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143.21(2.)-2+143.21-2
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178
, ..
( ) [] / .. . : - .
-, 2012. 178 .

178


, XX .
, : -, XX ; -, ,
XX , XX ,
XX ; -,
XX .
,
.


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:
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, 2012 .
.., 2012 .

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..................................................................................................................................................................6
1. .............8
1.1. ...........................................................................................................................8
1.2. ( .) .......13
1.2.1. ............................................................................................................13
1.2.2. .........................................................................................................15
1.2.3. .....................................................................................................19
1.2.4. ............................................................................................21
1.2.5. ...............................................................................................................23
1.2.6. ...........................................................................................................25
1.3. .....................................................................27
...................................................................................................................................................................28
2.
.............................................................................................................................................................30
2.1. .......................................................................................30
2.1.1. .....................................................................................................30
2.1.1.1. .....................................................................................30
2.1.1.2. (, , , ) .....................................................................................................35
2.1.1.3. ...............................38
2.1.2. ..................................................................................46
2.1.2.1. ...............................................................................46
2.1.2.2. ............................................................................49
2.1.2.2.1. ............................................................................................50
2.1.2.2.2. .............................................................................................53
2.1.2.2.3. ...........................................................................................55
2.1.2.2.4. .................................................................................58
2.1.2.2.5. .........................................................................................59

2.1.2.3 .....................................................59
2.2. ...................................................................................61
2.2.1. ..........................................................................................................................61
2.2.1.1. .....................................................................................61
2.2.1.2. (, , , ) .....................................................................................................63
2.2.1.3. ...............................65
2.2.2. ..................................................................................71
2.2.2.1. ...............................................................................71
2.2.2.2. ............................................................................73
2.2.2.2.1. ............................................................................................73
2.2.2.2.2. .............................................................................................74
2.2.2.2.3. ...........................................................................................75
2.2.2.2.4. .................................................................................76
2.2.2.2.5. .........................................................................................77
2.2.2.3. ..............................................78
2.3.
...............................................................................................................80
2.3.1. ...................................................................................80
2.3.1.1. .......................................................80
2.3.1.2. .................................................................81
2.3.1.3. .........................82
2.3.2. ..................................................................................84
2.3.2.1. ...............................................................................84
2.3.2.2. ............................................................................85
2.3.2.3. ...................................................................85
...................................................................................................................................................................86
III.
................................................................................................................................................89
3.1. ............................................................................................89

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3.1.1. .......................................................................................................................................91
3.1.1.1. .............................................................................................................91
3.1.1.2. ................................................................................................................91
3.1.1.2.1. - ..............................91
3.1.1.2.2. , ..........................................93
3.1.1.3. .........................................................................................................93
3.2. .......................................................................................94
3.2.1. .......................................................................................................................................94
3.2.1.1. .............................................................................................................94
3.2.1.2. ................................................................................................................94
3.2.1.2.1. - ..............................94
3.2.1.2.2. , ...................................................................98
3.2.1.3. .........................................................................................................98
3.3.
.......................................................................................................................98
3.3.1. ................................................................................................................99
3.3.2. ...................................................................................................................99
3.3.3. ..........................................................................................................100
................................................................................................................................................................100
IV.
...............................................................................................................................104
4.1. ................................................................................104
4.1.1. .........................................105
4.1.1.1. - ...................................................................105
4.1.1.2. ....110
4.2. ............................................................................111
4.2.1. .........................................112
4.2.1.1. - ..................................................................112
4.2.1.2. ....................................................................................................................114
4.3.
............................................................................................................115
4.3.1. ............................................................................115
4.3.2. ...........................................................................116
4.3.3. ......................................................116
................................................................................................................................................................117
V.
..............................................................................................................120
5.1. .......................................................................120
5.1.1. ..................................................................121
5.1.2. .................................................................122
5.1.2.1. c ..............................................................................................................................................122
5.1.2.2. , , ,
........................................................................................................124
5.1.2.2.1. ................................................................................................................................................... 124
5.1.2.2.2. ,
.........................................................................................................................................126
5.1.2.2.3. ( )
........................................................................................................................127
5.1.2.2.4. ........................127
5.1.2.2.5. ........................................127
5.1.2.2.6. ...............................128
5.2. ..................................................................128
5.2.1. ...................................................................128
5.2.2. ...................................................................130
5.2.2.1. c ..............................................................................................................................................130
5.2.2.2. , , ,
........................................................................................................133

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5.2.2.2.1. ...................................................................................................................................................133
5.2.2.2.2. ,
.........................................................................................................................................135
5.2.2.2.3. ( )
........................................................................................................................135
5.2.2.2.4.
...........................................................................................................................................135
5.2.2.2.5. .........................................135
5.2.2.2.6. ................................136
5.3.
..................................................................................................136
5.3.1. ....................................................................136
5.3.2. ...................................................................136
5.3.2.1. .................................................................137
5.3.2.2. , , , ............................................137
5.3.2.3. ..........................................................................137
5.3.2.4. ...........................138
5.3.2.5. ...........138
.................................................................................................................................................................138
VI.
...............................................................................................................................141
6.1. .....................................................................................141
6.1.1. ...................................................................................................................................141
6.1.2. .............................................................................................................................143
6.2. .................................................................................143
6.2.1. ...................................................................................................................................143
6.2.2. .............................................................................................................................146
6.3.
......................................................................................................................147
6.3.1. ...................................................................................................................................147
6.3.2. .............................................................................................................................147
.................................................................................................................................................................148
.........................................................................................................................................................150
....................................................................................................................................................152
...........................................................................................................................................161
........................................................................................................................................................164

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, ,
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. , , . , , . , . , .. . , , (.. , .. , .
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XX XXI . : .. (2003), .. (2001),
.. (1999), .. (1984; 1985), .. (1983; 1998; 2000), ..
(2002), . . (2010), .. (2001), .. (1990), O.A. (1996), ..
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Ch.F. Meyer, W. Nash .; : .. , .. .
- . . [ 2000].

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1


1.1.
. , ,
, . , , , ,
(), , . ,

.
V , , , , . ,
VI ., VII ., .
VIII . .
. (Skelton 1933:161).
, .
VIII . , , :
1. The man, who witnessed the accident, has disappeared.
2. He declared that he was innocent.
3. It is said, that the Emperor has returned.
. ,
The Kings English (1940) .
close VIII .
.
, ,
. ,
, , .
, , , - . , ,
. , .. , , ,
. ,
, , , ,
. ; , ,
, ;
, , .. ( 1939:142-145). , ,
, -. , , , , .. ; , .
, , , , ( 1956:128).
, , , . ,
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- , ( 1968:65-66).
, , , ,
.
, , , (perfect in sense). , ;
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, comma; periodus, (Puttenham G. The Art of English Poesie. .:G.G. Smith. Elizabethan Critical Assays, vol.II. Oxford, 1904, p.771).
, , , , 1 ., , (MeKnight 1928:421),
I . , 1,
2, 3 4.
.
, .. ,
. XVI .
, .
, , , ( 1998:24).
,
, . .. , ,
, .
VII . VIII .
,
. (VII .) , (VIII
.) , .. , ,
( 1968:66-67). ,
. , ;
; , , , ); , , . . ; (segment),
(Jonson 1972:83; Butler 1914:50-58; Cooper 1953:115; Lowth 1769:196).
. , . (1619) (A. Gill. Longonomia Anglica. Londini, 1621), ,
, ( 1968:67).
; , , ,
(Brightland 1714:124). , ( , ,
) , ,
(Lowth 1769:196) .
The English Grammar (1640)
.
: , . . .
1 . .
:
,
.. ( 2000:155). , , , , , .. .
. , , , , (Angus 1863:328). ,
. .
1900 . . .
, .
.. , . , , , . , ,

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, . , .
. , . , . , .
. , , (Lennie 1871:164). .
. , (Compton 1898:36;
Lewis 1900:27). . ;
(Maxwell 1889:224).
.
1908 . , .
43 . ,
.
. : close and loosepunctuation. , , . ,
(Spencer1908:75). (loose)
.
, .
.. , . , ,
. , . : ( 2000:157).
? , , ,
(, , .),
(, . , , , ).
1-
. (1933). . elocutionary principle,
, .. .
. ,
: , ..,
.
, . : , , . .
, - , , -,
, ,
. , , ,

(, 1959:7-8).
II- . . . .
(1987), . (1976),
. (1987), (1987).
..
( 1990:50-57). , , .. ,
: ,
, .
, .. , (, , ) .
.. ( ), : , , (,
, , ).
, .
.. ( ),
.

10

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, , : , .
.. ,
( ): 1)
; 2) , .. , . , ,
. ,
. , , , , , .
.. , ,
. : .
,
VIII I . . . , , , , . , , .
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; 2) , , . , ,
, , , .
, , .
, .. , .
.. ( , . ) ,
, .. . . ,

, , - .
. . (, , ) ; , ,
(Nash 1987:116,123-124). .
,
, , .
. . ( VII .). , . . , . .
- .
, , ( ) .
(Treip 1976:11) .
. , , , , , .
,
.
.
() , (, ) .
. , VII . , . , . . . .
. ,

11

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. , , (Treip 1976:39-40).
, , , ; , ( . )
, . . - .
. , , , .
, .. ,
. . , ,
, ,
,
.
. 1500-1800 . , (-) () .
, . - (Salman 1988:297).

.
.. , ,
, , . .
,
.
.. .. , 1959 , . , ,
. , .
.. Modern English Punctuation (1972) . .
, , . , . , , ,
, , .
. . ( 1991;
1999), ( 1985; .. 1989; 1996; 1995), ( 1998).
I . .. .. (2000), .. (2001), ..
(2004). .. (2001),
- .
I I .
VII I . . : , , ,
, - , , .
.. :
, () ,
.., , , , , -, . , ,
.
: , ,
, .
, , ( 2002:297). , , .

12

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1.2.
(VII .)
. , .
, , , () .
, , , . , .
, , . ,
,
.
(XVII .) (Jonson (1972); Cobbet (1847);
Wharton (1856); Wilson (1856); Summey (1919); Simpson (1911); Nesfield (1944); Partridge (1955) .
, . .. , , , , ( 1989:32). , ,
, . , .. . , , , . , , . ,
, , .
. .
.
, , , , .
, , . . , . ,
.
, .
, .
, ,
, , , , , , , .. .
.
, , . -, , . , , , , , .. ( 1968:4-5).
, .. , , , , , , ,
, .. ( 1968:7-8).
,
. , .. , , , ..
, .. ,
, VI ., ( 1960:208), , , , VII .
I . ,
.
1.2.1.
, .
, , , , . , , , . (Wilson 1856:135) ,

13

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. , . , .
(Skelton 1933:60).
, , ,
.
.
, ,
, ( ). .
, (Skelton
1933:62).
I . , . ,
, ,
: There are thoughts and images flashing across the mind in its highest moods, to which we give
the name of inspiration. || But whom do we honour with this title of the inspired poet (Wilson 1856:143).
, ,
, . , , , and , : For the kingdom of heaven is like
unto a man that is a householder, who went out early in the morning to hire laborers into his vineyard. || And,
when he had agreed with the labores for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And he went (Wilson
1856:143).
. ,
. Was it in consequence of such injunctions that an acuress dealing with
the causes of the war delivered by a distinguished professor of history elicited from a woman of notoriously German sympathies the comment, It was fine; he balanced things so beautifully.|| W.H. Hobbs (Summey 1919:62).
, .
,
.
, , , .
, .
. , subject-predicate,
high-low (Whitehall 1956: 125). The more, the merrier. || To resume.

(, 1959:82). Celts and Iberians.
The Iberians were followed by a swarm of new-comers called Celts.
. , , open
punctuation , close punctuation (Websters New International Dictionary of the English 1958). Close punctuation , .
, (Partridge 1955:2).
70- . .
I . . .
I . , . , , , (Wilson 1856:279). . . , .
, : Mr, Mrs, St,
Dr .. . . : , , , : Dr
Comb, Mr Buckingham .. (Wilson 1856:149). ( I .)
. . , . ,
. .
. . , : Mr.,
Mrs., Dr., St., Ave., Gr., Sr., a.m. 50- . (, 1959:18). 80- .
. ,
, . SOS, cos, tan, mph, rpm. - , .
National Industrial Recovery Act and the Tennessee Valley Authority- N.I.R.A. and T.V.A., a N I R A and T
V A.

14

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. ,
NYPL, N. Y. P.L. (New York Public Library), NYC,
N.Y.C. (New York City). , ,
, .
e.a. ea = each
O.E. OE = Old English
M.S. MS = manuscript
1.2.2.
comma . I . .. .
(comma)
. VII ., . , . , (Jonson 1972:83; Wharton 1856:84). , . . , , , 30 (Skelton 1933:14). , , ,
.
I .
, ,
(Cobbet 1847:81).
50- . . , VII-III-I . , ,
(Carey 1958:48): (1) It is not so much a crime, || as a foolish blunder. (2) He
was so tall, || that he could easily see over the heads of the crowd. . (Perrin 1955:365).
., , . .
, .
, - , , . , ,
, .
, .
, , , , ,
. ,
, , . , , , , . , .
, ,
. , , . 99%
,
(Skelton 1933:14):
1. ;
2. ;
3. .

. .
( ,
).
,
, , ..
) I . ,
(2 3), (Wilson 1856:52). Immensity, sublimity, are
expressed by a prolongation of the voice. ,
. , and, or, nor, . Sculpture, painting,
and poetry will always have admirers. , -

15

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.
(Fowler, Fowler 1940 :258-259). Industry, honesty, and temperance, are essential . 1 .
(Fowler, Fowler 1940: 258-259): (1) Industry, honesty and temperance are essential; (2) Industry, honesty and temperance, are essential; (3) Industry, honesty, and temperance are essential
, ,
. ,
.
50- . , . , and or (Carey 1957:15),
(Wilson 1856:37). , ,
.
) I-
, and or, nor . . , . (Skelton 1933:16) ,
. Scones, bread and butter, || and cake. . Scones, bread and butter || and cake. .
. , , .
, . , , ,
.
50- . and (Whitehall 1956:127; Kierzek
1951:91; Perrin 1955:365; Gowers 1954:62), , ,
(Partridge 1955:16):
Jack, Jill || and Tom went up the hill.

Jack, Jill, || and Tom went up the hill.


, ,
Jill - , . , , .
) 70- . ,
, . , ,
, . (Sklar 1972:14). The sworn evidence of six Bolivian muleteers, testifying to the shooting and to its being
unprovoked; Huberts countering statement the exhibition of his scar, his record, || and the evidence of Hallorsen, formed the material on which the magistrate was invited to come to his decision. . . , and (
1973:311).
) I . , , , and, or, nor (Wilson 1856:28). , .
, , , .
, . . : Jack, and Jill, went
up the hill. , , Jack went up the hill. So
did Jill. He was a very able and dishonest man. . dishonest , :
He was a very able, and dishonest, man. able dishonest , . . , , . : Jill
clasped his hands, and cried.
) I . , , and, or, nor. . , , (Wilson 1856:99). Some men would be distinguished in their occupation or pursuit or
profession, or in the style of living, or in the dignity of office, or in the glare and pride and pomp of power.
,
and, or, nor, , : Through the soul we have direct
access to God, and, by a trustful heart and a submissive ill and a devoted service, may spiritual unite ourselves
with him. . , .. ,
(Skelton 1933: 19): (1) And there were voices, || and thunderings, || and lightning (2)
And there were voices || and thunderings || and lightning. . 30- ., 50- . , ,
(Perrin 1950 :365). We could have traveled by car || or by train || or by airplane. ..
.. (60- .) ,
(, 1959:56). 70- . .

16

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) I . ,
(Wilson 1856:37): Alfred the Great was a brave,
pious, and patriotic prince. 30- . (Skelton 1933:18). 50-
. . , .
, , a, b, and c,
a, b and c (a, b, c ). . :
, and (Partridge 1955:17).

. , . , ?
) I . , , . , ,
, (Wilson 1856:51). The good taste of the present age,
has not allowed us to neglect the cultivation of the English language. . , ,
. ,
, ,
. , : , ,
, . The
man of talent merely is strong for enterprise and execution. a man of mere talent , merely . , a man of talent who is strong only for enterprise and execution , .
, , (Perrin 1950: 369): Nelsons swift and angry
reply to the massage was that he would pay no bribes. , . A seal or two, a pencilcase, a pair of sleeve-buttons, and a brooch of no great value, || were all.

, , , . . . .
, ,
, . . , . Crafty men contemn
studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them.
) 30-50- ., , , .
, , ,
, (Skelton 1933:22; Gowers 1954:241). 40- .
. (Nesfield 1944:132).
. 70- . , ,
: (1) , (2) , (3)
. : One hand went to the heart, the other outstretched toward the
flag. ,
, .
, : He has looked at me with those eyes of his. They do not love; they threaten; they are savage as a wild tigers. The man was not just clear, he was wise. , ,
, , . 70- . , . No one replied: they had probably not understood. I understand it
all a child could understand!
) , and, but,
, (Skelton 1933:22): The Dormouse fell asleep in saintly, and neither
of the others took the least notice of her going.
1- . , , -

17

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. ,
. Miss Vinci was alone, and (she) blushed so deeply when Lydgate came in.
40- . , ,
, ,
(Fowler, Fowler 1940:264): and, or, nor, but, so, for .
. (40- .) for. .
, , (Kierzek 1939:289).
, .
, .
and , .
50- . , , . but, however, for, since. 70- . and (
), ( ), . or . but while , , .
, neither, nor, 1 . (Wilson
1856:94), 70- . , ( 1973:314).

, , , , , , (, ), , ,
. , ,
, , , , , (,
1959:32-33). , , .
. ,
. , , . , , .
: , (, ),
(an afterthought), .
, ( , , .).
. , , ,
. ,
( ): What truth she felt in
his speech made the Game but the more formidable. -1 .
, 50- .
(1) , (Wilson 1856:53): Whatever is, is right.
(2) (,
1959:35): Who he was, or why he came, or what he intends to do, while all be found in time. , , , : How it came to be known that he sought the secret of perpetual motion, is beyond me. 70- .
. (Sklar 1972:48; 1973:316),
.

18

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(3) : What had saved him from becoming a cross between a lap dog and a little prig, had been his fathers adoration of his mother.
(4) ,
,
(, 1959: 35): What truth she felt in his speech made him Game but the more formidable.
,
.
(Partridge 1955:35). . ,
. (Simpson 1911:42): He wrote a Letter, that thy Father found.
. VIII .
, (Maittaire
1967:195). , . They
that are in the flesh, cannot please God. . They , , , flesh They can. I ., . ,
: He that places himself neither higher nor lower
than he ought to do, exercises the truest humility. ,
( ) VII .
I ., ,
. .
1.2.3.
Book of Common Prayer ,
, : My tongue is the pen: of a ready writer. ,
, . . II .
.
, VII . . , , .
, . ,
, .
VII . , , . ,
(Jonson 1972:83). .
: ,
(Wharton 1970:84). . : ,
, (Maittaire 1967:191).
, . I .
.
, , , ,
1 (Wilson 1856:129). , I .
.
) , ,
: Avoid affectation; for it is a contemptible weakness. Avoid affectation: it is a contemptible weakness.
) I . , 2
, , .
(Wilson 1856:134): We perceive the shadow to have moved
along the dial, but not see it moving; and it appears that the grass has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow:
so the advances we make in knowledge, as they consist of such minute steps, are perceivable only by the distance.
) for, but, and,

(Wilson 1856:113).
) ,
(Wilson 1856:130): Virtue is too lovely and useful to be unmured in a
cell: the world in her sphere of action. , .
(Carey 1957). , - , , , ,
.
(Fowler, Fowler 1940:271). ,
.
. , . , . ,

19

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(Skelton 1933:62). 2 , , . , , -,
(Skelton 1933:61). Englands strategy has always had one dominating aim: command of
the sea. , . ,
, . .
, , . .
) : (1) , . (
, .) (Kierzek 1960:311). (2) , (Whitehall 1956:122); I was just as I thought: he
had stolen no money. (3) (Partridge 1955:8), (an afterthought): He returned the stolen necklace: in the circumstances he could hardly refuse
to return it. (4) , (Perrin 1955:364): Trying to please the manager was useless: he criticized everything we did. ,
(, 1959:77): No one replied: they had probably not understood. , 4
( 1972:43) , ( 1973:33). , , ,
. , . VII . , , . .
, , I . .
) : The words, literally translated,
were these: - The winds roared. .
. , , , .
, .
,
(Wilson 1856:138).
. (Nesfield 1944:185):
) : (1) , : You must now hear what I have to say about the uses of iron: we sleep on iron; we
travel on iron; we float on iron; we plough the fields with iron; we shoot with iron; we chop down trees with
iron: in fact, there is scarcely anything that we can do without the help of this wonderful metal. (2) , : The storm had passed;
the sun was shining on the green leaves of the tree; the streams were dancing around the rocks; the birds hopped
about him, they chirped their cheerful notes:- such were the pleasant scenes and sounds that welcomed the wanderer back to his home. , . , , (Summey 1919:197). , , . .
) . , , , . , . ,
(, 1959:76). . 30- . , , (Skelton 1933:61).
, ,
. , 1 . . , Style Book of Typographical Practice ,
. , , . .
, , :
I reply (or Replying) to your letter of the 13th: , , :
Dear Sir:
Your request is impossible.
, (Partridge 1955:53).
Dear Sir,
Your request is impossible.

20

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, , .
(Carey 1958:29-30). ,
, , . ,
, , - . ,
. 70-
., ( 1973:316): Bosinney replied coolly: The work is a
remarkable one. 10 ( 80- .) , , , , ( 1983:206-207).
) I . yes, no , , , , : Will he pretend to say that this is an offensive war,- a war of conquest? Yes:
the gentleman has dared to make this assertion, and for reasons no less extraordinary than the assertion itself.
) I . (
namely, that is).
, (Wilson 1856:138). I purchased the following articles;
namely, tea, sugar, coffee, and raisins. . that is (
): This is made from in got irons: that is, mild steel. , , , .
namely, viz. .. , , .
) . , , follows, viz.: His arguments are as follows: for one thing, its up to the author to make his choice of form; besides, perceptive reader wont fail to see
his point.
) . (Summey
1919:196-197), , : For if a true novel be a good story well told, it is certain that the
majority of so-called novels are not stories at all: of the saving remnant, only a few are good stories: and still
fewer are well told.
) . (Summey 1919:97), , (Wharton 1970:85), (, 1959:7).
Mathew 1:4-8
11: 30 in the morning ( 11.30)
The Writers Desk Book, New York: Strokes.
, , , , . 60-
. . .
, , . , .
1.2.4.
(semicolon) ,
. II . , ,
, , (Wharton 1970:85). VII-VIII . . , , ,
: ,
, ,
(Maittaire1967:192): The Spirit belpeth our Infirmities; for we know not, what to play for as we ought;
but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groawings, which cannot be uttered. ,
,
.
VIII . .
: , , , (Wilson 1856:130).
Avoid affectation; for it is a contemptible weakness. Avoid affectation: it is a contemptible weakness.
, , VI-VI . .
Venus and Adonis (1593 .), Assays (1597 .),
English Grammar(1643 .). (P.P. Caxton) -
(James Me-Ginnis)
Effective English (.529) , 1643 ., , . (Summey 1919:188). , , 1643 .

21

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, , .
) VII ., , : Ah; who hath reft (quoth me) my
deare t pledge? (Milton, 1673)
) : If thou bee t he; But O how fallh ! how changed. (Milton,1667)
. VIII .,
, .
) VIII . : (1) ,
, (Wilson 1856:125): Stones grow; vegetables
grow and live; animals grow; live, and feel. (2) , , .
: The pride of wealth is contemptible, the pride of barning is pitiable, the pride of dignity is
ridiculous, and the pride of bigotry is in supportable. (3) , for, but, and. , ,
: Economy is no disgrace; for it is better to live on a little than to outlive a great deal. . . , , ,
, , (Wilson
1856:113).
) . , and ,
, (Skelton 1933:63): The ship will sail tomorrow, and we must be on board by moon. . The ship will sail to- morrow, despite the weather; and
we must be on board by moon. .
) . , ,
: (1) , neither, nor , , .. ( 1973:314): Martin did not
laugh; nor did he grit his teeth in anger. (2) , or, eitheror, or else, else , :
The whole world had come alive again, was going at fast as we were, or rather we were going no faster than the
rest of the world. or : She was disappointed or
did it only seem to him? But to live in ignorance on such a point was impossible; or, at least, it was impossible
not to try for information. (3) , but, while
, : His own limits were the limits of her horizon; but limited minds can recognize
limitation only in others. (4) , so
, . . .
, so . . so for , (Partridge 1955:48-40): Becky was
gone to her Constantinople home to stay with her parents during vacations so there was no bright side to life
anywhere.
) 30- . , (Skelton 1933:66): There was no division; none was expected. Some people go by road; others prefer the railway.
. . , , ,
, , , . .
(Perrin 1955:300). ,
, , . : Jerry won the first prize in
the assay contest. His uncle was one of the judges. Jerry won the first prize in the assay contest; his uncle was
one of the judges. .
, . Jerry won the prize, one of the
judges was prejudiced.
) . .
(Sklar 1972:41-43).
1. ,
, : Just one sheep-bell
tinkled from a fold on the rise; just one magnolia flower bloomed close to her window.
2. , , , , : He has looked at me with those
eyes of his. They do not love; they threaten; they are savage as a wild tigers.
3. , so
: The door was open; sounds came from the kitchen.

22

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4. , : Yes, everything about him told a simple tale; this was a


worker.
) I . , ,
, (Wilson 1856:120.). .
: Philosophers assert, that Nature is unlimited in her operations; that
she has inexhaustible treasures in reserve; that knowledge will always be progressive; and that all future generations will continue to make discoveries, of which we have not the slightest idea. By doing, or at least endeavoring
to do, our duty to God and man; by acquiring an humble trust in the mercy and favor of God, through Jesus
Christ; by cultivating our minds, and property employing all unreasonable expectations from the world and from
men; and, in the midst of worldly business, habituating ourselves to come retreat and serious recollection,- by
such means as these, it may be hoped, that, through the divine blessing, our days shall flow in a steam as unruffled as the human state admits (Wilson 1856:121). , .
) I . : ,
, (Wilson 1856:121). C : ,
, , . Poetry reveals to us
the loveliness of nature, brings back the freshness of early feelings, revives the relish of simple pleasures, keeps
unquenched the enthusiasm which warmed the spring- time of our being, refines youthful love, strengthens our
interest in human nature by vivid delineations of its tenderest and loftiest feelings, knits us by new ties with universal being, and, through the brightness of its prophetic visions, helps faith to lay hold on the future life. (Wilson
1856:121-122). , ,
: The world is still renewed with fresh life and beauty, with a constant succession of trees and plants, with a new race of animals, with a new generation of men.
) . ,
(Partridge 1955:50): He did what he was told; because he knew better
than to disobey when the explorer returned to England, he tried to buy a house; when he left England, he tried to
sell it. , , (Perrin 1955:442): Only one thing worried her: namely, how would Kenneth react to being dismissed from his post?
) ,
(, 1959:26): But to make the change three things are necessary:
1. That there should be more and better opportunities for suitable car in his industry for girls;
2. That the development of science should be seen in relation to a balanced secondary school course
) , ,
, , :
The typical response of 8 weeks consists of the following elements:
1. chiefly contra lateral flexion of the neck and trunk;
2. extension (backward movement) of the arms at the shoulder, without participation of the elbow, wrist, or
fingers; rotation of the pelvis toward the contra lateral side, with noticeable independent participation of the
lower extremities.
) (
), , , ;
, .. .. (, 1959:26).
1.2.5.
VII . ,
. .
, , . , , VII .,
. (Jonson 1972).
. , ,
. : (eclipses)
, , (Wharton 1970).
There Chaunticleer the fair was want, and eke his wife to repair
My brother hath us sold
To them of Rome.
, VIII ., , . :
, , , ,

23

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(Maittaire 1967:21). . ( .), , . VIII-I . .


) I . ,
namely, that is , , (Wilson
1856:191): The four greatest names in English poetry are almost the first we come to, Chaucer, Spencer,
Shakespeare and Milton. , . .
.
., ,
(Fowler, Fowler 1940:277). namely, that is ,
1 . .
II- I . . . ., .
, , namely, that is
. (Kierzek 1951:312). Sports develop two valuable traits
viz.., quick decision and self control.
) I . : ,
.. . (Wilson 1856:182): Newton was a
Christian; Newton! whose mind burst forth from the falters east by nature on our finite conceptions;
Newton! Whose science was truth, and the foundation of whose knowledge of it was philosophy; not those visionary and arrogant presumptions which too often usurp its name, but philosophy resting on the basis of
mathematics, which, like figures, cannot lie; Newton! Who carried the line and rule to the utmost berries of
creation, and explored the principles by which, no doubt, all created matter is held together and exists.
. ,
, . . ,
: Our own nature is the first and nearest of all realities, the corner-stone of the
entire fabric of truth.
) I . ,
(Earle 1898:224).
) . ,
, (Fowler, Fowler 1908:276). A years work at Harvard that was
what I hoped for.
) I . (Wilson
1856:186-187): How little may it not be? the most considerate feel the import of a greatfull acknowledgement
to God! . , (
), , ,
. ,
, . .. , .. . , ; ;
, (, 1959:80).
, , 70- . . :
1. , , ,
, ,
( 1972:13).
2. , , , ( 1972:36).
3. ( 1973:312-313).
4. , , (
1973:312-313).
:
1. , , ( 1985:206).
2. ( 1985:205).
) I . , (Wilson 1856:191). 1 . (Nesfield 1944:137). They plucked the seated hills with all their loads rocks, water, woods
and by the shaggy tops uplifting for them in their hands.
II- . ,
( 1973:312). .
) , , ().
1 . . , -

24

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, , (Wilson
1856:187). Sir Smug, he cried (for lowest at the board just made fifth chaplain of his patron lord, his shoulders witnessing, by many a shrug, how much his feeling suffered sat Sir Smug), Your office is to Winnow false
from true : come, prophet, drink; and till us what think you. . .
.
. , .. (Whitehall 1956:133):
D n, he said.
.
, I . , , . . : ,
, , (Wilson 1856:195). 30- .
. . ,
, two-em dash. Hes a d d fool.
, .
) , I- . .
. The Hampstead Chronicle says This book is an ideal gift .. I . (Partridge 1955:83).
it! I asked you not to do that.
) .
( two-em dash, ..
). , , . II-
. , I- . (, 1959:79).
) VIII I . .
,
(Wilson 1856: 194). Who created you? God.
. (, 1959:82).
) . ,
:
1. for so : Aunt Polly asked him questions for she
wanted to trop him into damaging revilements.
2. and ,
: He wondered what boat it was and why she did not stop at the wharf and then he dropped her out
of his mind and put his attention upon his business.
3. (or, eitheror, or else, else)
, , or: She
was disappointed or did it only seem to him?
4. (but, while, whereas) , ,
: He was driven out into the cold world, he must submit but he forgave them.
1.2.6.
VII . . , . . ,
. , .. ,
, . ,
quoth me (Simpson 1911:88). You do looke ( my ain ) in a mond ort.
, . , , (Wilson 1856:169-170).
VII . , ,
.
VIII . , . , , VI-VII . , ,
VIII . . ,
(Wilson 1856:167).

25

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) : , (Wilson 1856:170). Every star, if we may judge by analogy, is a sun to a system of planets.
) says I, says he ., , .
) I . . (Wilson 1856:167). :
, (Nesfield 1944:137). At the age of ten such
is the power genius he could read Greek with facility.
) I . , : , (Summey
1919:234). :
, ( ),
(Skelton 1933:73). Miss Brown, far from enjoying herself, was obviously ill at case. Miss Brown (the younger
one), far from enjoying herself, was obviously ill at case. , . ,
. . Miss Brown the younger one far from enjoying
herself was obviously ill at case.
. far . , (Summey 1919:234). The voluntary labour corps (which began
as a means of enabling men, if they wished to do so, to give a return in labour for their dole) is to be put on a
compulsory basis. , , , , . , , (Skelton 1933:74). A sea voyage on the Atlantic is no use voyage too a sport, sea too rough. I
shall have to go isnt it a nuisance?
) . , ,
, ,
.
, . (Kierzek 1951:31):
1. , .
2. , .
) 70- . : ,
, ,
(Sklar 1972:64). , . From
the back kitchen (the house was sprawled about without any plan) came the singing of a kettle on the stove.
, .
VII . ,
(Butler). ,
, . , . . . , . . .
: My Lord, I will (for honor (not de ire of
Land or liuings) or to be your heire) so quidemy actions Dekker, 1600. VIII .
. . : ,
. , , ,
(Maittaire 1967:199). .
, . 1 . , , ,
(Summey 1919:239).
I . .
, (Wilson 1856:235), .
) , . ( ), 1) ; 2) ; 3) , ; 4)
. ,
:
[ Exeunt Portia and Nerissa.
) , , ,
, ,
(Wilson 1856:235): The captain had several men died [ We died ] in the ship.
. , . , .. ,

26

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, ; , ,
; ..
. .
.
,
:
Bowman Act (22 Stat.L., Ch. [ or see ] 4, p.50)
Court of Claims Style, Government Printing Office.
, .
.,
, . (, 1959:86): [there the author
contradicts himself ( see page 76) ].
1.3.
, ,
, . .. , ( .., 1956). , , :
, , . ,
.. ( 2005:3), , , ,
, , , (,
, )
(, 2000).
, ,
( ), () (.. .). ,
,
. .. 1984 ,
.
, , ,
, -
. , , .. , ,
, , - ( 2000).
.
, .. , , -,
,
. , (: 2008).
, .
, , , ; . ,
, , ( 2000).
, () ; - . . , . ,
, , , .
, , . , , ( 2009).
. ;
, , ,

27

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, : , . , , -.
(, ) . , .. , - (,
2011:66).
. , , ;
, , . ,
, . , ,
, . , ,
, , ( 2000:63; 2009).
, ,
.
( , ..), .., , (, , ). . , , , : (1) -, (2) , (3) , (4) ,
(5) , (6) , (7) , (8) -, (9) -, (10) , (11) [.: .. (2000)]. () - . ( ) , ,
( : 56-67).
(- -)
. ,
, . .
,
, ,
..: .. (2006)
( ),
.. (2007) (
), .. (2009) ( ), ..
(2010) (
), .. .
I
, .
.
. , . .
- , .., . : . . (1987), . (1976), . (1987), (1987).
. : (1) (2) . : (1) ( ) (V.Salmon); (2) () (E. Partridge, G. Carey,
J. Gordon, G. Vallins); (3) ().

28

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. , .. :

( 2000:157).
, , , .
.
. , , .
, . . . . ,
,
. . , () 15-20 .
, . ,
:
, . , . .
, ,
, .. . ,
VIII I . . .
.. ( 2001).

29

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II


2.1.
- -
. , , , , .
2.1.1.
, , .
. , , ,
.
, , , . .
, ( ,
).
2.1.1.1.
)
(1- .) (a, b, c ): (1) a, b, c, + ; (2) a, b, and (or) c; (3) a
and (or) b, c and (or) d,+ ; (4) a and (or) b and (or) c + ; (5) a (. ), and (or) b
(. ).
1. 1- . ( a, b, c, + ) , . Patronizing archness,
shaming tenuousness, spasmodic interruption, scrappy argument, dry monotony, // are some of the resulting impressions (H.&F. 1940:235); Loveliness, maidens, view, the strict subject, // have adjectival phrases attached
after them (H.&F. 1940:248). 50- .
, . . , . ,
(Carey 1958:64). (a, b, c, + ) .
2. a, b, and c,+ .
. 1-
. . . , . (Spelling and Punctuation 1880), , , , , , (Fowler,
Fowler 1940:259). . . : Industry, honesty, // and temperance, // are essential to happiness. , :
Industry, honesty // and temperance // are essential.
Industry, honesty // and temperance, // are essential.
Industry, honesty, // and temperance // are essential.
, , . : Japanese advisers are now attached to the department of the Household, War, Finance, Education, and Police (Times).
and , Education and Police , , .
I- . , ,
( a, b, and c,+ ): The subject, object, or complement, // is not to be separated from
its verb even by a comma (though two commas belonging to an inserted parenthetical clause or phrase or word
may intervene) (H.&F. 1940: 245).
a, b, and (or) c, + II- . , : Jack, Jill and Tom went up the hill
He, she and I are cousins - ., Jack, Jill, and Tom, went up the hill.
He, she, and Tom, are cousins. , -

30

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, Jill she . ,
You have a Point there, ,
, (Partridge 1955:16). ,
and, or (.. ), .
, . , , ,
, . , . :
, , ,
, , (Carey
1958:48). . (Perrin 1955:365). , .. 50- (Carey 1958:
64).
50- .
, , . and or , 50- , : . , , .
60-, 70-,
80-, 90- . , 60- 90- .
, b, and (or) c, +
(, 1959:55; 1972:14),
, , (West,
Kimber 1963:182; 1983:203; 1992:249).
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
.

50- 60-

70- 80-

90-

. 1. ( a, b and c)

.1:

.. . , ,
( 1973:311). , 60- 90- , . , 90- 98 % . Added to all this, the Scientists,
Businessmen and other tribes were becoming more demanding (H.&W. 1987:1). .1 , .
, ,
. . . 50- 60- . . , , (
). 60-, 70- 80-, 90- , .. (70- .)
: . , , ,
(Sklar 1972:14).

31

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, ,
and or, , ,
60- 90- , .
3. a and (or) b, c and (or) d,+
. I- . and (or), . . . (1-
.) : The orange and the lemon, the
olive and the walnut, // elbow each other for a footing in the fat dark earth. F.M. Crawford. , , .
II- . . (Carey 1958: 61-63), a
and (or) b, c and (or) d, + a, b and (or) c and(or) d,+ ,
. , , b and (or) c and (or) d a and (or) b, c and (or) d. 60- ( a and (or) b, c and (or) d, + ) (a and (or) b; c and (or) d + ). .
70--90- : This richness and vitality and precision of the English language form a
kind of capital accumulated by words over countries of active use (Bar. 1985:7).
.
4. 1- ,
( ), and, or, nor, .
, 1- . ,
(.. ): But journalists now and then, ||
and writers with more literary ambition than ability generally, || overdo the thing till it becomes an affectation
(H.&F. 1940:235). , ,
( [a
( ), || and b ( ), || + ]
.
, , ,
: 1. a, b and (or) c + ; 2. a, b, c, + ; 3. a and (or) b and (or) c +
; 4.a and (or) b, c and (or) d,+ ; 5.a and (or) b; c and (or) d + ; 6. a (. ), and (or) b (. ).
)
1. a, b, and (or) c
1- . ( ) a,
b, and (or) c (a, b, c ) ,
and or.
( a, b, and (or)
c) I- . .
To illustrate the first case, when the stops are not affected by rhetoric, but depend on grammar alone, we may
take a short sentence as a nucleus, || elaborate it by successive additions, || and observe how a particular stop
has to go on increasing its purpose, because it must keep its predominance (H.&F. 1940:232).
II- . (50-60- ). 60-
.
(.: 50-
35 % , 60- 60 %). a, b and (or) c
70- 90- . (. 70- 58 %; 80- 63 %; 90- 98 % ).
2. a and (or) b
, ,
. and or . 1- . . : , and, or, nor, (Wilson 1856:28). 1-
. , 90 % .
, , ,
. (. 2), 50- 60 % . , 60--70-

32

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, , .. 80- 90- ,
( 90- 70% .).
,
, , ?
, ,
. (1) It should be added that the book is written rather from the compositors
than from the authors point of view, || and illustrates the compositors natural Weakness <> (H.&F. 1940:
228). 1 is written illustrates .
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
50- 60- 70- 80-
.

90-

. 2. , and (or),

. 2: . .1.
and, .
. .
2 , . , . (2) I cannot do it,
now conveys a further assurance that the speaker would have been delighted to do it yesterday || or will be quite
willing tomorrow (H.&F. 1940:237). 3 , , , . .
. (3) These effects are subordinate, || and must not be allowed to conflict with the main object;
<> (H.& F. 1940:234).
, . (4) A special form of this, in protest
against which we shall give five examples, each from a different well-known author, is when the subject includes
|| and ends with a defining relative clause, after which an illogical comma is placed (H.&F. 1940:249). , .
. .
:
1- ( ), and/or II- ( ) .
1- ( ) and/or II- ( ) .
1- , and/or II- ( ) .
1- and/or II- ( ) .
, . ,
, .
: (5) The objection is quite just, || and shows how soon the powers of the
four stops are exhausted if relentlessly worked (H.&F. 1940:233). 5 is just quite, shows , how soon the powers of the four stops are exhausted if relentlessly
worked. , , . , .
1- ., . , . .
.

33

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II- . .
, . , , , .
. : Jack, and Jill, went up the hill. , ,
, and Jill . ,
, ( man), : He was able and dishonest man. . , ,
.
, 60- , , , ,
, and or,
(, 1959:56; Carey 1958:43). Yet she had no luck and no prospects. ,
, and or, ,
: Ill give you more shillings than you ever saw, || and bring you back soon (Ch. Dickens ).
.. .. , . Joss clasped his hands, and cried (W.M.Thackeray). (, 1959). Clasped cried, , . , , his hands
, . : ,
(, , ) ( 1976:203). , .
, .
. and or ,

(Carey 1958:46).
.. . , , and, or, eitheror, as well as, neithernor, (Sklar 1972:15).
, .. : , ( ). ..
( 1973:311). : She nodded and smiled. He went out heavily and
shut the door behind him. ,
, .
, 50-
.
60 % , . 60- ,
90- 70 %
. , , , . ,
, 1- .
, (1) (2)
.
3. a, but b
1- ., but, . , .
II- . (50- ) but . . , but
(Carey 1958:46). place, , , , , . ,
but . The favourite at that point was in the third place || but was still full of running. ..
.. , but not onlybut, nor, , (, 1958:57). but , but . ,
but, , ,
.. .. .
, but ,
, ,
( ). 50- , ,
, but .

34

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1 , but . 60- . . 70-


, . 70- , , 80-90- . .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
,
but,



1-
>
<
50-
>
<
60-
>
<
70-
=
=
80-
<
>
90-
<
>

. 1.: = - ()
> - ,
< - ,
4) not only , but
1- . , , not only, but, . 50- .
, 60- 25-30 % but not only but . 60- (. 3)
.
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60-
.

70-

80-

90-

. 3. ,
not onlybut,
. 3. . . 1.
2.1.1.2.
(, , , )
1- . ,
(, , , ,
and, or, but, not onlybut, neither nor, eitheror
, . , 1- .: 1. The first is implied in
what has been already said the work of punctuation is mainly to show, or hint at, the grammatical relation between words, phrases, clauses, and sentences; (H.&F. 1940:233). words, phrases, clauses, and sentences
a, b, and ( o r ) c (a, b, c ). 2. That sort of simplicity now would not be real, but artificial (H.&F. 1940:295). 2 real
artificial . but, (artificial), . -

35

Copyright & A K-C

a, but b. 3. The following Exercises are presented in the hope, that


they will be not only perused as a source of pleasure and general improvement, // but also studied with relation to
the art which they are meant to exemplify (H.&F. 1940:241). 3 not only,
but, , but . not only a, but b . 4 ,
, . 4. ; but it must not be forgotten that stops also serve to regulate pace, to
throw emphasis on particular words and give them significance and to indicate tone (H.&F. 1940: 234). 4 to regulate, to throw and give, and to indicate ,
a, b and c, and (or) d. , , , and,
and . to regulate, to
throw, and to indicate . to throw emphasis on particular words, give,
them significance ( to throw).
, (to throw and give) .
1 . , (and,
or, nor), . ,
, , .
, , .
, ,
.
either
or, neither nor. 1- . . After
the examples (in order that readers who are content either to go on with the present compromise or to accept our
rules may be able to skip the discussion), we shall consider some possible objections (H.&F. 1940:291).
, (, , ) 1- . , ,
, 1- .
: ) a, b, and (or) ; ) a, b and (or) c, and (or) d; ) a and (or) b and (or) c and (or) d; ) a, and
(or) b, and (or) c, and (or) d ) a, b, but c; ) a, but b; ) not only a, but b; ) neither a nor b; ) either a or b (a,
b, c, d ).
, a,
and (or) b, and (or) c, and (or) d , ,
30- (Skelton 1933:19).
50- a, b, and (or) c (. .4) : We can , for
example, punctuate a famous couplet of Pope in three different ways, which may be lablled neutral , expressive, and dramatic (V. 1953:111).
, 50 - .
and or. , 60- 40 % . . 4 . a, b, and (or) c . 60- 90- .
80-95 % ,
. The cause of this neglect is the crowding out of words by pictures, in the familiar forms-visual
aids, comics, newspapers // and T.V. (Lew. 1982:11). , a and (or) b and (or) c and (or) d, 50- . ,
, (,
1959:56). . : ,
(Perrin 1955: 365). (1) <>; we no longer punctuate like Swift or Johnson
or Hazlitt or Dickens (V. 1953:102). a or b or c or d
: , . , : There are
no quotation marks in the Authorized Version (1611), or Boswells Johnson, or Goldsmiths The Vicar of Wakefield (V. 1953:114).
, . 5, ,
60- a and (or) b and c and (or)
. 60- 90-
.
. , but not onlybut, nor, . The Paragraph laws, he continues, are
important, not only for their own sake, but also for their bearing on an entire composition (E.P. 1955:167).
, not onlybut but .
, but not only... but, ,

36

Copyright & A K-C

1- .- 60- . . .6 , but not onlybut 60- . II- . . , 70- 80-


. , but only but,
, 90-
but .
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
60-
.

70- 80- 90-


. 4.
a, b and (or) c
.4: . . 1.
100%

80

60

40

20

0
1- 50- 60- 70- 80-
.

90-

. 5.
a and (or) b and (or) c
. 5: . . 1.
, 50- , either or, neither nor
, 1- . In that sentence there are four distinct clauses
neither joined by conjunctions nor separated by full stops (V. 1953:108). , , neithernor, eitheror,
60-, 70-, 80-, 90- .
, , (,
, ..)
: ) , b and (or) c; ) a and (or) b and (or)
c and (or) d ; a, and (or) b, and (or) c, and (or) d ; ) a but b; ) not only abut b; ) neither
anor b; d) either aor b.

37

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100%

80

60

40

20
1- a

50-

60-

70- 80- 90-


. 6. ,
not onlybut,
. 6: . . 1.
2.1.1.3.
() ,
, : ,
-, -.
, .
, .., ( 1983:161). , , ,
. , .. ,
. , ,
( : ,
, , -, -, ..).
. ,
, (
, , ) ( 1956:104; 1955:13-15).
, (, 1959:58-59).
,
,
, ,
, , ..
, ( ) . ..,
, , : ,
- -, ,
, , . ,
, ( 1956:13).
, , .. , , ( ): . ,
, , ( ). , c .. , .. ,
.
:
1) , : certainly, indeed, really, possibly, probably, perhaps, maybe, evidently, surely, apparently, actually, naturally.

38

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2) , , : fortunately, unfortunately, happily, unhappily, luckily, unluckily.


3) : still, yet, however, nevertheless, again, moreover, thus, accordingly, otherwise, hence,
else, .
4) , , ,
: firstly, secondly, finally, in short, on the other hand, in general, for example, at least, that is.
, .. ,
,
( 1948:244-288; Gunshina, Vasilevskaya 1953:257; , , 1956:298-304), . , .. (., 1951), .. (, 1953), .. (, 1953),
.. (., 1953), .. (., 1954) , . ( 1955; 1959).
. , -,
, , .. ,
, ( 1963:11).
, .. , . , ; ,
, .
, ( 1950:41).
.
.. , , ,
. , .
, , .
( 1- ) .
1
1. , . :
)
, : absolutely, decidedly, positively, yes, of course, definitely.
1- of course, . (1) The words, when the bracketed part of each sentence is left out,
are now the same; but the question is of course incapable of giving the required meaning (H.&F. 1940:269).
. of course . 50- - . , ,
.
, . . 1- . , 50- , .. .
of course .
(2) There are, of course, mere guiding rules (V. 1953:131). of course, , 2 . (3) Here a comma ends the actual quoted words,
a full stop follows the break, and the next sentence begins, with a capital letter, of course, after the full stop
like this: (V. 1953:117) , with a capital letter.
with a capital letter of
course, . . of course . (4) All
this applies equally, of course, when the list or series consists not of single words but of clauses <> (C.
1958:62). . -

39

Copyright & A K-C

, , , 50-
. of course + ( .): (5) Usually, of course, the margin nearer to the mistake in the
text will be found the more convenient, but there is no need to be bound by that consideration if there are others
that outweigh it (. 1958:108).
50- .
. (6 7) . (6) But there may, of course, be something wrong with my mind (C.
1957:27). (7) <>; the pause for effect is a different matter, of which punctuation must of course take account
(C. 1957:V1). 6 of course .
. of course 7 .
. 10% . (6 7),
, (7) of course .
. 8 of course those enclosing the participial clause being
retained. (8). When such pause or break does occur, all that will be needed is another comma, those enclosing the participial clause being of course retained, as (C. 1957:13). of
course, 9, , , , , , though of course the sentence has been altered , . (9) Apply for yourself the test recommended above and you will find that, though of course the sense has
been altered, there is nothing amiss with the sentence as such in that form (C. 1958:107).
70- . / , . ( 1973:313).
, ,
. ,
. / of course
/ .
) ,
actually, indeed, naturally,
really, in fact. 1- .
indeed, actually, naturally, really, in fact,
, , . (1) Avoidance of what a correspondent supposes to be dull, but what would in fact be natural and right, accounts also for the following piece of
vicarious rhetoric; <> (H.&F. 1940:266). (2) That is indeed a confession of weakness and infallible sign of the
prentice hand, and further examples will be found in Airs and Graces, miscellaneous; <> (H.&F. 1940:270). ;
(3) When it is remembered that, as we have implied, an author has the right to select the degree of intensity, or
scale, of his punctuation, it can hardly be said that grammar actually demands any stops in these sentences taken
by themselves (H.&F. 1940:243). , . 10 % . ,
. 4 indeed , . (4) We have explained, indeed, that it is sometimes quite
legitimate for rhetorical reasons, and is under certain circumstances almost required by proportion (H.&F.
1940:265). , We have explained, indeed,. , , , . , , : , .
(1- .) .
50- . (5) Indeed, there are few rules, or even customs, to guide us (V. 1953:128).
indeed 50- 50- ,
1- . (6) The whole extract, indeed, is a single indissoluble sentence
and a pretty long one too; <> (C. 1958:17). indeed 7,
, , . (7) There is an illustration of it in the previous sentence,
where the words between commas are parenthetic and, indeed, contain another parenthesis which is indicated by
brackets (V. 1953:109).
50- . , indeed , . -

40

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38 % ,
Indeed ( ).
Indeed + . Indeed if
anywhere in comma usage there is room for a law of the Medes and Persians, I would confer that status on its
function in distinguishing non-defining from defining relative clauses (C. 1958:123).
in fact 50-
( , ..), 1- . (8) There are many words in English that are, in fact, beheaded or curtailed
forms of longer words, but have no apostrophe to indicate the omission of letters; <> (V. 1953:126).
50- . in fact
. , , - . In fact
if there is one respect in which modern usage tends to be profuse with unnecessary commas, it is with adverbs
and adverbial phrases (C. 1958:55). , ,
, . / / in fact .
actually, naturally, really 50- , 1- ., .
. (9) There are actually two sentences in this paragraph, spoken by the same speaker, and each broken by an explanatory phrase (she said, she explained) (V.
1953:116); (10) But he really intended Recollections to be an ordinary common noun, not part of a title (V.
1953:125). 50- , ,
. , naturally . , , (beloved) .
(11) This is the stop beloved, naturally, of the great digressive writers, like Sterne in Tristram and Lamb in Elia :
<> (V. 1953: 109).
: 50- .
actually, naturally, really, .
(12) Actually, if the latter alternative were adopted, it would be rather more natural to defer the inverted commas
still further, especially as the word have in the second sentence is the first infallible sign that direct speech has
started (C. 1958:77). . :
,
. (Vellins 1963:142). .
. Mind the Stop, .
: Actually, if the latter alternative were adopted, it would be rather more natural to defer the inverted commas still further. . : On the other hand if any two items in a
list should really be in a specially close relationship, the final comma man, in order to indicate this, has merely
to couple them with an and and drop the comma.
, . , , ,
:
1. of course /;
2. actually, indeed, naturally, really
;
3. indeed 50- . : Indeed + Indeed + ;
4. in fact / /
.
)
(assuredly, certainly, sure, surely, to be sure)
1- . , ,
certainly. , , ,
, .
certainly , . , 50- certainly . It is certainly Bede 52.29 that he quotes (E.S. 1976:388). 80- 90-
. certainly . ,
. certainly
. , , , . ,
: , ,

41

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, , . There is certainly, therefore, no call for the


strong semi-colon (see page 107) after x (V. 1953:104). certainly,+ , therefore.
60- 90- .
, certainly, , . / . .
certainly .
certainly , , , .
)
no doubt, undoubtedly.
1- . no doubt. ,
, no doubt,
. 50- .
no doubt no doubt boggling at the use of another and ,
, no doubt . In addition, the writer, no doubt
boggling at the use of another and, pretends that also is a conjunction, and imagines that a simple comma after
pretensions is sufficient, even though the last clause (in fact) has no conjunction to join it to the one before
(V. 1953:104). , no doubt
.
2. ,

: apparently, evidently, likely, probably, obviously. probably,
1- ., , , . The familiar intrusion of a comma after initial And and For where there is no intervening
clause to justify it, of which we gave examples when we spoke of over-stopping, comes probably by false analogy
from the unpleasant pause that rigid punctuation has made common in sentences of this type (H.&F. 1940:254).
. probably 50-
90- . . .
3. ,
maybe, perhaps, possibly. , , , 1-
. / . 70- .
: Possibly a good many readers would never notice the inconsistency, but there is
something to be said for being orderly and methodical even in minor points of detail. (C.1958:86-87). + , . Yet perhaps not altogether in these modern days, when punctuation, like
syntax itself, has tended to become more formal and scientific (V. 1953:107), , , ,
. +
. 50-
, : (i) The tendency, now common in the United States but still, perhaps, considered slightly precious here, to put full stops with initials (other than of persons) (C. 1957:23).
50- . , ,
. ,
.
1.<>; the best that can be done here, perhaps, is to tabulate the more questionable of its present uses, with
authentic examples (. 1957:9). 1 perhaps that can be done here. . . , .
2. (vi) A misuse not yet common, perhaps, but incipient amongst writers of fiction can be better illustrated
than defined:(C. 1957:14). 2 misuse , but: not yet common, perhaps, but incipient amongst writers of fic-

42

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tion. but . ,
not yet common .
3 . , . , , deliberately.
. . 3. In the second quotation good and will are, perhaps, deliberately separated to balance good humour, which has not yet achieved a hyphen (V. 1963:147).
70- .
perhaps, possibly . The
former does not occur in any other version and is perhaps to be compared with unasecgendre in Bede 264.30
above (E.S. 1976:388).
2
( )
. , , , .
1. ,
, fortunately, unfortunately,
happily, unhappily, luckily. , ( ). Unfortunately little more can be done than to
warn beginners that any serious slip here is much worse than they will probably suppose, and recommend them
to observe the practice of good writers (H.&F. 1940:263).
. , .
1- . 50- . Unhappily the trouble does not quite end there (C.
1958:16). , , 60-, -70-, -80-, 90- . This discussion is unfortunately largely abstract, and thus seems to lose contact with what it is trying to explain (J.L.1978:114); Unfortunately the role of systematization in learning is not so simple (H.&W. 1987:68).
2. ,
: frankly speaking, generally speaking, in short,
strictly speaking, in general. 1- . ,
/ .
. Generally speaking, if that is used the quotation-marks may be
dispensed with; <> (H.&F. 1940:297). . This, strictly speaking, does the work of an adjective in the sentence (H.&F.1940:251).
/ frankly speaking, generally speaking, strictly
speaking .
in general. 1- . 50- in general . In general, the exclamation mark is a stop for poetry and rhetorical prose (V. 1953: 113). in general : The answer Noneis, in general, fair enough (C. 1957:31). . . . 60- : In general it is a matter of choice ;( C. 1958:79).
3. , ,
, ,
, ,
(by the way, best of all, for example, for instance)
.
for example, for instance. . . We
can, for example, punctuate a famous couplet of Pope in three different ways, which may be labeled neutral,
expressive, and diamatic<> (V. 1953:111).
4. , , ,
,

also, either, finally, first, firstly, neither,
next, secondly, at first. 1- .

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, : finally, firstly, secondly, first. 1- . . ,


. Thirdly, every one should make up his mind not to depend on his stops (H.&F. 1940:234). firstly, secondly, finally .. II-
. First, the person of the pronoun changes, according to the identity of the reporter (V.
1953:120). . firstly, secondly
: Firstly it will be clear from the preceding chapters that the ESP teachers role is one
of many parts (H.&W. 1987:157).
finally. 1-
. 50- . , 60-
.
. Finally in chapter 7 we shall describe various ways in which language, learning and
needs have been dealt with in ESP course design (H.&W. 1987:23).
5. ,
although, thus, despite, however, nevertheless, instead, still, on the contrary, on the
one hand, on the other hand.
1- . : however, nevertheless, on the other hand.
however, . . . , , however much. (West, Kimber 1963:182): However ill John felt he always went to work. however but, : However, John felt ill and
was unable to go. , however
. John, however, felt ill and did not go; but Bill went.
.. : however . however nevertheless
. however no matter how, ,
( 1997:364-365). However little he knows about a subject, he always expresses an
opinion. however .
II- . however / /.
,+however, : Perhaps, however,
his objection implied that though we could exclaim in speech we should not exclaim in writing except now and
then with a few old trusted friends like Hurrah! Oh!, and Alas!. (V. 1963:130).
nevertheless. .
. The writer has no defense whatever as against the logician; nevertheless, his reader will be
grateful to him (H.&F. 1940:254).
nevertheless , , 1- ., : Nevertheless the over-stopping that offends against nothing but taste has its counterpart in
under-stopping of the some sort (H.&F. 1940:243).
, , ,
, , . . .
1- . nevertheless o , , : as doing so: <>; and if they are to be sometimes
taken, nevertheless, as doing so, confusion is sure to result (H.&F. 1940:280).
50- . nevertheless : It is important to remember that if a singular noun ends in s, the apostrophe s
is nevertheless added to it, following the normal rule <> (V. 1953:125). 50- ,
, . ,
50- , . . nevertheless , /.
on the other hand. , , , , , .
, , .
: With the adverbial clauses, phrases, and
words, on the other hand, our appeal is on the whole for less precision; we recommend that less precision should
be aimed at, at least, though more attained, than at present (H.&F. 1940:253).
50- on the other hand /
. 50- -

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. nevertheless, . On the other hand words like hat box, pipe-clay, goodnight,hand-shake are still wobbling between the hyphen and the one-word stage, whilst others like coal
mine, tobacco pouch, blotting pad, waste paper are not yet in undisputed possession of their hyphens
(C. 1958:81).
. 87 % . , , 13 % : The learner of English on the other hand will not have this problem, but may
need to spend more time on, for example, the spelling, the simple / continuous tense distinction or the countable /
uncountable distinction (H.&W. 1987:31).
, .: (1) nevertheless .
, . (2) however / /. ,+ however, .
(3) on the other hand / (87%).
13 % .
6. , ,

: accordingly, consequently, hence,
therefore.
therefore. . . ,
, (West, Kimber 1963:182): Edward, therefore, refused; but Bill accepted. , , .
Therefore Edward refused the offer. He therefore refused the offer.
1- . : <>; a comma after intelligence is therefore definitely expected (H.&F. 1940:278).
therefore , (50- .). (1)
On the occurnce or non-occurnce of hyphens in normal compound words, therefore, this book has nothing to
say for the reason that the writer <> (V. 1953:128). 1, , . (2) But syntactically and logically, such stops are independent of the quotations, they are guides to the main sentence structure, and should not, therefore, be placed
inside the closing quotes marking an incorporated word, phrase or clause (V. 1953:115). 2
not should . 50- (should not,+
therefore,+ ; do not,+ therefore,+ ).
, , : (3)
The literal words of the speaker do not, therefore, begin until after was (C. 1958:77).
(4) therefore ,
: (4) He should therefore have written it without italics, and preferably with a small initial letter (V.
1953:125). therefore ,+ therefore,+ 50- , : (5) There is certainly, therefore, no call for the strong semi-colon (see page
107) after X (V. 1953:104).
therefore, (6),
(to be therefore + + ). 50-
therefore : (6) It is the sign of the dramatic pause, and is therefore a particularly expressive
stop, designed to represent a deliberate accent of the voice or gesture of the body (V. 1953:111).
therefore (7), ,
in this section, : (7) I propose, therefore, in this section to give free
rein to the first singular, for I cannot see how else this topic can be treated (C. 1957:24).
50- , . . There is no need therefore to conclude them with a full stop (C. 1957:37). , +
. 50- : Therefore if the commas enclosing in scale are kept, there should certainly be another before but; <> (C. 1957:12).
60- . therefore . , , . The main sentence is a statement: there should, therefore, be a fullstop outside the final quotes (V. 1963:132).
. therefore
,
(92 %). The projects have, therefore, concentrated their efforts on

45

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reading strategies (H.&W. 1987:13); Learning, therefore, is an internal process, which is crucially dependent
upon the knowledge the learners already have and their motivation to use it (H.&W. 1987:72).
7. , ,

moreover, then. .
then. 1-
. / /. II- .
. But a dash can exist in single blessedness, and then it usually introduces not so much an
aside as a climactic afterthought (V. 1953:111). then , , , then in
general. In general, then, quotation marks are exactly what their name proclaims them to be marks to indicate
quotations (V. 1953:115). , , then
, , : Punctuation is, then, a convention practiced by the writer for the convenience of the reader that, and no more (V. 1953:102).
.
. Moreover, though I
have attempted to expose the fallacy of attempting to make punctuation depend simply on the length of a sentence, it must sometimes take account of this, and a dash does seem to relieve the length of a sentence more than
a comma does (C. 1958:17).
. then
:
,+ then+,
,+ then+,
,+ then+,
In general, then, +
then,
. then moreover. :
,+ moreover+,
Moreover,+
,+ moreover+,
2.1.2.
2.1.2.1.
, , .
. ; .
,
. . . (
1956)
(79%).
and, but, or,
, . , (Vallins 1953:112).
1- .
. , , and, or, but,
. The dot is generally over the right word at any rate, // and the comma is seldom more than
one word off its true place (H.&F. 1940:257).
neithernor eitheror. nor or 1- .
. ,
. , . . ,
, , ,
(Fowler,Fowler 1940:263). : I will not try, // it is dangerous. ,
, . ,
. I will not try, // for it is dangerous , I will not try, // because it is dangerous . , for , because .
. Because it
is dangerous, I will not try. for . For it is dangerous, I will not
try. , . . ,
,
(Fowler, Fowler 1940:264). ,
. : (1) and, or, but, so, nor, for, -

46

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; (2) , ; (3) ,
.
, , ,
1-
, , , . 1 . . .
50- 1-
. , and, , .
. , , breath-pause (Carey 1958:46).
, . : . 1- ., , . . .
,
. , , ,
.
(50- .) , and, , . ) This ends
with a comma, || and the whole sentence (of which quotation is a part) ends in the usual way with a full stop
(V.1953:117). ) This is omitted in the quotation, || and the comma after the closing quotation marks belongs to
the sentence structure (V. 1953:124).
, but,
. ( ) . . Here a comma ends the actual quoted words, || a full
stop follows the break, || and the next sentence begins, with a capital letter, of course, after the full stop like
this: <>.(V. 1953:117).
60- . , , -
. .
100%
80
60
40
20

0
1- a 50-

60- 70-
80-

90-

. 7.
and or .
. 7: . . 1.
.7 , .
and or, .
. : , , and, , - , .. , (, 1959:29). , 60-
. ,

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. The use of commas as a mark of parenthesis is discussed in Good English || and the punctuation with parenthetical adverbs or adverb phrases is illustrated in the sentences of the previous section (V. 1963:142). 80- . () Activities have to be adopted with a group
of learners in mind || and I hope that teachers will feel confident enough to make changes so as to suit the needs
of their particular groups of students (BJHS 1985:37).
. , - (Bremner 1980:103-104). , . . ,

.
.
. , .
, ) ,
. )
, , . ) In modern usage book titles are usually printed in italics,
|| and this problem of punctuation does not arise (V. 1963: 132). ,
, . , ),
, , 60-
. . ),
, . , . 70-, 80- 90- . But then, as with the language-centred approach, the learner is discarded || and he target
situation analysis is allowed to determine the content of the course with little further reference to the learner
(H.&W. 1987:72). , .
.
but,
.
. . , but effect of suspended contrast, .
, but
. 80-- 90- .
but . Both these
projects were set up to cope with study situations where the medium of instruction is the mother tongue || but
students need to read a number of specialists texts which are available only in English (H.&W. 1987:13).
,
, 1- .:
1.
( 90 %).
2. , (10 %), and, but, neithernor, eitheror.
II- .:
3.
, ( ).
4. ( ) ,
.
5. but, , .
6. II- . . .
7. . (80-90- ) and, .
8. . (80-90- )
but, .
but 80-- 90- . 14 %.

48

Copyright & A K-C

2.1.2.2.
, , . , , .
- . , .
, ,
.. ,
( 1950). , , .. ..
, , , - .
, (, 1959:31).
.. , . .. , ( 1950:329). ( ,
, ) ( ). .. , .. ..
(.,1956).
, .. .. ,
, ,
, , (, ),
, , .

. , (indispensable)
,
(, .), , .
, , , , , , , , . , , , .. , .. ,
, . -,
. ,
, , , (, , ,
).
, , .
,
, . -,
:
, , (, ), (an afterthought),
.
. (Allen 1956: 62- 63; 65). Ill ask him, || when
he / calls. - . Ill ask him || when he \ calls. - . , , (afterthought) . (one idea) . -, (, , , .).
, .

. ,
, , .

., . -

49

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, 1- . , , (Fowler, Fowler 1940:244).


2.1.2.2.1.
1- . ,
. (1) <>;
but when we have had a dash ||, we very seldom know for certain that it is one of a pair; <> (H.&F. 1940:
281). 1 , , , .
2 . , . (2) It follows that when the active words are given as such (this is sometimes
only to be known by the tone : compare I tell you, I will come, and I tell you I will come) ||, a comma should be
inserted; <> (H.&F. 1940:246).
3 .
. (3) When there is no such interruption ||, the only possible plea for the comma is that it is not logical but
rhetorical, and conveys some archness or other special significance such as is hardly to be found in our two examples: <> (H.&F. 1940:242).
, 25% , .
, , , . (1) To this we add that
when the exclamation-mark is used after mere statements || it deserves the name, by which it is sometimes called,
mark of admiration; <>(H.&F. 1940:267). (2) When we have had a left-hand bracket || we know for certain
that a right-hand one is due, full stops or no full stops ; <> (H.&F. 1940:281).
1- .
:
1. , ;
2. ( ) .
50- , , , , ..
, , .,
, (, 1959: 48). , .. . , , ,
, , ,
. , , , . . ,
, , ,
. , , , when-clause ( ) (Carey 1958: 47).
, 50- 67%
: (1) When we say Are we downhearted? || the voice itself asks the question which, in writing, we indicate by a question mark (V. 1953:101).
, 1 , in writing,
. .
2 either from speech or from literature,
. . (2) When a quotation
(either from speech or from literature) appears inside a quotation || it is usually included in single quotation
mark (V. 1953:117).
3 .
. (3) When such a quotation within a quotation occurs at the end of a sentence ||
the position of the ordinary stops requires some care <> (V. 1953:117-118).
, 4 ,
,
. 4) <>; but when they do not relate to any particular person || the nouns duke, squire, lady and the
rest may be, and often are, written without the capital (V. 1953:131).
, 50-
. 50- , , 33 % -

50

Copyright & A K-C

. ? (5) Except when, for effect, it is placed


at the end of a series of closely related questions, || the question mark has the effect of a full stop it is followed,
that is, by a capital letter (V. 1953:112). 5 when, for effect, it is
placed at the end of a series of closely related questions . the question mark has the effect of a full stop it is followed, that is, by a capital letter
. , ,
. : (1) When a
noun ends in s in the plural (as 99.8 per cent of English nouns do) || an apostrophe is added after that s : dogs;
ladies; heroes (V. 1953:125). (2) When a noun does not end in s in the plural, || s is added to the plural form :
mens; childrens; sheeps (V. 1953:125). . ,
. , , , .
, ,
, , . , , ,
.
, , , , .. , .
50- . ( ) . ,
, , . (3)When all is
said, || this remains a matter for individual choice (C. 1957:62). (4) (i) When a whole sentence is quoted, || the
point is contained within the quotes; <> (C. 1957:36). (3, 4) . , , , , , . (5)
When it belongs to a single word ( the forwards, in (X), in contrast to the backs), || the commas too is apt
to attract merely get in the way (C. 1957:55). , , . .
, , ,
. .
6 - .
, . (6) Again, when
there is a series of parallel clauses some of which themselves contain commas, || semi-colons between them will
avoid a glut of commas and produce an orderly sentence with structure clear to the eye <> (C. 1957:7).
(7) , . , . (7). When such pause or break does occur, || all that will be needed is another
comma, those enclosing the participial clause being of course retained, as <> (C. 1957:13 ). , 50- . .
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60-
.

70- 80-

90-

. 8.
( )
.8: . .1.

51

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. 8 , 1-
. 50- .
. , , , ,
. 50- -
. ., ,
.,
, ,
( ) .
,
,
,
. ,
.
, .
1- ,
. ,
.
1 , , , . (1) <>; some like variety, and
use the two indifferently, or resort to one || when they are tired of the other (H.&F. 1940:271).
(2) , , ,
. . (2) The sort of ambiguity that most needs guarding against is that which allows a sleepy reader to take the
words wrong || when the omission or insertion of a stop would have saved him (H.&F. 1940:272).
(3), , , ,
( + ),
, . ,
. (3) The third is occasionally justified || when, though there is
no occasion for vividness, there is some turn of phrase that it is important for the reader to recognize as actually
originating, not with the writer, but with the person quoted; <> (H.&F. 1940:298).
, , , , 1-
. . ,
,
.
- . (50- ) . ,
.
. ,
. ,
(1- .) ,
. ( 20%) , , ,
.
, - .
50-, 60-, 70-, 80-, 90- . We shall return
to this theme in the following chapters, when we consider the fields of learning and needs (H.&W. 1987:37).
, , .
, . , - (. 9). ( 20 %) ,
, ,

52

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.
, - .
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
.

50-

60-

70-

80- 90-

. 9.
.
.9: . .1.
2.1.2.2.2.
1- . , 12% , . :
(1) <>; but for practical purposes the rule might be that if a stop is required || it stands after the second dash
or bracket (H.&F. 1940:282). 1 if a stop is required
it stands after the second dash or bracket ,
. . (2) Generally speaking, if that is used || the quotation-marks may be dispensed with; <> (H.&F. 1940:297). (3) The sentence
should at last be read aloud and if it halts or jolts || some change or other should be made (H.&F.1940:240).
(1, 2, 3), ,
: [(1) if a stop is required ; (2) if that is
used ; (3) if it halts or jolts ]. , : [(1) it stands after the second dash or bracket;
(2) the quotation-marks may be dispensed with; (3) some change or other should be made ] ,
, ,
, ,
.
1- .
: (1)
(88%); (2)
, , .
50- .
50 . . , , if-clause
. ,
. , (Carey 1958:47).
,
. , ,
. If the phrase or clause is transferred from the beginning to the middle of the sentence, || it is
placed between commas <> (V. 1953:103). 10 % , 1 . (1) If the colon is used at all in the body of the sentence ( that is, not as an introducer) || it
should usually divide two parallel or antithetical clauses: Law is the essence of freedom: license only leads to
tyranny (V. 1953:109). (2) If a sentence of direct speech containing a semicolon or a colon is broken by an explanatory phrase (he said etc.) || the stop is placed after phrase <> (V. 1953:117). 1 2 , ,

53

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, .
, . ,
,
, . , , . .
, , (1, 2, 3) . , , .
, 50- , , . ,
. , , . ,
, . 50-
. (1) If it is placed after the word || it may fall in such a way as to
apply the whole (C. 1958:41). 1 , , 2 3 .
: (2) It is a pity that editors should rate the intelligence of their readers so low,
but the real menace of it is that if this kind of thing is ladled out to the man in the street for long enough || he
may in the course of time really become incapable of digesting anything more solid (C. 1958:93). (3) <> ; this
helps to make an isolated correction catch the printers eye, and if there is more than one misprint in the same
line of text || the oblique lines help to keep the marginal corrections separate and distinct (C. 1958:109).
II- . (. . 10).
.10 , . . , : If Owen did not encounter transformism at this time, || he was certainly
aware of it shortly after; <> (BJHS 1985:30).
,
, 1- . (80%). .
. 20% 1- .
.
,
. (1) Indeed can do without commas, || if it cannot itself be done without. (H.&F. 1940:241); (2) <>; the compositor cannot be expected to like it, || if the burden
falls on him; <> (H.&F. 1940:239) ; (3) A sentence with two stops is not a monstrosity, || if it wants them ; and
that will be realized, || if once sensible punctuation gets the upper hand of neatness (H.&F. 1940:296). 1, 2, 3 ,
. . ,
, (afterthought). ,
, .
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60- 70-

80- 90-

. 10.

.10: . 1.

54

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, 1- ( )
. . , , .
. 2 ,
. . , , .
: (i) though they often serve as substitutes for commas, a comma (or other stop) must follow the closing bracket, || if the sentence without the words in parentheses would have required it <> (C. 1957:2). 80- 90- . (
) . It is difficult to fault this view of learning, || if
we see learning simply in terms of the end product in the learners mind (H. & W. 1987:72). .

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2





1-
<
>
50-
<
>
60-
<
>
70-
<
>
80-
<
>
90-
<
>
.2: > ,
< ,

. , - . ,
, , , (afterthought).
, , .
2.1.2.2.3.
, .
1- . , , , , . Consequently, the same rule about stops will apply to both, and as there is no occasion to treat of brackets separately,
|| it may here be stated for both (H.&F. 1940:279). 50- .
, . (30%).
, 50- ,
.
. 11 , .
( ). , II- .
, 60- . .
, , (over-stopping) .
, , . 70-, 80-, 90-
. - ,
, ..
, . .. ,

55

Copyright & A K-C

,
, (Sklar 1972:55).
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
.

50-

60-

70-

80- 90-

. 11.

.11: . .1.
(, 1959:43).
, . , .
. , , ,
. .
II- . ,
(, 1959:44-45) : (1) , : <> In reality she went || because she knew of no
other place where, by some random speech or round-about question, she could glean news of Bosinney. (Galsw.);
(2) - (, ) . : (1) ,
, , .. , , ., ,
. (2)
( , , ..). (3) , , (.. ,
). ,
, .
,
, ,
, (, 1959:4850).
, . (Carey 1958:48),
, : (1)
(break); (2) . . : I am doing this || because I must. ,
. Dont go on telling me that, || because I have
heard it often enough already. ,
.
.
1- (95%). , , -

56

Copyright & A K-C

. 1- , , ,
.
1 , . ,
. (1) None of these can be dispensed with, ||
since there are no less than three parenthetic qualifications to the sentence (H.&F. 1940:241).
2 3 . , , , . .
(2) Observe that the third quotation has a worse blunder, || since we have here two independent sentence. (H.&F.
1940:271); (3)This may often happen, || since most of them are also prepositions; <> (H.&F. 1940:288).
,
, .
(3), (1, 2). , , 5 %
. (4) In the second, the motive is clear: having the choice between commas, the reporter uses them ||
because he so secures a pause after he, and gives the word that emphasis which in the speech delivered doubtless
made the I that it represents equivalent to I for my part (H.&F. 1940:242). (4)
,
. ,
. 50- . 90% . 10 % 50- ( ) . 5 , .. .
. 4 5 ,

. , , , . (5) R.C.R. says that Hants should have no full stop || since it is an old contraction.
(V. 1953:127) (6) This fourth example is separated from the others || only because the associated words are not
obviously, although they are in fact, attributive: <> (V. 1953:129). 6 7 , ,
. 6 ( )
, ,
. 7 ,
. . ,
, . (7) I come back to it from this end || because the commonest form of schoolboy mistake is to
separate by a comma two clauses that are not linked by a conjunction (C. 1957:41).
( .)
( ) 79 %. The target situation analysis approach did not
really change this, because in its analysis of learner need it still looked mainly at the surface linguistic features of
the target situation (H.&W. 1987:13). .12
. 1- . 60-
, 60--80- . (. 50- - 10 %; 60-- 22 %; 70-- 40 %; 80- 32 %). ,
90- . .
. , , , . , ,
( ) .
,
, .

57

Copyright & A K-C

100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60- 70- 80- 90-


. 12.

.12: . .1.
2.1.2.2.4.

,
( , ..).
, 1- . ,
. 50- . Though each half of
the statement is actually a sentence complete in itself, || I wanted to link them together as closely as possible
without the actual use of a conjunction; <> (C. 1957:30). .13 , .

1- 90- . It is interesting to note that
they are not used in the Revised Version of the Bible (1884), || though that appeared long after their introduction
(V. 1953:114). , , , ,
( ). , , (, 1959:50).
100%
80
60
40
20
0
1-
.

50-

60-

70- 80- 90-


. 13.

. 13: . .1.

58

Copyright & A K-C

2.1.2.2.5.
, , .
.. , ,
, .
, , so that, so that that
so; , so . 50- . 70- , . .
1- , ,
,
. In examples 2 and 3, on the other hand, the sentence may for all we know be complete at the
place where the dash stands, || so that no expectation is disappointed by omitting the comma (H.&F. 1940:278).
50- .
. 14 1- 90- , , - so that. It was as if the felon had no control over his actions, || so that a stream of individuals was driven to criminal activity by some external power
(BJHS 1985:61). 70- . 90-
. In such a syllabus, items are graded so that simpler and
more immediately useable structures precede the more complex ones (H.&W. 1987:26).
100%
80
60
40
20
0
1-
.

50- 60-

70-

80- 90-

. 14.

.14: . . 1.
2.1.2.3.
,
1- . . ,
, and, or, but,
. 1 2
, and. (1) Further, it must be remembered that substantival clauses include indirect questions as well as indirect statements, ||and that the same rules will apply to them
(H.&F. 1940:247); (2) It must be admitted that that conclusion is not very certain, || and also that the matter is of
no great importance, provided that the stops, if inserted, are the right ones (H.&F. 1940:279).
3
but, . (3) The three following examples, which we shall correct in bracket by anticipation, || but which we shall also assume not to be mere careless blunders, seem to go on the first hypothesis
(H.&F. 1940:280).
.
. , .
, .

59

Copyright & A K-C

II- . (50- ). , , 50- . , , , (, 1959:52).


, 60- ( a and b). . and.
. We must make a distinction between what a person does (performance) and what enables them to do it (competence) (H.&W. 1987:38).
,
, .
, or but, 60- .
. The semi-colon is preferable if it is going to help the readers eye, and the
circumstances in which it is likely to do so are when the clauses or phrases are themselves rather long, || or when
they already contain commas (C. 1958:37). , 50-
,
or but.
10 % , or,
but . . Like Mr Careys rules and precepts, these
remarks are addressed to the reader who has some ideas of his own || but who remains open to suggestion; < >
(C. 1957:34).
. or, but, not onlybut . Returning to our analogy of learning as a
journey, the syllabus can be seen as a statement of projected routes, so that teacher and learner not only have an
idea of where they are going, but how they might get there (H.&W. 1987:84).
( that a,
that b, and (or) that c) 50- , ,
. . The reader may not
take more than a second to correct his fleeting impression that (i) the batsmans shoulder was sent skimming over
Benauds head, || that (iii) the Church of England has more than its lady was either unpunctual or unlucky, || or
that (v) it was the air that dropped the bomb (C. 1958:83).
c 60- 90- , . 3, , , and, 60- 90-
. This reflects our view that for the second language learner both processes are likely to play a
useful part and that a good ESP course will try to exploit both (see chapter 10) (H.&W. 1987:49).
, .
. This kind of evaluation
helps to assess whether the course objectives are being met whether the course, in other words, is doing what it
was designed to do (H.&W. 1987:144).
3
,
and, c 60- 90-

%
%
%
- %

60-
8
8
16
16
28
28
32
32
70-
4
4
18
18
30
30
30
30
80-
5
5
12
12
42
42
30
31
90-
6
6
12
12
38
38
28
28
. 3: , ( 100 ).

60

Copyright & A K-C

2.2.
2.2.1.
1 . . , , , .
.
2.2.1.1.
(1) I . . . The
pronouns he, she, || are commonly united by a hyphen to the nouns which they precede and qualify; as, he-calf,
she-asses (W. 1856:213). ., , . Suave, smoothly polite, blandly pleasing,
has the same origin (Brem. 1980:46).
(2) , and (or),
. . Titles of books, || and
names of ships, || are sometimes written without the inverted commas, and put in Italic characters; as, <> (W.
1856:229). .
(3) I . and, or,
a, b, and (or) c, + . <> ; but the
effected and abrupt style of a Sterne, the broken and natural colloquialisms of a Shakespeare, the diffusive eloquence of a Chalmers, || and the parenthetical inversions of a Bentham or a Brougham, will scarcely admit of
being pointed only with the more common and grammatical stops (W. 1856:174). .
, ,
, . , (Bremner 1980:103-104).
. ,
(Wilson 1856:37). . .
. : a, b, c; d, e, f; and (or) g, + . ,
.
, II- 1 a, b, and c
+ . . 1- . . 50-60-
12 %, 70-- 15 %, 80-- 10 %, 90-- 6 %. ,
II- , , .
80-90- . , , .
4. ( I .) a and
(or) b, c and (or) d, .
.
:
() , b, c
+, ;() a (. ), and (or) b (. ), + ; () a, b, and (or) c + ; () a and (or) b, c and (or) d, + . .
) a, b, and c
1- . a, b, and (or) c
. .
. It was he who found loggings and concert halls, provided an escort
to Washington for some concerts, took care of the luggage, || and acted as door agent pro tem (A.L.
1993.65/1:37).
) a, and b
, and,
.
, .
II- I . ,
a and b ( a, b ) . , . , . ,

61

Copyright & A K-C

. When phrases or sentences in an extract consist of portions not continued in the discourse or book
from which they have been taken, each portion should begin and end with the quotation-marks, as in those cited
on p. 228, Remark a; <> (W. 1856:232).
1- . and.
69 % . 1-
, , 31 %. ,
or , , . Punctuation marks do not determine thought, or take the place of thought; <> (S. 1919:21); A dependent quotation may be preceded by any
one of several structural points, or may be treated as an open sentence element (S. 1919:152).
, . Office or private conventions save time
and prevent uncertainty (S. 1919:34). .
.
, . <>, many newspapers omit the second comma and set the series as Tom, Dick and Harry (S. 1919:73). ,
, . , / . ,
, . , , . . . Where the appositive
is merely another name for the preceding substantive, clear grouping may or may not require pointing (S.
1919:95).
, , ,
. ,
always. Meddling with an educated authors punctuation is always injudicious, and may be regarded as
impertinent (S. 1919:35). , , .
. . , , , , . ,
always. . . .
. The form without the period is obviously more economical, and is justified by the familiarity of the
expression (S. 1919:169). .
obviously. . .
1- . , , . .
. usually.
. . ? At the end of a paragraph, namely is usually preceded by a comma and followed by a colon or dash (S. 1919:195). : , commonly.
. . : , , ? <>; the forms without hyphen are commonly used by newspaper
and are preferred by some of the best book printers (S. 1919:177). ,
( , ).
II- . .
50- . 60- , 70-, 80- 90- . He developed a system of hot-water heating for
large buildings || and employed thousands of men in iron works and heating apparatus plants (A.L. 1993.
65/1:27).
, , ,
, and:
1. . ;
2. , ;
3. ,
;
4. , . ;
5. , or,
.
) a, but b not only but b
, but
not only but II- I ., ,

62

Copyright & A K-C

98 %. 1- .
but, ,
. , . , (Warriner 1965:587). ?
. 4 , 1- .
but (87 %). 50- , (73 %). 60- but
, .
4

, but, .


1- 50-
60-
70-
80-

.
.
.
.

% - % - % - % - %


87
44
73
37
50
25
64
32
60
30

90-
.

44

22

. 4: ,
but ( 50 ).
70- 64 %, 80- 60 %, 10
44 %. , but, , . not only but b.
. , .. 90- .
, ,
but not only but, ,
but.
2.2.1.2.
(, , , )
., , , , ,
, . and, or, but, not onlybut, neithernor, eitheror.
) and or
a, b and (or) c
(Warriner 1965:577; 1977: 66). 70-
, (Rainsbury 1977:6). .
( ) , , (Bremner 1980:103-104). Famas lawyer
described two jailhouse informants against Fama as conmen, liars and rats (Brem. 1980:6).
1- . 98 % and or, a, b, and (or) c, .
. . But these merits are counterbalanced by the use of puzzling examples, by a neglect of the relation between pointing and movement, || by the use and recommendation of too many parenthetical commas, || and
by the recommendation of rigid rules for parenthetical commas, curves, and dashes (S. 1919:18).
. 15 , .
a, b, and (or) c
. . Thus in entering Constantinople he is reminded of the dwarfs and cripples he had seen on the streets of Genoa, Milan, ||
and Naples (A.L. 1993.65/1:99).
, and or, a and (or) b, c and (or) d. Between subject and verb, verb and object, preposition and object, verb and complement, or noun and necessary modifier, punctuation is usually objectionable, unless to set off
intervening matter (S. 1919:36).

63

Copyright & A K-C

100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60- 70-
.

80- 90-

. 15. , and
or [ a, b, and (or) c] .
.15: . .1.
, ( )
and or, .
a, and (or) b, and (or) c 1- . ,
.
What is worse, unsuitable marks may betray incompetence, || or ignorance of convention, || or even rhetorical
vanity (S. 1919:21). . . , , . , / .
II- ., 60- , , and or a and (or) b and (or) c, a, b and (or) c
(Warriner 1965:578).
, , ?
, 10-20 . ( a and (or) b and (or) c) (. 16). Say the subject or the accused or the defendant (Brem. 1980:6). ,
, . The selectmen doled out a small weekly sum to her, which she took
with dignity as being her hire; then she had a mild forage in the neighbors cellars and kitchens, of poor apples
and stale bread and pie (A.L. 1993.65/1:74).
100%
80

60

40

20
1-
.

50- 60- 70-


80- 90-

. 16. ,
a and (or) b and (or) c, .
.16: . .1.

64

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) but not only, but


, , , but not onlybut, . II-
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60-
.

70-

80-

90-

. 17. ,
c but not onlybut, .
.17: . .1.
I . 95 % but . 1- .
35 %. , 1- .
, .. but , 50- . , 50-
. . ,
.
90- 37 % . , .

but, . Frado learns early that women count not only
as workers || but as ornaments for men. (A.L. 1993.65/1:34)
) eitheror neither nor
, eitheror
neither nor II- I . . .
.
, .
: () a, b, and (or) c; () a and (or)
b and (or) c; () a but b; () not only a but b; () neither nor; () eitheror.
2.2.1.3.
I .
. . , gain, further, moreover, once more, first, secondly, finally, accordingly, consequently, at present, in truth, in short, in general, of course, nevertheless, doubtless, without doubt, true (used for indeed), that is (for namely), on the one hand, on the contrary / (Wilson 1856:72).
:
) , Perhaps I will give it. He
was formerly a wealthy citizen.
) , , . , , ,
: Poverty, perhaps, has been the most fertile source of literary crimes.
) hence, also
. - ,
.
) Here and there
. , , .
) , - , , , () ,
. There were, surely, always pretenders in science.

65

Copyright & A K-C

) , , , however, now,
then, too, indeed ; , , . Too .
) Therefore, , , ,
; ,
.

., , . , ,
, . , 60- ,
(, 1959:66). 70- , ,
(Sklar 1972:35-36; Skwire, Chitwood, Ackley, Fredman 1975; Encyclopaedic Dictionary of English 1977:66).
, . . . , ,
, .
,
. , , . ( 1- ) .
,
I.
:
)
: absolutely, decidedly, positively,
yes, of course, definitely. .
of course. ,
1- . ()
(98 %): In these sentences the appositive are of course not mere equivalents, being rather limiting or
specifying appositives. (S. 1919:97) , , : Of course none have any right to
be useless (S. 1919:102).
50-60- .
/ of course (97 %). , , ,
. .
, . /
. But it is possible, of course, that he also mentioned its rustic pronunciation in passing and that Verro
repeated his remark (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:278).
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60-

70- 80- 90-


. 18. of course
.
.18: . .1.

66

Copyright & A K-C

.18 , / of course
. ,
70- . 40 % . I have of course excluded men whose origins cannot be established (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:56).
80-90- 20 %. Of course there were canonical male writers who did in fact depend on the money they earned
as writers as much as the women, but the fact that the women were commercially more successful has highlighted
the financial motivation of their work (A.L. 1993.65/1:70-71). of course,
. / .
) ,

.
actually, indeed, naturally, really, in fact.
Really, naturally, actually . / (). ; actually + .
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60- 70- 80-


90-

. 19. () in fact
.
.19: . .1.
in fact 1- . ,
. ; in fact + . The careless writer deserves
comparatively small consideration; || in fact he may need to be saved from himself (S. 1919:35).
in fact II-
. 50-80- , , 2 % in fact /
. In fact,+ . 60- 78
% . 70-80-
. in fact 90- / /
40 % , ,
.
indeed 50- ,
1- . . 20 , 60- indeed . 60- . 43 %
/.
indeed, . 70-, 80- 90- .

.
)

assuredly, certainly, sure, surely, to
be sure. certainly.

67

Copyright & A K-C

. . . Though it sounds a bit pedantic, it is certainly quite acceptable. (Sh. 1981:220); Certainly Light in August shows Faulkners Dantesque ability to work on
multiple levels (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:27).
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60-

70- 80-

90-

. 20.
indeed .
.20: . .1.
)
(no doubt, undoubtedly) .
.
. The recorder Sepher is the son of a priest Skordeles and no doubt acquired his literacy in
order to assist his father in the liturgy; otherwise an oral poet is quite independent of letters in the practice of his
art (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:241).
: ,
, , : There is no doubt, however, that the usual
meaning is more common, <> (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:253).

60-70- . undoubtedly no doubt . By cutting debts
by three-fourths the government undoubtedly hoped to stabilize the situation (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:299).
, , +
undoubtedly + .
(to be + no doubt + ). . That is played a role in various individual cases is no doubt true, but it unfortunately seems to be the case
that, if we wish to assume a man was adlected in part for his previous support of Vespasian, we will have to do so
in the full realization that it is an assumption not susceptible of proof (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:63). , , 80-90- . undoubtedly (no doubt), +

II.
: apparently, evidently, likely, probably, obviously. . probably. 1- .
. ,
probably, , . .
, probably in the Quaestiones Plautinae .
probably . As for Verro himself, we have seen above that he explained a word
from the Faeneratrix, probably in the Quaestiones Plautinae (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:279). probably
.
III.
(maybe, perhaps, possibly) perhaps possibly. 1-

68

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. . . perhaps ( + perhaps + ). The rhetorical nature of the period is perhaps


best seen in the use of short sentences for sharp emphasis in the neighbourhood of longer sentences (S. 1919:28).
possibly .
. This precise line between individual and common property in
language cannot be specified, except that one should label as a quotation any borrowed wording which could
possibly be taken as original (S. 1919:144). (1- .)
, . Perhaps the main explanation is that popular newspapers
are intended to be read rapidly by all sorts of people and with the least possible exertion (S. 1919:57). possibly perhaps 50- , 60-,
70-, 80- 90- . () ,
.
,
( )
. , , , .
1.
fortunately, unfortunately, happily, unhappily, luckily, , , .
fortunately, unfortunately. , , . 50-, 60-, 70-, 80- 90- . , ,
,
.
. When he tells her not to beat Frado, she is reduced to tears and obeys him; || unfortunately, he
usually leaves the house to avoid a confrontation and thus gives Mrs. Belmont tacit permission to administer a
beating (A.L. 1993.65/1:39).
2. ,
. (frankly speaking, generally speaking, in short, strictly speaking, in general) , ,
, / . . in short, in general.
1- . In general (72 %). . in general .
in general II- . (In general, + ): In general, we have taken a direct yes-or-no,
right-or-wrong approach, even though that approach sometimes oversimplify complex and controversial issues
(Sh. 1981:301).
in short . 50- 60- : In short, whether they blame or defend Vergil for
it, whether they interpret the words as a reference to Pharsalia as well or simply to Philippi, all agree with Page
that it is only loosely that Emathia and the broad plains of Haemus can be described as twice fattened with
Roman blood (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:85).
. , .
. , ,

.
in short
(70-, 80- 90-).
3. , ,
, ,
, ,
(by the way, best of all, for example, for instance),
for example, for instance. . / .

69

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4. , ,
, ,

(also, either, finally, first, firstly, neither, next, secondly, at first)
. finally, first, firstly, secondly, at first.
first, firstly, secondly, at first, ,
.
. , firstly, secondly
.
first at first ,
. But Emerson expressed an idea both
provocative and profound with the phrase he first wrote, then deleted (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:13-14).
finally II- .
finally 97 %. Finally, it would appear that adlection as a reward for previous support, certain in some instances and likely in others, cannot be viewed as one of
the basic purposes of adlection (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:63). finally . The occasion for all of this overblown sentiment is not, finally, even a suffering victim, nor a face even, but a hand: a ridiculous audience indeed (A L. 1993.65/1:61). , to be
. .
finally . Selfhood, finally, like sympathy, is a fiction based on theatrical
exchange (A.L. 1993. 65/1:65).
5.
, although, thus, despite, however,
nevertheless, instead, still, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand,
however, nevertheless, still, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand.
, 1- .
on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand , II-
. (50-, 60-, 70-, 80- 90- ) .
on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand however / /
. .
nevertheless , 50- .
Nevertheless, this can be no more than a suspicion unless it is strengthened by other consideration (A.J.
1952.73/3-4:275). . 60-
. . 70- 90- nevertheless ( ) .
nevertheless
(98 %) While Kant pretends to write outside of class difference, class nevertheless saturates his argument in the explicit economic language of necessity and interest (A.L. 1993.65/1:71).
6. ,

accordingly, consequently,
hence, therefore. therefore.
. . , ,
(West, Kimber 1963:182): Edward, therefore, refused;
but Bill accepted. , , . Therefore Edward refused the offer; He therefore refused the offer.
II- I . therefore
. , , +
therefore + . But when used, either in the singular or plural number,
to convey the notion of another person, it is not in apposition, and must therefore be distinguished by the comma;
as, Smith, Brother, and Co (W. 1856:41).
, , , .

70

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therefore 1- . . 50- . :
1. ( ) +, therefore, + : I see, therefore, no reason to conclude that Verro considered one list more genuine than another (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:65).
2. : I conclude, therefore, that
Mattinglys reading is flatly impossible; that our best efforts to cater to his wishes leave us with what is quite
improbable; and that at the present time we have no reason to doubt the evidence of the First Medicean that
Tacituss praenomen was Publius (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:70).
, , . 50 %. ,
therefore . / (60-, 70-, 80- 90- ).
7. ,
moreover, then. . 1- . moreover II-
. Moreover, he did not explain why these coins and these coins alone were struck from public silver, as
distinguished from the bullion used for the other coins (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:297). 92 %. , moreover 1-
II- . : (1) , +
moreover, +; (2) to be + ,moreover, + (.); (3) +,moreover, +
; (4) Moreover, + .
/ then II- . 78 %. 60- .
, then . The problem, then, in interpreting the dialogues is to the virtue of Plato as little as the excellence of an Antigone or a Treseus bears witness to
the goodness of their creator (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:35). 90-
then . If she accepts
her brothers sympathy, then, James must see herself as he sees her (A.L. 1993.65/1:59). .
2.2.2.
2.2.2.1.
I .
. , . .
:
+
+
12 % + . , , .
1- . (76 %). 1 .
24 % (. I . 12 %). , , .
. . , , -,
+ , -, . The field of syntax is the sentence, || and the sentence has in practice been the field
of discussion for the rule of punctuation (S. 1919:31).
( ) . There might be a number of changes in punctuation under the
customary rules, if the sentences of this paragraph were isolated; || but such experiments would be like anatomical experiments to determine a question of physiology (S. 1919:32). , 1- . 5 % . :
, ,
- . ,
. , .
, ,

71

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or . , , , . The colon is sometimes used between main clauses without clear anticipatory quality, || or it may be at once anticipatory and compounding (S. 1919:195). , . , . , ? . The paragraph sign requires only bare mention, || and there need be no further mention of the caret, the brace, ditto marks, leaders, or the asterism (S. 1919:19). : The paragraph is a sort of super-punctuation, || and capitals, like italic, are an indication of grouping or
meaning (S. 1919:20). : , - , . .
II- . ,
and or, . , (Partridge 1955:218; Skwire, Chitwood, Ackley, Fredman 1975:311-312). 60--80- .
, , (Praninskas 1957:358; Bremner 1980:103-104).
, . Words on Words (1980), , , ,
1- . . , (Bussier) ,
,
(Maittaire 1967:195). (. 21), , and or, .
.
60- . ,
, ( ),
, and
or (Partridge 1955:214) , : As
the scholar closest to Plautus generation, Accius judgment is probably the most important that we have || and it
will be our chief concern in this investigation (A.J. 1965.73/3-4:268) - .
, ,
(,
1959:29; Sklar 1972:45).
100%

80

60

40

20
50-

60-

70- 80-

90-

. 21. and
(or) II- .
.21: . .1.

. (Bremner 1980:103-104):
Betty knows Jack and she likes Jack.

. Frado has worth to Mrs. Bellmont as a workhorse, but there are other villains in Our Nig || and almost
all human interactions are shown reduced to economic exchanges (A.L. 1993.65/1:34).
, .

72

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, .. ,
but ,
(Skwire, Chitwood, Ackley, Fredman 1975:311-312; Bremner1980:103-104; Quirk, Greenbaum 1973:459).
, . , but. You concede that he is fat, but you think he is beautiful. (Brem.1980:45) ,
while for, . Some readers are indifferent||,while others feel a wrong or unnecessary mark as an annoyance. (S. 1919:42); In linotype composition
much expense may be saved by numbering notes through a whole chapter or article, || for the paging can seldom
be predicted exactly enough to save resetting of lines (S. 1919:178).
, .:
1. and or .
2. / . .
/ .
3. but .
4. , while for
.
2.2.2.2.
2.2.2.2.1.

, , ,
(Praninskas 1957:21; Warriner 1965:589; Rainsbury 1977:111; Quirk, Greenbaum 1972:459).
, I- . ,
. , (. . 22). 50--60-
, , . , ,
,
. . 70-80- .
. , ,
, , , , , , . When the party was
over, || Jack took Jane home (Sh. 1981:121).
25 %. , 70- 80- (.: 70- 13 %; 80- 6 %; 90- 25 %).
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60-

70- 80-

90-

. 22.
( ) .
. 22: . .1.

73

Copyright & A K-C

. 23 , 1- . 13 % , . 50- ,
1- . (. 1- .- 13 %, 50- - 62 %). ,
: Sometimes elements are not pointed at
all, || especially when all conjunctions are present (S. 1919:119); It is commonly used in the plural of single letters (twods), || especially when there is danger of ambiguity, as in two as (as) or two is (is) (Brem. 1980:13).

.
60- .
,
.
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60- 70-

80-

90-

. 23.
( )
.23: . .1.
90-
,
, ,
. , - .
2.2.2.2.2.
(. 24),
. . If
they refer to a be lower case because archy, the cockroach, wasnt strong enough to hold down the shift key on
the typewriter of Don Marquis, American newspaperman <> (Brem. 1980:41).
. , (.. ).
1- . If the meaning is clear || the plan may be kept out of sight (S. 1919:58).
() , , : If the pronoun is not expressed (as in the note I sent him) || the clause is regularly open (S.
1919:94).
,
, .. . ,
(. 25). , , , : In addition, public schools in a liberal
society have a role to play in helping students form their own views of the good life, || if they do not transmit any
particular set of private values (AJE 1983:57).

74

Copyright & A K-C

100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60-
.

70-

80- 90-

. 24.
( ) .
.24: . .1.
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
.

50-

60- 70-

80-

90-

. 25.
( ) .
.25: . .1.
2.2.2.2.3.
1- .,
, . 11 % , , : The following sentence is bad || because the main break, after experiment, is open, and the parenthetical group so pointed as to make it momentarily appear that the main break comes after but (S. 1919:22).
. 26 , .

. Because the noun while means period of time, || a while is correct (Brem. 1980:55).
, : , , .
1- .
The dash is appropriate || because there is a shift of
structure (S. 1919:127). 35 % . . 60-
. 92 % .
,
( ),

75

Copyright & A K-C

, , , .
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
60-
70-
.

80-

90-

. 26.
( )
.26: . .1.

. . 27 , 70-, 80-, 90-
.
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
.

50- 60- 70- 80-


90-

. 27.
( )
.27: . .1.
2.2.2.2.4.
. 28 ,
.
,
. , .
, , , (Rainsbury1977; Skwire, Chitwood, Ackley, Fredman 1975; Encyclopedic Dictionary of English 1977:111), , (Praninskas1957:21; Warriner 1965:589). (.
29), ( ) .

76

Copyright & A K-C

. , , ,
.
, ( ) , . ,
.
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60- 70-
.

80-

90-

. 28.
( )
.28: . .1.
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50-
.

60- 70- 80-


90-

. 29.
( )
60-, 70-, 80-
.29: . .1.
2.2.2.2.5.
. 30 . . 30 , 1 . 33 % . ,
67 %. For a like reason there may be advantage in placing quotations || so that the quote
marks will come at structural breaks (S. 1919:46). . 30 , . - .
, , . Native speaker frequently
speak quite fast and slur over certain sounds || so that it is difficult for a learner to hear the ve of have or thes
of has unless he is especially listening for it (Sh. 1981:183). , , .

77

Copyright & A K-C

100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60-
.

70- 80-

90-

. 30.
.
.30: . .1.
2.2.2.3.
( ) (
,
.)
1 . , 92 % and, or, but, , . , , , .
, ( , ). But, when the
consonants cannot begin a word, || or when the vowel preceding them is short, the first should be separated;<>
(W. 1856:225). .

+a;b;c; and d ( a, b, c, and d ).
The dash is used where a sentence breaks off abruptly, and the subject is changed; || where the sense is suspended, and is continued after a short interruption; || where a significant or long pause is required; || and where
there is an unexpected or epigrammatic turn in the sentiment (W. 1856:175).
a; and (or) b, + . If, however, the word expressing negation is not put in immediate connection with one of the phrases, but in
that portion of the sentence on which they depend; || or if a finite verb, active or neuter, immediately precedes the
negative, || the comma should be omitted before the first phrase; <> (W. 1856:46).
. 31
. .31 , 1- .
. ,
. 50- . There is support for this in Aristotel where he says (Rhet., , 1,7) that the art
of delivery has much in common with acting || and that some have written on this subject,<> (A.J. 1952.73/34:253) 60- . But it is possible, of course, that he also mentioned its rustic pronunciation in passing || and that Verro repeated his remark (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:279).
. Be
sure that you understand all the italicized terms in the paragraph above || and that you can spell them correctly
(Sh. 1981:59).
, ,
, (
). If the story has to be used || and if the words are essential to the story, use the
words (Brem. 1980:394). ,
.
and, or, but. , , but, -

78

Copyright & A K-C

, .
. Bill said that he hadnt || but that he was still trying to (Sh. 1981:196). , not only a but b.
100%

80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60- 70-
.

80- 90-

. 31.
and or
.31: . .1.
50- 60- (.32), , 70- . 70 90-
1215 %. , .32 , . and or.
100%
80

60

40

20
1- 50- 60-
.

70- 80- 90-


. 32.
and or
.32: . .1.
1- . . 85 %. 50-
. .
33 , , .
. 34. . 34 .
, .

79

Copyright & A K-C

1- . 90 % , , 50-
. 50-, 60- 70- ,
, . 34,
. 20 20 % .
100%

80

60

40

20
1-
.

50-

60- 70-

80-

90-

. 33.
( and or)
.33: . .1.
100%
80

60

40
20

0
1- 50-
.

60-
70-

80- 90-

. 34.
and or .
. 34: . .1.
2.3.

2.3.1.
2.3.1.1.
, ,
( a, b and (or) c), .
. ,
. , [
a, b, and (or) c], .
a and (or) b; c and (or) d+ . .

80

Copyright & A K-C

/
1.

a, b and (or) c +
>
>

.5: a, b, c ;
> .
, and or. ,
.
, , , . . ,
1 , ,
. ,
.
.
.
a but b not only a but b
. . , , ,
, but not onlybut
.

/
1.
2.
3.
4.

6
, ,




c

a, b and (or) c
<
>
>
<
a and (or) b
>
<
>
<
a but b
<
>
<
>
not only a but b
<
>
<
>
. 6: a, b, c ;
>

;
< .

2.3.1.2.
, ( ) ,
and or ( a and (or) b and (or) c and (or) d), .
a b and (or)
c a and (or) b and (or) c .
( ). , ,
. , and or ( ).
, ,
: , , , .
, .
, . , , .
a but b; not only a but b; neither a nor b; either a or b (a, b, c )

81

Copyright & A K-C

, .
.
7
, ,



/

- -

1.
a b and (or) c
<
>
2.
a and (or) b and (or) c
>
<
<
3.
a but b
<
<
4.
not only a but b
<
<
5.
neither a nor b
<
<
6.
either a or b
<
<
. 7:

a, b, c ;
>
<

2.3.1.3.
. ,
. probably ( ).

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.


/
/
/ /


perhaps
<
<
possibly
<
<
probably
<

<
>
certainly
<
<
really
<
<
naturally
<
<
actually
<
<
indeed
<

>

. 8: < / .
>
probably . indeed . .
. ( ) . ,
.
therefore nevertheless.

82

Copyright & A K-C

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

9





/
/
/
/

however
>
>
therefore
>
<
1
nevertheless
>
<
2
firstly
>
<
secondly
>
<
fortunately/ unfortunately
<
<
happily/ unhappily
<
<
finally
<
<
first
<
3
<
then
<
4
6
moreover
<
5
6
.9: > /
< /.

1: (1) , + therefore, + ; (2)


, + therefore,+ ; (3) Therefore .
2: Nevertheless .
3: First / /.
4: then . , . : (1) ,+ then+, ( ); (2) ,+ then+, ; (3) ,+ then+, ; (4) In general, then, + ; (5) then, .
5: (1) ,+ moreover+, ; (2) Moreover,+
; (3) ,+ moreover+, moreover
/.
6:
then, moreover , (. 4-5).
, + therefore, +; , +
therefore,+ ; Therefore
. Nevertheless .
.
, , happily/unhappily fortunately/unfortunately, ..
, . , however.
.
10




/

/ / / /

1.
no doubt
<
<
>
2.
of course
>
>
3.
in fact
>
<
>
4.
at first
<
<
>
5.
in general
<
<
>
6.
in short
>
>
7.
on the contrary
>
>
8.
on the one hand/on the other hand
>
>
9.
for example
>
>
10. for instance
>
>

83

Copyright & A K-C

. 10: > / /.
< /
then moreover . . , then . : (1) ,+ then+, ( ); (2) ,+ then+, ; (3) ,+ then+, ; (4) In general, then, + ; (5) then, .
moreover / (1) ,+
moreover +, ; (2) Moreover,+ ; (3) ,+ moreover +, . .
(.10) . no doubt, in
general no doubt, in general, in fact, at first . no doubt in general , ,
( A , in fact, at first.
). A : for instance, for example, on the other hand, on the one hand, on the
contrary, in short, of course. - .
2.3.2.
2.3.2.1.
, , , .
, neithernor; eitheror; a but
b; a, while b; a, for b, (97 %).
, A.
3 %.
11
, ,



/


1. a and b



>
<
>

<

2. a or b
>
>
<
3. neither a nor b
>
>
4. either a or b
>
>
5. a but b
>
>
6. a, while b
>
>
7. a, for b
>
>
. 11: a,b ;
>
<
,
and or. .
. . . ,
, ,
.

84

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2.3.2.2.

1.
2.
3.
4.

12

, ,



>
>

>
>

>
>

>
>

. 12: > .
. . A , , ,
.
. , , ,
( , ..). .
.
,
, . , ,
. ,

.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

13

, ,



<
<

<
<

>
<

>
>

<
<
. 13: > .
<

2.3.2.3.
, , ( ). ,
. . ,
. , , ( and) .
, or, but, not only a but b,
.
or . but, not only a but b
(A). ,
, .

85

Copyright & A K-C

1.
2.
3.
4.

14




a and b
<
<
a or b
>
<
a but b
>

not only a but b


>
<

. 14: a, b ;
>
<

II
I. .
,
(.: . , ):
/ , , .
: 1. ; 2. ; 3. ;
4. .
. (1900-2000 .) : (1)
, ; (2) ,
.
1
; , ;
and, . 2 .
.
, . .
II- . (1950-2000 .)
(.: . , ) ,
, .
. II- . : (1) , ; (2) ,
. 1 but not only but ; and/or ( ), but, not onlybut ; (perhaps, indeed, possible, probably, certainly, really,
naturally, actually); undoubtedly; no doubt, in fact;
, (fortunately, unfortunately, happily, unhappily, finally, first).
and,
;
90-
, . 2
.
, ,
.
.
. (: , ).
(1) ( 20 %) ,
, ,
.
, - .

86

Copyright & A K-C

(2) ,
, , , . , , .
(3) : 10 .
.
.
, , , , . ,
; .
(4) 80-90- .
.
,
, , ,
( ). ,
, .
(5) : 90- . .
. ,
. : (1)
,
[, Actually, if (when)] (50 - 90- ); (2) , , ,
, (, actually, however,) (50- - 90- ); (3)
.

. ;
(4) ,
, .
II. . (1900-2000 .) , : (1) , ; (2) , . .
, . .
1
; and ; ,
. 2
.
. , . .
II- . (1950-2000 .) . . , : (1) , ; (2) , . 1 but not only but ; , ( ); but
not onlybut ; (really, naturally, actually, certainly, probably, possibly, perhaps; indeed); undoubtedly;
no doubt, in fact ; , (first, firstly, secondly, finally, nevertheless, at first, in general (
), fortunately, unfortunately); , , ,
and / or, but, not onlybut. 2
, .
(1950-2000 .) , : -

87

Copyright & A K-C

. :
.
. .
. ,
, .
,
.
, , .
,
. .
.
.
III. . . (
, ). , , ( ) ( ) . .
. .

( );
(, , , );
. , .
/ . . .
, . .

. , . , , . .

.
, and or .
.
. . , . .
, , .
, , .
. .
. .
, ,
( and) . , or, but, not only a but b,
. or . but, not
only a but b (A).
. ( )
.

88

Copyright & A K-C

III


3.1.
, V . I . , , 70-80 .
( ). , .. ,
( 2001):
1. ;
2. , , /, , , ;
3. , .
. . , ,
.
, . . , , (Vallins 1953:46;
Carey 1958:58). , , : ,
, .
. , , . ( ), .. , , :
, , , () , , ().
, , , , ( 2003).
, 1- , . , . . , , (, 1959:79). . . The Kings English :
, (Fowler, Fowler
1940:274). 1-
.
: ) , ,
(Anybody might be an acuser a personal enemy, an infamous person, a child, parent, brother, or sister.); ) (<>; dozens of schemes
have been brought forward; and the upshot of it all is nothing.); ) , , (It is now idle to attempt to hide the fact
that never was the Russian lack of science, of the modern spirit, or, to speak frankly, of intelligence never was
the absence of training or of enthusiasm which retards the efforts of the whole Empire displayed in a more melancholy fashion than in the Sea of Japan. Times.); ) ; (Here
Milton: How charming is divine philosophy!); ) (The four greatest names in English literature
are almost the first we come to Chaucer, Spencer, Shakespeare, and Milton.); ) , , (In every well regulated community such as that of England the laws own no superior.).
, ,
, . , . .

, . .. .. ( 1998:32-34). : , ,
, ,
, .. , . . . , ( ),
: Hear Milton How charming is divine Philosophy!; What says Bacon? Revenge is a kind of wild
Justice. . . ,
, ,

89

Copyright & A K-C

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

10.
11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

15



. .

1-
50-60-
70-90-
.

,
, - +
+
+


+
+
, ,



+
;


( +
+
+
)

+
+
+


+
+
,


+

+
+

all,
these

+
+

,
+


+
-
:
that is,; like this; +
as, for example, ;
whether, for example
+

. 15:
+ ,
: As they parted, she insisted on his giving the most solemn promises that would not expose
himself to danger which was quite unnecessary. , ,
: <> And lose the name of action. Soft you now! The fair Ophelia!

90

Copyright & A K-C

.15
. . . (1- ).
, . . , (1, 4, 5 6). , 1-
7, 8 12 , . . . , 7 (1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12).
II- (50--60- )
( 4 7 ). . 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 16 .
. . .
3.1.1.
, , .
3.1.1.1.
.. , , ( 2001:12).

. :
, .
. .

.
3.1.1.2.
. , ()
- , , , , , , .. . . , . He awoke mother went away.
3.1.1.2.1. -
)
,
. :
. 1- .
(
, ) 4 % .
: ,
, . But
says is followed by a colon? And a colon between verb and object breaks your own rules. No; (:) is something
different from a stop; it is an extra quotation-mark, as much a conventional symbol as the full-stop in M.A. and
other abbreviations (H.&F. 1940:294). II- .
. :
Where did he have it?
I dont know. He shot the cop with it.
You saw him shoot the cop? ( D. Ellis. 2005)
)
1- . ( . . ).

68 %. The steam-cars will have 16-horse power engines. Times (H.&F. 1940:287). 50-
. 80-90-
.
)
1- . - .
15 %. .
() .
.

91

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. Indeed there are only two specific terms used ventricle and auricle (H.&W. 1987:111). .
. , , - 1- , . A correspondent has raised an interesting question the hyphening of road and street
names apart from content (H.&F. 1940:285). : He might (artificially) give it as an exclamation How many first see him so! (H.&F. 1940:269)
, .
, .
1- ., , , / , .. . An exclamation or question mark which
are not true stops, but tone symbols may be an essential part of the quotation (H.&F. 1940:291).

.
II-
, , , . Quotations may be from the written language
(that is, in the widest sense, literature), as, for example, the numerous sentences quoted in this book from periodicals and pamphlets; or they may be from the spoken language when we write down, in what is known as direct
speech, the actual words of a speaker (V. 1953:115).
. .
. Our concern in ESP is not with language use although this will help to define the course objectives
(H.&W. 1987:14). .
. . , , . .

50- (4 % .). . 80--90- , . This
breakdown (unless it is to be completely random) has to be based on certain criteria (H.&W.1987:85).
10-20 . ()
. , , , .
. This kind of evaluation helps to asses whether the course objectives are being met
whether the course, in other words, is doing what it was designed to do (H.&W. 1987:144). .
)
. . . I- . .
50-60- .

, .
. In English (though not in French) the names of the months and of the days of
the week are written with capitals: January, September, Tuesday but not usually the names of the seasons:
summer, winter (V. 1953:130-131). 8 %. .
)
1- . -
( . . ).
6-7 %. Everyone
can see that I will not try; it is dangerous is two independent sentences independent in grammar, though not
in thought (H.&F. 1940:203). 50-90- . ( 8 %).
, 1- II-
., , 50- . , (). ,
. , ,
1- II- . . 1- .
50- :

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(1) , : It has been


shown by various scholars (including Mr. J. Dover Wilson in the Cambridge Shakespeare) that Shakespeare did,
in fact, punctuate for the actor, using a system entirely independent of normal syntactical punctuation a system
that is paralleled in the conventional method of marking the pointing in canticles and psalms (V. 1953:101).
8 %.
. We have called this a learning-centred approach an approach with the avowed aim of
maximising the potential of the learning situation (H.W. 1987:77).
(2) -: In the singular, s is added to the singular form of
the noun: dog-dogs; lady-ladys; hero-heros. (V. 1953:125)
12 %.
80-90- . But it was the late 1960s and early 1970s which saw the greatest expansion
of research into the nature of particular varieties of English for example, descriptions of written scientific and
technical English by Ewer and Latorre (1969), Swales (1971), Selinker and Trimble (1976) and others (H.&W.
1987:7).
(3) : that is, ( ); like this; as, for example, ;
whether, for example. Some follow the convention for printing reported speech that is, place them inside the
closing quotes (V. 1953:115); Here a comma ends the actual quoted words, a full stop follows the break, and the
next sentence begins, with a capital letter, of course, after the full stop like this : <> (V.1953:117); In its simplest use the comma marks the natural pause at the end of a phrase or a clause as, for example, an adjective
(participle) phrase: <> (V. 1953:103).
(4) all, these.
all, these, , , .
. 1- . . .
.
: Evaluation can fulfil two functions assessment and
feedback (H.&W. 1987:151).
3.1.1.2.2. ,
VI . . 1- ., , , (3-4
%). , , :
.
1 , 1- .
: After giving this example,
Beadnell says: The reason is clear: the words quoted are those of another, but the question is the writers own
(H.&F. 1940:293). . II- . . (Nesfield 1944:131-138),
,
(Carey 1957:29). .
. ,
( ),
.
. , ,
.
3.1.1.3.
,
.
,
. .
. . , ,
.
, ,
. Naaman was a mighty man in valour but he was a leper
; Naaman was

93

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a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper ;


Naaman was a mighty man in valour but he was a leper .
, . I saw her, but she didnt want to see me.
, , , , , .
-
: , , , . .
, , . I
used to sit in the tree near the fence waiting for their invitation to play with them but they didnt invite me.
. , : , , . .
, , .
,
, - .
.
. Such evidence from the classrooms, however, did little to diminish the
influence of the theory a sad example of human mistrust of intuition and experience in favour of theory!
(H.&W. 1987:42)
3.2.
3.2.1.

. , , .
, , .
. (Bremner 1981: 103). , , , , .
, , ,
.
3.2.1.1.
:
: ,
. . .

. Like the elderly women in her stories, she found mere sustenance insufficient
she could relish a bit of bacon with her tea and toast (A.L. 1993.65/1:79).
3.2.1.2.

: - .
3.2.1.2.1. -
)
1- . , ,
-
. 13 %. The schools have abandoned the rod as a promoter of educational efficiency, but they have put nothing, except sentimentality, in its
place. E.J. Swift, Youth and the Race, p. 38 (S. 1919:38). II- .
. ,
.. , . James D. Hart, The Popular Book: A History of
Americas Literary Taste (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1950) (A.L. 1993.65/1:89). , , , . ,
. ,
, 80--90- .
)

. , .

94

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(1- ). Of the many relations of punctuation within


the paragraph, only one more need be noticed for the present the parenthetical relation (S. 1919:53). :

,
.

The importance of good movement that is, good for the immediate purpose
is evident (S. 1919:41). 50--60-
(.: 1- .
32 %; 50-60- 10-11 %). , , :

Both Atticus and Caelius saw Caldus as a silly little boy who lacked gravitas and continentia a demerit
which (pace Cicero) disqualified Mescinius (A.J. 1965.86/ 1-2:384).

Hence the relation between time and wealth is close, and explains the frequent relation of wealth by the laudator to a station somewhat inferior to the stability of natural inborn qualities although in certain contexts it is
the combination of wealth and arete which constitutes the supreme blessing (as Sapph., 148; Pind., O., 2, 58-9)
(A.J. 1965.86/3-4:368). , . .

First, the traditional-religious reason these are the gods who protect the sanctity of the oath (A.J.
1965.86/3-4:361). , 70- . C. Fabius Hadrianus later served as praetor
in charge of Africa under the Cinnan regime which suggests popular tendencies: see Munzer, RE 6, 1971; <>
(A.J. 1977.98/3-4:368). 80- , 50--60- ,
10 %.
, , . All like Thoreau are products of negative conceptions which display identity in unlikeness (A.L.
1985.57/1-2:15). ,
.
, , . 34 %.
1) : In detaching her self will, perception, intellect from her body, she
rewrites the body as foreign in order to maintain supremacy over her mind (A.L. 1993.65/1:60).
, : Her mother gave
away her priceless gem virginity for nothing but was later able to trade her second treasure white skin
to Jim for a living (A.L. 1993.65/1:34).
2) : I like moral because in this instance she is clearly compelled to force a
moral for the sake of the periodical which makes her feel vaguely immoral (A.L. 1993.65/1:72).
: Mr. Belmonts advice to
Frado that when she was sure she did not deserve a whipping, to avoid it if she could betrays his belief that
sometimes she does deserve to be whipped (A.L. 1993.65/1:39).
3) , : Our Nig is told mostly in the
third person, that is we need the qualification because Wilson sometimes shifts, as in the early chapter titles
Mag Smith, My Mother, My Fathers Death, and A New Home for Me (A.L. 1993.65/1:40).
)
1- . .
8 %. , . , , -: The
paragraph colon often with an unnecessary dash is common before quoted passages or other matter formally
introduced (S. 1919:55). : So inflexible a rule is a nuisance; but practically it is sometimes treated as one of the laws of nature if the
meaning stands in the way of the rule, so much the worse for the meaning (S. 1919:123). 50-60-
4 %.
, and. 1-
.
. II- .
. Anaximander had also developed a theory about the origin of mankind, suggesting that the human race had adapted

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itself to life on the dry land after an earlier period when the world was covered with water or slime and this
was a view that might well be tested in Egypt, reputedly the oldest country there was (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:65). , , .

Ciceros worry is not yet quem relinquam qui provinciae praesit, but quid illo fiet quem reliquero, praesertim si fratrem which implies the probability of the quaestor Mescinius being appointed si non fratrem, since his
claims were now second only to those of Quintus (A.J. 1965.86/3-4:377).
. 70- . :

Although Pinkmight have been correct concerning the source of the bullion which he claimed was the sanctius aerarium his hypothesis about the Lex Papiria was based on his own chronology of the coins, which is not
generally accepted (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:297). 0, 9
%. . , 80, 90- , . ,
, 80- . . , , . :

The third cover of the Modernist writer that he chose the ironic mode follows logically from the first two
(A.L. 1985.57/1-2:26). 90- ,
:
,
For Mary Wilkins Freeman, the profitability of her fiction was as critical as its artistic merit (however one
defines this) from the Kantian perspective at least, an impossible combination (A.L. 1993.65/1:78). ,
. , , , , .
:

As her mother wrote in 1868, Alices hysteria is not in the least degree morbid in its character her mind
does not seem at all involved in it she never dreads an attack, and seems perfectly happy when they are over
(A.L. 1993.65/1:60).
. ,
.
:
but
One change she have made out of ignorance she says the Belmont sire died before his wife, though Nehemiah Hayward Sr. outlived Mary but in two other instances she must have changed the facts deliberately
(A.L. 1993.65/1:43).
, / ,
. .

Like the elderly women in her stories, she found mere sustenance insufficient she could relish a bit of bacon
with her tea and toast (A.L. 1993.65/1:79).
:


While it may have been true that to some extent their culture accepted and valued such friendships especially since these women were seen to manifest and share qualities of piety, devotion, sincerity, and sympathy
once a woman tried to describe her romantic relation to another woman she was bound to reveal the contradictions of that position (A.L. 1993.65/1:6).
, . . :
1. , ;
2. ;
3. ;

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4. but ;
5. and ;
6.
.
)
I . 1- . .
9 %. A device and common but seldom used today save in crowded composition is the mid-paragraph
dash a dash reinforcing a full stop (S. 1919:59). 50--90- .
1-2 % (50--80- ). Thus Latinus calls the underworld
gods to witness together with Zeus Horkios to emphasize his promise that this time he will not break his word
this time the foetus shall stand (A.J. 1965.86/3-4:359). . 3-4 %. We see this detachment enacted in some of the Diarys most dramatic scenes scenes, not coincidentally, involving direct references to death and therefore to the arousal and
staging of sympathy (A.L. 1993. 65/1:60). ,
. It is a self-deceived practice that instead of performing the ostensible
work of restoration of neglected and derided women writers re-enacts the strategy of suppression because it reenacts the terms of that suppression (A.L. 1993.65/1:88).
(37 %): The nurse resembles an actress, fixing her expression to represent a
particular role, a role signified by what Katharine Loring describes as an anxious-devoted-nurse expression
(A.L. 1993.65/1:61). ,
, , .
)
I ., , : Energy and audacity of will characterize all ruling men, statesmen, generals, reformers,
orators (Wilson1856:138). ( ) 1- , .

. , ,
. . , , 1- . 8 % (.: 3 %). The purpose of this
chapter is to set forth the character, the uses, and the abuses of the structural points period, suspension periods, question and exclamation marks, colon, semicolon, comma, dash, curves, and brackets (S. 1919:180).
, 1- . ,
.
50--90-
.
. , 50- 2 , , 9 %. 60- 90- ,
2 %.
II- . .
80- , , 0,9 %. To appreciate more fully the implications of such negatives in
American society and to understand the forms they took in our literature, it is instructive to consider their analogous function in two distinctively different modes of expression those of mystical theology and modern advertising (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:5). ,
.
)
1-
. 9 %. Proportion, balance, suspension, parallelism, capitals, white space, punctuation marks
all these, and probably more than these, will enter into the effect (S. 1919:41). , . ,
80- 0,9 %.
)
. , 1- . 21 %. , , , : For abruptness there is the dash, and for vague
impressiveness if one likes that sort of thing there are suspensions (S. 1919:66). , .

97

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: The rhetorical value of white


space a matter clearer to printers than to most teachers and writers appears by absence when words are unspaced when the page is crowded to the edges, or when matter which ought to be in half a dozen paragraphs is
set as in unbroken phalanx paragraph (S. 1919:26). . ,
. more often in newspapers than in books
. Instead of periods, asterisks are sometimes used, more often in newspapers than in
books (S. 1919:183). II- . .
, 60- , 5 %.
, 1- . When Herodotus did meet a responsible temple official, as he did in Sais, communication must have been difficult, depending on the interpreters integrity, or worse still on the officials own pretension to a knowledge of Greek (A.J. 1965.86/12:61). 70- . 2 % , . If Asandros was in fact Parmenions brother and I believe it has been sufficiently demonstrated that he need
not have been then the historians have suppressed much that we should like to know (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:412).
20 ( 60- ) 5 %. , , 50--90- . . / ,
, /, .
3.2.1.2.2. ,
, , 1- . II- . 70-, 80-, 90- . . ( ) . , , 80- , 0, 9 %.
I cite representative parts of it Again, ascending yet higher, we maintain that He is neither soul nor intellect; nor has He imagination, opinion, reason or understanding; <>(A.J. 1985.57/1-2:6).
. , .
In Atlantis, in the very heart of his ecstasy, he says,
O, Choir, translating time
Into what multitudinous Verb the suns
And synergy of waters ever fuse, recast
In myriad syllables, Psalm of Cathay ! (A.J. 1985.57/1-2:84)
, ,
.
3.2.1.3.
, .
,
. .
. . , ,
. , .
- : , , , . .
, , , .
3.3.


,
.

, , .

98

Copyright & A K-C

3.3.1.
.
3.3.2.
. , - (. . 16).
, . : (1)
, , ; (2) ; (3) , ; (4) ; (5)
, ; (6) ; (7)
all, these; (8) ,
; (9) ; (1) : that is, ( ); like this; as, for example, ; whether, for example.
, :
(1) : (2) ; (3) ; (4) ; (5) ; (6)
; (7) ; (8) .
16
-




1.

>
>
2.

>
>
3.

>
<
4.

>
<
:
5.
>
<
that is, like this, as, for example
,
6.

<
<
7.
,

>
>
8.
,

>
>
9.
,
( )
<
>
10.
>
>
. 16: >
<
(.
. 16). , : , ,
that is, like this, as, for example; , , , : /,
, .
,
, (. 17). . , . ,
, , . ,
.
(1) .
. . :
(1) , (2) , (3) .

99

Copyright & A K-C

(2) , , ,
, .
(3) , and, .
, .
(4) (
) , .
(5) . .
(6) , , , , , .

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

17
, ,




( )


, ,
>
>
,
<
>

,
<
>
<
>
( and)

>
<

>
<
C, , ,
>
<
.

.17: >
<
3.3.3.
, , , .
, , , , . . , ,
, . .
-
. .
, ,
, , -
: (1) , , ,
; (2) ; (3)
but; (4)
, and; (5) . 4 5 .
.
III
I. . , . , . . . ,
(, /, ). ,
, .

100

Copyright & A K-C

.
, (.: .
, ): / , , .
: 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. .
. (1900-2000 .) : (1)
, ; (2)
, , .
1 , , ,
.
2 ( ) , ( ) .
. :
, . .
II- . (1950-2000 .) . . , : (1)
; (2) , ; (3) , , ; (4) , .
1 ,
- ( )
(80-90- ); ; , ,
, .
2 (80-90- ).
3 , , (
.); , , .
4 ; .
II- . (1950-2000 .) ,
: (1)
(80- 90- ); (2)
(50-90- ); (3) (50--90- .).
1- , . , - : ;
, . (80-90- .) : , ,
; ; , ;
; , ; ; all, these; ,
; -;
: that is, ( ); like this; as, for example, ; whether, for example.
() , , - .
. .
II. ,
. . . , , ,
(, /, ). , .
, . ( /
, , ,
), , ,
.

101

Copyright & A K-C

(1) -
(2) .
- : ; ; ; ; ; ;
. .
(1900- 2000 .) , : (1) ; (2) , ; (3) ,
, .
1 .
2 ; . 3
. , .
, , , .
II- . (1950-2000 .) . .
: (1) ; (2)
, ; (3) , , ; (4)
, .
1 ,
, , .
2 and; . 3 ,
( .); but , , ; ( .); , ( .);
, , ;
, , . 4 ; .
. , : ( .);
(50- 90- ); ( .); ( .); and,
; (70- 90- ).
( , ..), ,
( , , ), 80-90- . , .. :
, , .
. , , , -
, .
III. ,
, . - . .
, , .
. . , 1-
.
.
: , , that is, like this, as, for example;
, ,
, : , , .
. (1900-2000 .) , : (1) ; (2) , ; (3) , , .

102

Copyright & A K-C

, . .
.
, .
.
: , .
:
2 ; . 3
.
. (1950-2000 .) :

: (1) , ;
(2) , ,
; (3) . 1
and, ; ;
II- . 3
,
.
, .
: (80- 90 ).
: ( ); and, (50-90- ); (70- 90- ).
: (50-90- ); (1- .
.).

103

Copyright & A K-C

IV


1500 ( 300 ) . ( ) 100 %.
4.1.
VII .
- , , . I .
, . , , . , (Wilson 1856:130). . , , , , .
, . , (Hossack 1980).
, , ,
-, , , .. , -, . , , . . , , , , , . .
, , ( 1989:30). , , : 1) (Man propose: God disposes); 2)
(Chief rivers: Thames, Severn, Humber).
, , : 1)
; 2) , ,
; 3) ,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
., .. .. ,
. , , . , , , (Fowler, Fowler
1940:271).
10-15
: (1) , , (2) ; (3)
, ,
(Venolia 1980; [ ] ).
,
( 1989:30). , .. ,
:
. , , .. , .
: ( ). , ,
, ( 1990:68-69).
. , , 1- ., 2 000 5 000 (1- .), 90- . 550. , .
,
.
1500 .
10 % (150 ), 75 % (1125 )
15 % (225 ).

104

Copyright & A K-C

4.1.1.
. : 1) -
2) .
4.1.1.1. -
,
, )
; ) ; )
.
)
, .. . ,
( ), 1- . , : Not
only can a single word in ordinary circumstances be thus treated as an adjective, but the same is true of a
phrase; the words of the phrases, however, must then be hyphened, or ambiguity may result. Thus: Covent Garden; Covent-Garden Market; Covent-Garden- Market salesmen (H. &F. 1940:285).
, : Thus, hand workers, hand-workers, handworkers (H.&F.1940:285). ,
1- .
.
. ,
, , . Question: What amount had I lost?
Exclamation: What an amount I had lost! (H.&F. 1940:269)
, namely, as follows,
for example, such as.
. : ,
for instance, for example, .
.
for instance, for example : Such sentences should be recast; for instance,
Women like you are seldom, & (H.&F. 1940:248).

50- , , , ,
(Carey 1957:7).
60- 70- , , . ,
. 80-, 90- . for example
. for example , , . : , , . , for example .
1- . ,
, to be: Examples of the two types are:
(Defining) The river that (which) runs through London is turbid.
(Commenting) The Thames, which runs through London, is turbid (H.&F. 1940:251). , to be . . . Common variants for (a) are (1) Industry, honesty and temperance are essential <...>. (2) Industry, honesty
and temperance, are essential (3) Industry, honesty, and temperance are essential <...> (H.&F. 1940:259).
.
,
to be .
, ,
(Venolia 1980).
, , as,
, . This is imitated in English, as: In old
woods and on fern- and gorse-covered hilltops they do no harm whatever. Spectator (H.&F. 1940:288).
as .
. The prevailing one is to use double marks for most

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purposes, and single ones for quotations within quotations, as: Well, so he said to me What do you mean by
it? and I said I didnt mean anything (H.&F. 1940:296). ,
, ,
, .
II- . , ,
.
: In an earlier age it was normal to punctuate It is not so much a crime, as a foolish blunder; he
was so tall, that he could easily see over the heads of the crowd; and so on (C. 1958:48). : In the singular, s is added to the singular form of the noun:
dog-dogs ; lady-ladys; hero-heros (V. 1953:125).
like this, ,
. like this
,
80-90- .
80--90- ( ), , .
An example of an ESP syllabus based on structural precepts is that used by Ewer and Latorre (1969) (minor
details omitted):
1. Simple Present Active
2. Simple Present Active and Passive <> (H.&W. 1987:26).
XX . ,
. long ,
. It is worth notice that the correct stopping for the end of the second quotation
(though such accuracy is seldom attempted) would be: long?? (H.&F. 1940:268) , ,
: .
, II- (50-60- ), .
,
. , , .
50-60- , 1- ., ,
. ,
. Contractions of (chiefly Latin) phrases, where the initials are sometimes written in small letters, are always
punctuated A.D. (Anno Domini), P.S. (Post Scriptum), i.e. (id est), e.g. (exempli gratia), s.v. (sub
verbo), p.m. (post meridium) (V. 1953:127). ,
(50-60- ) . ,
, , , .
)
1- . , . ,
, . ,
1 %
, . ,
1- .
. In the Thackeray sentence, it will be observed that the first comma would be
right (1) if them had stood after discovered instead of where it does, (2) if them had been omitted, and any had
served as the common object to both verbs (H.&F. 1940:257).
50- , ,
. to be ,
1- . , , , 50- ,
, .
, ,
to be . 10-15 . to be , , .
)

,
- , .
1- .
, , , -

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as follows ( as). , . , . (1) The work of three of


them, full stop, question, exclamation, is so clear that mistakes about their use can hardly occur without gross
carelessness;<> (H.& F. 1940:228). 1 ,
, . , , . 2
six stops , comma, semicolon, colon, full stop, question mark,
exclamation mark. (2) There are only six stops, comma, semicolon, colon, full stop, question mark, exclamation
mark; or, with the dash, seven (H.& F. 1940:228). , , . 50--60-
,
- ,
, , , . , , . , . (1) Stretch the range of a verb of saying as far as
humanly possible roar, grunt, whimper, sob, argue, persist, squeak, laugh, snigger, and others, if you will; still
it will not decently cover the verbs of the sentences quoted (C.1957:14). (2) None of the above defines; all of them
add further description of information about their antecedents, Snoots (a), umbrella (b), friend (c), club (d), week
(e) (C. 1957:17). (3) (ii) Because nouns used adjectivally are a very common element of hyphened and compound
expressions (railway-station, post-office, bath-mat, postcard, bathroom, manpower ), it does not, of course, follow that they must necessarily be so treated (C. 1957:25). 80-90- ,
, , . In this section we shall investigate these basic questions more thoroughly, by considering them under three main headings: Language descriptions, Theories of learning and Needs
analysis (H.&W. 1987:22). ., : (1) If language varies according to context, it was argued, then it
should be possible to identify the kind of language associated with a specific context, such as an area of knowledge (legal English; social English; medical English; business English; scientific English etc.), or an area of use
(technical manuals, academic texts, business meetings, advertisements, doctor-patient communication etc.)
(H.&W. 1987:30) : (2) He or she will presumable also need to know the linguistic features discoursal,
functional, structural, lexical which are commonly used in the situations identified (H.&W. 1987:55).
, . 80-90- ,
,
. , , ,
, . , 1- .

, (75%). .. , , ( 2001: 472-475).
, , , , ,
. , ,
. : -, (), , II- .
18
,




1- . 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-


% - % - % - % - % - %

-
5 10
5 10
5 10 10 20 30
60 30
60


80 160 85 170 85 170 70 140 55 110 55 110
II-
10 20
5 10
5 10 10 20 5-10 10 5-10 10
II- 5 10
5 10
5 10 10 20
5
10
5
10

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. 18: 200 ,
, .
) -
, , , , 1 . I- . . . , .
5 % .
, , , , . (1) But his practice clears him of the imputation: he is saved by the ambiguity of the word independent (H.&F. 1940:237). , , . 2
, . (2) In one sense, everything that
is adverbial is parenthetic: it can be inserted or removed, that is, without damaging the grammar, though not
always without damaging the meaning, of the sentence (H.&F. 1940:255-256). 70- . (. . 18): For separation in form may suggest separation in
sense: large scale operations always suggest to me the sounds that proceed from school music-rooms (C.
1957:25). , ,
,
.
80-90-
, , 30 %.
, , , I- ., 50-, 60-, 70- .
Certainly, there is a lot of evidence to show that the systematisation of knowledge plays a critical role in the
learning process: we learn by fitting individual items of knowledge together to create a meaningful predictive
system (H.&W. 1987:68). , ,
-
. We understand it all a child could understand! (H.&W. 1987:62)
)
, II-
1-
, II-
(80%). The exception mentioned above is this: when the writer wishes to express his own incredulity
or other feeling about what is not his own statement, but practically a quotation from some one else, he is at liberty to do it with a mark of exclamation; <> (H.&F. 1940:267). 70- . 70- 80- 90- .
,
55 %. ,
, . .
19
,
-



1- . 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-







% - % - % - % - %
- %

-
,
80 160 85 170 85 170 70 140 55 110 55 110
II-

, , , . The first factor, as we
have seen, is the sociolinguistic context: who is speaking to whom and why (H.&W. 1987:34).
80-90- -

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: , . For apparently perverse reasons language learners would not


conform to the behaviourist stereotype: they insisted on translating things, asked for the rules of grammar, found
repeating things to a tape recorder boring, and somehow failed to learn something no matter how often the repeated it (see Allwright, 1984 a) (H.&.W. 1987:42). ,
,
, .
,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
, . ,
, , . , , , , , ,
, , , ,
,
. , . . , .
. .
. . - ,
a , . .
- ( . emphasis, -).
, .
, . :
o . , , : ,
( 2003).
. , : Figure 2: Rhetorical Process Chart (H.&W. 1987:11). ,
. 3 Cognitive code: learners as thinking beings (H.&W. 1987:43). . : Figure
to: A language drill: Variation on a Theme (H.&W. 1987:41). , , .. . : , , . . Terms of
Payment: Net cash monthly. , , , . .
(, 1959:82). Celts and
Iberians. The Iberians were followed by a swarm of new-comers called Celts.
, 90-
, II- , .. , . ,
, .
) -
.
,
, .
,
, , , , . , , ,
,
(10 % 1- .). And in the next again, one of the
differentiations we have spoken of is disregarded; the fifty first means the fifty that comes first: the fifty-first is the
one after fifty (H.& F. 1940:228).
- (5 %) 50-60- . Fowler, in Modern English
Usage (s.v. Period), tried to establish a custom by which the full point (or stop) was not used when the last letter

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of the complete word survived in the contraction: thus he advocated Mr for Mister, Thos for Thomas, bot. for
botany and bot for bought (V. 1953:128).
II- , 80-90- (5-10 %). His conclusion was that thinking must be rule-governed: a finite, and fairly small, set
of rules enables the mind to deal with the potentially infinite range of experiences it may encounter (H.&W.
1987:42). , .
, II-
. .
( V, . 26).
) -
1- ( 10
%) , . With the commas, the criminal is necessarily a certain person already known to us:
without them, we can only suppose a past state of society to be described, in which all traitors were ashamed of
themselves a difference of some importance (H.&F. 1940:231). 50-60- ,
5 %. . Good materials do not teach: they encourage
learners to learn (H.&W. 1987:22).
I- .
. ( V,
. 26). . .
.
.
.19 , . , II-
.

, ,
, .
.
1-
. : If the reader will say aloud: Oxford Street, Edgware Road,
Trafalgar Square, Marylebone Lane, Fleet Street, he will perceive at once that, While Road, Square, and Lane,
keep their accent as separate words, that of Street is entirely swallowed up by Oxford and Fleet (H.&F.
1940:285). ,
. , ,
. II- ., , ,
, . 10-15 . . , , , ,
. If we take this simple sentence: It is raining and we put it into three different dialogues, we can
see how the meaning changes (H.&W. 1987:33).
4.1.1.2.

V1 . 1- , (3-4 %). . 1 . , 1, , 2. (1) Learners will be inclined to
say: all this is very indefinite; do give us a clear rule that will apply to all classes. (H.&F. 1940:262). (2) After
giving this example, Beadnell says: The reason is clear: the words quoted are those of another, but the question is the writers own (H.&F. 1940:293). , 1-
(Nesfield 1944:131-138) .

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. , ( ).
, .
( ) .
. , 1- . II- . . II- .
, ,
- . In sentences where the quotation is single and
straightforward only two questions arise: Where are other stops placed in relation to the quotation marks? ... (V.
1953:115). 80-90- : But the process
of developing and using a network of knowledge relies upon a train of learners decisions: What knowledge is
new? How does it relate to the existing knowledge? What is the underlying pattern? ... (H.&W. 1987:129)
, 50- ,
(Carey 1957:7),
2 %. 50- .
. ,
, : My answer
would be, There are no rules or at all events precious few about the use of capital letters(C. 1958:84).
50- , . 60--70- : On this Akerlund asks But is this the correct rendering? I would reply No!
and No! (E.S. 1976:385). ,
.
: (1) , (2) (3)
. , , , , , .
. A useful and reasonable exception is made in some manuals; for instance, in Bigelows Manual of punctuation we read:
Clauses like It is said, introducing several propositions or quotations, each preceded by the word that, should
have a comma before the first that (H.&F. 1940:246). , ,
- . , , . . ( .) Beadnells answer to the first question is: The dash does not dispense
with the use of the ordinary points at the same time, when the grammatical construction of the sentence requires
them (H.&F. 1940:278). 50-60- ,
, . It would be almost equally true to say Take care
of the commas and the other stops will take care of themselves <> (C. 1958:38).
. .
. , .
, (Carey 1957: 29). (50-60- )
. <> ; for, as Mr Carey has remarked in another context, The best indexer is he who is most generously
endowed with common sense a quality that few authors will hasten to disclaim (C. 1957:39). 60-
70- ( ) . .
.
. . ,
, . A language-centred approach says:
This is the nature of the target situation performance and that will determine the ESP course (H.&W. 1987:72).
4.2.
II- I . . .
, , 1-

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., 2 000 1- 6 000 , 90-


520. . , .
4.2.1.
, , : 1) - 2) .
20
-
.



/

1- 50-
60- 70- 80- 90-

. . . .
.

1. -


3 % (9)
9 % (27)
2 % (6)
1 % (3)
5 % (15)
2 % (6)


6 % (18)
4 %(12)
1 % (3)
2 % (6)
1 % (3)
1 % (3)

-
,

6 % (18)
64 % (192) 75 % (225) 85 % (255) 65 % (195) 59 % (177)

1 % (3)
1 % (3)
10 % (30)
2 % (6)
7 % (21) 22 % (66)
II-
1 % (3)
1 % (3)
1 % (3)
1 % (3)
1 % (3)
1 % (3)

II.

78 % (234)
5 % (15)

15 % (45)
6 % (18)

10 % (30)
1 % (3)

8 % (24)
1% (3)

13 % (39)
8% (24)

14 % (42)
1 % (3)

. 20: 250-300
. .
4.2.1.1. -

, - ,
.
)
1 ., , : Energy and audacity of will characterize all ruling men, statesmen, generals, reformers,
orators (Wilson 1856:138). 1- .
; ,
, : Here are three of the twenty three prescriptions: the comma is required to separate
parenthetical expressions from the context; it is required in cases of ellipsis; it is required before not, when introducing an antithetical clause (S. 1919:2). : ,
, .. : In general, the name structural pointing may conveniently
be given to the use of sentence points, comma, semicolon, colon, curves, and the dash, except the en dash and
ellipsis dashes (S. 1919:24).
I- . ,

.
. , 1- . 3 %, 50- 2
9 %. 60- 90- ,
2 % (. .20).
, , , ,

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Copyright & A K-C


I- . : Proportion, balance, suspension, parallelism, capitals, white space, punctuation marks all these, and probably more than these, will enter
into the effect (S. 1919:41). . . , .
)
6 % 1- .
. Modifying elements fall into general classes, or else lie on the border-line between them:
(1) Elements clearly required for definition, or necessary to structure; called restrictive. Usually open. (2) Elements clearly non-restrictive, additional, or parenthetical; non required for purposes of limitation; capable of
being omitted without ruin of structure and without leaving the sentence obviously or painfully indefinite (S.
1919:86). as, as follows .
50- (. .20). In three factors, about which we should like to know more for Homers sake,
can be studied: (1) the oral poet and his technique of composition and recitation; (2) his relation to his audience
and influence in the oral creation; (3) his relation to his material (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:229). 60-
. .
20 . 1 %. .

. (II- I .) ,
, (Wilson 1856:130).
) ,
II-
.
, II-
.
, , :
1. : If a consonant is doubled before such an ending, the second letter of the doublet is
carried over with the ending: begin-ning, imbed-ded, fat-test (S. 1919:173). , .
2. , 1- : The
meaning of these verses is as follows: let no one say that my tale is far-fetched, because others have told it long
before me. . . It is evident that Sephes simply took down all the verses which he heard sung by Barba Pautzelyo
(A.J. 1952.73/3-4:248).
3. ;
4. II- : Homer and Cretan Heroic Poetry: A Study in Comparative Oral Poetry (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:225).
5. : Letters from an American Farmer (London: T. Davies, 1782), p. 46;
<. . .> (A.L. 1985.57/3-4:3).
, , .
, : The
subsequent careers of only two of the moneyers who issued coins argento publico during this period are known:
C. Fabius Hadrianus later served as praetor in charge of Africa under the Cinnan regime which suggests popular tendencies : see Munzer, RE 6, 1771 (82); <. . .> (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:297). , , .
: Margaret: A Tale of the Real and the Ideal, Blight and Bloom (Upper Saddle
River,N.J.: Gregg Press, 1968), pp. 230-33 (A.L. 1985.57/3-4:2). . : Perry Miller, Consciousness in Concord:
The Text of Thoreaus Hitherto Lost Journal (1840-41), Together with Notes and a Commentary (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1958), p.216 (A.L. 1985.57/3-4:14). ,
, . 10 . A Barmun Monstrosity: Alice James and the Spectacle
of Sympathy (A.L. 1993.65/1:53).
.20 (. ). , II- .
, 20 . .
. (80-
65 %, 90- 59 %). -

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(14 %) - (22 %).


) -
.
- 60-, 80- 90- . , 60- 10 %. II-
90- (22 %). Theirs
was the position of the nineteenth-century American woman writer treated at tenth by recent scholarship: in
many instances, she considered herself a professional writer rather than an artist (A.L. 1993.65/1:69).
) II-
. 20 (. ) -

.
1 %. In fact, his description resembles Alices indictment of sympathy, which she resisted by refashioning her fragile selfhood: if sympathy threatened to saddle her with a role,
she would construct a role that allowed her at least to resort to irony (A.L. 1993.65/1:59). ,
II-
, .
.
, II- (47 %),
- (22 %), (14 %).
4.2.1.2.

XIX . . .
, , , . . ,
, . , , .
, , (Wilson
1856:138).
as, namely, that is
, . , .
1- . .
. II-
. : . , , . 1- , II- . . .
, : Manual of Style of the University of Chicago Press says that ordinarily the dash
should be used in combination with other points a typical piece of evidence that such cases are not matters of
indifference (S. 1919:27).
, 20 . . 80- ,
: To this Judge Temple summarily responds: The law will do so (A.L. 1985.57/3-4:74).
90- . Asa calls himself an Unwelcomed Stranger and says bluntly, I dont like the slave states. Freedom
does not reign here (A.L. 1993.65/1:37).
, 1- .,
, . , , . II . . In Rhet., III 11, 13, Aristotle quotes a
saying of Thrasymachus: he called Niceratus who was rather unkempt and had just been defeated in a rhapsodies contest by Pratys, a Philoctetes bitten by Pratys (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:253). a Philoctetes
bitten by Pratys , . ,
. (1856 .). . 80- . , .
In Atlantis, in the very heart of his ecstasy, he says,
O, Choir, translating time
Into what multitudinous Verb the suns

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And synergy of waters ever fuses, recast


In myriad syllables, Psalm of Cathay! (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:84)
,
.
I cite representative parts of it
Again, ascending yet higher, we maintain that He is neither soul nor intellect; nor has He imagination, opinion, reason or understanding; nor can He be expressed or conceived <> (A.L. 1985.57/3-4:6).
II- 1 .,
. 20
. , ,
: The highly-charged image of the American Adam emerged from a conviction of unlikeness, articulated in most precise form by the use of negative terms: a new paradise may flourish in the burgeoning nation,
wrote Philip Freneau in The Rising Glory of America (1772),
by no second Adam lost,
No dangerous tree with deadly fruit shall grow,
No tempting serpent to allure the soul
From native innocence (A.L. 1985.57/3-4:3).
, II- . .
,
( ) : , , .
In verses to the moon taken by Emerson from her 1844 journal, Fuller writes,
But, if I steadfast gaze upon thy face,
A human secret like my own I trace,
For, through the womans smile looks the male eye (A.L. 1993.65/1:7).
,
- .
4.3.


, ,
. , ,
. , , .
, . .
.
4.3.1.
, , :
- .
(1) ; (2) ; (3) .
. , ,
. , , , , .
21
-


1.

>
<
2.

>
>
3.
>
>
. 21: >
<

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4.3.2.
20 .
,
. :
) , ) , - , ) , , ) , , ) . , .
. .
II- , I- .
.
, , , , .

. . , .

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

22
-


% %

-
>
30
>
22
, >
55
>
47
II-
>
5-10 >
1

>
4-5 <
0

<
0
>
5

>
1
>
1

>
1
>
14

. 22: >
<
4.3.3.
,
. ,
( .) : , ( ) . .
20 . . ,
, .
, , , ,
.
. , 50-60- ,
.
.
( ), . . ,
() .

116

Copyright & A K-C

/
1.
2.
3.

23




>
>

>
>

>
>

. 23: > .
IV
I.
, :
. , , , , , , , , (.: . , ): / , , . .
. (1900-2000 .) : (1) , ; (2) , ; (3) ; (4) .

( );
;
, (1- .) .
.
.
, . .
,
, .
II- . (1950- 2000 .)
, : (1) , , ; (2) , ; (3) , ; (4) .

, ( , , );
- ( 60--90-
); ; ( ); () , - .
. ,
: , .
II. . . 90-
. -
. 20 ,
, . : )
, ) , - , )
, , ) , , ) .., ) .
, , ,
: . ,
. (1900-2000 .) : (1)

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; (2) , ; (3) ,
; (4) . , ( ); ( ) ( , , ).
.
.
, .
.
,
, .
II- . (1950-2000 .)
,
: (1) , : (2)
, ; (3) , , ; (4) . (
); () ( );
[ , (1- .-90- ), (80--90- )].
. , : () ;
, ( .).
III. - .
. ;
; . .
- ; ,
II- ; II- ; II- ( ).
, :
. . (1900-2000 .) : (1) , ; (2) ,
; (3) ; (4) . ,
(
, , - ); ( - , , ); (- to be ,
).
. ,
.
.
,
, .
II- . (1950-2000 .) , : (1)
, , ; (2)
, ; (3)
.
,
[ , , ,
; for example , , , ( .).
, ]; ( , , , . , ).
[ , . ,

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(1- . -90- ), (80--90- )]; ( .


).
. ,
.
: , , -
(80-90- ).
: (50-90- ).
: ,
( .).

119

Copyright & A K-C

V


1500 ( 300 ) . (
) 100 %.
5.1.
, , , .
, (because,
since, as) (but, whereas) (Hossack 1980).
.. ,
, -, ,
, -, .
, , . . , . , . , , , .
, .. , . . , , , , .
. , , and, . , , , . .
. . , ,
. , ,
, : 1) : and, or, but, so ( for); 2)
; 3)
. , . . ( 1989:30).
, (Gordon 1981; Venolia 1980),
., :
a) : ,
. , and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so ..,
. , and but. , (, besides, however, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, still, therefore),
(, as a result, in any case, in consequence), (for example, for
instance, that is, on the other hand, in fact), .
. ,
, , .
, ,
. , , . , , ,
. . ,
, .
) : . , . , , , ,
, , ,
.

. , .. ,
, ,
( 2003).

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5.1.1.
)
1- .
( ).
,
, , : We shall first catalogue, with examples, the
chief uses of the dash; next state the debatable questions that arise; and end with the more definite misuses (H. &F.
1940:275). . There are exceptions to this: obviously in examples 9, 10, 11, 12, and 15,
where the dash is at the end or beginning of a sentence; and perhaps also in sentences of which the reader can
clearly foresee the grammatical development (H. &F. 1940:278). .
, (1- .) 5 % . . They are a nuisance to the writer, who (as we shall see later) is often puzzled
to determine their correct relationship with other stops; an irritation to the reader, who does not need them, although he may imagine he does; and both a nuisance and an expense to the compositor (V.1953:114). .
.
60-70- . (80-90- ) . In the area of learning theories the relevant terms we shall
consider are behaviourist, cognitive, affective (H.&W. 1987:23).
: We should correct all the examples, including the type: the type under rule (1); the Bryce (which is strictly correct) under rule (3); the Bagehot under rules (2) and (1); and the Balfour under rules (2) and (3); <> (H.&F. 1940:262); When a noun does
not end in s in the plural,s is added to the plural form: mens; childrens; sheeps (V. 1953:125). , .
The main points to be noted are: (1) in the writing of direct speech each speaker has a separate paragraph; (ii)
the first piece of direct speech in the above extract illustrates the broken single sentence (V. 1953:116). . , . , , . . But capitals are
now reserved for proper nouns in general, the names of persons and places and, usually, the adjectives derived
from them: Clement, Churchill, England (English), Westminster, America (American) (V. 1953:130).
)
,
1- , , : (1) The
writer, seeing this, but deceived by the order of words into thinking the exclamation a question, tries to mend it by
inserting not; whatnot, in rhetorical questions, being equivalent to everything (H.&F.1940:269).
Yes, No . (2) No; the quotation will still be part of the sentence; not indeed a
noun, as before, and object to the verb; but an adverb, simply equivalent to thus attached to the verb (H.&F.
1940:294). , ,
. .
3-4 %. . The second and third methods can be followed fairly logically and consistently; and so, in my experience, the First (C. 1957:32).
. for example (for instance).
2 % .
24

/

1- . . 50- . 60-70- . 80-90- .

-
%
-
%
-
% - %
1.
for example (for instance)
2
6
2
6
2
6
2
6
2.
5
15
4
12
5
15
5
15
3.
3
9
4
12
3
9
3
9

10
24
10
30
10
30
10
30
. 24: 10 %.

121

Copyright & A K-C

. .
5.1.2.
5.1.2.1.
c
, ,
, . . , . , , (parts of
equal rank), , , , , , ,
, , (, 1959:24).
1- , 57 %,

24 % (. . 25, 27). ,
, 5-6 %.
25




1- . 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-

.
.
.
.
.
.
% - % - % - % - % - %

57 171 37 111 68 204 68 204 84 252 85 255


, ,
,
33 99 53 159 22 66 22 66
6 18
5
15

90 270 90 270 90 270 90 270 90 270 90 270


.25: 300
( ). 90 %.
1- . ,
, , , , , , 2 3 , + . 60-
. .
. 25 , .
1- , , , , .
26





/
1- 50- 60-70- 80-90




% - % - % - % -
1.

3
9
3
9
1
3
1
3
2.

5
15
12
36
13
39
10
30
3.

12
36
4
12
32
96
31
93
4.

32
96
10
30
8
24
7
21
5.

5
15
8
24
14
42
36
108

57
171 37 111 68
204
85
255

122

Copyright & A K-C

. 26 , 60- 90-
. (31-32 %)
(14 % 36 %).
, , ,
.
)
(Enumeration of Actions)
. 26 1- 3 %. Now is an adverb; in the house is usually an adverbial phrase; If I know it is an adverbial clause (H.&F. 1940:253). 50-
3 % . 50- , 1 %. 80--90- ,
,
, . 60--70- (1 %), 80--90- (1 %).
Some of these questions will be answered (at least in part) by research; others will rely more on the intuition and
experience of the teacher; yet others will call on theoretical models (H.&W. 1987:21).
)
(Adversative Relation)
,
1- 5 %. II- . . The
phrase like Trollope must be placed between commas; brackets would be better still (V. 1953: 64).
, , .
,
. If the reporter is the person spoken to, the pronoun changes from second to first; if
he is a third person, the person changes from second to third (V. 1953:120). 50-
( 5 % 12 %).
(10-13 %).
)
(Causal Relation)
, ,
, 1- 22 %. But this use is mainly confined to lower-class authors; when a grave historian stoops to it, he gives us quite a different sort of shock from what he designed (H.&F. 1940:267).
60- (31-32 %) .
)
(Resultative Relation)
1- (32 %). ,
50- 10 %, ,
,
. Like language itself, it has had its
changes through the years; we no longer punctuate like Swift or Johnson or Hazlitt or Dickens (V. 1953:102).
.
, 80--90- 7-8 % .
)
II- (Explanatory Relation)

II- 1- , , 5 %. 50- . Yorkshire won this particular game with three wickets to spare; the sentence (as it is punctuated) says it was their fifth win in a row, and
thirteenth victory, and that in each of them they had three wickets to spare (V. 1953:104). . 60-70- 14
%, 80--90- 36 %.

123

Copyright & A K-C

)
II-
1- , ,
- . , , . Of type (c) the characteristic is that we have two or
more adjectives attached to a following noun; are there to be commas between the adjectives, or not ? (H.&F.
1940:261) .
, . If getting
learners to learn structural sentence patterns does not enable the learner to use those patterns in communication,
is it any more likely that making learners aware of the patterns in discourse will enable them to use those discourse patterns in communication? (H.&W. 1987:37)
5.1.2.2. , , ,

1- . , , and, for, or, but, so, nor , . , . . . . , (Fowler, Fowler 1940:263).
27
,
, ,



/
1-
50-
60-70-
80-90

%
-
%
-
%
-
%
-
1.

24
72
36
108
21
63
6
18
2.

5
15
12
36
0
0
0
0

3.

3
9
4
12
0
0
0
0

1
3
1
3
1
3
0
0
4.

33
99
53
159
22
66
6
18
, 1- . (24 %), (57 %), , (9 %).
, 50- , ,
, , , (53 %).
37 % .
5.1.2.2.1.

1- . , (24 %). 50- ,
, , and
but. 36 %. 80- 90- ,
. 6 %
. :
1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. .
(. 28) ,

124

Copyright & A K-C

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

28




1- .
50-
60-70-
80-90



%
-
%
-
%
-
%
-

5
15
20
60
21
63
6
18

0
0
2
6
0
0
0
0

18
54
14
42
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

24
72
36
108
21
63
6
18

60--90- , , .
.
6 %.
.
, , .
)
(Copulative Co-ordination)
1- .
, , and, nor.
5 % . It is viewed as, but is not really, a legitimate case of type (a); and a quite
unnecessary objection to the repetition of and no doubt supplies the motive (H.&F. 1940:259).
, , . Although we are, when we turn from taste of grammar, on slightly firmer ground, it will be
seen that there are many debatable questions; and we shall have to use some technical terms (H.&F. 1940:244).
, , nor. They do not
seem pedantic or needless now; nor will a further step in precision seem so when once it has been taken (H.&F.
1940:295).
, and,
nor, . ,
. : . When we have had a left-hand bracket we know certain that a right-hand one is due,
full stops or no stops; but when we have had a dash, we very seldom know for certain that it is one of a pair ; and
the appearance of a full stop would be too severe a trial of our faith (H.&F. 1940:281). 50--70- . 50- 20 % (.: 1- . 5 %), 6 %, , . When the quotation consists of more than one line of verse it should be written in
verse form; and since it is obviously a question the quotation marks may be omitted (V. 1953:123).
, ( ), .
, ,
. , .
.
)
(Disjunctive Co-ordination)
, 1- .,
, .

. 50-
2 %. Quotations may be from the written language (that is, in the widest sense, literature), as, for example, the
numerous sentences quoted in this book from periodicals and pamphlets; or they may be from the spoken language when we write down, in what is known as direct speech, the actual words of a speaker (V. 1953:115).
, 60- 90- . ,

125

Copyright & A K-C

, .
, .
)
(Adversative Co-ordination)
1- , , . 18 %, 50-
(14 %). but. (1)
This is a mistake, except so far as scientific and philosophic writers may desire to give an impressive effect by
retarding the pace; that is legitimate; but otherwise, all that is printed should have as many stops as help the
reader, and not more (H.&F. 1940:234). . 1
, ,
, pace ( ), , , , ( ) ,
but + . , , .
2 , , but. (2) It is good English usage to place a noun or other nonadjectival part of speech before a noun, printing it as a separate word, and to regard it as serving the purpose of
an adjective in virtue of its position; for instance, war expenditure; but there are sometimes special objections to
its being do (H.&F. 1940:284). 1- , . (3) In the second it
looks as if Carlyle had thought it dull to have so many commas about; but the remedy was much worse than dullness (H.&F. 1940:266). 50-
, 14 %. 60- 90- .
, , ,
, , ,
.
)
(Causal Co-ordination)
, ,
1- .
II- . ,
. .
, ,
.
)
(Resultative Co-ordination)

1- 1 %. 50-
, , . so. But the use of the Comma is a matter for further argument; so I have devoted the main part of this section
to the subject (V. 1953:128). 60- 90- . .
5.1.2.2.2. ,

1-
nevertheless, otherwise. 5 %. The writer has no defense whatever as against the logician; nevertheless, his reader will be
grateful to him (H.&F. 1940:254). - 50- , 12 %. 60--90- .
, , (. 29).
80-90- ,
. For a long time it might appear that little
progress is being made; then suddenly the learner makes an enormous leap to a higher level of competence
(H.&W. 1985:50).

126

Copyright & A K-C

1.

29
,
,


1-
50-
60-70-
80-90



%
-
%
-
%
-
%
-

5
15
12
36
0
0
0
0

5.1.2.2.3.
( )
, () , . , , (
) : (1) and even though,and
while; (2) and so, for whereas, so eitheror. We cannot make quite the
same clean-cut distinctions here as was applied on p. 33; for whereas and and but are both co-ordinate
conjunctions, the former simply links, while the latter contrasts (C. 1957:43). One of his young men were not
his actual words, but one of my young men; so either his must be altered to my or the inverted commas
must go (C. 1958:76). (3) for then, and even. Yet observe
that it would be justifiable if the final and were not there; for then the items would stand, as it were, in apposition (see p.59) (C. 1958:63).
1- (1 %). 50--70- .
(.: . 27).
5.1.2.2.4.

1.

30
,
, .


1-
50-
60-70-
80-90



%
-
%
-
%
-
%
-


3
7
4
9
0
0
0
0

. It will be seen that in the first the relative clause is an answer to the imaginary question, which
river?; that is, it defines the noun to which it belongs (H.&F. 1940:251).
.
1- , 50- . , . 30, , , , 60-, 70-, 80-, 90- .
5.1.2.2.5.
,
. , 50-
. . (, 1959:26). , , - ( continuative clauses): The opposite
indiscretion has been, I hope, adequately dealt with in Chapter III (pp. 54-7); though the habit of attaching superfluous commas to adverbs and adverbial phrases and often in the process luring the comma away from
where it would be really useful is becoming such a menace that it cannot escape a final taunt as Punctuational
Enemy No.1 (C. 1958:126). , 50- , , . , . ,
Dropping his bundle without a moments hesitation, he turned and ran; because he knew it would
be fatal to do otherwise. . , ,

127

Copyright & A K-C

, , ,
(Carey 1958:32-33). . .
5.1.2.2.6.
,
1- ,
(1 %). . (1) He will find that the parenthetic or emphatic effect
given to an adverbial phrase by putting a comma at each end of it is often of no value whatever to his meaning; in
other words, that he can make himself agreeable by merely putting off a certain pompous solemnity; +C) (H.&F.
1940:240). , (1-
) - . 50-60- . I
emphasize this because many people have a notion that a or a caret-mark should precede the correction in
the margin; or, again, that if one or two letters of a word are wrong, the whole word must be crossed out in the
text and rewritten in the margin (C. 1958:110). ,
, . I conclude, therefore, that
Mattinglys reading is flatly impossible; that our best efforts to cater to his wishes leave us with what is quite
improbable; and that at the present time we have no reason to doubt the evidence of the First Medicean that
Tacituss praenomen was Publius (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:70). ,
60--90- .
5.2.
1- . , , , 80-90- . (.: 1- 12 000 2 000 ; 80-90-
2000-4000 ). , .
. , , , . , ,
.
. ,
. . 31 , . . 80-90- , , 8-14 %,
90 %.
31

.



1- .
50-
60-
70-
80-
90-






%

%
%
%
%
%
-

- 40
120
59
177
5-6
15
34
102
8
24
14
42

60
180
41
123
95
285
66
198
92
276
86
258

100 300 100


300
100
300
100
300
100
300
100
300
.31: 1500
( 300 ). ( )
100 %.
5.2.1.
, , .
( ).
, ,
.

128

Copyright & A K-C

32

.


1- .
50-
60-
70-
80-






%
- % %
%
%


18
54
25
75
2-3
9
30
90
4
12
22
66
34 102
2-3
9
4
12
4
12

40
120
59 177
4-6
18
34
102
8
24

90-

%
-

18

8
14

24
42

, , ,
.
.32 ,
. 1- . 40 % (120 ), (90- ) 14 % (42 ). , ,
,
.
)
1- .
(1) : Among these are nicknames, slang phrases, technical and unusual phrases;
|| transitions or paraphrases; names of ships and rarely of buildings, titles of books, periodicals, poems, and
works of musical art; marks expressions used with satirical or plastic art; || and expressions used with satirical
intension ; || the quote marks meaning so-called (S. 1919:146).
(2) : The semicolon may be necessary to clear grouping
when the parts of a compound sentence are elaborate; || may be necessary even in a short and direct compound
sentence to make clear the weight of the parts in their context. (S. 1919:74)
(3) : This chapter is concerned with the
pointing of coordinate elements in series, except main clauses; || with special cases of interruption or suspension, as in shifts of structure and so-called rhetorical pauses; || and with what is supposed to be the indication of
ellipsis (S. 1919:117). II- . , : Hertz, Sinnius, p. 12; Mercklin, op. cit., p. 644;
Kretzschmer, op. c it., p. 61 (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:272). (70- )
, . The purpose
of the present paper, therefore, is twofold: to gather and assess the available evidence concerning the careers
and geographical origins of the men known to have been adlected in senatum by Vespasian;|| and to attempt to
determine the position of the adlecti within the imperial system by a consideration of three problems (A.J.
1977.98/1-2:36).
80-90- .
)
, . ,
, . Matter purely parenthetical
according to Mr. Kleins definition may be enclosed in curves, dashes, or commas; || sometimes not pointed at all
(S. 1919:18). , , ,
, . A rhetorical use of a point is simply an instrumental
use; || instinctive perhaps, but in its degree effective, whether for or against any of purposes of writing (S.
1919:27).
50- . The
part of the passage which goes back to Sinnius may have come either from his Libri Spectaculorum, or from the
assumed collection of proverbs;|| cf. Hertz, op.cit., pp. 20 ff (A.J. 1952.73/3-4-:271). , : P.76; || cf. P. 83. (A.J. 1952.73.3-4:277) (. .32), . -

(1- ., 50- ), (60-, 70-, 80- ). 3-4% .
80- . He had no temptations to fight against; || no appetites, no passions, no taste for elegant

129

Copyright & A K-C

trifles (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:13). 90- . , 1- .


, , , 90-
, , - 1- . Wilson makes a
slip at one point and introduces some of this material when she describes Janes husband-to-be as a visitor
[who] came to Aunt Abbys; || one of her boy-favourites, George Means, from an adjoining State(A.L.
1993.65/1:43).
5.2.2.
5.2.2.1.

. , . ,
, .
, .
but, effect of suspended contrast, ( 1980:103-104).
II- 1 . . ,
, . ,
(Wilson 1856:130).
, , . .
. , ., 1 ., , , . , . 33 , .
, , , () + ,
. (90-
67 %). , , () + ,
. , 90- 6 %
, 1-2 %.
33





1- 50-
60-
70-
80-
90-







%
%
%
%
% %

42
126
31
93
52
156
31
93
51
153
67
201

12
36
5
15
29
87
26
78
24
72
10
30

3
9
3
9
6
18
1
3
8
24
6
18
() +

1
3
1
3
5
15
1
3
8
24
1
3

2
6
1
3
3
9
7
21
1
3
2
6

60
180
41
123
95
285
66
198
92
276
86
258
)
1- .
.
. , . Some of the transposed groups is in the following passage are pointed, || others
are open (S. 1919:90). . Some are essential to sentence or paragraph structure, || some are formally inessential, || others are of indeterminate kind
(S.1919:102). , .
10 %.

130

Copyright & A K-C

II-
. One contained the twenty-one Varronianae which we have mentioned above; || the other, plays which
Varro attributed to Plautus on stylistic grounds (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:273). 50-, 60-, 70-
3-4 %. 90- 2 %. . , , .
. .
, . Of the four adynata in this passage the first two, the fire in a cornfield
and the rivers reversing their courses, are proverbs; || the fourth, although it is not a proverb, relates to a proverb; || the third adynaton is not listed in any of the extant collections (A.J. 1965.86./3-4:393). 90- .
. Just as in the narrative, the youngest daughter (Rebecca Hayward the younger /
Mary Bellmont) died in her teens on a visit to Baltimore; || the other daughter (Lucretia Hayward/ Jane Bellmont) married a Vermont man and eventually settled in the West; || the eldest son (George Hayward/James
Bellmont) worked in Baltimore and returned home ill with his wife and child to die an early death and be buried
in Milford, and so on (A.L. 1993.65/1:23).
,
, , / . , , , .
)

1- .
. .
. but. The colon, the
dash, and the comma are suspensive; || the period is suspensive only in slight degree (S. 1919:154). . . ,
the more the more. The more nearly a part of the main structure,
the more likely is a parenthesis to be set off with commas; || the more distinctly apart from the main structure, the
more likely to be set off with curves (S. 1919:112-113).
. If a dash precedes, the afterthought is emphasized; || if a comma precedes,
as in the first two sentences below, the greater weight of emphasis is likely to be on the group preceding the afterthought (S.1919:115). . , , .
1- . . 16 %
. . II- . Dionysius speaks of three types of composition and three types of diction; || it is doubtful whether he
ever used a single formula to cover both at the same time (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:267).
, . Love dies when it is unable to avail itself of these means; || it lives and flourishes when they are at its disposal (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:51). , ,
. , ,
.
10 . 2 7-8 %. But female
writing was not only responsible for the gendering of discourse; || it was also responsible for representing sexual
relations as something entirely removed from politics (A.L. 1993.65/1:8). , .
, : (1) ; (2) ; (3) ( ), (4) ,
.
)

1- . , , -

131

Copyright & A K-C

6 %. To group parenthetical clauses, commas may or not be required; || there are parenthetical clauses
with curves or dashes, and some not pointed at all (S. 1919:2). , , , .
. These are data for the sociologist; || they are no proof that punctuation marks are not rhetorical (S. 1919:27). ,
. 70- . . 30 . 1119 %. ,
. Nor is it possible to argue that he was the prisoner of Nachos, with whom he came (. . .); || the
complete silence of the historians weighs against this (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:412).
90- . In exposing sympathy as predicated on theatrical posturing, she arrests the sympathetic exchange; ||
if it is occur, it will do so self-consciously and will more closely resemble a carnival than a sentimental novel
(A.L. 1993.65/1:63). , . They cannot see parts; || they can only see
the whole (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:85). , ,
, , . ,
, .:
()
; () ; () (, ).
)


1- . 6 %. The pointing is bad, the structure haphazard; || given this
wording, heavy punctuation is necessary to clearness (S. 1919:22).
70-, 80-, 90- .
.
60- (13 %). The poem,
furthermore, reveals a humanistic outlook on life akin to Homers; || it is free from the primitive supernaturalism
which characterizes so much of modern oral literatures (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:250). ,
, .
. Hysterical fragmentation,
likewise, signifies a feebleness of the will, an inability to preserve both mind and body; || William Games wrote
that An hysterical woman abandons part of her consciousness because she is too weak nervously to hold it together. (A.L. 1993.65/1:59)
, ( ) ()
; () (); ()
().
)
II-
1- . , . The characteristic suspension point in ordinary use is the
dash; || suspension periods are not entirely naturalized, commas not always distinct or strong enough (S.
1919:131).
(4 %), . (. 10 %, 16 %, 6 %).
, .34 ,
II- .
What is popularly called Transcendentalism among us, is Idealism; || it appears in 1842 (A.L. 1985.57/1-2:13).
10 (36 %). I have also
found the true identity of the Bellmont family; || the family has interesting features, some of which should have
a bearing on interpretations of Our Nig (A.L. 1993.65/1:20). ., ,
, - II- . (90- ) (19 %).
, . 34, 50-, 60-, 70-

132

Copyright & A K-C

3-4 %. 90- 2 %. .
34




- 1- . 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-


% - % - % - % - % - %


10
30
3
9
4 12
4 12 11 33
2
6

16 48
3
9
4 12
4 12
7 21
8
24

6
18
5 15 18 54
8 24 11 33 19
57

6
18
8 24 13 39
6 18 11 33
8
24

4
12 12 36 13 39
9 27 11 33 30
90

42 126 31 93 52 156 27 93 51 153 67 201


.
.
1- . (16 %),
3-4 %. 8 %.
. 34 , 30 .
. 11-19 %.
, . .
, () ; () ; () .
5.2.2.2. , , ,

5.2.2.2.1.

. 33 (. ) II- .
(90- 67 %). , , 10 %.
)

and
, , 1- .
3 % . Where an abbreviation is followed by a colon,
there is good authority for omitting the abbreviation point; || and where an abbreviation point occurs at a break
which would normally be marked by a comma, the comma may sometimes be omitted (S.1919:170). ,
, . , . .
1- . .
50- . My previous warning as to the possible uses of this word needs to be repeated here; || and here also
we should look at the plan and structure of the whole treatise (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:262). , ,
60-
(10%) 80- (11 %) . , 90- 2 %. , , ,
. , . Spring 1825 would be the most
likely date because almost all the age markers in Our Nig are given in the spring Frado has just turned six

133

Copyright & A K-C

when she goes to the Belmonts in summer; || she is seven when she starts summer school; || she is now nine
when James (George) visits in late spring; || and she becomes eighteen and finishes her indenture in spring (A.L.
1993.65/1:41).
)

, ,
1- . . ,
. When misused they indicate false boundaries; || or
by their association with certain structural forms they suggest weights of emphasis which are not intended
(S.1919:22). 3 %.
. , ,
/ . Yet it is but a dream, to
melt away like a dream when love appears; || or if it then wishes to keep up its vitality at all, it must change its
character, temper its exactions, resign its rights: in short, be buried and come to life again in a totally different
form (A.L. 1993.65/1:5). ,
, .
)


. .
4 %. . 60- (8 %) 70- (13 :%). , ,
80- 90- 3 %.
, , , 1- (4 %). but. In tables, titles-pages, or formal invitation, grouping may
be affected by the division into lines, with various kinds of indention; || but display composition is apart from the
matter in hand (S. 1919:20-21). .
, ,
. .
. . but .
It is true that some marks are more emphatic than others, and it is true that pointing does not always correspond
to syntactical relations; || but a comma is no less strictly rhetorical than a dash or exclamation point (S.
1919:28). , , 60- 70-
. , , . , , .
Here there is no indication of source or authority; || but in accordance with Verros usual procedure we may
suspect that he still had Accius Lucilius (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:275). 3 % . Then, says Allida, Thomas Wilson returned; || but he eventually left his wife for good,
and her struggles with poverty and sickness were severe (A.L. 1993.65./1:24).
)

1- . 2 % . Details of division may ordinarily be left to the printer, if he is
a good printer; || for questions of division involve questions of white space (S. 1919:174). 80-
5 %, 90- . .
)
(Resultative Co-ordination)
. 35 , . 2-3 %.
. , . Three kinds of composition are classified and described in the second part (cc.
35-7); || so three kinds of diction are described in the first (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:262).
, , ,
.
, .

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35





1- - 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-




% - % - % - % - % - %


3
9
2
6
10
30
2
6
11
33
2
6

3
9
0
0
0
0
1
3
2
6
2
6

4
12
2
6
8
24 13
39
6
18
3
9

2
6
0
0
8
24
8
24
5
15
0
0

0
0
1
3
3
9
2
6
0
0
0
0

12
36
5
15
29
87 26
78
24
72
7
21
5.2.2.2.2. ,

1- . , ,
. 3 % (.
33). Punctuation marks do not determine thought, or take the place of thought; || yet by virtue of certain familiar
customs and expectations they enable the writer to affect what would otherwise be difficult (S. 1919:21).
II- . . 1- 3 %, II-
. 6-8 %. When tells her not to beat Frado, she is reduced to tears and obeys
Him; || unfortunately, he usually leaves the house to avoid a confrontation and thus gives Mrs. Bellmont tacit
permission to administer a beating (A.L. 1993.65/1:35). , , , .
5.2.2.2.3. ()

1- .
, () , 1 %. In the third
passage the introductory words are printed with the colon; || but because the following group is not capitalized
the suspension is less emphatic than in the passage where the colon is followed by a capital (S. 1919:66).
.
5 %, 80- 8 %.
, (1 %).
5.2.2.2.4.

1- ., , , 2 %. The careless writer deserves comparatively
small consideration; || in fact he may need to be saved from himself (S. 1919:35).
. The adynata in poetry have this same subject
matter; || in fact, most of them represent natural forces functioning in reverse or contrary to nature laws (A.J.
1965.86/3-4:392).
5.2.2.2.5.
,
. ,
, , .
. ,
, . . ,
, (parts of equal rank), , , , ,
, , , ,
(, 1959:24).
,
.

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5.2.2.2.6.
., , , , , . 1- , ,
and, or, but, . ( 55 % .) 30 %.

. 15 %. No one
would attempt to deny that marks are often improperly used by writers who in other respects are competent
craftsmen; || or that many writers leave much of their pointing to secretaries and printers; or that many readers
are insensitive to punctuation (S. 1919:27).
, and, or, but. Points are rhetorical
because they are instrumental; || because when properly used they help to make writing intelligible and otherwise effective (S. 1919:28).
5.3.


5.3.1.
,
. - (1) , , , (2) .
.
, , .
, . , , (3) for example (for instance), , , .
, .
36








for example(for instance)
>
<

>
>

>
>

/
1.
2.
3.

.36: >
<
5.3.2.
.
1- . 57 %, 42 %.
, , ,
, . , .
, , , , ,
.

136

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/
1.
2.
3.
4.

37
,
, ,





%

%

>
6
>
10

<
0
>
6

<
0
>
2
<
0
>
1

. 37: >
<
5.3.2.1.
, : , , , , .
.
, ,
, .
2-3 %.
.
38




/

%
%
1.

>
6
>
2
2.

<
0
>
2
3.

<
0
>
3
4.

<
0
<
0
5.

<
0
<
0
. 38: >
<
5.3.2.2. ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, .
, ,
(. . 37).
5.3.2.3.
. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) .

. , .

, ( - ). .

137

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39





%

%

>
1
>
2

>
10
>
8

>
31
>
19

>
7
>
8

>
36
>
30

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. 39: >
5.3.2.4.
50-
,
- (
continuative clauses) (, 1959:26).
.
, .
5.3.2.5.
, , . , ,
. . .
V
I. .
, :
.
, , , , , : / ,
, , , .

. .
. (1900-2000 .) : (1)
, ; (2) . , , ( , for example (for instance); ( , , );
( and , , ; or, but,
not onlybut ); , , , ( ,
, , ); ( ).
.
. , . .
. (1950-2000 .) : , ;
, , , ; , , , , ; , ( )

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, ; (
) .
. , : ; , , , , .
II. .
, :
.
. (1900-2000 .) : (1) ,
; (2)
.
( , ); (
, ); ( ).
.
. , .
.
II- . (1950-2000 .) ,
,
, . .
(1. , ; 2. , , ) , , , , , ( , ); , , , ( ,
, ); ,
( , , ); , ( , , ).
. ,
: , , ,
II- ; , , , , .
III. . (1900-2000 .) ,
. , . . . .
, . (1900-2000 .):
(1) ,
; (2) .
: , ,
, ( 50-90- ).
.
, , , , , , .
for example (for instance) , (1- . .) .

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, , , , , , . .

II- , ,
(and)
, ; (60-90-
) or, but, not onlybut
.
, (1- . .).
(50-90- ). but, not
onlybut (50-90- ).

.
II- . (1950-2000) :

(80- 90- ). .

, , , ,
, (50-90- ). , , , ,
, ( .).
, ,
, , , , (50- 90- ).
, , , , , , (50 90- ).
, , , (50-90- ).
,
, , .
(80-90- ). , , , , (80-90- ).
. , :
: ; ,
, , , .
: , , , , ;
, , , .

140

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VI


6.1.
6.1.1.
, .
1 . , .

:
,
.
, .
. () .
. . . , , ,
. . .
(Fowler, Fowler 1940:279). , ,
1- . , .. . .
, 1- .
:
1. , -
. No one would write this without both commas (after because and why) who was not deeply
committed to an anti-comma crusade (H. &F. 1940:262).
2. : We point out, however, that it is irreconcilable with the principles explained in this
section, which demand the addition of a full stop (derived?) (H.&F. 1940:298).
, . . . But the same thing occurs even when logic or grammar (it should
be explained that grammar is sometimes defined as logic applied to speech, so that for our purposes the two are
synonymous) is free from the disturbing influence; <> (H.&F. 1940:231).
. Comma, semicolon, would do it, if the former
were sufficient between two grammatically independent sentences not joined by a conjunction; it is obviously not
sufficient there (though in some such pairs it might be); <> (H.&F. 1940:238). ,
.
(To save trouble, Let it be stated that the shell is a dependency of the Home Farm, and not contrasted with or
opposed to it.) (H.&F. 1940:238)
3. , : Common variants for (a) are
(1) Industry, honesty and temperance, are essential (2) Industry, honesty and temperance, are essential
(H.&F. 1940:259)
, , . 2 3 ,
1- . , .
50- . . ,
, , , ( ) , , (Carey 1957:2). : The closing bracket must be followed by a comma (or other stop), if the sentence <> (C. 1957:2).
50- , , II- . .
. 40 , 1- .
. ( .)
II- . . ( 4 5).
5 , 50- , .
, 1- . 1, . . , . , ,
: 2- , , , 3

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, . , 2 1- . ,
.
. 3 1- . .
, , .
40
.




1-
50-60-

.
.
,

+
that is

, , ,

+
,

+
, ,

4
5

70-80-

+
+
+

. 40: + ,
50- , , that is, . , They also
point an artificial ad hoc distinction: recover (from illness) but re-cover an umbrella, recreation (that is, leisure
pastime) but re-creation of an atmosphere (C. 1957:130).
, ,
- (
) 80- 90- . Soon there were quickly followed by EAP
and EOP (the letter confusingly also known as EVP and VESL) (H.&W. 1987:1).
, (50- ) , . ) <. . .>; for instance, it would not be unexampled to find (ii)
punctuated are probably thinking, (if they are thinking at all), about something else. (C. 1958:67); ) In (iii)
on the other hand there would be a comma between Corner and Where even if the parenthesis (which belongs, strictly speaking, to the first clause) were omitted; <> (C. 1958:67).
50- . , , , :
(If you prefer to put not only after the first if, you will not need a second of before such.) (C.
1958:107) .
Firstly he re-established the idea that language is rule-governed. (We shall consider this aspect in more detail
under learning theories in chapter 5.) (H.&W. 1987:27). ,
, , -
, .
(It is also quite likely that the view of sponsor and teacher will similarly be at odds !) ( H.&W. 1987:57)
(You never know you might find the perfect textbooks for your course!) (H.&W. 1987:105)
, 1- . ( 2
3), II- ., , 50-
, ,
. :
1. 50-
(7-8 %): Modern English Usage (Oxford, 1926), p. 569. (C. 1957:8); <>, a semicolon at that point, contrasted with commas at the others, will give the desired effect: see the sentence beginning
No attempt (p. V,1. 23) (C. 1957:7). C
.

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80- 90-
. . The book is
divided into four sections (see figure 1) (H.&W. 1987:2).
Particulars are not to be examined till the whole has been surveyed.
(Dr Samuel Jonson: Preface to Shakespeare) (H.&W. 1987:5).
: An
example of an ESP syllabus based on structural precepts is that used by Ewer and Latorre (1969) (minor details
omitted):
1. Simple Present Active
2.Simple Present Passive <>(H&W. 1987:26).
(1969) ; (minor details omitted) .
2. 50-
: (It should perhaps be added that in (XV) a comma after complex would justify the one after
obscure and would accord with modern usage.) (C. 1958:48) V
-, . ,
.

80-90- . It has been suggested (see, in particular, Coulthard (1977) pp. 147-53) that the
approach does for discourse what structural linguistics did for sentence grammar, in other words, it establishes
patterns, but does not account for how these patterns create meaning ( H.&W. 1987:37).
:
1. ;
2. ;
3. , ;
4. , , ;
5. .
6.1.2.
II- . , , .
. 1 . .
, . , , (Wilson
1856:235), .
, , , II- I .
, , .
,
1- . , .
50- (1) , (2)
. It [an airline] must be concentrated on the task in hand (C. 1957:1).
:
1. , , , (59 %): [On the other hand, the number
of anti-capitalists who would have lower case for both sets of the above is far from negligible.] (C. 1957:3)
2. (18 %): ) [See also under Colon, p.9] (C. 1958:87); ) [On this and the next section see also pp. 116-19.] (C. 1958:76).
3. , (23 %): But the idea underlying the words is [To us] considering all the circumstances, the decision seems a very reasonable one, and this particular usage has long since become well
established and clearly understood (C. 1958:95). 50- : In all these the true meaning is distorted: in (i) by
omission of commas ( small staff, which [= and it] is never idle otherwise the implication is that the majority of the staff is idle); <> (C. 1958:52). 50- , , : [Here the comma actually obscures the sense, which is he was drifting into danger a second
time. In a different sense (presumptive, as in 1.21 of p.10 above), Again does require a comma.] (C. 1957:11).
., I- .,
.
6.2.
6.2.1.
. , , (Bremner 1980:279).

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, 2 000 7 000
8 000 1- . 80- . 90- , , 4 500 . 90- ,
, , , ,
, , .. .
1- ., , , , (Summey 1919:29). 1-
. , :
) , ,
, : A typical case of the kind is the use of the comma with dashes
which would do as well alone; another is the use of the dash with a colon (ex. after a Dear Sir or before a quotation) where the colon is entirely a competent for the work (S. 1919:27).
) : Most problems of punctuation, aside from
the easy one of finding what is permissible, may be reduced to questions of (1) clearness, (2) management of emphasis, and (3) movement, including economy and variety (S. 1919:36).
) , , : S. A. Leonard. The Rationale of Punctuation: a Criticism. Educational Review, vol.51 (January, 1916), pp. 89-92 (S. 1919:17). , 1- . . , (1) sentence points . Comma, semicolon, colon,
curves, and the dash sentence points. , . (1) In general, the name structural pointing may conveniently be
given to the use of sentence points, comma, semicolon, colon, curves, and the dash, except the en dash and ellipsis dashes (S. 1919:24. , four points, . . , . (2)
Websters New International Dictionary says that Punctuation is chiefly done with four points (period, colon,
semicolon, and comma), and describes the other points (interrogation, exclamation, parentheses, dash, and
brackets) as being partly rhetorical and partly grammatical (S. 1919:24.) 3 the following marks, , . : (3) Otherwise the discussion will be limited almost exclusively to the following marks: period (with group of periods), interrogation point, exclamation point, colon, semicolon, comma, dash (of whatever length), curves, brackets, quotation marks, division hyphen, compounding hyphen, and apostrophe (S. 1919:20). : (, )
. , , , , , , , .
II- .
, (50-, 60-, 70-, 80-, 90 )
1. , , , : It is found
chiefly in personal poetry (lyric and elegiac), while in epic it appears rarely and then always in the mouths of
characters (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:393). lyric and elegiac,
personal poetry.
, , .
. In addition, there is metrical equivalence (and contrast) in the initial Persicos and simplici, the corresponding word in stanza two (though there is little assonance here) (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:279).
, , contrast,
metrical equivalence, though there is little assonance here.

.
II- . (,
, , ), , 1- , .
Early in May this news (which probably came from the two friends of Cicero and relatives of Caldus who wrote
commendations to Cicero on behalf of Caldus) is relayed to Atticus in somewhat non-committal terms: <> (A.J.
1965.86/1-2:377-378).
, , . . , , ,
. S.v. Vapula Papiria, p. 512 (pages refer to Lindsays Teubner edition published
in 1933) (A.J. 1952.73./3-4:271).

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: We may assume, first of all, that they included the twenty-one Verronianae which have come down to us
(the Vidularia belongs to this corpus although its present condition is fragmentary) (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:270).
II-
. , : Frequent use
is made of animals, plants, and elements which have to do with the constitution of the earth and the universe
(e.g., rivers, fire, ocean, and stars) (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:392). . He has carefully carried out all his religious and filial obligation, e.g., the funeral games to his
father in Book V, and his descent to the underworld in Book V1 (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:354).
2. , , , , :
II- . , ( ) , , , . For the fragments of Hecataeus and the testimonia about him, see Felix Jacoby, Die Fragmente
der griechischen Historiker, No.1 (2nd ed., Berlin, 1957) henceforth cited as F. Gr. H. (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:61).
, , , , , , : G.W.
Houston. Roman Imperial Administrative Personnel during the Principates of Vespasian and Titus (A.D. 69-81)
(unpublished dissertation, Chapel Hill 1971) 625-39 (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:56).
3. :
II- .
. : Its
Sapphic stanzas reply to the Alcaics of the preceding nunc est bibendum (and this antiphony will be prevailing
pattern in Book II); <> (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:278); : She recognized some higher (shall we
call it moral?) purpose for her work (A.L. 1993.65/1:72); : That
Vespasian could have chosen (had he wished) provincial rather than Italian consuls and legates is clear from
Column D: nineteen of 51, or nearly 40 percent, of all men less than consular in 68 who were not given consulates by Vespasian were provincial in origin (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:57);
..
, .
To meet this difficulty, with the never-to-be-defeated ingenuity so often displayed by even the best scholars (but
so rarely to be commended) the theory has been put forward that the Demosthenes should be split in two (A.J.
1952.73/3-4:262).
,
: (Certainly the context makes this association much more simple than the etymological cross-reference, which was doubtless no less intentional, between the plains of Laughter (A., III,
701) and the plains of Mourning (A., V1, 441) pointed out of by Jackson Knight.) (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:86). , . , II- . .
4. , :
. ,
: If, for example, we compare the number of men from each of several
regions among those men who were (A) adlected; (B) consular and praetorian legates under Vespasian; () consular under Vespasian; and (D) less than consular in 68, but not consul under Vespasian, we have the following:
<> (A.J. 1977. 98/1-2:56).
. 41 - . . 41 ,
4 .
. 90- 55-65 %
, , , , .
.
. .. : ,
,
.... , , , ( 1989:156). , ,
: 10-12 ,
.
- , , , , .
25-30 %. 90- (51 %).

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1.
2.
3.
4.

41
-
.
1- 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-








,
.
40 %
27 %
25 %
36 %
30 %
51 %

40 %
65 %
69 %
55 %
65 %
41 %

6%
4%
5%
6%
3%
5%
,
14 %
4%
2%
3%
2%
3%

: 200
.
6.2.2.
, , .
. . , 1- . , (Summey 1919:30).
,
1- . . His. His [the students] final method in punctuation will be at once simpler
and more complex than if he followed the present-day rhetories (S. 1919:17).
II- .
, 50- : Blass (1, pp.251,
252, and 254) interprets the passage to mean: Er (Thrasymachus) ist der Begrunder der mitteren Gattung des
Stils, nach Theophrastus. . . . (A.J. 1952.73/3-4:263). 60-
: In fact, Proppers view of Plato differs from the present interpretation of Diotima in that he (Propper)
feels that Plato sincerely accepted for himself the authoritarian views he imposes on others (A.J. 1965.86/12:50). : ?
II- . ,
:
1. , , , : Their wives are true-hearted Baltimoreans [true-hearted probably
means antislavery] (A.L. 1993.65/1:37).
2. , - , :
Having [death] to look forward to for a while seems to double the value of the event, for one becomes suddenly picturesque to oneself (A.L. 1993.65/1:62).
3. , : C. Fulvius Lupus Servilianus, [] tilius Lo[ng?] us, and
Minicius Macrinus; but where the careers of these men are known, the assumption of an early adlection usually
entails problems such as the one concerning Polemaeanus (A.J. 1977. 98/1-2:63). : M. ANNIUS MESSA[LA], no.1 on my list of men certainly or probably adlected by Vespasian, was included by Eck only
in his supplementary list of men possibly adlected by Vespasian (A.J. 1977.98/1-2:38).
, ,
: Caesius, identifies the deity on the obverse and thus should be
expanded to Ap(ollo), not a(rgento) p(ublico) (A.J. 1977.98/3-4:296).
- II- .
, ,
, . Herodot passage, 6th ed., Berlin, 1901
Herodot. , , II- .
. Heinrich Stein, in commenting on this passage (Herodot [6th
ed., Berlin, 1901]), thinks he must have been a subordinate official, certainly not the . . . who was one of the
highest ranking priests (A.J. 1965.86/1-2:60-61).
:
( , [ , ] )
I
II
I :
( [ , ] )
I
II

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Pius Aeneas is in harmony with gods, except for Juno (and she will be won over [XII, 808-40]) (A.J.
1965.86/1-2:354).
, .
, , .
.
,
.
6.3.

6.3.1.

: . , ,
: (1) ( ,
.); (2) ( : ,
, , ..); (3) , ; (4) , , ; (5) .

/
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

42







>
>

>
>
,

>
>
, ,
>
>

>
>
. 42: >

, ,
, , . II- .
. , , , , ( ) .
.
. , ( ,
, ..) , . .
6.3.2.

. . 1- . 50-
. 50- . 1) ; 2) .
,
: 1) , , , (
); 2) , , ( ); 3) , ( ). , . , II-
.

147

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.
. , , . .
43








>
>
, ,
>
<
,
>
>

/
1.
2.
3.

.43: > .
<
,
. ,
, , II- .
. .
.
.
VI
I. . (1900-2000 .) ( ): , . : ,
. .
II- . (1950-2000 .) : (1) ; (2)
, ; (3)
, ; (4) , , . ( ): ; .
; ;
; , , .
. , : ; ;
.
II. . (1900-2000 .)
: ,
. :
, . .
II- . (1950-2000 .)
: (1) ; (2)
, ; (3) , ; (4) ,
, . :
(50- 90- );
.
(5090- ); (50-90- );
; , , .
. , :

148

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; ;
.
III. , ,
. . .
.
(1900-2000.)
. ( ) , ( )
. .
. (1950-2000 .) ,
( ) :
; ;
; ( , ).
, .

149

Copyright & A K-C

XX
. , , , .
, .
, , , ,
, .
.
, , ,
, ( , , ,
) ..
,
, .
.
( ), . : , , ( XX .), .
,
.

, () , - :
[ ( a, b and c + ( a, b, c- ) (1- . 50- )]; , , ( , , , , , (
50- 80-90- ); : (60- 90- ).
50-90- XX . (
; ..)
( , , , , , ..)
,
(1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ),
. ,
, , , , , ..

- . -
, , , , , ..
, , . ( ),
, ( ), ..
., , :
(1) , , ,
.

150

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(2) [ a and
(or) b and (or) c ( a, b, c )]
: , , . , .
, . , ,
.
(3) ,
and or .
.
. , ,
.
(4) ,
, [, Actually, if (when)].
(5) , , , , (1950- 1990- ), . .
.
. , ,
.
, . , ; , , , ,
.
.
, , ,
. , , , , , .

151

Copyright & A K-C

1. . . .: - . ., 1972. 24 .
2. .. - ): . -. . . ., 2010. 38 .
3. . : .
. ... . . . , 2003. 19 .
4. .. :
. . . . . : . . -, 2003. 22 .
5. .. , ( ): . . . . . .: , 2001. 24 .
6. .. . .: , 1984. 211 .
7. .. :
. . . . . .: , 1976.
8. .. :
. .: , 1979. 112 .
9. .. . .: , 1984 / .
. 08. 02. 85. 19548. 12 .
10. .. :
. . . . . .: , 1985. 23 .
11. .. . : - . , 1985. 123 .
12. .. . .: , 1988. 120 .
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