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2006

1.

1.1.

1.2.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

6.1.

6.2.

20

6.3.

26

3738

7.

3738

7.1.

38

7.2.

40

8.

41

8.1.

41

8.2.

43

8.3.

44

8.4.

45

8.5.

46

8.6.

50

8.7.

51

52

9.

52

9.1.

52

9.2.

53

9.3.

58

9.4.

72

9.5.

9.6.

7273
74

10.

7576

10.1.

10.2.

76

10.3.

77

10.4.

7778

10.5.

7879

7980

11.

7576

11.1.

7980

11.2.

7980

11.3.

8081

11.4.

82

11.5.

94

95
12.

95

13.

95

96

14.

96

15.

97

9899

15.1.

100

15.2.

101

15.3.

15.4.

101102
102

103

104

108

108109


1.
1.1.
.
,
: , , 200
.
: , ,
, , (
).
, (
, , ),
, ,
.
, [Bergman, Vydrine 2002],
- ,
.
- ( : Valentin
Vydrine. Reconstruction of initial consonants in Proto-South-Mande // Koen Bostoen
& Jacky Maniacky (eds.). Studies in African comparative linguistics. Tervuren: Royal
Museum for Central Africa, 2005, pp. 43-88.).
, .
, .
2002 .
1: , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
,

-,

. ,

[Paesler 1992].

,
(, , , , -).

1.2.
,
:

, , , , , ,
)

( , , , ,
-, )

, .
- ???
, ,
, , .
.
. [Gottlieb 1995: xiii]
[Paesler 1992: 2], , -,
, , , -, . ,
. .

,

!, .
.

(ligne de confiance),
.

(),
. , ,
,
;

.

2.


14 . ( 1988 .);

16 . ( [Paesler 1992]).
,
, .
- .
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,

.
.

. ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
1980-1986 .
.
1980- .
( , , ;
) . ( ,
). 2005-2006
,

[Syllabaire],
( ,
1996/1997 D.E.A.
[Yao Kouakou]), , ,
.
3.
-
, (b); Beng, beng,
[Paesler 1991] [Paesler 1992], [Paesler 1989], [Gottlieb,
Murphy 1995]. , , ,
: be, Ben, Gbingn, Gan,
Ga, Gan-n, Ganra, Gbin, Nga, Ngain, NGain, Ngen, Ngan, NGuin, Ngin.
: g (), ga
() gbml ().

4.

.
[Delafosse 1904];
[Tauxier 1921].
[Prost 1953],
[Welmers 1958], [Prost 1981] , ?
!, [Greenberg 1966],
( Gan) .

1970- 1980- .
[Barth 1979], [Flick 1979]
[Ory 1981].

1979-1980, 1985 . ,
[Gottlieb 1992]
- [Gottlieb, Murphy 1995].
1981 .
.
[Paesler 1989] (
, , ),
,
[Paesler
1991], [Paesler 1992] , ,

[Paesler ms.].

5.

.
, -,
,
; -,

.
,
2004-,
2005- 2006 .2.
, 1968 . .
, 1980 . (
).
, 1967 . (
).

( 04-04-

00262), ( SUBJ 062156.00)


(Summer Institute of Linguistics).

, [Paesler ms.],
,
[Gottlieb, Murphy 1995].

6.
6.1.
6.1.1.

6.1.1.1.

1.
1.

2.

3.

. : ye yi , be b
, b ba , ba b bo
, fo fu , mi m ma
, da d du .
: bli blu , ble blo , b b
, (o) o di we () o du we
, dr dr .
: ci ci , s se , kl
kl , ba ba , d d do
, bu bu .

,
[] , w,
(
[n]), . [m pu] , [n da] , [n
jabo] , [ kafe] , [m kpa] .

2.
4.

gb

kp

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

l/r

(h)

[l] [r] .
:
-

[r];

[l].

[l] [r] r l
.
,
. [r] ,
. [l]
.
h : haa ?, hai
!, h !, ho !, hohohoho --!, hu !.
, . a d haa
, ?, ml bama do ye gble haa
!. [Paesler 1992] [Murphy 1995]
. h , , ,
, .
!
-! , ,

, .

6.1.1.2.
3 , L
(V), M(V) H(V).

. ,
: ba ba ba
; p p p .

. F0?
. , ,
. (
,
;
,

), (
). ,
, .
,
:
, , , ,
! , ,
.
a.

/kli

l/

Def

(1) a.

[klil], b. /a

de

3sg
b.

l/

[adel]

Def

?
(,
). -!
L (V)
,

.
L (V), , - ,
:
/a

zri

3sg

[azri]

(2) . ?

VVV

VVV, VVV VVV, /g bil/ [gm bil] , / glu do ci/[


glu do ci] .

[H H L] (</H L L/) [M M L] (</M L L/)


( ), .. , /H H L/ /M
M L/.
, .. H
/VV/, /VV/, /V/, /V/:

[o

/-o

nu-l o/

1sg-St+

-Prg

nulo]

(3) .

,
: HL(V), ML(V), LH(V), MH(V).
ClV < *CVLV: bla , yra
, zra , gle , zr , blo , zro ,
buml . ,
, , 3sg oo
> o, 2sg mio > mi, aa > a.
HL(V) , , .
HL L H:
a.

/kli

z/

[kliz];

b. /kli

z/

[kli z]

(4) a.

b.


, (. 6.1.3.2), . .
(.
).
6.1.2. /
/ /ClUV/, C
, /l/, l /l/, U
, V , .
, ,
,
.
6.1.3.

6.1.3.1.
0.6.1.3.1.1. l
// /l/ /n/.
[nn] .
(
l, -li) .

[n] . : / la/ > [n na]
, /i-l/ > [in] , |g- l| > [gn] (
-l), / l b/> [n n b]
. (
- , )
0.6.1.3.1.2.
( /e/, /o/)
// , . ba /ba /
[ba] , /mla / [mla ] .

+ ,
/w/ /l/).
0.6.1.3.1.3.
, ,
. . :
daal o > dalo ( ), wlaalo > wlalo ( ),
baa > ba , aa > a , ba a > ba (
).

6.1.3.2.
,
(.. )
( ) .
, , .. +
(ie, ua ..) + , , ,
, .

. 2
? , ,
. ,
? , -,
( , ,
-,

). - ?

V(V)| _{V; V} (_L)


LH (L)
: H, M, MH, ML, HL.
L, , L LH. : du
/du LH do M/ [du L do M] oo wla wa - /oo wla
wa LH na M/ > [oo wla wa L na M] , manu ni o flua
- / manu ni o flua LH na M/ > [manu ni o flua L na M]
. ,

,
.

VV, VV | _ {V; V} (_L)


( L
LH). 4 , -, ,
. :
z /z HL L/ [z H L] , si
/si ML L/ [si M L] . ? ,
,

6.1.4.

6.1.4.1.
// .
,
.
.
: lenr le + dr
, balu ba + lu .
( ,
): na , ( )
1sg + da ; ne , ( ) 1sg + de ,
ma 1sg + gba , . mi
gba , a gba ; .
ana a 1pl ta .

6.1.4.2. /l/
// /l/. :

l,
p l. ,
? / ? ?
-?

( -llo) (
-l!).

/l/ //
, . :
ba l [ba a] ( ), dr l [dr ] (
), zu l [zu ] ( ),
millo [milo] ( ), millo [mi l o] (
), bal lo [baal o] ( ), blullo
[blulo] ( ), bul lo [bulo] (
).

6.1.4.3. 1sg
1sg,
, : ma.
(Pst+, Hab+, St+, St-),
(Pst-, Hab-). , ,
ma Pst+, Hab+,
( )
1sg, 2sg, 3sg 3pl, .:
ma

-dra

ye

1sg:Pst+ 1sg-Rfl :L
(5) .

ma

mi

1sg:Pst+ 2sg

ye
:L

(6) .

ma

1sg:Pst+ 3sg

ye
:L

(7) .

1sg:Pst+ 1pl

ye
:L

(8) .

ka

ye

1sg:Pst+ 2pl

:L

(9) .

ma

ye

1sg:Pst+ 3pl
(10)

:L

( dra ye ..)
, .
, , ma
; , ,
:
ma

1sg:Pst+ 1sg
(11)

wla

wa

Def

:L

ma
(
), . [ ].
- 3,
1sg
.

6.1.4.4. 3sg
3sg
, :
ma

pe

ma

(.

1sg:Hab+3
(12)

1sg:Hab+ 3sg

pe)

mi

pe

2sg:Hab+3
(13)

(.

mi

2sg:Hab+3sg

pe)

, ;
. [ ].

-a

(.

pe

1sg-St+3
(14)

-o

1sg-St+ 3sg

pe)

,
( ) .
(Pst+3, Pst-3,
Hab+3, St+3 .., 3 3sg). -
1SG>3SG ..

6.1.4.5.
,
,
.


. , , ,
( ) - (
):

nu|

|o

nu

3sg:Pst+ :L
(15) .
|wa
3sg:Pst(16)

3sg:Pst+

:L

Neg

/wa nu /

[wa nu ]

nu

n|

:L

nu

|o

m.la|

3sg:Pst+
(18)

|o
(17)

nu

:L

/om.la/[omla]

-la 4.

(13),
(2: HLLHHL),
20:
|o

mla

wa|

mla

wa

3sg:Pst+ :L
(19)

mla

do

3sg:Pst+
(20)

wa
:L

(. 0.6.3.3);
.

6.2.

3.

2
mi

3
a

1
a

mip

ap

dra

mi dra

a dra

a
p
// kap
am
a dra
ka dra

()

-, -3
+3
+
+3
-, -3
- +

ma

mia

ma

mi

aa // a
a
a
aya
o
a

2
ka


3
o
op
o dra

// kaa // oa //
kaya
oya

ka
o

a

a

a
a
a

ka
ka
ka
ka

o
a
a
o
a

a, a

ka

o
a

oo//o

ao

kao// ka

waa

+3
-3

a
a

a
a
a
w
a
a
a
a
a

-, +3,-3

o , e
, ma* mi
ma
mi
wa
ma
mi
a
, ma* mi
o, e
ma
wa, a
(= )
, ma* mi
o, e
ma
wa, a

mio//
mi
mia //
miwa
mia
mia
+

aa
waa

oo//
o
o
// kaa
// aa // wa
kawa
owa
kaa
aa
a
kaa
aa
wa

; +3 ,
3sg; -3 ,
3sg; (*) , ,
6.1.4.3.

6.2.1. :
1sg 5 :

wla

1sg

(21)

wla

1sg-St+
(22)

-a

wla

1sg-St-

Neg

(23)

, (. ):

1sg:Pst+
(24)

ble
:L

ma (.. ma ):
ma

1sg:Pst-
(25)

ma

1sg:Pst+ 3pl
ma

:L

Neg

(26)

ble

ble
:L

ble

1sg:Pst+ :L
(27)

. , 6.1.4.3.?

,
1sg ma
6
ma :

.
. ?

ma

1sg:Foc
(28)

ma

we

1sg:Ex

(29)

2sg mi.
3sg: a; wa; o e (
) , o
. -
? ?
1pl: a. ,
a , .
2pl: ka.
3pl: o , a , o
.
6.2.2.
- ,
.
( o a), 1sg
. , o (1sgLoc+) o (3plPs+), a (1sgLoc-3) a (3plPs+3)
.
.
(-).
,
(-),
-. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
6

ma .

, , ( )
- ( ):

nu|

|o

nu

m. la

3sg:Pst+ :L
(30)

|o

nu

n|

nu

3sg:Pst+ :L
(31)

|o

m. la|

3sg:Pst+ :L
(32)

-la . !
6.1.4.5 ( ). .

(84) (84),
(HLLHHL),
, , (33)
(34):
|o

mla

wa|

mla

wa

3sg:Pst+ :L
(33)

mla

do

3sg:Pst+
(34)

wa
:L

mla

wa

na

3sg:Pst+ Prf
(35)

6.2.3.
p;
dra; a // ya (
), 2sg a, 3sg a // .
1pl
-a, .

-o. ,
, o ,
;
(., 2sgLoc+ mio mi).
a;
wa7 : miwa, aw
a, kawa, owa (NB: owa, . *awa).
a.
-, (a a )
6.2.4.
:
(
3sg, );
(
);
( 8,
) .
7

, , wa,

, . 1.3.
8

, , ,
, ?
, ,

(,

, );
Pst- Opt-, Hab-
Cnd-, Opt+ Hab+. ,
(Cnd+, Hab+, Pst+, Pst- Hab-) ,
(, ,
), .

6.2.5.
, , 1pl
a
( - ).
- , .:
ta

fti

na

1pl:Hab+ 3sg

(36)

so

, .

a 3sg
( ,
).
m 1sg, am

() 1pl.
1pl
a aa // awa a
() a
H
()9:
a
a

1pl:Pst- 3sg
(37)

pe

:L Neg

:
ka

2pl:Pst- 3sg
(38)

3pl:Pst- 3sg
mi

:L Neg

(39)

pe

pe

:L Neg

2sg:Pst- 3sg

pe

:L Neg

,
Cnd- (, ).
9

a : #a a pe
( aa a pe ).

(40)

, ..

6.3.
6.3.1.

. , ,
;

.
na,
, -: jr
jr n , bl bl n , l pl
l pl n . ,
, , , sgb
sgb n , b w b w n
. ?
. , ,
, ,
, (
):

[gbe

1sg :Pst+

(41)

bil] na

do

ATR

ye

gble.

.
:
H, . :
{dr (LH)+ s (L)} => /dr (L) s (HL)/ (
), {zr (MH) + y (L)} => /zr (M) y (HL)/ (
). .
., , {dr (LH) +
dr (L)} => /dr (L) dr (HL)/.

blo
- , .., ,
blol o . blolo, blol .
blol ..

6.3.2.
,
.

6.3.2.1. l
l
:
[dr

wol]

g.

-Nzr

3sg:Hab+

(42)

. Nzr, a NMLZ.

gbe

ta-l

za

3sg

-Nzr

.:L

(43)

kofi

[ba

St+

fu

wo

1pl

kla-l]

la-alo

kuaj o

nin

-Nzr

-Prg

BENEF

(44)

be-l

ka

-Nzr
(45)

mi

St+ 2sg

ma?
CONT

l (n nl
), g gn ,
l ll .
, , , l
:

ga

wi-l

-Nzer

(46)

( )

-o

zri

1sg-St

-Nzr

(47)

kasie-l

-o

1sg-St+

1sg

(48)

lu.

ga

yr-l

buen-lo

-Nzr

-Prg


. ,

: ,
,
,

l , (. 8.5),
..
:
-o

[zri

1sg-St+

-Def

(49)

bi-l]

kasie-l

3sg -Nzr

lu.

. .
? ( , ),
, :
, .

6.3.2.2. ya
ya ,
, , ,

, .. ,
:

nu

ble-ya

1sg:Pst+

:L

-Plc

(50)

, .

, ya
:
-o

zro-ya

d-lo

1sg-St+

-Plc

-Prg

(51)

ma

zro-ya

ye

1sg:Pst-

-Plc

Neg

(52)

( ) .

ya

o-o

da

lo

1sg

:
o

na

tri-ya

3pl -Plc
(53)

Top 3pl-St

(. ) .

ya
:
(, ,
),
.

(
),
:

i/*j
(54)

dr

wo-ya

na

-Plc Top

-oi

oj

ye

1sg-St+

3pl

:L

(*) , .

,
:

oj dr

wo-ya

3pl

-Plc Top

(55)

na

-oi

oj

ye

1sg-St+

3pl

:L

, .

tri-ya

na

3pl -Plc
(56)

o-o

Top -St+

da

lo

:Bsq

1sg

SUPER

, .

ya ,
, :

Bn

ya

na

g-y

Emph

Top

3sg -Plc

lkl

Def

Foc

Foc

3sg:Pst+

Cop

3sg

(57)
(. , ,
). ?!

ya
, , , -da:-/-dar-
[Kibrik, Testelec 2004], :

Kosa

na

wl-y

3sg:Pst+:

Prf

-Plc

(58)

Kosa

na

l-y

3sg:Pst+:

Prf

-Plc

(59)

wl-y

3sg:Pst+

-Plc

(60)

ya
, .. ? :

gb

bl

3pl:Pst+

3pl

:L

Def

(61)

s-y
-Plc

(.., , )

Da

ni

yrama

na

Def

Top

3pl:Hab+

nu

sls

l-y

Pl

-Plc

(62)
( ) (..
)

6.3.3.

6.3.3.1.

, , ,
, 6 (.
).

. , (
), (
).
. ,
, (
).
,
(. ):
; ; ; .
l s
( .
).
na .
, , ,
:

mimi

- mimi
na, drdr () drdr na, t t
na ( gua
gua na ).

.
l, -

l -. -
(.. a a
) (..
, . 6.1.4.2).


.
-l / - (.., ,
tl t

tl, drlo dr drlo).


,
, .
, ,
; .. mimi

- mimi
lo (

l
,
mimi
ya
. ).
mimi

6.3.3.2.


. :
t n (.
11.5), b
, .:

nu

dru-ya

(*

dr

wo

dru-ya)

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

(63)

. (* // )

dru-ya

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

(64)

c .

6.3.3.3.

, ,
-l .
, p,
, :
,
( , )
Beya

3sg

(65)

le

tua-p

bl

l.

-Men

3sg:Pst+Cop:L

Def

ya-p

do

lu.

1sg:Pst

-Men

:L

(66)

(//).

-li
, :

ble-li

:Pst+

-Ag Def

(67)

ye.
:L

/ , / / / ..

, ,
:
p

-Ag

(68)

ble-li,

dr

wo-li,

d-li,

jo-li

-Ag

-Ag

-Ag

, , ,

Dela

vlovlo-li

do.

3sg:Pst+

Cop:L

-Ag

(69)
. - -,
, , .
? ?

6.3.3.4.

-le
. :

ga , gale ,
ma () mal e
mama mamale
ua , uale
pa () pale
ta () tale
tra , tral e ,
v () vl e
ba -le
: bale, pbale ,

6.3.4.

6.3.4.1.
, .
.

, : mi mimi, ga
gaga, so soso, yalo - yaloyalo.

(.
) : fa | faf a | faf a, da | dada |
dada, bla | blabla | blabla.

.

gg, ca caca, blua bluablua. .


,
.

( feefee ( ) fee
( ), piipii pii , foofoo
foo , pppp pp

),
( tt t , fifii
fii , kotikotii kotii ,
titii tii , yy y
, pupuu puu ),

( btbt
bt , kpskps kps ,
? 3 mtmt
mt , nfnf nf
).

gle b :
glegle bb .

6.3.4.2.

:
. ,
(), (70), ( ),
(71), (), (72)b:
a.
(70)

gg

(nu)

:Red

Pl

a.

gblgbl

:Red Pl

(71)

a.
(72)

nu

b. s

nu

Pl

b.

//

gbl

nu

Pl

di

b.

didi

:Red

a. b.

, , , *s gblgbl do
.

( gbl) ,
( b
). , :
a.

b (/ *bb)

do

(73)

b. g

a.

bb ( /*b)

nu

:Red

Pl

b.


, (74),
, (75):
a.

-o

dru-lo

1sg-St+

-Prg

(74)

a.
c.

a.

b.

-o

drudru-lo

1sg-St+

:Red-Prg

b. (-)

be-lo

b. o

3sg:St+

-Prg

bel o

3sg:St+

-Prg

bebe-lo

3sg:St+
d. o

:Red-Prg
bebe-lo

3sg:St+

a. b. (-)

:Red-Prg
c. d.


ble nu

o-o

dradra-l

Pl

3pl-St+

:Red-Res

(75)

|*

ble

do

o-o

dradra-l

3sg-St+

:Red-Res

(* )

()
: ,
,
:
o-o

blabla

3pl-St+ :Red
(76)

o-o

( , )

do

3pl-St+
(77)

bla

, ,
,
. , , , /
, cp.:

blana

de

yri-dra

lo

1sg:Pst+

:L

Def

SUPER

(78)

blana

dede

1sg:Pst+

:Red:L -

(79)

yri-dra

lo

Def

SUPER


:
na

bla

na

plamla

aa.

DT

3pl:Hab+

:Red

:Red

(80)

- .

. : )
) )
: palo yen dru yru . :
yruyru

na

:Red Top 1sg:Hab+


.

yi


7.
( [
1977 : 4]) , .
.
, ..
.

7.1.

(
, ,
, ,
).
,

, :
, , ,
g) .
, ,
, :
a.

nu

1sg :Pst+

:L

(81)

we.

b.

we

ye.

1sg :Pst+

:L

a. .

b. .

, :
a.

b.

nu

ni

wo.

1sg :Pst+

Def

ni

wo

ye.

Def

:L

kl

1sg :Pst+

kl

(82)
a.
.
b.

. ! wo ,
we pu.

, :
a.
c.
(83)

pu

lu.

1sg :Pst+

nu

mi

1sg :Pst+

:L

b.

nu

pu

1sg :Pst+

:L

pu

:
(, )
(, ).
9
.
1 ,

4.

1.

2.

3.

baba,

Kola

4.

5.

6.

lo,

w /

wo

gble

Buake /
wla /
m

7.

8. -

9.

batu,

ni, lo

dini
, ,
, -
( - ).

. ,


:
a.
b.

nu

kue

bi-l.

1sg :Pst+

:L

-Def

nu

kue

sekpa

1sg :Pst+

:L

(84)

a. . b. .


( )
:
a.

pu

3sg:St+

-Def

(85)

a.

bi-l

wo

b. o

IN

pu

3sg:St+

sekpa

wo.

IN

a. . b. .

ta

Asagbe

1sg :Pst+

(86)

b.
1sg :Pst+

ta

Asagbe

bama

Def

a. .b. .

:
zz

Def 3sg:St+

(87)

7.2.

tabali

lo

tii

lo

SUPER

Def

SUPER

.
,

(,

. ,
,
,
, , nava : nav- = vatsa- : vats [ 1978: 870].

wo
IN

-,
-,


().

. -, (
) -, :
o

3sg:Hab+

(88)

3sg:Pst+

Cop:L 1sg -

(89)

de-gb

-,
, :
a.
(90)

klua l i

g (*g klual i)

b. Kola

klua l i

//

klua l i

Kola

a. b.

,
, .

8.
8.1. .


. (?)
. ?
, (.. /
, . ).
:

, pn sr ,

. ;

,
, , gbl znl ,
. ,

kl

(91)

Def

IN

(. )

p
,
.
,
.
? ?
,
( ),
, .
a.
(92)

baba

(ni)

1sg

Def

b.

baba

1sg

wo

3pl

IN

a. () b.

-,

, :

(93)

skl

Pl

3pl

IN

Def

,
. ,
, , ,
, :
, g ? (
)


(94)

, ,
:

kp

(95)

8.2. .

b > t > Def > n > d


. b , ; t
, .
, :
(
, . ).
?
Def . , n , l
.., ,
? , ,
, l-.
. , l
.

( . ).

d , .
, , :

1sg:Pst+
(96)

(n)

Pl

3pl

(-)

,

[ 1983].
, ,
.
: y l
() , y n .
: f + ,

( ) + n (

, ). :
o

blana

[f

kla

3sg:Pst+

Rel

3sg:Pst+

3sg

Kuasi

di

na]

APUD

Top

klua
:L
(97)

, .

8.3.

:
lklo
(98)

lmle

nu:
gla

puu

nu

Pl

(99)

, ?

,
(. ):
-o
mla
nu
1sg-St+ pl

o
3pl

ye-l
-Res

(100)

*-o

mla

nu

ye-l

1sg-St+ pl
(101)

-Res


nu :
bie
o
na
ciya
o
lo
o
nu

3pl

3pl

3pl:Pst :L
(102)

3pl ,
;
nu .

8.4.

, ,
( )
:
ble nu

o-o

dradra-l

PL

3pl-St+

:Red-Res

(103)

|*

ble

do

o-o

dradral

3sg-St+

:Red-Res

(* )


:
o-o

blabla

3sg-St+

:Red

(104)

( , )

o-o

do

bla

3sg-St+

(105)

,
. , , ,
:
a.

blana

de

yri-dra

lo

1sg:Pst+

:L

Def

SUPER

b.

blana

dede

yridra

1sg:Pst+

:Red:L -

lo

Def

SUPER

(106) a. b.
( ).
, .

: b , ..

bb kl , .. pl.

8.5.
,
, , . ,
,
( :-
; - , - -).
, ,
-
,
, ,
, . ,
.

.
,
, .
,
:

,

,

( .
8.5.1)


. .
. .

(
.

),

,
,
(
)

8.5.1.
, 3sg

( ),
:
[a

lNP]

3sg

3sg:Pst+ -

(107)

(o)

ga-na

, 2sg mi
, , (
).
3sg,
, (. 6.1.4.5):
| a

3sg

3sg:Pst+ :L

(108)

ga|

| a l o ga | a l ga

,
,
. , ,
:

(
);

( );

,
:

ga-alo

3sg

St+

-Prg

(109)

, .. ,
.
8.5.2.
.

, , .
,
.
8.5.3.
,
3sg. ,
, , . :
-o

mla

1sg-St+ Def
(110)

-o

ye-l

(3sg)

-Res

o/*

ye-l

3pl

-Res

mla

nu

1sg-St+ pl
(111)

(a)

nu, . 45.
- nu
.

8.5.4.

: , , ,

, (., , ,

[ , ], , ,
). ,
, ..,
, . ,
, , !
, .
.

8.5.5. ,

, () ,
( k ),

-,

: ?
.
aa

3sg:Foc
(112)

Pele

(113)

(114)

( ).

na,

wa-a

bi

Rel

Top

3sg-St-

-Res

(115)

d-l

Neg

f na .

3sg-St+

1sg:Foc

(116)

( ).

8.5.6. ,
, (
gba ),
, .
(69), (70).
, ,
(71):
o

3sg:Pst+ 1sg
(117)

do

:L
gba
:L

(: , ) .

ka

3sg:Pst+ 2pl
(119)

mla

3sg:Pst+ 1sg
(118)

gba

sra

:L 3sg:Pst+ 1sg

da

gba

:L

(: , ).

8.6. .
,
, w
, n bl , .
, , , , ,
.
, ,
,
. !

8.7.

A n B l.
, , .
(
. 12); .

(. [Haspelmath 2005b]),

.
2 ( [Haspelmath 2005b]):


, :
mi

na

de

lo f

2sg

ka

Rel 2pl:Pst+

gua

ka

wla

we

fl

2pl

Neg

(120) ? (. -
?) ?

9.
9.1.

, .
:


:
o

a-dra

bo

3sg:Hab+

3sg-Refl

:L

(121)

fia

se

ma

SUPER

mi

vi

mi-dra

ni

2sg:Hab+

:L

2sg:Refl

BENEF

(122)

(
), .:

nu

dru-ya

(*

dr

wo

dru-ya)

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

(123)

. (* // )


, :
mi

de-l

lubi

2sgPst+

-Nzr

:L

(124)

(
),
:

i/*j
(125)

dr

wo-ya

na

-oi

oj

ye

-Plc

Top

1sg-St+

3pl

:L

(*) , .

,
:
oj dr

wo-ya

na

mai

oj

ye

3pl

-Plc

Top

1sg:Pst+

3pl

:L

(126)

, .

tri-ya

3pl -Plc

na

-o

da

lo

Top

1sg-St+

:Bsq

3pl

SUPER

(127)

, .

9.2.

9.2.1.
(
). ,
, , . ,
( ),
s (
), p (
), z ( ). :
-o
1sg-St+
(128)

3pl:Hab

za

pe

o
3sg:Pst+
(130)

ble

o
(129)

(-).

de

ci

Rel

3sg:Pst+

bese

lo

na?

1sg

Def

Top

(131)

c , y , kl , klkl ,
, t , wl
p bl
(p / bl y , p / bl c (-), p / bl wl );
p bl
.
9.2.2. -
, , - ,
,
, .
(
): (dr) bl ();
(p) ft (-); (s ) kk ( ); (p) lm

(-), (z) zz ( -). ,


; , ( ft) .
- wl
wlwl :
(.. -,
-).
- .

, ,
:

3sg:Pst+
(132)

dr

() ,

p , .


3sg:Pst+
(133)

dr

p .
, -
, ( kl , pp
, gb ).
, - ,
,
, : gbl

d () ( gbl
;

d ,

), k b ( ) (k - , b
), y s ( ) (y , s ).
,
-!
9.2.3. -
-, -
. , ,
(457 553 10),
,
.
:

: l n zr zr

: kp n t kp n t

10

, .. ,
.

: jr l d jr l d
,


. , (jr l d
) 11,
. ?

(. 2004: 32).
,
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
9.2.4. : , ()

,
,
. ,
Y ,
X .
.

, ,
, -,
jr l d
. !
,

11

-
(, , )
,
.

(, zr
() (-), , ,
, ).
,
,
,
(kp n t ).

5. ,

:
Y
:
X

,
( ,
() ).
, ,
, -
.
, ,

,
,
. (. [ 2006: 23]),
, . , -
,
! ,
, .
9.3.


, ,

.
9.3.1.

, ..
, ,
( ).
(. [Haspelmath 2006a]),
.

(secundative)
, gb :

gb

3sg:Pst+

2sg

(134)

(flagging)
: ,
. ,
, . [Haspelmath 2005]:
1 ( [Haspelmath 2005]):

(indexing,
, . 8.5) :
, ,
,
, . :

3sg:Pst+
(135)

Kl

()

gb

lkl

(*)

3sg

:L

Def

3sg

22 ,
(. [Haspelmath 2006a: 12]),
,

. 6- (. [Haspelmath
2006a: 13]).
,

.
,

,
.
, , ,
- , , ,
. ,
:

(136)

gb

(*-y)

3sg:Pst+

1pl

3sg-Foc

( )

. :

(137)

-ya

3sg:Pst+

Cop

3sg-Foc

( )

,
, , :
o

ka

sra

da

gba

3sg:Pst

2pl

:L

3sg:Pst

1sg

:L

(138)

(: , ).


. ,
.
, ,
,
.


,
,
, . ,

,
([Haspelmath 2006b: 15]). ,

, [Comrie 2004].
,
:
- (me, te, nous, vous)
(le:lui, les:leur, NP: + NP).
9.3.2.
,
, ,
:

(139)

(140)

(141)

(142)

3sg:Pst+

Cop

1sg

kl

3sg :Pst+

3sg

Cop

ytr-l

3sg :Pst+

3sg

-Res

kl-p

3sg :Pst+

3sg

-Mn

, (. )

3sg :Pst+

Cop

1sg:Foc

(143)


.
9.3.3.

9.3.3.1.
,
. ,
(.
). ,
km -. (?)
, ,
. , gb
m ( ),
d d (
APUD), kfl
m ( CONT):

-
3pl-St+
(144)

gb

3sg-St+

2sg

APUD

kfl

1sg

CONT

(145)

-
3pl-St+
(146)

9.3.3.2.
, . ,
, (
),

n ( ,
): f s X n
/, kk X n , kp X n /, r

X n /, v X n /, y X n
/, yr X n .
, , ,

, .
(
), , .
[Bhaskararao, Subbarao 2004],
[Davison 2004] - -,
[Jayaseelan 2004] , [Sigursson 2004]
, [Mistry 2004] , [Verma, Mohanan 1990],
,
, [Mishra 1990] [Pandharipande 1990]
.
, ,
, . [Farrell 2004]
.

=> . ,
,
( 16 ;
) ( be afraid of,
-).
( ,
). ,
( worry about).

.


. -, n
( km), , ,

-,

( ,
, ); -,

, n

(,
, / ).
,
, :
( )
(- ) ( )
..

9.3.3.3.


12 ,


, , :
12


( ).
([Tsunoda 1985]: Direct
effect > Perception > Pursuit > Knowledge >Feeling >Relationship > Ability)
, (,
).

3sg:Pst+

1sg

SUB

(147)

ll

3sg:Pst+

1sg

CONT

(148)

ml

1sg

3sg:Pst+

(149)
(
)

3sg:Pst+
(150)

1sg

SUPER

,
,
. , l
d , SUPER,
- ,
SUPER; SUPER
, , ; l
ml
..


: ,
, ,
, 30 ( 705 ,
, 555 ). ,

, , :

3sg:Pst+
(151)

1sg

CONT

- . touch vt, fr. toucher vt


1sg
(152)

3sg:Pst+

1sg

. 5%

, .

.



. . . [ 2004],
,
, ,
, , ,
[ 2003:
33].
9.3.4.
n , m, l, km, w
.
, , ,
.

9.3.4.1. n
n :

1sg:Pst+

2sg

Benef

(153)

(154)

kl

kl

1sg

Benef

, .

r
1sg:St+:
(155)

kl-y

fl

Def

-GL

3pl

Benef

3sg:Pst+
(156)

Def

2sg

Benef

(
,
): kl d X n , fl

X n , ft X n , kl b X n
(. ), l X n ,
, .. ,
n j ,
l (
/ , ,
, , ).

9.3.4.2. l
l (
),
:

-
1sg-St+
(157)

3sg:Pst
(158)

(159)

dr

w-l

kpl

-Prg

by

ml

1sg

yr-l

l?

St+

-Res

2sg

-
1sg:Hab+
(160)

3pl:Pst+

1sg

Def

3sg

nu

dutene

pe

lo

- .

a
3pl:Hab(162)

() .

o
(161)

zi

toobi

lo ka

pu

2pl

zr

ye

Def

Neg

9.3.4.3. m, w, kl, km
m n
: y s , kl b ,

m . , m
n):
o

kl

bi

na

ma

3sg:Pst+

3sg

Prf

1sg

CONT

(163)

w kl, ,
:

m
2sg
(164)

t-l

kl

-Nzr

POST

b w , kp w
, ym l w .. , w
(
,
): gbl X w (-) -
, d X w ' ', y k X w , k b X

w , w X w , yd X w .

km :

3sg:Pst+
(165)

dr

kma

2sg

- .

9.3.5.

.
:

3sg:Pst+

IN

(166)

()

3sg:Pst+

IN

(167)

()

3sg:Pst+

IN

(168)

()

3sg:Pst+

IN

(169)

()

: j (,
), b , wl
( ), n , t , sr , dr
( ), (
, , ) (
). ,
, :

bj

wl

3sg:Pst+

(170)


. , ,
, : w IN, m CONT (
, ), l
SUPER ( ), d APUD (), l SUB (), kl POST (,

, ).
,
, ,
gb l w zr ( IN)
, gb l m zr ( CONT)
.
9.3.6.
.
:

3sg:Pst+
(171)

yr

pl

1pl:Pst+

(172)


, :

1pl:Pst+
(173)

pl

3sg

1pl


, ..


3pl:Pst+
(174)

pl

2pl

SUB

(* )


, , ,
. , , ,
,
. ,
, :

2sg:Pst+

3sg

3pl

(175)

m
2sg:Pst+
(176)

g ,
3 ..

Kl

3sg:Pst+

Prf

(177)

9.3.7.
, , , kp
drl :

(178)

wl

kp

Def

3sg:Pst+

1sg:Pst+
(179)

dr-l

-TEMP

9.4.

.
k ( ks, s, s
). ,

:

1sg:Pst+
(180)

3sg

2sg:Pst+

, (. , )

3sg-St+

1sg

BENEF

2sg:Hab+

(181)

, (. , )

:
o
3sg:Pst+
(182)

we

ke

nu

3sg:Pst-

Neg

, we


, :

3sg:Pst+
(183)

ml

3sg:Pst+

Prf

, , (. , )

9.5.
na +
:
zrua

na

mi

gbo

pi

..

2sg:Hab+

(184)

-o

cica-lo

na

wa

1sg-St+

-Prg

3sg:Hab+3

wo

ca

ni.

IN
(185)

1sg

BENEF

, ()

b-l

1sg-St+

-Def

3sg:Hab+

(186)

(.. n)
, :

:

kp- p

1sg:Pst+

-Mns

1sg

BENEF

(n)

dr

m dl

1sg:Hab+

(187)

() , .

kp

1sg:Pst+

1sg

BENEF

3sg:Hab+

3sg

(n)

(188)

dr

() , .

, :

kp

1sg:Pst+

1sg

BENEF

3sg:Hab+

n / *

(189)

dr

() , .

,
k, . ,
:

kp

1sg:Pst+

1sg

BENEF

dr

3sg:Hab+

3sg

(190)

() , (,) .

. (183) ,
?

9.6. :
SOV:
. ,
.

:
o

ma

waplo

3gs:Pst+

1sg::L

gble

(*o

ma

gble

waplo)

(191) . ( '
)

,
, :
o

vi

waplo

ni

Kola

kuma

3sg:Hab+

:L

BENEF

(192)

zu

mi

lu

Kola

kuma

3sg:Pst+

2sg

SUB

(193)

(*Kola kuma waplo ni)

(*Kola kuma mi lu)

. , , ,
, , :

3sg:Pst+
(194)

gbl

(OK n gbl)

3sg

1sg

BENEF

l]

w]

3sg:Pst+

1sg

3sg

IN

(195) . (
)

,
:

zr

gbl

3sg:Pst+

(196)

(*gbl n)

,
:

3sg:Pst+
(197)

km

( n m km)

2sg

3sg:Pst+
(198)

zr

zr

km

gbl

( gbl m km)

2sg


, ,
:
?

3sg:Pst+3
(199)

[k

gbl

2sg:Pst-

Neg

, .

[k

n]

3sg:Pst-3

2sg:Pst+

Neg

(200) , ,
. - ,
. .

:
S

DO

SO/Pred/Obl Circ

Neg

10.
10.1.
: + (
ni) , ka , .

1sg
(201)

de

ma

1sg:Foc
(202)


:
[L

yaa]

[s

jate-li

do]

-Ag

(203) . (.
)


.
10.2.
:
+ ( ,
):
mi-o

gboyo

2sg-St+
(204)

wo

Def

IN

ka-a

2pl-St-

Neg

(205)

a
-o

wla

1pl-St+
(206)

-o

1sg-St+ 3sg
(207)

lo

10.3.
: ( ) +
+ we ( wa) + (
).
wlu

we

(208)

wlu

wa

.Neg Neg

(209)

, .:
ma

we

1sg:Ex

(210)

mi

we

2sg:Ex

(211)

we

3sg:Ex

(212)

:
ma

wa

1sg:Ex

.Neg Neg

(213)

mi

wa

2sg:Ex

.Neg Neg

(214)

wa

3sg:Ex// 3sg:Ex- .Neg Neg


(215)

10.4.
: ( ) + +
(+ ).

:
a.

g.

b.

3sg:Hab+

(216) a.
. b.
.

wa-a

3sg-St-

Neg

, ,
,

):
a.

mi

jaa

b. *g

2sg
(217)

a. !

jaa

do

b. *


. ma.
asagbe

(218)

gbagbe

ma.
CONT

, .

gbln ,
lo.
Laz,

mi

gbl

2sg:Hab+

(219)

Beya

lo
SUPER

10.5.
: + ( )
P

[f

sro

doba

Rel

3sg:Pst+

:L

na] ?

Top

(220)

1pl

de

[f

Rel

3sg:Pst+ 1sg

(221)

lo a

wal

klua

na]

Top

? (. , ?)

kl

wo

IN

,
:
de

wal

klua ?

3sg:Pst+

1sg

:L

(222)

ka

yi

ye

2pl:Hab+

:L

(223)

ma?

? (. ?)

,
, .
,
, , .
,
( [Creissels, Kouadio 1977: 227]):
wan

ba-li

Cns

3sg

-Prf

Cns

(224) ? ,
n?

11. .
11.1.
11.2.
,
.

-,

, ni) ,
, .

.
,
.

,
, .

6.

St+

St-

Hab+ St+13

St-

Ex-

Ex+

11.3.

.
,
. ,
; /
, ,
.

(),

.

, .
,
, ,
.

13

, .

.

.
,
,
, (
):
na

-o

lu-lo.

DT

1sg-St+

-Prg

(225)

( )

na

ci.

DT

1sg:Hab+

:L

(226)

( )

na

ma

DT

1sg:Foc

(227)

na

g.

DT

1sg:Hab+

(228)

,

, , :

gmla

(229)

gb

gb.

St+

(. )

kloo

nan,

da

1sg:St+

1sg

gbene

zn

fn

sekpa

3sg:Hab+

(230)

, .

,
:
yra , (
, l (
) :
a.
(231)

a.

ma

1sg:Foc

b.

o-o

ma

3sg-St+

Cop

1sg:Foc

g.

Cop

g.

b.

1sg:Hab+

1sg:Hab+

(232) .
yra?

! ,

11.4.
11.4.1.

,
. ,
.
,
, .
, , ,
, ,
, , .
-
.
, .
,
,
S, [Lambalgen,
Hamm 2005: 84].

, ,
,
,
.

, , ,
, . , ,
:
, - -
, (,
) .
-, language-specific.
,
:

,
14.
S ,
:


14

(, ,

)
,
(denotes a situation viewed in its entirety, without regard to
internal temporal constituency) [Comrie 1976: 12].


(
,
, .
).
, (, )
, ,
- ,
:



,
.
. ,
, , .
. .
[Talmy 1985: 77] ? .

, , -
(,

, , , [Chung,
Timberlake 1985]).
, ,
, S.
, S P.

[Nedjalkov, Jaxontov 1998: 6]:

( [Nedjalkov, Jaxontov 1998])



( [Nedjalkov, Jaxontov 1998])
,
(. 11.4.2)
,
. , ,
( + )
(
). [Nedjalkov, Jaxontov 1998]
,
.
, ( [Nedjalkov, Jaxontov
1998])

, .. ,
, . ,
, ,
,
: * , *
,

: ,
,
.
,

,

// * // * .
,
, .
:
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , *
, * ..

;

. ,
, , , ,
, (.
[ ]).

; -,
:
, .
(= [Nedjalkov, Jaxontov
1998]) ,
,
- .


,
,
S, (
) ( )
S.
-
-- .
. , , ?

, , ,
,
, . , ,
, .
-, , ,
,
:
yri

o-o

Def

3sg-St+ -Res

(233)

dra-l

(*gble)

( *).

yri

Def

3sg:Pst+ -Prf

(234)

dra-na

gble

( ).

,
. , S
(, , , , ,
, ).
, ..
.
. , ,

),
, :

a.

lu

tri-na.

1sg:Pst+

-Prf

(235)

a.

dri

1sg
b.OK

*-o

lu

tri-l.

(237)

tri-na

3sg:Pst+

-Prf

1sg-St+

-Res

a.

kl

dra-na.

dri

o-o

tri-l

1sg

3sg-St+

-Res

b. ()

b.

kl

1sg:Pst+ -Prf
1sg
a) b)
a.

a) b) ( )

(236)

a.

b.

b.OK

*-o

kl

dra-l.

1sg-St+

-Res

kl

1sg

a) ??

dra-na

3sg:Pst+

-Prf

o-o

dra-l

3sg-St+

-Res

b)

, , . ,
, .
,
.
, 15 (
), 16 ( ,
). , ,
, . ,
,
.
;
.
, ,
, :
a.

-o

15

mi

d-l

b. -o

mi

ye-l

achievement

.
16

accomplishment

1sg-St+
(238)

a.

2sg -Res

1sg-St+

a.

b.

o-o

3sg-St+

1sg .-Res

(239)

2sg -Res

di-n

b. -o

a. .

1sg-St+
b.

dodo-l

..-Res

, , ,
:
*-o

dru-l

1sg-St+

-Res

, :

ml -l

3sg-St+

3sg

-Res

(240)

(.. ), .

3sg:Pst+
(241)

ml

3sg


( ). :
S ,
S.


.

11.4.2.

,
.
, .
: ,
.

za

pe

:Pst+

:L

(242)

/ () .

:
-o

kale

lu-lo

-St+

-PRG

(243)

().

go,
:
go

ra-lo

NGO

1sg:-PRG

(244)

la

St+ Top

(245)

ba

na

go

lul nu

o-o

srobi-llo

NGO

3pl-St+

-PRG

PL

, .

go (.15)
:
la

ba

St+

(246)

go

lul nu

o-o

srobi-llo

NGO

3pl-St+

-PRG

PL

() , () .


, :
,
/ (.
[ 1998: 92-105]).

pi

ci

:Hab+
(247)

:L

().

: , .
-o

jo

-St+

:B

(248)

/ .

: ,
.

nu-na

:Pst+

-Prf

(249)

( )

.
jra

o-o

d-l

3sg-St+

.-Res

(250)

(
, . 0)
min

mi

:Cnd
(251)

w-l

ci

na

mi

wa

ye

:Bsq

Top

:Hab+

:L

, .

, (
, ):

wla

:Hab+ :Bsq
(252)

ka

dru

:Hab+ :L
(253)

. (.91)
:
ma

nu-sa

1sg:Pst-

-PerfNeg NEG

(254)

(8
2 ) .
( )
.
,
.
,
.

7.

10.

11.

8.

(Pst+)

(Pst-)

(Pst+)

(Pst-)

(Hab+)

(Pst-)

(Hab+)

(Hab-)

(Cnd-)

(Hab-)

(Cnd+)

(St-)

, (St+)

9.

m ml d

Pst+, V:L

mi ml d

Pst-, V:L

m ml d n

Pst+, V n

mi ml d s

Pst-, V s

(mi ml ye.l)

St+, V.l

(mi ml y.l )

St-, V.l

mi ml dl o

St+, V.()l

mi ml dl

St-, V.()l

mi ml d

St+, V

m ml d

St-, V

(m ) ml d

Hab+, V

m ml d

=. .

m ml d

Cnd+, V

m ml d

= .

m ml d

Hab+, V:L

m ml d

Hab-, V:L

. Pst , St , Hab
, Cnd ; +
, - ; V , V:L
( )

11.5.

, .
: + ( ) +
+ m.

, (
), :

dr

w-l

3sg-St+

-Nzr

CONT

(255)

( ) .

t
n , :

r-l

1sg:St+:-Prg

( )
(256) d

c -y
-Gl

( r
yr,

t)
:

n t:
, , ;


:
, .


12.


n t + .

n t ,
:

3sg :Pst+

:L

3sg

:L

(257)

13.

t n ,
b , .
(= (63) (64)):

nu

dru-ya

(*

dr

wo

dru-ya)

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

(258)

. (* // )

dru-ya

1sg:Pst+

:L

-GL

(259)

c .


, .. (. 9.6;
. [ 2004]).
ya:

jtl

k-l

dr-y

1sg-St+

V-Prg

-Plc

(260)


,
. ,
, , 9.4 9.5.
,
. ,
,
. ,
,


[Hawkins 1990].

14.

n, :

Gb

3sg:Pst+

Top

zr

kl n

3sg:Pst+

IN

Def

(261) (. ,
).

nu

na

:Pst+

:L

Top :Pst+

(262)

zro.
:L

(. , ).


( n) .
.
, ,
().
( ) -

(,

..):

Gb

3sg-St+

Top

zr

kl n

3sg:Pst+

IN

Def

(263) (. ,
).

-o

kloo

na,

da

1sg-St+

Top

1sg

3sg:Hab+

gbene

dodo.

Def

(264)

, .

,
:

Gb

3sg:Cnd+

Top

zr

kl

3sg:Hab+

Def

IN

(265)

, () .

15.


: + +

.
: d

n . f
d k (. , ).

.
:

(..
, , ,
) ,
:

ml

Rel

3sg:Pst-

:L

3sg

Neg

w-

jr

d- l

.Neg

3sg-St-

3sg

-Res

Neg

(266) , (
)

(..
, )
(
, .. ):

sr

gb

Rel

3sg:Cnd

1sg-St+

(267)

Mi

go

2sg:Cnd

ma

CONT

Eci

mi

ye-l

Def

St+

2sg

-Res

(268)

, .. , ,
, ,
,

. ,
g (
). :

-l

1sg:Hab+

wl

-Nzr :Bsq

NGO

wl

dr

St-

1sg

POSS

Neg

(269) , . (,

)


,


.

:
P S.
, , ,
S P, S , :

P ,
(

);

P (
, . (271)),
wo
;
;

:
Top

[Saa

(270)

[baa

l]i

Foc

wo]k

[oi

ba

Def

IN

Foc

3sg:Hab+

:L

[pi

cil]i

a i

-Nzr

Foc

3sg:Pst+

3sg :L

(271)

k]

yri

wo]

Foc


.
,

:
[Zr

Rel 2sg-St+

(272)

mi-o

ye] i

3sg

mi

mi

[zr

2sg:Hab+

2sg

bi-] i

ya.

-Def

-,
,
- , .
:

[na

gmla

ga

kl

n] Top

.
Foc

3sg:Hab+

IN

Top

. : ,

[a

d -l

kpi

ma] Foc

3sg

-Def

3sg:Pst+

:L

CONT

: ,

gmla

ga

kl

Foc

3sg:Pst+
:L
: () .

(273)

, - , .

IN

Foc

,
,
, ,
, .
15.1.
: P + ( na) + S. ,
, .
,
, (
). :
[Gble

na]

toobi

pla

Top

pa

ce

ma.

3pl:Pst+

:L

CONT

(274)

dri

puu

l]i

gbli

du-na

ai

1sg

Def

-Prf

3sg IN

(275)

wo.

, na

, , :

,
, ,
;

, ,
, .

15.2.
: ( ) + +
p l, p dr na + S. - p l , ,
p dr na , . //
1sg , 1pl
/p/ (m, ap//am).
m

nuna

1sg:Pos

Def

1sg:Pst+

-Prf

(276)

Doba

wa

fa

gbl-n

Pos

Def

3sg:Hab+3 :L -Def

na

wa

so

lolo

we

Top

3sg:Hab+3 :L

dr

Pos

(277) [ , ] ,
.

15.3.
: P + + S + na.
,
. :
[gbe

bb

ye] i

nan

[sieaatii

lo] j

:Pl

3pl

Top

Foc

j i]

[o

sie

tu

3pl:Hab+

:L

(278)

Foc

sa pe
, .
sape

wal

ma

1sg:Hab+3 :B

(279)

Foc

ble

.
Foc

15.4. .

in situ, .. ,
. ( 1sg 3sg,
, -,
) :
sese

mia

3sg:Hab+

2sg:Foc 2sg

(280)

mi

so
:L

mia

mi

nu-na

2sg:Foc

2sg:Pst+

-Prf

aa

nu-na

3sg:Foc

3sg:Pst+

-Prf

(281)

(282)


bl
,
Lmle

nun

kp

eman

bl

gble.

PL

3pl:Pst+

:L

1sg:

.Foc

(283)

kla

mi

di

bl.

3pl

2sg

APUD

.Foc

(284)

Kala

o-o

bl

Def

3sg-St+

.Foc

(285)

. .

Kala

o-o

we

Def

3sg-St+

(286)


. . [
],
.

.
. , [ 1961]
11 72.,
[, 1997] 37 141
[, , 2000] 27 112
.
:

,
, , ,
.

,
).

,

,
.


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39. 2006 . . . ,
.
. ., 2006.
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. .
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43. 2004 . . .

//

. . , 2004.
44. ,

2000 . . , . . ,

. . . . ., , 2000.
45. 2004 . . . :
. . ., 2004.
46.

1983

// .
1981, ., 1983
47. . . . // .
. ., . ., . ., .
. , . , 180235
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.
. ., 2003
50.

1998:

:
. , ., 1998


1.........................................
9
2...................................
10
3..................... (
).................................................................. 20
4........................
............................................................................................................ 39
5........................... ,
........................................................................................... 57
6........................
............................................................................ 80
7................
92
8....
............................................................................. 9293
9..................
............................................................................................ 93

()
X//Y (X Y )
+

-
1
2
3 , 3sg
Ag
APUD APUD
Atr
Bsq ( )
L
Cnd
Cns -
CONT CONT
Cop -
Def
DT
Ex
Foc
Hab
IN IN
Men
Neg
Nzr
Pos /

POST POST
POSS POSS
Pst
Prf
pl
Plc
Prg
Red
Res
Rfl

sg
St
SUB SUB
SUPER SUPER
Top
V