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INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEWER

Prepared by Cherry Caroline S. Chua, 11-2012

Revised by Joanna J. Orejola, 09-2013

GROUP IA (1): ALKALI METALS

Possess only one valence electron

Very reactive chemically

Seldom found free in nature

Lithium, Sodium, and potassium metals are stored under keroseneViolent (exothermic, explosive) reaction with water

Hydrogen, H (Gk. hydro, water; genes, forming produces water when burned with oxygen)

Lithium, Li (Gk. lithos, rock because it occurs in rocks)

Sodium, Na (L. sodanum, headache remedy; symbol, L. natrium, soda)

Potassium, K (L. kalium, potash)

Rubidium, Rb (L. rubidius, dark red discovered with the spectroscope, its spectrum shows red lines)

Cesium, Cs(L. caesium, blue spectral lines are blue)

Francium, Fr (France)

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Example

 

CHARACTERISTICS

ALKALINE

o

contain appreciable quantities of Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaHCO3

WATER

CARBONATED

o

contains CO2 under pressure and usually effervesce on coming to the surface

WATER

o

contain calcium and magnesium carbonates in solution as bicarbonate

o

can be natural or artificial

CHALYBEATE

o

Contains iron in solution or in suspension

WATER

o

Characterized by its ferruginous taste

o

Forms ferric hydroxide or ferric oxide upon exposure to air

LITHIA WATER

o

Do not contain appreciable quantities of lithium, either as carbonate or chloride

SALINE WATER

o

Contain relatively high amounts of MgSO4, Na2SO4 and NaCl

(PURGATIVE

WATER)

 

SULFUR WATER

o

Contains dissolved H2S and deposit S upon exposure to the atmosphere

SILICEOUS

o

Water that contain soluble alkali silicates

WATER

Water Hardnessdue to presence of dissolved minerals in water

Soft waterWater that does not contain appreciable amounts of

Ca +2 and Mg +2 ions

Hard waterWater that contains appreciable quantities of minerals Temporary hardness

 

o

Contains mainly dissolved calcium and magnesium bicarbonate

HYDROGEN, H

“Inflammable Air”

o

Can be removed by boiling (promotes formation of insoluble calcium carbonate) or by addition of lime, Ca(OH)2

Lightest element

o

Permanent hardness

Among the alkali metals, only Hydrogen can exist as a monovalent ion (H + ) or a monovalent anion (H - )

o

Contains mainly dissolved calcium and magnesium sulfate and chloride in water

Isotopes:

o

Cannot be removed by boiling

o

Protium Most abundant isotope

o

Water softening is achieved by the use of ion-exchange resins

o

DeuteriumHeavy hydrogen D2O, heavy water

Potable Water

o

Tritium Radioactive isotope

water that is fit to drink

Hydrogen, under normal conditions, exist as a diatomic molecule (H2), though this form is not very useful pharmaceutically

Industrial uses:

o

Haber process (production of ammonia)

o

Hydrogenation of oils

o

Inflating balloons

WATER, H2O Natural Water/Mineral Water

contain dissolved minerals (Ca +2 , Mg +2 , Fe +3 , Na + , K + , HCO3 - , SO4 -2 , Cl - ), varying amounts of suspended matter (clay, sand, microorganisms, fragments of plants and animals), and traces of dissolved atmospheric gases, ammonia, and metabolic decomposition products

Not fit for drinking

USP Definition: Water that is obtained by distillation, ion exchange, or reverse osmosis

meets standards for freedom from coliform organisms

water treated to remove insoluble matter through appropriate coagulating, settling, and filtering processes; destruction of pathogenic microorganisms by aeration, chlorination, or other methods, and improvement of palatability through aeration and filtration through charcoal

water fluoridation

o

Achieved via addition of sodium fluorosilicate

o

For prevention of dental caries

o

Drawback: could cause dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth)

Purified Water

Intended for use as an ingredient of official preparations and in tests and assays unless otherwise specified

Not for parenteral preparations

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, H2O2

Agua oxigenada, agua oxenada

Oxygenated acid, oxygenated water

Use: treatment for Vincent’s stomatitis (severe form of gingivitis), as mouthwash

Commercial availability:

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Not used in treatment of heavy metal poisoning since hypocalcemia rapidly develops

MONOBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, NaH2PO4

Component of Fleet enema

Fleet Enema is composed of Sodium Phosphate and Sodium Biphosphate

Saline laxative

o

10-volume solution (3% w/v) and 20-volume solution (6% w/v)

o

Not absorbed from the intestines

o

Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution, USP

Systemic and urinary acidifier

o

3% w/v stabilized aqueous solution

With Methenamine, treatment of cystitis (release of formaldehyde)

o

10-volume solution

o

Hairs of corn, as decoction used for cystitis

o

Stabilizer: acetanilide 0.03%

Source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia and TPN

LITHIUM, Li

Lithos - “Earth”

Lightest metal

Pharmacologic action of lithium compounds:

o

Mood stabilizer (depressant)

o

Diuretic

LITHIUM BROMIDE, LiBr

Combined sedative effects of lithium ion and bromide ion

LITHIUM CARBONATE, Li2CO3

Brand names: Eskalith®, Lithase®, Quilonium-R®

Widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bipolar disorders and mania and in the maintenance treatment of recurrent depression

Also used for treatment of mania:

o

Lithium Citrate

o

Lithium Hydroxide

o

Lithium Oral Solution

SODIUM, Na

From Latin word “natrium”

Principal extracellular ion

Accumulation of too much sodium in the body causes fluid retention

Cation of choice for organic medicinals

CALCIUM DISODIUM EDETATE, C10H12N2Na2 CaO8

Used in antidotal therapy for certain heavy metal poisoning (particularly for lead)

Does not precipitate hypocalcemia

EDETATE DISODIUM, C10H14N2Na2O8 . 2H2O

EDTA Disodium salt

Pharmacologic Use: Chelating agent administered IV in the emergency treatment of hypercalcemia

Hypocalcemia may occur if the drug is administered too rapidly or to patients who are not initially hypercalcemicLife threatening

Indirectly lowers plasma calcium levelsExcess plasma phosphate

interacts with plasma calcium and is transferred to the bone

Used in the treatment of hypercalcemia

DIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, Na2HPO4

Sodium Phosphate, Phosphate of Soda

Dibasic phosphate ion is the primary anion in the intracellular fluid

Saline laxative

Antihypercalcemic, as oral solution

TRIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, Na3PO4

No pharmacologic use

Used for cleaning glass apparatus

Very alkaline reaction with water (corrosive)

SODIUM ACETATE, NaCH3COO

Diuretic

Systemic and urinary alkalizer

Pharmaceutical necessity used in solutions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

Alkalinizing agent for Benedict’s Solution

SODIUM ASCORBATE, NaC6H7O6

Vitamin C supplement

Antioxidant

SODIUM BICARBONATE, NaHCO3

Baking Soda

Solvay process

Bicarbonate ion is the 2 nd major anion in the extracellular fluid

Systemic alkalizer

Systemic antacid

o

Readily absorbed by the body

o

Could cause systemic alkalosis

o

Rebound hyperacidity

Pharmaceutically used as source of carbonation for effervescent preparations

o

Organic acid component: tartaric, citric, ascorbic acid

o

CO2 enhances palatability of preparation

Antidote for zinc poisoning (ingestion)

Enhance elimination of acidic drugs

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Nonpharmaceutical use:

Rodenticide and insecticide

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4 commonly used antacids

 

Hydrofluoric Acid is used in glass etching and causes slow-healing

o

Sodium Bicarbonate

burns (antidote: calcium gluconate)

o

Calcium Carbonate

o

Magnesium Hydroxide

SODIUM FORMALDEHYDE SULFOXYLATE

o

Aluminum Hydroxide

Best antidote for mercuric chloride poisoning

SODIUM BORATE, Na2B4O7

Borax

Pharmaceutic necessity: alkalinizing agent

SODIUM GLUCONATE, NaC6H11O7

Electrolyte replenisher

Gluconate salts:

Externally: as eyewash, bufferWater-softener

o

less irritating

o

water soluble

SODIUM CARBONATE, Na2CO3

o

Acceptors of hydrogen ions produced by metabolic processes

Anhydrous soda ash

and act as indirect source of bicarbonate ions

Dihydrate trona

Decahydrate soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda

Carbonating agent

SODIUM CHLORIDE, NaCl

Table salt, rock salt, sea salt, solar salt, dendritic salt

Chloride is the major extracellular anion

Electrolyte replenisher

o

NSS0.9% w/v NaCl in water

o

Ringer’s Solution NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 in waterIsotonic Solution of Three Chlorides

o

Lactated Ringer’s NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, sodium lactate Hartmann’s Solution

o

Oral rehydration saltsNaCl, glucose, KCl, sodium citrate

Tonicity-adjusting agent

Condiment

Preservative

SODIUM CITRATE, Na3C6H5O7

In vitro: anticoagulant, forming complex with Ca ++ necessary for blood clotting

In vivo:

o

Systemic and urinary alkalizer

o

Expectorant

o

In vivo (parenteral): blood coagulant

o

Excessive oral administration of citrate salts can have a laxative effect

Best expectorant: water vapor

SODIUM FLUORIDE, NaF

Anticariogenic agent (1.1%) in dentifrices

Excess of fluoride ion causes dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth)

NaMFP (Sodium Monofluoride Phosphate) also used in dentifrices

Fluoride ion is toxic and should not be ingested in large amounts

o Precautions for use in children

SODIUM HYDROXIDE, NaOH

Caustic soda, lye, sosa, soda lye

Very deliquescentreadily absorb water from the environment and readily dissolve in the water that was absorbed

Saponifying agentManufacture of soaps

o Soft Soap vs. Hard Soap

Corrosive

Readily attack glass

Too alkaline to be of medicinal valuerapidly destroys tissue (caustic)

Pharmaceutical use:

o

alkalinizing agent to form soluble sodium salts of various drugs

o

Pharmaceutical necessity in preparation of Glycerin Suppositories

Ingestion of solutions of sodium hydroxide causes liquefaction necrosis/ saponification necrosis

(vs. strong acids coagulative necrosis)

SODA LIME, NaOH . Ca(OH)2

Calx sodica

Mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium or potassium hydroxide or both

Good carbon dioxide absorber for anesthesia machines, oxygen therapy, and metabolic tests

SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE, NaHPO2

Reducing agent

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE, NaOCl

Household bleach, Chlorox 4-6% w/w NaOCl in water

Bleaching agent

Disinfectant (oxidizing property)

Dakin’s Solution disinfectant

Labarraque’s Solution (~2.5%) disinfectant

Modified Dakin’s Solution(450-500 mg NaOCl per 100 mL solution)antiseptic

SODIUM IODIDE, NaI

Iodide is an essential ion necessary for synthesis of triiodothyronine and thyroxine

Source of iodine

o Lack of iodinesimple or colloid goiter Iodides: expectorant action (oral administration)

expectorant

Pharmaceutical useSolubilizer of iodine in iodine-containing preparations such as Iodine Tincture and Iodine Solution

Protect from moisture and light

SODIUM METABISULFITE, Na2S2O5

Water-soluble antioxidantGood reducing agent

A combination of sodium bisulfite and sodium metabisulfite in varying proportions

It is the bisulfite of commerce and for all practical purposes possesses the same properties as the true bisulfite

Antioxidant for drugs which contain phenol or catechol nucleus (e.g:

phenylephrine HCl, epinephrine HCl solutions) to prevent oxidation to quinones; also in Vitamin C solutions (usually 0.1%)Solutions must be acid in pH

Antimicrobial property:

o

Fermentation industries

o

Preservative and bleach in food

To prepare water-soluble analogs of water-insoluble drugs (e.g.:

menadione sodium bisulfite)

Drawback of sulfites and SO2 Hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals (angioedema, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis)

SODIUM NITRATE, NaNO3

Chile saltpeter, salitre

Preservative

SODIUM NITRITE, NaNO2

Internally acts as a vasodilator due to relaxation of smooth muscle (can cause lowering of blood pressure)

Antidote for cyanide poisoning

Used for curing meats and fish

o

Color development

o

Flavor production (with sodium chloride)

o

Preservation against bacteria

However: carcinogenic

SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE, Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] . 2H2O

Hypotensive agent

SODIUM PERBORATE, NaBO3

Mild disinfectant and deodorant

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Readily releases oxygen in contact with oxidizable matter

SODIUM POLYMETAPHOSPHATE

Calgon®, Graham’s salt

Water-softener

detergent

SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE

Brand name: Kayexalate

Cation-exchange resin for treatment of hyperkalemia resulting from kidney failure

SODIUM POTASSIUM TARTRATE, NaKC4H4O6 . H2O

Rochelle Salt, Sal Seginette

Saline laxativepoorly absorbed in the intestine

Sequestering Agent in Fehling’s Solution

Acidity Regulator in food

SODIUM SACCHARIN

Artificial sweetener

SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE

Brand name: Explotab

Tablet disintegrant

SODIUM SULFATE, Na2SO4 . 10H2O

Glauber’s salt

Saline laxativeSulfate ion poorly absorbed in GIT

SODIUM TARTRATE, Na2C4H4O6

Primary standard for Karl Fischer Reagent used for Water Content Determination

Laxative

Diuretic

NOT converted to bicarbonate inside the body

SODIUM THIOCYANATE, NaSCN

Hypotensive agent

Also used in cleaners for contact lenses and as antioxidant synergist in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations

SODIUM THIOSULFATE, NaS3O3

Hypochlor, Photographer’s hypo, hypo

Sodium hyposulfite (misnomer)

Antidote for cyanide poisoning, in conjunction with sodium nitrite

Used as volumetric solution in titration

Acids decompose thiosulfate to sulfur

Bases decompose thiosulfate to sulfate

Prone to bacterial decomposition

Removal of chlorine from aqueous solutions

MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG)

Brand: Ajinomoto

Flavor enhancer Imparts a meat flavor to foods (flavor enhancer) Sharpens weaker flavors already present in food without adding any significant taste of their own

o

o

Causes Chinese Restaurant Syndromesome individuals sensitive to glutamate: light-headedness, headache, uncomfortable sense of warmth, difficulty in breathing

POTASSIUM, K

“Kalium”

Principal intracellular cation

Deficiency state Hypokalemia

o

Due to severe burns, diarrhea, or other causes

o

Signs and symptoms: muscle weakness and muscle paralysis

Pharmacologic action:

o

Diuretic

o

Involved in muscle contraction

DIBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, K2HPO4

Potassium Phosphate

Treatment of hypercalcemia

o

Favors deposition of calcium and phosphate in the bone

o

A portion is converted to pyrophosphate, a chelator of calcium, the complex excreted in the urine

o

High plasma phosphate levels decrease calcitriol levels and decrease absorption of calcium

Used in conjunction with monobasic salt for potassium or phosphate deficiency

Reagent for various buffers and parenteral fluids

No longer used as laxative

MONOBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, KH2PO4

Sorensen’s Potassium Phosphate

For treatment of hypercalcemia Used in conjunction with the dibasic salt

Urinary acidifier

o

For treatment of calcific kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) decrease in free calcium excretion in the urine decreases stone formation and acidification of urine and free pyrophosphate ion favor dissolution of stones

o

Can cause diarrhea

POTASSIUM ACETATE, KCH3COO

Urinary and systemic alkalizer

Diuretic

Antacid

POTASSIUM ALUM, AlK(SO4)2 . 12H2O

Tawas

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Astringent

Styptic

Antiperspirant

Deodorant

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POTASSIUM BICARBONATE, KHCO3

Systemic antacid

Diuretic

Electrolyte replenisher

May cause hyperkalemia on prolonged use

Carbonating agent for Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution, USP

POTASSIUM BITARTRATE, KHC4H4O6

Cream of tartar, argol, acid potassium tartrate

Occurs in acidulous fruits = grapes

Saline laxative

Ingredient on baking powder to raise dough

POTASSIUM BROMIDE, KBr

Depressant

Sedative

Used for preparation of samples for IR analysis (pellets)

POTASSIUM CARBONATE, K2CO3

Potash, Pearl ash, Salt of tartar, Salt of wormwood

Pharmaceutical necessity (basic property)

Carbonating agent

POTASSIUM CHLORATE, KClO3

Deodorant action due to oxidizing capability

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE, KCl

Potassium salt of choice for potassium replenishment

Electrolyte replenisher

Component of Ringer’s Injection

As IV injection, administered as drip, not push Muscles and heart contracts

Used in lethal injection

Component of Ringer’s and Darrow’s Solution (composition: KCl, NaCl and sodium lactate)

High local concentrations in the GIT can lead to ulceration

POTASSIUM CITRATE, K3C6H5O7

Systemic alkalizer

Osmotic diuretic

POTASSIUM GLUCONATE, KC6H11O7

Electrolyte replenisher for hypokalemic states

Less irritating compared to potassium chloride

POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, KOH

Caustic potash, lye potash

Strong base; very corrosive

Saponifying agent

Used for manufacture of soft soap

POTASSIUM IODIDE, KI

Iodide salt of choice

Expectorant

Solubilizer for iodine

Prolonged use could lead to hypothyroidism

Excessive amounts could lead to Iodism

o

a condition produced by excessive amounts of iodine in the body

o

characterized by increased lacrimation and salivation, rhinitis, weakness, and skin eruption

Used for prevention of goiter

o Iodine, in the form of iodide, is a necessary nutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones

For treatment of hyperthyroidism

To prepare for thyroid surgery (with anti-thyroid medications)

o As saturated solution

To protect the thyroid in cases of radiation emergency

o Tablets, oral solution

Drug of choice for cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis (SSKI 1g/mL)

Used for prevention of goiter

Iodine, in the form of iodide, is a necessary nutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones

For treatment of hyperthyroidism

To prepare for thyroid surgery (with antithyroid medications)

As saturated solution

To protect the thyroid in cases of radiation emergency

Tablets, oral solution

Drug of choice for cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis (SSKI 1g/mL)

POTASSIUM METABISULFITE, K2S2O5

Antioxidant

Can trigger allergic reactions in hypersensitive individuals

POTASSIUM NITRATE, KNO3

Saltpeter, salitre, salt prunelle

Used as a meat preservative

Tooth-desensitizing agent

POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE,KClO4

Strong oxidizing agent

Anti-thyroid agent (for the treatment of hyperthyroidism)

As blocking agent for I-131

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE, KMnO4

Mineral chameleon

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Dark purple or almost black crystals or granular powder, almost opaque by transmitted light and with a blue metallic luster by reflected light

Strong oxidizing agent

Local anti-infective, antiseptic, deodorant

Used as volumetric solution in titrimetry

POTASSIUM SORBATE, KC6H7O2

Pharmaceutical aid preservative (0.2%)

Antimicrobial control growth of yeasts and mold in enteral formula, foods, and cosmetic preparations

Relatively ineffective above pH 6.5

POTASSIUM THIOCYANATE, KSCN

Hypotensive agent

SULFURATED POTASH, K2Sx

Liver of sulfur, hepar sulfuris, potassa sulfurata

K2S2O3

o Irregular, liver brown pieces rapidly changing to greenish- yellow on exposure to air

o Possess odor of hydrogen sulfide

Used in preparation of White Lotion

Reacts with zinc sulfate to precipitate zinc sulfide

o Source of sulfide ion in preparation of White Lotion, USP used in dermatological practice as:

Astringent, protective, mild antimicrobial and antifungal

Treatment of parasitic diseases of the skin

AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS

Ammonium ion is a hypothetical alkali metal

Pseudo-alkali metal ion

Generally, ammonium compounds are very water soluble

BUT: ammonium hydroxide is a weak base as compared to alkali hydroxides which are strong bases

Pharmacologic action:

o

Osmotic diuretic

o

Buffer component

o

Expectorant

AMMONIA, NH3

Synthesized via Haber Process

Involves combination of hydrogen and nitrogen gas at high pressures to produce ammonia

Used in pharmacy in dilute form as respiratory stimulant

Household ammonia: 10% NH3 and is known as 16o ammonia (degrees Baumé)

STRONG AMMONIA SOLUTION

Stronger ammonia water, stronger ammonium hydroxide solution, spirit of Hartshorn

Prepared by Haber process: N2 + 3H2 2NH3 + heat

o Contains 27% to 31% w/w of NH3

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o

Very pungent and characteristic odor

o

Spirit of sal volatile, Spirit of Hartshorn

o

Strongly alkaline to litmus even when diluted

o

Used as a respiratory stimulant in cases of hysterical syncope

o

On exposure to air it loses ammonia rapidly

o

Solution is caustic and vapors irritating (avoid inhalation)

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE, NH4Cl

o

Cool container well before opening, cover the closure with

Muriate of Hartshorn, sal ammoniac

cloth while opening

Diuretic

AMMONIA WATER

Dilute Ammonia Solution

Expectorant

Systemic acidifier

Urinary acidifier

o

Contains 9.5-10.5% w/w of NH3

o

Used as reflex respiratory stimulant

AMMONIUM FERRIC CITRATE

o

To neutralize insect stings and jellyfish stings of Portuguese man-of-war

hematinic

AROMATIC AMMONIA SPIRIT

Respiratory stimulant

Components: Ammonium Carbonate, NF and Strong Ammonia Solution, NF

Components: Ammonium Carbonate, NF and Strong Ammonia Solution, NF, volatile oils (nutmeg and lemon) and ethanol

AMMONIATED MERCURY, HgNH2Cl

Topical anti-infective

White precipitate

AMMONIUM ACETATE, Al(CH3COO3)3

Spirit of Mindererus

Buffer Component

AMMONIUM ALUM, Al(NH4)(SO4)2•12H2O

Depressant

Tawas

Astringent

Styptic

Antiperspirant

Deodorant

AMMONIUM BROMIDE, NH4Br

AMMONIUM IODIDE, NH4I

expectorant

AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, (NH4)2HPO4

Formerly used as diuretic

Used as buffering agent in pharmaceutical preparations

GROUP IB (11): COINAGE METALS

Silver

Gold

Copper

COPPER AND COPPER COMPOUNDS

COPPER, Cu

Cuprum

Only reddish colored metal

Third most malleable metal

Excellent conductor of heat (surpassed only by silver and gold) and electricity (surpassed by silver)

Forms two series of salts

o Cuprous ion (Cu +1 )

Readily undergo disproportionation

Water insoluble

All are white except Cu2S and Cu2O

Depressant

o

Cupric ion (Cu +2 )

Sedative

Generally blue in solution

Important alloys

AMMONIUM CARBONATE, (NH4)2 CO3

o

Bronze Cu and Sn

Ammonia crystal, sal volatile, ammonium sesquicarbonate,

o

Brass Cu and Zn

Preston’s salt, Hartshorn, baker’s ammonia

Present on hemocyanin and cytochrome oxidase

Composed of ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbamate

(NH2COONH4)

Respiratory proteins chromoproteins

Color is due to copper

Readily converted to ammonium carbonate in the presence of

Pharmacologic action:

ammonia

o

Protein precipitant (heavy metal)

Expectorant

o

Enhances utilization of iron

Respiratory stimulant decomposes to NH3 and CO2

Toxicity: Wilson’s Disease

Source of ammonia for “smelling salts”

o

Accumulation of too much copper in the body

Used in the preparation of Aromatic Ammonia Spirit

o

Antidote: Penicillamine (Cuprimine)

COPPER ACETO-ARSENATE

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GOLD AND GOLD COMPOUNDS

Paris green

GOLD, Au

Insecticide

“Aurum”

CUPRIC SULFATE, CuSO4 . 5H2O

Blue vitriol, blue stone, Roman vitriol, Salzburg vitriol

Component of Benedict’s solution, Fehling’s solution and Barfoed’s solutionTest for reducing substances

Bordeaux MixtureCupric sulfate and lime (CaO)

o Algaecide and fungicide in swimming pools

Enhance utilization of iron

Antidote for phosphorus poisoning

SILVER AND SILVER COMPOUNDS

SILVER, Ag

Very soft, ductile and malleable metal

Fine silver 99.9% pure too soft

Usually alloyed to give strength while preserving ductility and beauty of the metal

“Argentum”

o Sterling Silver (92.5% Ag, 7.5% Cu, usually)

King of all metals

Most malleable metal

Best conductor of electricity

Precious metal expensive

Very soft and ductile

Can only be dissolved by:

o

Aqua Regia (3 parts HCl: 1 part HNO3)

o

Selenic Acid

Purple of CassiusColloidal gold with stannic hydroxide

Toxicity: Gold dermatitis

o Antidote: BAL/ Dimercaprol

GOLD COMPOUNDS

Used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Aurothioglucose

Gold Sodium Thiomalate

Auranofinp.o.

Pharmacologic action:

o

Protein precipitant (heavy metal)

o

Oligodynamic action

Toxicity : Argyria

GROUP IIA (2): ALKALINE EARTH METALS

2 valence electrons

Form divalent ions

 

o

Darkening of skin due to chronic use of silver preparations

Selected General Reactions of Group 2A Elements:

o

Antidote: NSS

 

Equations

Reaction

SILVER IODIDE, AgI

 

M

+ 2H2O → M(OH)2 + H2

Be probably reacts with steam

germicide

 

Mg reacts with hot water

SILVER NITRATE, AgNO3

Ca, Sr and Ba reacts rapidly with cold water

Lunar caustic

M + 2HCl → MCl2 + H2

All metals react with acids, liberating H2

Water soluble salt of silver

Lapiz infernularis (caustic pencil)

 

Component of indelible ink

Be + 4NaOH → Na2[Be(OH)4] + 2Na +

Be is amphoteric

Used for treatment of warts

Only Be reacts with NaOH

1% ophthalmic solution: prophylaxis for gonorrhea ophthalmia neonatorum (can cause blindness to the newborn)

2M + O2 → 2MO

Normal oxide formed by all group members

Tollen’s Reagent (ammoniacal silver nitrate)

 

Ba + O2 (excess)→ BaO2

Tendency and stability in forming peroxides increases with increasing atomic number

Ba forms peroxides

 

o

Silver mirror test (presence of reducing substances, such as aldehydes)

   

SILVER PROTEINATES

M

+ H2 → MH2

All metals from hydrides

 

Silver Proteinate

Medicinal Use

% Ag

3M + N2 → M3N2

All form nitrides at high temperatures

Mild Silver Protein (Argyrol)

Antiseptic for eyes

19-23

Strong Silver Protein (Protargol)

Antiseptic for ears and throat

7.5-8.5

BERYLLIUM, Be

 

Colloidal Silver Protein(Collargol)

General germicide

18-22

Not used pharmaceutically

Most toxic metal

MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS

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MAGNESIUM TRISILICATE,

2MgO . 3SiO2 . H2O

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MAGNESIUM, Mg

Antacid

 

Lightest of all structurally important metals

Advantages:

Natural sources:

o

Can protect ulcers by forming a protective coating on the

o

Silicate talc, asbestos

stomach

o

Carbonate magnesite, dolomite

o

Gelatinous consistency provides prolonged antacid effect

o

Sulfate kieserite

Mg 2+ :

CALCIUM AND CALCIUM COMPOUNDS

o

2 nd most abundant intracellular cation

o

Found in chlorophyll

CALCIUM, Ca

o

Grignard Reagent (RMgX) used for synthesis of alcohols

Calcium ion is the second most abundant extracellular cation

o

Pharmacologic action:

Sources:

Cathartic

o

Dolomite MgCO3CaCO3

Depressant action

o

Fluorite CaF

Natural calcium-channel blocker

o

Gypsum CaSO4

o

Phosphate Rock Ca3(PO4)2

MAGNESIUM CARBONATE, MgCO3

o

Apatite CaF and Ca3(PO4)2

Magnesia

2 forms: light and heavy

Pharmacologic action:

Antacid

o

Blood coagulation factor

Laxative

o

needed for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

o

Release of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine)

MAGNESIUM CITRATE, Mg3(C6H5O7)2

o

Muscle contraction

Lemonada purgante, purgative lemon

o

Structural material of bones and teeth

Saline cathartic

 

Vitamin D is required for maximum absorption of Calcium

MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE, Mg(OH)2

Vitamin C = Fe absorption

Milk of Magnesia, Magnesia Magma

Vitamin E = Se absorption

Antacid

Side effect: can cause diarrhea

Calcium deficiency:

 

o

Osteomalacia (adults)

MAGNESIUM OXIDE, MgO

o

Rickets (children)

Calcined Magnesia

o

Osteoporosis

Antacid

Laxative

Component of Universal AntidoteMgO, activated charcoal, tannic acid

Not effective for cyanide and kerosene poisoning

MAGNESIUM SULFATE, MgSO4

Epsom salt

Oral administration: cathartic

Intramuscular administration: anticonvulsant

HYDRATED MAGNESIUM TRISILICATE (TALC),

Soapstone, French chalk

Softest mineral

Dusting powder

3MgO . 4SiO2 . H2O

CALCIUM BROMIDE, CaBr2

Sedative/depressant

CALCIUM CARBIDE, CaC2

Kalburo

CALCIUM CARBONATE, CaCO3

Two important forms:

o

Precipitated Calcium Carbonate

Commercially produced by chemical means

o

Prepared Calcium Carbonate

Native, calcium carbonate purified by elutriation

2 crystal forms:

Clarifying agent

o

Aragonite

Filtering aid

o

Calcite natural birefringent crystal

Adsorbent

Iceland Sparvery pure form of calcite

Polarimeters

Optical birefringence

Antacid

Can cause rebound hyperacidity

CALCIUM CHLORIDE, CaCl2

Muriate of lime

Electrolyte replenisher in hypocalcemic states

Component of Ringer’s solution

CALCIUM GLUCONATE,

Most commonly used calcium salt as electrolyte replenisher

Less irritating than Calcium Chloride

C12H22CaO14

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE, Ca(OH)2

INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW

10
10

o

inhalation

o

ingestion of water-soluble barium compounds:

o

Muscle stimulating action

o

Antidote: Magnesium Sulfate

BARIUM HYDROXIDE, Ba(OH)2 . 8H2O

Component of Barium Hydroxide Lime

Similar to soda lime

CO2 absorber

A saturated solution of barium hydroxide in water is known as baryta water

BARIUM SULFATE, BaSO4

Radiopaque for imaging of GIT

Can cause constipation

Slaked lime, milk of lime, calcium hydrate

RADIUM

Saponifying agent

RADIUM,Ra

CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, Ca(OCl)2

Discovered by Marie Curie

Radioactive

Bleaching agent

Old unit for radioactivity: Curie

Disinfectant

SI unit: Becquerel

CALCIUM OXIDE, CaO

Lime, Quicklime, Calx, Apog, Burnt Lime, Calx Usta

Component of Bordeaux mixture insecticide

CALCIUM PHOSPHATE,

Bone ash

Antacid

Major component of bone

Product of cremation

Ca3(PO4)2

CALCIUM SULFATE,

Plaster of Paris

Used in surgical cast

CaSO4 2H2O

Gypsum, terra alba

Dentifrice

(CaSO4)2 . H2O or CaSO4 . 1/2H2O

STRONTIUM AND STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS

STRONTIUM, Sr

Imparts crimson red to a nonluminous flame

STRONTIUM CHLORIDE, SrCl2

Tooth desensitizing agent

Active ingredient in Sensodyne toothpaste

BARIUM AND BARIUM COMPOUNDS

BARIUM, Ba

“heavy”

Toxicity: Baritosis

Diagnostic purposes

Treatment of certain types of cancers

GROUP IIB (12):VOLATILE METALS/VOLATILE ELEMENTS

Zinc Family

Metals have relatively low melting points

Zinc

Cadmium

Mercury

ZINC AND ZINC COMPOUNDS

ZINC, Zn

Present in insulin

Container for batteries and dry cells

Protective coating in galvanized iron

Pharmacologic properties:

o

Astringent

o

Antiseptic

o

Antiperspirant

o

Deodorant

o

similar to Aluminum

Deficiency state: Parakeratosis

o Skin appears to be scaly, thickened and inflamed

Important in immune system

Deficiency state leads to impaired immunity

Antidote for Zn 2+ poisoning: Sodium Bicarbonate

ZINC CHLORIDE, ZnCl2

Butter of Zinc

Burnett’s Disinfecting Fluid

Antiseptic found in mouthwashes

Dentin desensitizer

ZINC OXIDE, ZnO

Zinc White

Component of Lassar’s Paste

mild antiseptic

Astringent

Topical protectant

Toxicity: Metal Fume Fever

o occupational disease from inhalation of ZnO fumes

ZnO heated with CoO Rinman’s Green (CoZnO2)

Thenard’s Blue Cobalt metaaluminate

ZINC PEROXIDE, ZnO2

Antiseptic

Properties similar to that of hydrogen peroxide

Release of nascent oxygen provides powerful oxidizing action

HYDRATED ZINC SILICATE

Natural calamine

prepared calamineZnO with traces of ferric oxide as impurity

ZINC SULFATE, ZnSO4

White vitriol

Used as ophthalmic astringent

o 0.25% aqueous solution is the only FDA-approved OTC ophthalmic astringent

Used in preparation of White Lotion

INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW

CADMIUM SULFIDE, CdS

Only yellow sulfide

Antiseborrheic agent (for dandruff)

Capsebon

CADMIUM SULFATE, CdSO4

Ophthalmic antiseptic

11
11

MERCURY AND MERCURY COIMPOUNDS

MERCURY, Hg

Hydrargyrum, quicksilver, asoge

Forms two series of salts:

o

Mercurous, Hg2 2+ More difficult to absorb o Relatively less toxic compared to Hg +2

o

Mercuric (Hg 2+ )

SourceCinnabar (Aethrop’s mineral), - HgS

Encountered in thermometers, amalgams

Toxicity : Minamata Disease Signs and symptoms

o

Metallic taste, thirst, soreness of throat, salivation, sore gums, bloody diarrhea, severe gastric pain, vomiting (ingestion of inorganic Hg salts)

o

Acute poisoningHg +2 : severe vomiting, damage to

intestinal mucosa, diuresis, additional renal damage

o

Chronic poisoningBehavioral and personality changes, decreased visual acuity, tremors, insomnia, ataxia

o

Mad hatter’s disease

Hg compounds were used to convert fur to felt

Tremors, behavioral changes in makers of felt hats

o

Sulfurated potash and zinc sulfate

(1900’s)

o

Active ingredient in White Lotion: ZnS

Toxic Forms

o

Scabicide, topical anti-infective

o

Hg +2 > Hg2 +2 > Hg o

ZINC-EUGENOL CEMENT

o

Organic mercury more toxic than inorganic mercury (methylmercury)

Dental protective

o

Organic mercury toxicity:

Source of eugenol: clove oil

Brain damage

 

Numbness

CADMIUM AND CADMIUM COMPOUNDS

 

Loss of vision

 

Deafness

CADMIUM, Cd

 

Madness

Pharmacologic action of water-soluble compoundsAstringent

Death

Heavy metal

o

Elemental and methylmercury CNS

Very poisonous

o

Mercury vapor pulmonary irritant

Toxicity: Itai-itai disease (Japan)

o

Methylmercury teratogenic

Source of cadmium: cigarette smoking

o

Inorganic mercury salts corrosive to skin, eyes, GIT, nephrotoxic

Antidote: BAL/ Dimercaprol

Cadmium has high affinity for metallothioneins (stress proteins)

o

Chronic inhalation of Hg vapor

CADMIUM CHLORIDE, CdCl2

Emetic

Used for tinea infections

Tremor, neuropsychiatric disturbances

Gingivostomatitis

Erethism

Mood changes

Acrodynia (children)Pain in extremities, pinkish discoloration and desquamation (“pink disease”),

INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW

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12

BORON AND BORON COMPOUNDS

BORIC ACID, H3BO3

hypertension, profuse sweating, anorexia, insomnia,

Sal sedativum Hombergi, Boracic acid, orthoboric acid

irritability or apathy, rash

Toxic by ingestion or dermal absorption

Mechanism of Toxicity

o

Boiled lobster appearance of skin

o

Cumulative poisons

o

Reddish-orange color of skin

o

Once absorbed, Hg +2 concentrates in kidneys

Eyewash (2%) antiseptic property

o

Combine with SH groups of protein leading to inactivation

Tonicity adjusting agent

(generally for heavy metals)

Buffer component

Antidotes

o

Standard pH buffer pH 8-10: Alkaline Borate Buffer

o

Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate, NF

o

Pharmaceutical buffer systems:

Best antidote for Hg poisoning, especially Hg 2+

Feldman’s (pH 7-8.2)

Reduces Hg +2 to Hg2 +2 , less soluble

Atkins and Pantin (pH 7.6-11) Borate buffer system

o

Penicillamine (Cuprimine®)

Gifford’s (pH 6-7.8)

For elemental Hg

Sorensen’s (pH 5.9-8) Phosphate buffer system

o

Dimercaprol (BAL)

o

Borate buffers are used in ophthalmic and nasal solutions and

not used for poisoning with metallic and organic mercury

external preparations (NOT for parenteral preparations)

for inorganic Hg salts only

o

Limitation of phosphate buffers: formation of precipitate with

o

DMSA (Succimer) water-soluble analog of BAL

certain metal ions (Ag, Zn, Al)

Chelating agents

For all types of mercury posioning

May redistribute Hg to brain from other tissue Pharmacologic action

o

Diuretic, useful for cardiac edema

o

Antiseptic protein precipitant action

o

Antisyphilitic

o

Cathartic

o

Parasiticide and fungicide

MERCUROUS CHLORIDE, Hg2Cl2

Calomel

Cathartic

Active ingredient in Ly-Na

MERCURIC CHLORIDE, HgCl2

SODIUM BORATE,

Sodium tetraborate decahydrate

Borax

Dobell’s Solution

Na2B4O7 . 10H2O

o

aqueous solution of sodium borate, sodium bicarbonate, phenol, and glycerol

o

used as an astringent or antiseptic wash for the throat and nose

ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS

ALUMINUM, Al

Most abundant metal

3 rd most abundant element

Abrasive

Toxicity (inhalation)Shaver’s Disease

Corrosive sublimate

o

Neurotoxin (brain)

disinfectant

o

Cause Alzheimer’s disease in elderly

MERCURIC IODIDE, HgI2

Treatment of syphilis

KI and HgI2 Mayer’s reagent

SourceCryolite 3NaFAlF3

ALUMINUM CHLORIDE, AlCl3 . 6H2O

Astringent

o

most sensitive alkaloidal reagent

Antiseptic

o

White precipitate (+ result)

Antiperspirant

MERCURIC OXIDE, HgO

Yellow precipitate

Ophthalmic anti-infective

GROUP IIIA (13) BORON/ALUMINUM FAMILY

Deodorant

ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE, Al(OH)3

Gastric antacid

Brand names: Amphojel, Cremalin

Side effects:

Mg has a diagonal relationship with aluminium

o

Constipation

 

o

Can interfere with absorption of phosphates

Maalox

o

Combination of Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3

o

Counteract side effects of one another

ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE, AlPO4

Gastric antacid

Brand name: Phosphagel

Advantage over Al(OH)3Does not interfere with phosphate absorption

ALUMINUM CARBONATE, Al2(PO4)3

Treatment of phosphatic calculi Promotes elimination of phosphate via fecal route

ALUM

Tawas

Ammonium Alum and Potassium Alum

Antiperspirant

Astringent

Deodorant

ALUMINUM OXIDE, Al2O3

Alumina

Treatment of silicosis

ALUMINUM SILICATES

Bentonite

o

Soapclay, mineral soap

o

Native colloidal hydrated aluminum silicate

o

Bentonite Magma

INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW

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13

GROUP IVA (14) CARBON FAMILY

Nonmetallic in character

CARBON AND CARBON COMPOUNDS

CARBON, C

Exclusively nonmetallic

Only element which can form multiple bonds with itself

CATENATIONChain-formation

2 allotropic modifications of Carbon:

o

Crystalline

Diamond (tetrahedral)

Graphite (planar

o

Amorphous

Coal and anthracite

Activated Charcoal

o

Residue from destructive distillation of various organic materials treated to increase its adsorptive power

o

Official in the USP: fine form

o

Used as adsorbent (poisoning by ingestion)

Effective for alkaloidal poisons

Ineffective against cyanide and kerosene

o

Treatment of diarrhea

CARBON DIOXIDE, CO2

Carbonic acid gas

Most potent respiratory stimulant

Stored in GRAY containers

Used for treatment of persistent hiccups

Toxicity through suffocation

Dry icesolid form

5% suspension in water

o

Used as refrigerant

Suspending agent

o

For treatment of acne, warts, corns and eczema

Kaolin

o

China clay

o

Native hydrated aluminum silicate

o

AdsorbentTreatment of mild diarrhea

o

Demulcent

Pumice

o

Complex silicate of aluminum, sodium and potassium

o

Volcanic origin

o

Dental abrasive

Disadvantage: too abrasive for daily use

GALLIUM

Melts at near body temperature

Substitute for mercury in the manufacture of arc lamps

Treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia by binding with transferrin

CARBON MONOXIDE, CO

Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas

Systemic poison

Mechanism of Action: binds to hemoglobin of blood leading to hypoxia

CO has higher affinity for hemoglobin compared to oxygen gas

Treatment:

o

100% Oxygeninhalation

o

Artificial Air80% He and 20% O2

o

CO2-O2 mixture

o

Hyperbaric Oxygen

SILICON AND SILICON COMPOUNDS

SILICON, Si

Second most abundant element

SILICON DIOXIDE, SiO2

Silica

Inert

Very abundant in nature

Glass is made up of silica and other additives

Causative agent of silicosis

INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW

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14

Vs. Sodium Fluoride at least 4 applications\Stannous Fluoride only one application

BUT: solutions should be freshly prepared

STANNOUS PEROXIDE, SnO

Germicide against Staphylococcal organisms

o

Signs and symptoms similar to TB

o

Haemoptysis blood in sputum

LEAD AND LEAD COMPOUNDS

o

Silica becomes deposited in the lungs --- irritation

LEAD, Pb

o

Alumina forms a coat with silica particles (antidote

“Plumbum”

Glass

Pure silica fused with sodium carbonate

Effect

With MnO2

Mask blue green color of iron usually present in glass

With Boron (as borate)

Decrease coefficient of expansion of glass