, 127, 140,
142, 161, 201
pratyaksa-karana
pratyaya
pratyasatti 148
pradhvamsbhva 62, 215
pram 117119, 123, 198, 200, 201
pramna 32, 34, 38, 85, 117, 119,
123, 126, 173, 179, 201

pramiti 38, 44, 126, 141


prameya 38, 44, 117, 194, 222
prayatna 203, 205
prayojana 35, 91, 152
pravrtti
prasajya-pratiedha
prasrana 52
prgabhva 62, 122, 124, 215217
prtipadika
prna_ 77, 79, 111
prmnya
phala
phal yoga-vyavacchinna
bdha
bdhita 172
buddhi 47, 48, 113, 198, 201, 205
bhva 123, 211
bhvatva 15
bhvan 48, 50, 112, 114, 20
bhtalaghata 133
bheda
manas 128
mahat 99
mahkla 67, 108
mahbhuta
mmms
moka
yathrtha 116, 117, 166, 198, 200,
201
yuta-siddhi
yogyat 186, 187
rasa 42, 93
rasana 72
rga 201
rupa 42, 92
rupatva 50, 92
laksana 46, 201
laksan 180
laksya 42
lksan 37, 65
lghava 154, 223
linga 85, 150, 157, 158, 162, 201
linga-parmarsa 149, 150, 154, 155
loka
lobha
laukika 45, 128, 134, 136, 189
varna
vahni 154, 158
vahnimn 152
vkya 148, 152, 174, 181
vcya-vcaka- bhva
vyu 78
vikalpa
vinigamaka
vipaksa 165
viparyaya 197201
vibhga 103, 104, 105, 207
vibhu
viruddha 167

234


virodha 124, 201
visista 63, 144, 154, 173, 198
visisia-jana
visista-visaya t
vises 5759, 64, 70, 98, 176, 208
visesana 130, 138, 144
visesana-visesya-bhva 133
visesaiat-visesa-sambandha 55, 144
vises abh va
visesya. 130, 138
visesyat
visaya 35, 58, 70, 86
visayata 166
visaya tva-sambandha
visayita
vrtii 53, 131
vrtti-niymaka
vrttitva
vega 48, 90, 106
vaidika 189
vaisistya 197, 198
vyakti 55, 61, 212
vyatireka 158
vyatireka-vypti 158, 159, 165
vyabhicra 148, 154
vyavahTa 42, 82, 98, 113
vyavasya 194
vypaka 143-145, 158, 159, 164, 199
vypakatva 170
vypra 154
v y p t i | 6 7 , 142145, 149, 150, 158
vypti-j nana
vypya 37, 86, 143, 144, 154, 158,
164, 199
vypyatvsiddha 170
vypya-vrtti 92
vyvartaka
vyvrtti 58
sakta 179
sakti 35, 37, 179, 180, 222
sakya
sabda 86, 110, 111, 118, 131, 150,
180, 181
sabda-j Sana 150
sarra
sbda
sbda-pramana 150
srotra
samyoga 51, 61, 70, 101, 102, 104,
116, 128, 131, 135, 207
samyukta 102, 131, 135, 136, 137
samsarga 214
sakala
samkhya 9799
samgati 35
aamgraba 35, 179
samjfl 174
sarajoi 174
samnikara 128, 131

sambandha 67, 116, 125, 133, 174,


179
samsaya 197, 198, 200, 201
saraskra 48, 50, 112
sanketa 178
satt 15, 16, 53, 54, 5759, 208
satpratipaksa 168
saddhetu 157
sandigdha
sannidhi 186, 187
sapaksa 164, 165
samaniyat 42
samavya 48, 55, 61, 64, 102, 131,
135, 208, 211
samavyi-krana 44, 46, 65, 122
samavyi-samaveta 63
samaveta 61, 91, 123, 131, 137, 208
savikalpaka 130
savikalpaka-jnna
savyabhicra 167, 172
sipsiddhika 107
skalya
s ks t-sam bandha
sdrsya
sdiiaka
sdhana 33, 78, 89, 164, 168
sdhrana 82, 119, 167
sdhya 78, 86, 145, 146, 151, 153,
156, 158, 167
sadhya-sama
s dhyat
sdhybhva 160, 163, 167
smagr
smarthybhva
smndhikarana 92, 101
smndhikaranya 141, 145, 173
smnya 15, 48, 49, 53, 54, 56, 58,
77, 129, 176, 208
sukha 35, 202, 203
sopadhika
sthitasthpaka 48
sneha 109
sparsa 41, 47, 71, 89, 94
smrti 114, 200
sva-praksa
svatah-prmnya 148
svatva 194, 222
svarpa 55, 202
svarpa-sambandha 55
svarpsiddha 170, 171
svrtha 148-150, 153, 155, 166
svarthanumana 148150, 155
hetu 82, 97, 102, 113, 145, 151,
153, 157, 167
hetuta
hetvabhva
hetvbhsa 166
hrasva 95, 99

SUMMARY
T arkasamgrahadpika
by Annambhatta (17 th. .) belongs to
the orthodox Brahmanist Sanskrit philosophical literature. I t consists of two treatises: Tarkasamgraha, a short basic text, and Tarkadlpik, an elaborate autocommentary explaining in detail all
technical terms and essentials of the philosophy included in the
former text.
Our choice of T arkasamgrahadpika for the translation and study
has been caused by a combination of reasons. In studying the Indian
realistic philosophical systems Tarkasamgraha has become extremely popular because of its evident clarity and brevity. Most monographs on the subject deal with this text and contain many references to it. Tarkasamgraha has been translated in several European
and Modern Indian languages. Nevertheless, Tarkadlpik remained
practically in the shadow not drawing the researchers'g attention.
The reason is that its text is very sophisticated philologically; then,
Annambhatta tended to the utmost exactness of language, the most
strict relation between logic and vocabulary which he intended to
make absolutely adequate; all this has been mistaken by the researchers for some self-efficient purity typical of the latest period of
the brahmanistic science.
This author (the translator) argues against the opinion, common
to indologists, that Tarkasamgraha is a shortened compilation of
the basic ideas from Navya-Nyya, an introduction into that school's
terminology not requiring any parallel analysis of
Tarkadlpik
for better understanding. The author believes that Tarkasamgraha
can never be properly interpreted without Annambhatta's commentary.
Tarkasamgraha must accordingly be regarded not as an elementary
manual of the logic of Navya-Nyya but as a treatise characterizing
a certain philosophical system on its upper level.
The focus of the study particularly is on the problem of an adequate evaluation of T arkasamgrahadpika as an attribution of both
texts to a specific religious and philosophical system.
Tarkasamgraha and Tarkadlpik have been translated after: Tarkasamgraha with Nyyabodhinl,
Vkyavrtti, Niruktiksik*
Rmarudrlya, Nrsimhapraksik
and Pattbhirmapraksik.
A New
Edition by S. Ch. SastrigaL Madras, 1920 (Sri Balamanorama Series No. 4). All references to other editions have been specially
236

Summary
marked. For convenience, both T arkasamgraha and
Tarkadlpiky
each have been subdivided into 81 passages. The same subdivision
of the original texts is done in: Tarkasamgraha of
Annambhatta
with the Author's Dlpik, by B. N. Bahulikar. Poona, 1903. In this
study each passage has a historico-philologicl commentary and
a philosophical analysis. This structure to some extent follows the
traditional Indian paradigm of the theoretical reflection mode.
General historical and philosophical problems are reviewed in
the Preface. The translator offers a new idea that Tarkasamgrahadlpik belongs to the syncretic Nyya-Vaisesika
but not to NavyaNydya.
In discussing the text of Tarkadlpik the author comes to the
conclusion that the autocommentary deals with much more sophisticated philosophical problems and- logic than Tarkasamgraha. He argues the opinion that the commentary was designed to make easier
the understanding of the main text. Annambhatta used NatyaNyya's logical experience to revitalize some ideas of the syncretic
school. In other words, he wanted to solve certain classical problems of Nyya-Vaisesika with the help of contemporary intellectual
paradigm of the Mithil" school. In this respect, the logical forms
differ even in the ways of defining terms of the basic text and the
autocommentary. In the former, the definitions follow the archaic
type of modelling through Cosmology. The analysis of this peculiarity of the text leads to a better understanding of different stages in
the history of human mind: different mental patterns
and
historical types of thinking.
The translator analyzes the relations between the basic text and
the commentary; the necessity of profound studies in the genres of
traditional Sanskrit philosophical literature is stressed as well as
the importance of the problem of adequate understanding of the
historical and philosophical process in the Indian subcontinent.
The late period of Nyya-Vaisesika
is usually regarded as staguation while its climax is associated with the polemic with Buddhist
schools. The analysis of problems tackled by Annambhatta suggests
that such views of the history of the ideas of syncretic schoolfare
wrong. At the later stage the linguo-philosophical problems as well
as those of true knowledge criteria led to wide discussions with other
Brahmanist systems.
Annambhatta made theoretical contributions to both Mlmms
and Nyya-Vaisesika. Thus he was able to demonstrate the main ideas
of Indian philosophical realism and those of its adversaries. Hence,
Tarkasamgrahadpik can be regarded as a source of both NyyaVaisesika studies and Brahmanist systems.
The translator tried to solve the problems of interpretation of
Tarkasamgrahadpik
by analysing the text as a three-level synchronie synthesis: (1) Brahmanist religious doctrine (in its Shivaistic
variant); (2) Yoga practice which exerted much influenceon its
237


gnoseoogy; (3) philosophy proper. It is correlated w i t h A n n a m b h a t t a ' s t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e a u t o c o m m e n t a r y
t o passage 81 of Tarkasamgraha.
A n n a m b h a t t a followed r a t i o n a l i s t i c
a p p r o a c h to t h e m e a n i n g of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l k n o w l e d g e in a t r a d i t i o n a l society. H e also stressed t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e of t h e m e n t a l
a c t i v i t y for t h e process of k n o w l e d g e .
T h e analysis'of Tarkasamgrahadlpik
m a k e s it possible to u n d e r s t a n d m o r e c l e a r l y t h e role of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n philosophical
culture and overcome certain stereotypes in t h e history of philosophy.

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