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# A NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DEVICE

Leo Esaki
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
NEGATIVE RESISTANCE

DEVICE
It is a device which exhibits a negative
incremental resistance over a limited range of
V-I characteristic.
• It is of two types :-
1. Current controllable type : V-I curve is a
multi valued function of
voltage and single valued function of
current .eg:- UJT, p-n-p-n diode
2. Voltage controllable type : V-I curve is a
multi valued function of current and single
valued function of voltage. eg:- SCS, Tunnel
diode -
TUNNEL DIODE (Esaki Diode)
• It was introduced by Leo Esaki in 1958.
EV
• Heavily-doped p-n junction
– Impurity concentration is 1 part in 10^3 as compared to 1 part in 10^8 in p-n
junction diode
• Width of the depletion layer is very small
• It is generally made up of Ge and GaAs.
• It shows tunneling phenomenon.
• Circuit symbol of tunnel diode is :
WHAT IS TUNNELING
• Classically, carrier must have energy at least
equal to potential-barrier height to cross the
junction .
• But according to Quantum mechanics there is
finite probability that it can penetrate through the
barrier for a thin width.
• This phenomenon is
called tunneling and
hence the Esaki Diode
is know as
Tunnel Diode.
CHARACTERISTIC OF TUNNEL DIODE
Ip

## Ip:- Peak Current

Iv :- Valley Current

Forward Current
- Ve Resistance Region

## Vp:- Peak Voltage

Vv:- Valley Voltage Iv

## Vf:- Peak Forward Reverse Current Vp Vv Vf

Reverse
Forward Voltage
Voltage
voltage

Reference:-
Dan Wheeler ,”Advanced Semiconductor Devices” . Chapter –”Tunneling Devices”.( Microsoft ppt.)
ENERGY BAND DIAGRAM

## Energy-band diagram of pn junction in thermal equilibrium in which both the n

and p region are degenerately doped.

Reference:-
D.A.Neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002 ( Microsoft
AT ZERO BIAS

Simplified energy-band diagram and I-V characteristics of the tunnel diode at zero bias.

## -Zero current on the I-V diagram;

-All energy states are filled below EF on both sides of the junction;

Reference:-
D.A.Neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002 ( Microsoft
AT SMALL FORWARD VOLTAGE

Simplified energy-band diagram and I-V characteristics of the tunnel diode at a slight forward bias.

## -Electrons in the conduction band of the n region are directly opposite

to the empty states in the valence band of the p region.
-So a finite probability that some electrons tunnel directly into the
empty states resulting in forward-bias tunneling current.
Reference:-
D.A.Neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002 ( Microsoft ppt.).
AT MAXIMUM TUNNELING CURENT

Simplified energy-band diagraam and I-V characteristics of the tunnel diode at a forward bias
producing maximum tunneling current.

## -The maximum number of electrons in the n region are opposite to

the maximum number of empty states in the p region.
- Hence tunneling current is maximum.
Reference:-
D.A.Neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002 ( Microsoft
AT DECREASING CURRENT REGION

Simplified energy-band diagram and I-V characteristics of the tunnel diode at a higher forward
bias producing less tunneling current.

## -The forward-bias voltage increases so the number of electrons on the n side,

directly opposite empty states on the p side decreases.
- Hence the tunneling current decreases.
Reference:-
D.A.Neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002 ( Microsoft ppt.).
AT HIGHER FORWARD VOLTAGE

Simplified energy-band diagram and I-V characteristics of the tunnel diode at a forward bias
for which the diffusion current dominates.

## -No electrons on the n side are directly opposite to the empty

states on the p side.
- The tunneling current is zero.
-The normal ideal diffusion current exists in the device.
Reference:-
D.A.neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002( Microsoft ppt.).
AT REVERSE BIAS VOLTAGE

## - Electrons in the valence band on the p side are directly opposite to

empty states in the conduction band on the n side.
-Electrons tunnel directly from the p region into the n region.
- The reverse-bias current increases monotonically and rapidly with
reverse-bias voltage.
Reference:-
D.A.Neamen.”Semiconductor Physics and Devices,”TataMcGraw-Hill,3rd edition,2002 (Microsoft ppt.).
TUNNEL DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
•This is the equivalent
circuit of tunnel diode rs
when biased in negative
resistance region.
Cj -R
•At higher frequencies the
series R and L can be
ignored. Ls

## •Hence equivalent circuit can be reduced to parallel

combination of junction capacitance and negative
resistance.
Reference:- Kenndy,G. and B. Davis,”Electronics Communication system,” Tata McGraw-Hill,4th
edition,pp.440-447,1999
MONOSTABLE OPERATION OF TUNNEL DIODE

cuts the V-I
characteristic at a
single point in the
positive resistance
region. It has one
stable operating point.

Reference :-
Don Arney ,”Diode and Diode circuits”, Chapter -9(”Negative Differential Resistance”Microsoft ppt.)
ASTABLE OPERATION OF TUNNEL DIODE

cuts the V-I
characteristic at a
single point in the
negative resistance
region. This point is
unstable.

Reference:-
Don Arney ,”Diode and Diode circuits”, Chapter -9(”Negative Differential Resistance”, Microsoft ppt.)
BISTABLE OPERATION OF TUNNEL DIODE

cuts the V-I
characteristic at a two
points in the positive
resistance regions. It
has two stable
operating points.

Reference:-
Don Arney ,”Diode and Diode circuits”, Chapter -9(”Negative Differential Resistance”,Microsoft ppt.)
NEGATIVE RESISATANCE AMPLIFIER
•If Cj is tuned out then – g will represent the tunnel diode.
In absence of diode the maximum power will be gl=gs
P max=is^2/4gs
•With diode the load voltage VL= is /(gs-g+gl)

PL=glVL^2=gl.is^2/(gs-g+gl)^2
is gs gl -g
Ap = PL/Pmax = 4gs.gl/(gs-g+gl)^2
•For maximum power transfer gl=gs.
Ap=4.gl^2/(2gl-g)^2
=4.gl^2/(4gl^2 – 4gl.g + g ^2 )
Reference:- Kenndy,G. and B. Davis,”Electronics Communication system,” Tata McGraw-Hill,4th
edition,pp.440-447,1999.
=4.gl^2/(4gl^2 + g(g – 4.gl))
TUNNEL DIODE OSCILLATOR
•A tunnel diode, biased at
the center point of the
negative-resistance range
and coupled to a tuned
circuit or cavity, produces
a very stable oscillator.
• The oscillation frequency
is the same as the tuned
circuit or cavity frequency.
•Microwave tunnel-diode
oscillators are useful in
applications that require REFERENCE:-
microwatts or a few
milliwatts of power, such
as local oscillators for Kenndy,G. and B. Davis,”Electronics
Communication system,” Tata McGraw-
microwave. Hill,4th edition,pp.440-447,1999.
TUNNEL DIODE AS AMPLIFIER
•The low-noise
generation, gain ratios of
up to 30 dB, high
reliability, and light
weight make these
amplifiers ideal for use as
the first stage of
amplification in
communications and
•The tunnel diode is
biased to the center point
REFERENCE:-
of its negative-resistance
region, but a
CIRCULATOR replaces Kenndy,G. and B. Davis,”Electronics
Communication system,” Tata McGraw-
the tuned cavity Hill,4th edition,pp.440-447,1999.
**OTHER APPLICATIONS**
• Used in high speed switching circuit.
• Used as pulse generator.
• Used for storage of binary information.
• Used for the construction of shift
register.
• Sensor modulator for telemetry of
temperature in human beings and
animals.
• Used in electron tunneling microscope.

## •Relatively resistant to nuclear radiation.

•Useful for high speed operation.
•Useful for high frequency operation.
•Low power is consumed.
REFERENCES
1. Kenndy,G. and B. Davis,”Electronics Communication
system,” Tata McGraw-Hill,4th edition,pp.440-447,1999.
2. Donald A.neamen,”Semiconductor Physics and
Devices,” Tata McGraw-Hill,3rd edition,pp.313-316,2002.
3. Millman,J. and H.Taub,”Pulse ,Digital and Switching
Waveforms,”Tata McGraw-Hill,1991.
4. Millman,J. and C.C.Halkias,”Integrated Electronics
:Analog and Digital Circuits and System,” Tata McGraw-
Hill ,1991.
5. Ananda Kumar,A.,”’Pulse and Digital Circuits,”PHI,2005.
6. Leo Esaki , ”Tunnel Diode”, U.S. Patent, 4,198,644, Apr
15,1980.
7. S.Paull,C.A.Cancro and N.M.Garraban,”Low Power
Nanosecond Pulse & Logic Circuit Using
TD,”NASA.Washington,August 1966.

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