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Transformer Winding Hot Spot

Temperature Determination
Jean-Nol Brub
Jacques Aubin

W. McDermid

Neoptix, Inc.

Manitoba Hydro

Weidmann-ACTIs Fifth Annual Technical Conference


November 2006
Albuquerque, NM

Why Monitoring Temperatures ?

In power transformers, winding temperatures


have a direct impact on insulation aging

Proper monitoring of operating temperatures


are essential to assess the value of insulation
aging and resulting remaining life

Allows for better asset management and


revenue generation strategies

Limitations of Transformer
Temperature Rise Tests

Heat Run tests reveal average winding temperature


under rated load

What is of interest for insulation aging is the winding


hottest spot temperature

Temperature is highest at top of winding

Oil is hotter
Stray losses in winding are higher
Winding insulation often calls for more paper to provide better
insulation against voltage surges

Correct knowledge of operating temperatures is needed


to evaluate insulation aging and remaining life

Aging Acceleration Factor

Winding insulation
sensitivity to temperature
1000

Normal Kraft
Paper (IEC)

100
10

Normal Kraft
paper (IEEE)

1
0.1

60

80

Thermally
Upgraded Paper

100

120

140

0.01
Hot-Spot temperature

160

180

Winding Hottest Spot


Temperature Model

Winding Hottest Spot


Temperature Model
Top oil temperature

Winding hot-spot
temperature

Winding Hottest Spot


Temperature Model
Top-Oil
Temp.

Hot-Spot
Temp.

Wi
nd
ing

Oi
l

Hot-Spot
Rise

Average
Winding
Temp.

Temperature (oC)

Winding Hottest Spot


Temperature Model
For any load level, the hottest winding temperature is
assumed to be:
Winding
hot-spot
temp.

Top-Oil
Temp.

Hot-spot rise
at rated load

* (%Load)2m

For several decades, this method was a standard feature:


IEEE C57.91 - 1995 IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral Oil
Immersed Transformers
IEC 60354 - 1991 Loading Guide for Oil-Immersed Power
Transformers

Winding Hottest Spot


Temperature Model
This simplified method is now regarded as inadequate
To estimate the aging of transformers
Given increasing occurrences of overloads
IEEE and IEC are proposing new methods to take account of
(neglected in the previous equation):
True oil temperature in the cooling duct
Change in winding resistance with temperature
Change in oil viscosity with temperature
The effect of tap changers
Oil inertia in case of sudden overload of large magnitude

Winding Hottest Spot


Temperature Model
This evolution in calculation method indicates:
Methods used until now are not very accurate
New methods will require additional parameters
that are not always readily available
New models still rely on information provided by
the transformer manufacturer and not always
validated
Direct measurement of winding temperature with
fiber optic sensor is recognized as the best method

Direct Temperature Monitoring

Direct winding temperature measurement provides


valuable information for design, heat-run testing,
maximizing loading and maintenance

Safely maximizes transformer loading

Avoids catastrophic failure and emergency shutdowns


by monitoring long-term, gradual transformer
deterioration

Allows better timing for winding cooling requirements,


to avoid overheating around hot-spot immediate areas

Gathers valuable information for scheduling


maintenance and replacement of units

Introduction to Fiber Optic

Fiber optic (glass) is a method of carrying information,


as a copper wire. But unlike the copper wire, fibers
carry light (photons) instead of electricity (electrons)

Some advantages of fiber optic are compared to RTD


sensors and IR based sensors:

Immunity to electromagnetic fields


All dielectric material probe construction
Can be installed in harsh environments
Robust, flexible and chemically resistant probes
True intrinsic safety in explosive environments
Minimal thermal shunting
Relative ease of installation

Operating Principle

Based on a well understood and


reproducible phenomenon: the
variation in the absorption
spectrum of the semiconductor
GaAs with respect to
temperature
A direct contact temperature
sensor

System Design

White
Light
Source

o
Pr

be

Optical Coupler

Spectrometer

The system is very


simple yet elegant and
consists of a light
source, an optical
coupler, the probe
and a spectrometer.
Multi-channel models
use the same design
but the number of
component (other than
the probe) is greater.

Oil-Immersed Transformer Probe

Probe Design Details

Designed to allow complete oil impregnation,


rapid response time, high dielectric strength
and chemical resistance
GaAs based probe characteristics:

Designed for a minimum life time of 25 years


No drift
No recalibration

Ruggedized design allows for minimal probe


breakage and lost during installation

Probe Design

An optical fiber delivers white light to the semiconductor crystal


Some of the light is more or less absorbed--this absorption is
dependent on the temperature at the tip of the probe
The light is reflected back by a dielectric mirror and returns
through the same fiber for analysis
semiconductor crystal
fiber core fiber cladding

dielectric mirror

Fiber Optic Sensor can be in


Contact with Conductor

Fiber Optic Sensor can


Inserted in Disk Spacer
Can be inserted between
the last few disks near
the top of the winding

Location in Disk Spacer


is Adequate
Temperature (C)

2.2
FO Sensor in contact with conductor (top of bundle)
2.0
FO Sensor in contact with conductor (bottom of bundle)
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
Load
0.4
0.2

80
60
40
20
0
0

12

24

36

Time (h)

48

60

72

Load (p.u.)

FO Sensor in spacer

100

Optic Fiber Handling & Testing


During transformer
assembly, optical fibers
are safely spooled and
attached to the winding.
Bright colors, such as
orange or blue, also help
minimize breakage
during installation.
A portable test unit can
be very useful for testing
probes as they are
installed.

Feed-Through Connection
Development in
optical fiber
technology
allows for low
loss connection
and leak free
operation
(epoxy-less
design)

Temperature
sensor, inside
transformer
Tip

Extension
cable, to
monitoring
system

Feedthrough for tank wall

Interfacing & Communication

Systems are now available with open communication


protocols

Some popular protocols include:

No more proprietary communication schemes!


OPC (T/Guard+)
Modbus (T/Guard)
Others: CANopen, Profibus, Devicenet
Analog outputs (4-20mA)

Hardware interfacing is also flexible

RS232
RS422 RS485
TCPIP (Ethernet) emulation
Analog outputs

An Example: Monitoring System


(T/Guard)

Supports up to 16 channels in a single unit


Ruggedized design for heavy industry applications
RS-232 and analog output standard
Assistant Windows compatible software
-Options:
-Modbus protocol
-RS485
-Supports a
network of 32
T/Guards
-TCPIP interface

An Example: Monitoring and


Controlling System (T/Guard+)

Supports up to 8 channels in a single unit


16 Type-C relays, can be set as type A, B or C relays)
Ruggedized design for heavy industry
applications; built with a PLC,
galvanic-isolated relays.
RS-232 and analog output standard
OPC Server built-in
Options:

Communication: CANopen Profibus,


Modbus, Devicenet and Ethernet server.
Data logging

OPC-Based Communication

International Industry Standard Organization

Fully supported by Microsoft (uses DCOM)


The Vision of OPC is the Adapted Standard for interOperability

280+ member companies


1500+ total companies build OPC products = 7500+ products

For moving information vertically from the factory floor


through the enterprise of multi-vendor systems
For moving information between devices on different
networks from different vendors
Not just data but information

Reliable - Secure Integration is built-in


www.opcfoundation.org

OPC and the T/Guard+

An example: direct logging to Excel

Can monitor/set 500+ variables

Field Experience

Converter transformer
ODAF cooling
107 MVA
Dorsey sub, Manitoba
Hydro

Field Experience

Temperature (C)

100
80

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

60
40

Load

20

Ambient

0
0

12

24

36
Time (h)

48

60

72

Load (p.u.)

Prediction from manufacturer using IEEE model


2.2
Measured value with FO sensor
2.0
Corrected Prediction
1.8

Economic Benefits of Accurate


Temperature Measurement
Transformers have inherently some overloading
capability
The loading capability is highly dependent on
winding temperature
Dependable measurements of winding temperatures
allow to take full advantage of overloading
capability
Market opportunities can generate important
benefits if extra load can be handled under safe and
predictable conditions

Economic Benefits, Transformer


Overloading, An Example
1.Transformer rated power (MVA)

100

2.Overloading margin made available by monitoring (%)

10

3.Probability of overloading opportunity (hr/year)

450

4.Financial benefit from energy transmitted ($/MWh)

80

Yearly benefit from extra loading (1 x 2 x 3 x 4 ) =

$360,000

Economic Benefits, Transformer


Overloading, An Example
5. Replacement cost of transformer ($)

2 000 000

6. Transformer normal life duration (hours)

150 000

7. Additional aging factor at 110% load (125C)

3.4

Cost for additional loss of life ((5 / 6) x 7 x 3 )

$20,400

Net yearly benefit from overloading :


$360,000 - $20,400 = $339,600

Conclusions (1)
For operators and utilities, overloading of transformers is
often a better alternative to more and/or larger
transformers
Aging of power transformers is mainly driven by winding
temperature
More frequent loading to full capacity has shown need for
better control of winding temperature
Recent developments in IEEE and IEC loading guides have
shown that simple calculation methods used in the past
are not fully dependable

Conclusions (2)
Fiber optic sensors have reached a level of
dependability that makes them a natural choice for
this important function
Interfacing to utilitys computers is now easier than
ever, thanks to open communication schemes, such as
Modbus, OPC, and other non-proprietary
communication schemes.

Thanks!