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WoodenBoat THE MAGAZINE FOR WOODEN BOAT OWNERS, BUILDERS, AND DESIGNERS Scinrox x MANCHESTER A Brand New Livery Skiff NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2011 Expedition Cruisers: Results of Our Design Challenge NUMBER 223, Heaving-To $6.25 The Marine Art of John Stobart $7.99 in Canada £3.95 in U.K. www.woodenboat.com Wherever great paints are sailed. ern gee Reena seco ne Rt Rapesco) ‘of Epifomes at your local chandlery, online anes er ecto Redee MarR es ote eeTN Ted At ae FROM THE MOMENT OUR MEMBERS TOUCH DOWN ON THE RUNWAY, , OR PASS THROUGH THE GATES OF THE TO A UNIQUE WAY OF LIF ENTER THE TUDDED HARB Ocean ReeF CLUB, THEY AGAIN RET Oren a eae cna Cesc nee Cum tec eR Chen ema ad + Situated on the northern reaches of Key Largo, beside North America's only living reef, the Ocean Reef Club Pe ee ee arte ee ee eee Re ee courses. fitness center and spa. An art league and cultural center. Sailing, tennis, croquet and rod & gun clubs 4 library and theater, Medical Center, nine restaurants, an Inn and gracious residences, Even a school for your all the comforts and services of a small but sophisticated town. Tepe Ue EN am ota ac Sores ene eae + There are also comforts of a different kind. Among them, a t and values, and perhaps most important. a sense of belonging unlike any other club on earth. a. pelt T Maloy Dee ar egos ‘yall our Membership Department, eerie) Seno + VACATION RENTALS HOMES + VILLAS + CONDOMINIUMS + MARINA DOCKS Wo odenBoat serene rennet KN 48 BOAT-LIKE-OBJECT A Friendship sloop 23 years in the making Bruce Kemp Page 36 FEATURES 54 The Rebirth of the Manchester Skiff 33 Heaving-To A fast, handy, and much-admired Holding your position workboat Walt Anset in open water Bruce Halabisky 58 Building the 12’ Peapod 36 Design Challenge III Results Part Two Arch Davis In which we sought a fast expedition sailboat Matthew P. Murphy 44 The Rabbet Plane A frequent necessity for boatbuilding Jim Tolpin 70 John Stobart ‘A Life on Canvas Bruce Stannard 86 Uffa Fox—Madman or Genius? Part Three: The war years and their aftermath Nic Compton 2. Woodenttoat 225 DEPARTMENTS 5 Editor’s Page Ode to the Livery Skiff 9 Letters 11 Fo'e’s'le Elementary, My Dear David Kasanof 13 Currents edited by Tom Jackson 27 Apprentice’s Workbench How to Fit Rails and Risers Greg Rassel 67 Designs Haiku: A sharpie in EGRET’s wake Mike O'Brien 82 In Focus Gloucester in the 1920s. 94 Launchings. Amy Addison and Relaunchings Robin Jettinghoff 101 Wood Technology Bamboo: ‘The Other “Wood?” Richard Jagels 103 The WoodenBoat Review * Kite photography gear © Fly Rails and Flying Jibs * Bowl carving tool * New or Noteworthy * Books Received 111 Calendar of Events 136 Save a Classic FROLIC: Bruce Halabisky Maynard Bray Greg Rassel An Alden Malabar Jr. sloop | Maynand Bray READER SERVICES 26 How to Reach Us 112 Boatbrokers 114 Boatbuilders 122 Kits and Plans 126 Classified 135 Index to Advertisers TEAR-OUT SUPPLEMENT Pages 16/17 GETTING STARTED IN Boats: Crew Overboard John Rousmaniere Manchester, who bu particilarly seaworthy ‘and popular boats of the type during the 1950s in Mystic ‘See Page 54. Photograph by Garol M. Ansel Nowember/December 2011 ¢ 3 You are cordially invited to join us here in Brooklin, Maine in 2012 for an experience you'll benefit from for years to come! Call today for our 2012 course catalog or access our entire program at www.woodenboat.com t day of reservation: Monday, January 2, 2012. Phone or fax only please. WOODENBOAT SCHOOL, P.O. Box 78 * Brooklin, EDITOR’S PAGE > oat Lane + RO, Box 78 04616-0078 InA01 © fax 207-250-8920 ‘woodenboatttwoodenboat-com treb site: wwewivoodenboat.com Senior Eat Tom Jackson ‘Asatan Editor Robin jeinghoft Boat Design Editor ike O'Biten Contributing bators tarry Bryan, Greg Rel Copy Bator Jane Cronen ‘stociate Art Director Pui Schirmer {ULATION Atocinter Lovna Gram, Pat Huschinson ‘Atociate Publisher Anne Dunbar ADVERTISING Director Tod Richards Coordinator Laura Sher man ydarkeeosnet p Weare Cane Misr Coast Essen Cr Enno © Minot oar 307-299-4651 adveriaing@woodenboat.com RESEARCH Assortates Patil. Lown, Rosemary Poole (Office Manager Tina Stephens Staff Accountant Jace Mule ‘Associate Roca Sherman Reception Iss Comme ‘THE WOODENROATSTORE, ‘Nethauser Else chins, WOODENBOAT BOOKS Book Publisher Sot Basinens Manager Kis Fates Manager Greg So > President and General Manager ames! Miler ® renin oxmeyiirce Ode to the Livery Skiff of the The Salem Willows amusement park in Massachusetts, Located on a point of land fronting on Beverly Harbor and. Salem Sound, The Willows was ideally sited for such a skiff concession. You'd pay your modest sum, then get your oars, lifejackets, anchor, and a box of worms packed in sand, and spend an afternoon handlining for flounder. For a fee, you could upgrade from oars to an outboard motor. The pi itself would be packed with fishermen, myriad lines cast and “occasionally crossed. If you wanted to get away from this shoulder-to-shoulder crowd and tangle of lines to fish the relatively untouched grounds, you rented a skiff. On any bright summer weekend day, the waters surrounding the pier were doited with these brightorange boats. The skiffs were nothing special as far as design goes: They were flat-bottomed and pine-planked, and fastened with galvanized nails, But as pastime, they represented phenomenon that seems rare now: You'd be hard-pressed today (o find such easy and economical rented acess to the freedom of a small wooden boat, what with liability and profit margins. I don't know e livery closed its doors. [do recall it was stil early 1980s, but by the end of that decade only a few dere bers of the fleet remained, stacked like cordwood against ilding’The Willows boat livery was not unique. I don’t have nventory of such businesses, but I do know that they once flourished along the eastern seaboard—especially in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut And so Iwas struck last summer at the WoodenBoat Show encountered a small, pretty outboard-powered skiff cd alongside the small-boat float. “It’s a replica livery skiff” Bill Mills told me. Mills, proprietor of Stonington Boat Works in Connecticut, then relayed the story (see page 54) of how a man who'd grown up with such boats had commissioned him to replicate the skiffs of his youth, using nothing more than a photograph and memory for guidance. This boat and its stablemates were endemic to the Mystic River, and were built in, and rented from, Stonington. They had subtleties of shape and detail that the Willows boats lacked: curved stems, sweeping sheerline, the shadow lines of lapstrake plank seams, and ac hull and contrasting interior. Perhaps these refineme the result of competition, for across the Mystic River in Groton, another builder turned out similar skiffs in | gnature style. I believe the Willows livery was something of a monopoly. ‘The new skiff is named GIDEON MANCHESTER, for the Stonington man who built its predecessors until his death in 1957, The boat's sponsor had it built with the sole aim of donating it 10 Mystic Seaport, to keep the tradition alive. Mystic, you see, has a boat livery, and GIDEON MANCHESTER is now the livery’s chase boat. You can try out any number of small Nowember/December 20 2012 CALENDAR OF WOODEN BOATS’ 2012 CALENDAR OF WOODEN BOATS: Walls 12” 12"; Opens to 12" 24” The award-winning Calendar of Wooden Boats* with commentary by Maynard Bray is elegantly designed in a 12” x 24" wall format. Now in its 30" year, it continues to set the highest standards of quality and tradition for wooden boat enthusiasts. Photography by Benjamin Mendlowitz TOLL-FREE ORDERING: 1-800-273-SHIP (7447) (U.S. & Canada) #800-212 $15.95 (plus $5.50 for shipping in US) Monday-Friday 8 am-6 pm EST (Saturday 9-5) Overseas: 207-359-4647 Fax: 207-359-7799 or write: ‘The WoodenBoat Store, P.O. Box 78, Brooklin, Maine 04616 Web Site: www.woodenboatstore.com The Calendar of Wooden Boats® “Poetry in Motion” UNSOLICITED COMMENTS FROM FANS OF THE CALENDAR? “Thanks for bringing beauty into my life!” You sense of total p that ma ways the one with the best +)... YOU manage to create ing so fascinating.” te purchase that gives us this much “T have n e Years, seen one of your photos that 1 diye ks for doing such great work.” 2 istmas present EVER’ Tie 2T"ANNUAL odenBoat how Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Connecticut See the very cream ofthe crop of new wooden boats and recent restorations by amateur and professional boatbuilders and top boatyards Come and learn at expert skills demonstrations, talk with boatbuilders about their projects Take a sail or row a boat fom the Mystic Seaport livery, or fom the collection ofthe small raft available near Lighthouse Point. Browse the tents brimming with tools, books, marine accessories, nautical art, oars and hardware to enhance your boating experience. Enjoy the many Mystic Seaport exhibits and examples of living history in a re-created 19th century village of educators and roleplayers. And ofcourse, Family BoatBuilding onthe North Lawn will continue to inspire you as you plan your next projector adventure! Produced and Presented by WoodenBoat Magazine je LETTERS The Legacy of Uffa Fox Dear Editor, Tam really excited about the four part series on Ufa Fox. I acciden- tally came upon a 1961 Jollyboat which I brought back to usable con- dition a couple of years ago. It was wrapped in several tarps on a trailer in a friend’s mother’s yard and she wanted to be rid of it, and it was free. Iwanted the trailer and maybe some of the hardware and belore unwrapping agreed that if took the boat to the dump I wasn’t to tell any done. After I towed it home and hid it in my back yard, T unwrapped it. 1 couldn’t believe what was there, Tt was like Christmas: An 18" hot molded mahogany hull—yes, with some rot, a rotted-off transom, and the decks in a pile in the bilge—but it was much superior to the cedar planked Snipe I wanted the trailer for. All the pieces were there and afier some two months of neglecting iy family and pets I was sailing. The manufacturer's brass plate reading FAIREY MARINE LTD, HAM- BLE, HANTS, ENGLAND was in a box and has been shined up and reinstalled, We christened the boat MARG after my mother and sculled about a calm Okanagan Lake with no mast on a smokey August afternoon drinking a chilled boitle of Marichel Viognier in cele- bration. The original sails are a bit baggy (806) but the hull (No. 192) is now sound and the boat performs well, planing in light winds as intended. The boom is very low and y lovely wife has experienced sev- ral lumps on the head as a result. suspect Uffa Fox was a small and nimble man. The experience with the boom has caused my mate to shy from the trapeze despite the ‘al harness being washed and free from mold. Ihave yet to use the spinnaker but plan to build a spi naker chute through the deck, per Inaps this winter: The Jolly boat is a great boat, but it was rigged poorly with great clumsy tackle and the mainsheet coming forward from the uaveler This resulted in a constant tangle with the long tiller. I moved the mainshcet to the centerboard trunk, which is a much more user-friendly position. The rudder doesn't tilt, Which can be awkward if launching from the beach; modifying it will be another winter project. I really like this boat and Lam impressed with the performance and (despite the relatively narrow beam) the ease of handling. If one can get it in the waterand the sails up it can be sailed singlehanded in moderate winds, I am looking forward to hearing from other Jollyboat owners, What I find amusing about this boat is the reac- tion of people, when, after the for- malities of inquiring about what sort, of boat Ihave. [excitedly proclaim "Ie’s a 1961 Jollyboat!" They look away and to the ground with visions of me in a pirate outfit plowing across the bay in a shoreboat. That is Uffa Fox's fault, and for that I thank him, David Steele Victoria, British Columbia Editor My link to the genius of Uffa Fox is the 1953 Firefly LUNA, which I bought in 1958 at age 13. The kind offer of a free berth at the Got tage Park Yacht Club of Winthrop, Massachusetts, which had a fleet of Fireflies, was very important at that stage of my life. Although not long afterwards most of my time afloat was spent aboard larger ves- sels, no experience on the water exer taught me more, and quicker, than did racing a Firefly. Alas, poor LUNA eventually became a’ roost for pigeons in my cow barn, but her recent restoration has rejuvenated both of us. LUNA is now as lovely, lively, and demanding as ever, and I, no longer the agile teenager, have had to limber up considerably, or else swim! We race with a fleet of Lasers, but long for the compan- ionship of other Fireflies. Surely there are yet many old Fireflies tucked away in storage, awaiting a second life, Restoring one of these pocket elassics does not require the resourees of a hedge fund mane ager, yet provides all the sailing thrills and satisfactions of a much larger boat, if not more. As there are 1,000 active Fire! friendly technical advice mouse click away Bill Bunting, Whitefield, Maine Both the Jllyboat and the Firefly appear in this issue’ installment of the Ufa Fox biography, beginning on page 86. If youil like to contact either Mr: Bunting ‘or Mr, Steele, please write to the care of WoodenBoat. Dear Editor Congratulations on publishing the biography of Uffa Fox. Nic Comp- ton'sstyle of writing is excellent, and he brings Uffa Fox into the realms of a legend without exaggerations. The story would make a great TV series here in the UK. William Flannery via e-mail Shoal Draft Dear Editor, While reading Mr. MacNaughton’s article on Shoal Draft cruising (Part 2, WB No, 229), the mention of Arthur Ransome took me back to my own childhood, I think I read about all of Ransome’s series and this probably exerted a strong influe ence on my lifetime love of sailing small boats. I have nine Ransome hooks on my bookshelf, including the one referenced in the article, Seeret Water. Tid not obtain my own first small sailboat until 1967 while serving at NATO in Brussels, Belgium, My work hours kept me from enjoying my four children except on the week ends, so I looked for something we could all do together. The Belgian Air Force leased a section on one of the canals for their sailing club and avited me to join them. We bought a French-made International 420, This was soon followed by an Oj nist dinghy that I builtin the garage of our Embassy-leased house, using only a small sabre saw and power drill, We bought the sails. It wa great experience for all of us. Returning from a tour in South: east Asia in 1972, for an assignment November/December 2011 © 9 LETTERS. at Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas, ‘we bought a Colombia 23 keel boat to add to our fleet at Lake Mead. It was a shoal draft boat and large enough to house Mom and Dad, all four kids, and the dog. kid could weekend outings. We often ended up in one of the hundreds of shallow coves with a “party” of ten on board and the Optimist in tow. We carried a tent for the kids to camp on the beach and a gangplank to go back 1d forth, Thanks for the article, Mr, Mae- Naughton, Shoal draft cruising ean be a great family endeavor and one that I strongly recommend. My “crew” is long gone and the grandchildren are graduating from college, but the grand memory lingers on, Chatles E. MeM Las Vegas, Nevada The rule was that each wite one friend for the A Shameful Replica Hi Matt, I'm as much in favor of historical r creations of wooden boats as the next guy, but I'm appalled by the rds” story about the Viking long- ship” in Haugesund, Norway, in the '/ August 2011 issue. Specifically, their claim that they are making the ship's rigging out of “braided walrus hide” just takes my breath away. AIL of us‘are, or should be, trying to tise sustainably harvested woods, less-toxic solvents, and construction methods that don't polluce, These are things you constantly stress your articles, In the same issu reading about the efforts to save the ing Kauri trees in New Z land isa case in point, But, “harvest- ing” walruses 10 make rope out of hides is akin to killing elephants for their tusks, Is it supposed to make us feel better that the killing is being done by “native Greenland hunt. 3?" Lean only guess how many meters of rope and line it will take for the rigging on a boat that 115’ LOA. How many walruses will have to die to support this proje The builders can’t claim that they need an accurate re-creation because they admit in the article ‘Around the that itis a “conjectural replica” Ifa single power tool or piece of sand- paper is used in the construction then it is no longer a true rep- lica. Shame on them and shame on WoodenBoat for supporting them in wine. I only hope our cus- toms agents get wind of this and refuse entry to them when they try ew York. If not, I hope UL 10 protest their Yorkers t visit. John Marchi Morrison, Tennessee. For Your Safety Working in a boatshop requires certain considerations to ensire your si Aan health. We want you to enjoy doing Your ovn work, but urge you to exercise hroughout the process, Before jr or hand tool with your are unfamiliar, consult operat Instructions, Many materials found jn Daatshops are deadly or may have long term ill effects; before using any tone bose all, protect yourself from Improper use that may lead to permanent injury oF Treading ight : See geeWsTSisee pc 20g 029'hybi lunch cesgned by Stephens Waring & White and bul by French Webs Ca Toa ATT Zogo may be only the tip of the iceberg in the new generation of high- efficiency, low-impact power boats. Her strong, light displacement hull is cedar strip planked and sheathed in carbon fiber. She burns only 1.5 gallons of fuel per hour at 10.5 knots. Throughout Zogo's construction, builder French & Webb of Belfast, Maine, relied on West SysTEM Epoxy for superior performance and unsurpassed technical support. 10. Woodentioat 225 CEE PER ee FO’C’S’LE Late Elementary, My Dear by David Kasanof Tis great st said that when all reasonable explanations for a puzzling event we been eliminated, then the th must lie among the w 7 The logic of this state impeccable and wrong, We who are afilicted by the wooden-boat syn- drome know that the world is not a logical place and that there is no sharp line between the reasonable and the absurd. AS a ease in point, allow me to recount a singular (Great Scott! Damned if I haven't begun to sound like Dr, Watson!), an incident in which the reasonable and the absurd became indistinguishable. Long. before the gaff rigged old CONTENT had taken ownership of me, I led Florida’s Biscayne Bay in a 20’ Bahamian sloop. Early in the evening of one such sail, I decided to anchor for the night because my southerly course had brought me close to the southwestern end of the bay. My little sloop was point- g more or less south into the wind. id flood tide, and the red sun made a fine display as it sank below the horizon off my starboard side. Please rem all these details, They will be necessary if you are to understand what follows, and there may be a quiz. T was awakened by the warmth and light of a beautiful subtropi- cal dawn. [ raised my head above the rail to drink in the lovely sigh There was just a sliver of sun above the horizon to starboard. Huh? To starboard? But just a few hours ago ul I not watched the sun set in the west over the starboard rail? If my boat had reversed direction during the night, because of the changing of the tide there would be no prob- lem, starboard would now face east. However, the shore would appear to port, and unfortunately the shore fon this morning was right where Ieftit, to starboard. I was so bewildered that all 1 could do was to grab my head both hands and exclaim, “How can this be? How can this be?” Under the circumstances the logical con= clusion was that during the night, the Earth had reversed its direction of rotation. Somehow, this theory did not comfort me. For one thing, if the Earth’s rotational direction hhad reversed, surely someone would have noticed. Yet my radio reported. nothing unusual except fora record, dip in the pork belly futures market. T know, I know. Some of you are é forward 10 get it, I noticed that ny BHERLOU! in the crystalline water, was lying unset in a ball of grass and asking, “Why didn’t you look at the compass, dummy?” Please under- stand that all this happened decades ago when I was very young, and consequently knew everything there was to know about sailing. 1 carried only a hand-bearing com- pass in an Army-Navy Surplus “survival kit” and rarely Tooked at it. As I went __mud. In addition, my com- pass affirmed that the sun hhad risen where it was sup- posed to. Appar the anchor dragged across the bay while slept, never causing me to run aground, while the changing tide had turned the boat end for end. My starboard side still faced mudflats and dead horseshoe crabs as it had the previous evening, only these were on the east side of the bay. Could I not tell the eastern shore from the west? In a word, no, One dead horseshoe crab on an expanse of black goo looks pretty much like another. Do I really expeet the reader to believe that while I slept, the boat could drag for miles and then stop just before I awoke? How ‘come I didn't hit anything? Tadmit the validity of these skep- tical questions. In fact, before I saw the fouled anchor and checked my compass, L admit to being tempted by the absurd cosmological expla- nation. So the question is to choose i unlikely. might say, a. between the absurd Holm ye my dear Nowember/December 2011 ¢ 1 ON SALE NOVEMBER 29, 2011 RU ey Oma from WoodenBoat magazine dedicated to small power, sail, paddle and row boats. Volume 6 has a lineup of over 20 small boats including- Amphibi-ette * Hampton Boat * Old Town Dinghy * Glen-L Tete ear Te Cer ear) eee eee ct Available only for a limited time at your favorite bookstore or newsstand! Pre-order Small Boats from The WoodenBoat Store ACR Ue CLC eA Le Ue Oe LUE LTR eS cole NoL ee ee Puease nore: This publication is not sent as part of a subscription and must be purchased separately. In good company by Tom Jackson ately, I have been sailing a lot in acompany with others. Early on, 1 never thought doing so would be much to my taste, since for me setting out in a boat for anything other than rac ing always seemed to involve an cle- ‘ment of Thoreauvian individualism, or maybe just a lone-wolf disposition, T've distinctly altered my thinking over the ‘After participating in an onganized “Raid!” in Sweden (see WB No. 187) and subsequently starting Maine's Small Reach Regatta (SRR; see WB No. 215 ie wirsamallreachregatta.org), [nowt find myself sailing alongside other boats almost as often as sailing solo. The SRR was but one of several such joint summer voyages of 2011, Another involved sailing in company to a Deer Isle campground that happens to perch, fon the threshold of some prime eruis: ing grounds of the Maine island Trail, A sinall fleet gathered for a long week- end of daysailing, and six of our family, including two six-year-olds and a four year-old, joined us from Seattle, Wash- ingion, and Bozeman, Montana. No Jone wolves her (Over a number of years, those of us from all walks of life who have sailed together in the SRR have become good friends, expecially those who have worked together on behalf of that event and others of the Down East Chapter of the Traditional Small Craft Association, Such camaraderie happens easily and naturally among the owners of sii boats. Even in other events in which rac ing is important, as it is in some Raids and wooden yacht regattas like the Egg emoggin Reach Regatta, placing well doesn't seem to be what people remen ber most. The SRR, which has no racing at all, has become something like the rendezvous of old mountain-man lore, year gathering of those of like tinds who catch up with one another and gain more experience and respect teach time. There is no better way to get to know boats of people, earned at Raid Sweden in 2005 that there isalso no better way to get to know ‘country. [hadla delightful reminder of | that at the 2011 SRR when Erik and via Wybenga and their three sons and aughter came from Holland to sail a traditionally built Croteh Island Pinky chartered from the Apprenticeshop of ‘An all-wooden fleet at Little Sheep Island in Maine during a summer outing consisted of (ying at anchor in the distance, left to right) a Fenwick Williams Annie ealled RUTH, the Nor Ad boat FAR & AWAY, the Bermuda 30 NEREID, and (on the beach, far to near) the Shearwater OCARINA, a Shellback dinghy, 1830s peapod, and the pram tender GRETEL. Rockland. They handled her beaut fully twas thetr first visit to the United States, and with 40 other boats in the fleet from 18 different states, they eame to know a lot of people they would never hhave met otheriise, Very likely, some of those friendships will lst, as have some ‘of mine made years ago during a single week of sailing in Sweden, I can’t imag ine a better oF faster way to gain local knowledge not only of waters but also of culture, [ wouldn't be surprised to hear of SRR veterans one day traveling to Holland, perhaps for that country’s Dorestad Raid. With these Raids and ‘events inspired by them happening ‘everywhere from the Venice Lagoon to ‘Texas, from Finland to Tasmania, such possibilities are tantalizing. 1 think the time is ripe for an international association of similar events to facilitate participation. There is Safety in numbers, espe- cially in unfamiliar waters. People might be prone to push their personal tenvelopes just a bit, contribiting to their own experience in comparative safety on a day when they might oth- cerwise be tempted to stay ashore. And anyone sailing alongside another boat is bound to watch sail trim, windward ability leeway, speed under dars,all the ispects of boat handling, even ifracing isn’t officially on the program, Two or ore sailboats going the same general direction generally constitute a race, whether markers are set oF not, Sailing: ‘or rowing your own boat as well as itean be done is the only real goal. However for someone for whom being out front is, imperative, sailing in company can be a ‘great way 10 assess the characteristies of the next boat to build. Ashore, conversation inevitably urns oldeas: stowage, flotation, rigs, anchors, reefing, trailers, GPS features, a hundred ‘others, saw boat details in Sweden and. ‘elsewhere that influenced the way I fitted out my own boat. Sailing with someone else's boat is a direct transte ‘ence of experience. ‘Onemorethingaboutsailingin com- pany: It has the odd effect of making solo voyaging even that much sweet Although” my lone-wolf hard edges hhave been chamfered over or chated away over the years, they're still there. ‘On the final morning of our camping weekend, I observed the fog, listened to the weather and wind predictions, judged the alternatives, and in the end ‘et out alone while the family drove hhome. It’s never a casual choice when you are relying entirely on sail and oars to cover quite a distance, and the arrival time is never guaranteed. Solo, there's no chance for a tow from a companion ‘an outhoared. But if there is safety mbers, there is wonder in solitude, and you can’t know one without know- ng the other. On this day, the fog was thick but tolerable and lifting. The wind was steady, the current fainly strong, and both favorable. In several places, T chose courses that took me the long way around just so Pd have more time ‘on the water. Tate when 1 was hungry didn't bore anyone with my insistence ‘on attention to sail wim, which is never dull to me, T made decisions without Nowember/December2011 ¢ 13 conferring and tacked without hav ing to call out. I knew I would see my friends again before long, but sailing aay alone reminded me of other times in other places where, in the end, we sailed off on different courses, not sure of where, or when, oF if ever we would meet again. Like seafarers of ol, Ihave learned to take full advantage of the time ve have with good company yet accept and even savor the times when wwe have it all to oursches. Tom Jackson is WoodenBoat’s senior editor. Around the yards Hadden Boat Company in George- town, Maine, is midway through the ‘construction of a 36° LOA lobster yacht with a beam of 10°6", a draft of 9% and displacing 14,000 Ths, based on a 1950s nie Cavanaugh of Portland, sho long admired C: augh’s boats was looking for one to restore, but the only prospect proved. tw be mote of a project than he wanted to take on, Alex Hadden advised start- ing from seratch, basing a new boat fon the 35! MARIAH WILLOW (ex)), which Hadden had earlier restored for Georgetowner Tom Wright. Eliot Spalding, a naval architeet of Freepor Maine, worked with Hadden and. his crew to measure Wright's boat and pro- duce hull lines, with pilothouse and interior layout’ reflecting the owner's preferences, “In building her, I've been able to take liberties with some of the details that are apparent when looking i whatis starting to let go 50 years kater with Tom's boat,” Hadden says. “I putin ‘more and larger floor timbers fastened to the planking rather than on top of the frames. I have copied my friend Hubert Stagnol Watson. Pete Kass’ design for the cutaway-dead ‘wood/shaltlog/stern-bearing arrange- ment, for better flow to the wheel. Her luansom frame is more substantial Instead of the original narrow horn timber pierced by the sternpost and beefed up with cheek pieces, I've put in the more usual, modern, wider, and rabbeted horn timber, and the cutaway deadwood below eliminated the stern- post altogether” Other than her var hished mahogany laminated transom, she is built with Maine Atlantic white cedar planking over white oak struc ture and stean-hent white oak frames, With silicon-bronze fastenings through- ‘out, She'll have a 260-hp Yanmar diesel cengine. As of late August, her hull had been completed and engine installation was beginning. Hadden Boat Company, 11 Tibbets Ln. Georgetown, ME 0454 207-371-2662; haddenboatgui.ne. ‘Anew lobster yacht, 36° LOA, is under construction at Hadden Boat Company in. Georgetown, Maine. 14 + Woodenttoat 225 building a new 19° daysailor to an 1886 design by GL. “vs not so long ago that Hubert Stagnol was riding the crest of a wave, Nigel Pert writes trom Franee. “His yard had produced ten Seabirds—the small yachts designed by William Fife 111 in 1880—which he built using the wood: ‘epoxy method and he had also com pleted many major restorations, such as that of SKAL, a l4.5-meter cutter designed by Philip L. Rhodes and built in 1980, for example, Business was so ‘good that Hubert decided to build a boat ‘an spec, another Fife plan from 1889, This was a boat similar in form to Sea bird, but considerably bigger, at 13 meters on deck, although stil essentially fa day racer. For FYNE he used cold ‘molding techniques with epoxy resin glue. “Then came the storm of the global ‘economic downturn. FYNE was magnif cent on the water. She turned heads in admiration wherever she sailed, whether in Scotland at the Fife Regatta, Brest 2008, oF les Voiles de StTroper in the autumn of the same year. But no one reached for their checkbook. Another project that should have assured the future of the yard for several years ahead, also slowed right down due to the squceze. This was to be the restora tion ofa whole fleet of small one-design yachts that were to be the main attrac. tion of a hotel complex on the French Riviera, where a sailing elientele could spend their holidays racing each other: “Not having capitalized on the invest. ment placed in FYNE and with seven Dublin Bay 24 hulls idly occupying half the Benodet workshop space, Chan tier Stagnol inevitably slid down to the trough of the wave and was forced i liquidation toward the end of 2010. “Not being the kind of man ( sink below the surface, Hubert is paddling hard toward the erest of the nest wave. While the final administrative elements ‘of the closure were being sorted out as of this writing in the summer of 2011, Hubert has started 10 build a new boat for himself. He is renting workspace in what used to be his own hangar, Inck dentally, FYNE is still in the shed and not yet sold; Hubert is hoping that an offer will be made for her, which would alleviate his station somewhat ‘When I said new boat, of course it will only be the object itself that is truly new: the plan is from 1886 and by G.L son, Tt was acquired from Dr. Wil liam Collier of G.L. Watson & Co, in pool. The initial order for boat to placed by the he designed and built w clyde Canoe & Lugsail C vere builtin the first inst formance was such that the Royal Yacht Club placed an order to build Untee more the following yeat: The yacht (to be called RED) is a small, longkeeled daysailer of 5.85 meters and the original drawings pro- pose an open-hulled or a half-decked version with a small cabin; this lawer version is how Hubert sill build this one, This time he will be construct ing it classic plank-on-frame, with the slight variation of using laminated oak frames, The added strength inherent in this method will be a homus, as he anticipates towing the boat to different exents, The planks will be of larch. It will have a lugsail main with the fore: sails tacked onto a short bowsprit over the straight stem. The rudder will be Tung on the flat vertical transom, Flubert’s deadline to finish RED is next year's Fife Regatta, As Watson worked closely with File, Iam sure he will be most welcome. This small yacht vas, in fact, the first ever one-design racing class in the world, and, who knows, maybe Hubert’s new ereation will become the latest one-design cliss to woo the dinghy racing fraternity IH Gene Beley of Stockton, California, caught up with Doug Ball in the neigh= boring town of Woodbridge earlier this year at a bittersweet moment, Ball was moving out of his 1,500-sq-f private boatbuilding shop in Lodi and into his home garage. “Since the recession,” Beley writes, “Ball has downsized from his elaborate and fully equipped shop. But it will take more than a recession to Kill his passion and obsession for building wooden boats, Ball, retired Delta Airlines 767 captain, graduated in 2006 from the Northwest. School of Wooden Boat Building in Port Hadlock, Washington, Healready ownsa 1954 Ste. raised-deck coastal cruiser, SEA. GAL, which he cruises on the California restoring a Century Sea Maid ‘soon begin a replica of a 1939 Hacker-Craft Delta, He is also currently restoring a 1954 Century Sea Maid, which he inherited from his father, Ball traces his, life with boats back to when he was 12, aand his father, a career Air Force officer then stationed in Japan, commissioned, the construction of a wooden boat at the Okamoto Boat Yard in Tokyo, When he transferred to Biloxi, Mississippi, the boat came with him, ‘We had that boat for about six years, and that’s what instilled my interest in wooden boats, Ball says. “Going to the Concours d'Elégance at Carnelian Bay in. Lake ‘Tahoe and admiring all those boats inspired me to go to the Northwest School of Wooden Boat Building.’ But all the while, he has been preparing for his real dream: to build a Hacker-Craft replica. ‘After [ finished the course, 1 realized [ had the ability to build a rep- lica 1989, 30' Hacker. If | can find the driginal hardware, I'l buy it, fT can't Pil make it, Even though I haven’t yet finished restoring my father’s boat, 1 began the Hacker projectslowly. [found plans toa runabout close to the Hacker In San Jose, I met John Allen, who restores vintage boat engines, and told hhim Twas interested in acquiring a motor, He found a Scripps V-12 engine in Oklahoma three years ago. found another engine by going « an event that was like a convention of WWI ‘equipment restorers. Through them, I Tound a guy who knew someone in Aus- tralia who had a 2,000lb, 1,650-c1-in Rolls Royce Meteor V-12 engine, so now U have two engines for the Hacker. 1 think initial construction will be a litle bit easier than the runabout Ue been restoring: Lb in Woodbridge, Califomia, and hopes to Offcuts hilippe duChitean writes from Alex aandria, Virginia, about his visit to Kotka, Finland, 80 miles east of Hel- sinki: “In the last decade, the kirge Maritime Center, Vellamo, as built on Korka's inner hatbor, giving expanded space to Finland’s Maritime Museum, which moved here from a crowded island in Helsinki. A five-minute walk further west along the harbor wall brings one to the new buildings of the Wooden Boat Center of Finland or, in the melodic Finnish, Suomen Pu venckeskus, Kotka and neighboring towns in southeastern Finland continue to sup- port their wooden boat heritage. In nearby Hamina, a student can take courses dedicated to wooden boat building at the local college. Kot! also hosted three large international ‘wooden boat festivals in the mid-1990s, Iisno coincidence that the man behind the festivals, Leo Skogstrom, is now the Director of the Wooden Boat Center, while Hamina school graduate Allan Savolainen is the boatyard’s managing director “The center would not exist in its present form, however, without the funding and drive of Finnish invest ment banker and sailor Henrik Ande sinand his dedication to the restoration ‘of the old 12Meter class wooden rac: ing boat BLUE MARLIN, designed and built in the 1950s by the British naval architect Charles E, Nicholson, In 2006, Andersin found her afloat in Slovenia bbutin tervible condition, He bought her November/December 2011 © 15, CORRE a. Moder new buildings in Kotka, Finland, house the Wooden Boat Center of “ is Finland. Among the principal projects is the thoroughgoing restoration of the 12-Meter BLUE MARLIN (inset, with center director Leo Skogstrém). and wucked her tw Kotka, but there was ho facility suitable for the complete restoration ofthis 22-meter (72') classic ‘Andersin, with his strong interest in wooden boats, was already involved, in Kotka’s wooden boat cooperative, an earlier incarnation of the present cen ter. With support from the City of Korka, he greatly expanded the cooperative’s facilities and had a new hall built that is, sufficiently large to handle restoration fof yachts as large as BLUE MARLIN, The architect behind the neighboring Mari time Center Vellamo designed the pres- ent Wooden Boat Center, thus visually tying the two institutions together The Finnish Wooden Boat Center is not a teaching institution like Wooden: Boat School in Brooklin, nor a place where one can take classes and rent a boat like The Center for Wooden Boats in Seattle, Washington, Rather, itis ded: icated to the restoration and building ‘of wooden boats, offering a state-of-the: at facility in which craft professionals can work. At present, activity revolves around the restoration of BLUE MAR. LIN, but boatyard director Savolaine thas plans for marketing other woode boat designs once the yacht is back on the water and racing. Ic-costs nothing to wander into the building, and once inside, after a tasty sandwich and coffee or a beer ata café aa short climb to the second story brings onto a wide walkway over BLUE MARLIN and other boats. The air may seem a little uncomfortable, for the large work hall is climate controlled and humidity is maintained w keep wooden boats from drying out. As of 16 = Woodenttoat 225, his sorting, BLUE MARLIN’s bull had been reframed and replanked, and her deck was soon to be installed, Her inte will be original “Mounted on a wall in the hall above BLUE MARLIN is the work of contemporary Finnish artist Kari Gavén, who has created a sunburst design titled Blue Marlin Reincarna tion from wood 100 worn to use in the restoration. Elsewhere, on a wall near the ealé, he has created an enormous wall sculpture that draws its shape from the high arch of the center's main hall. From afar, the sculpture, slyly titled Rete, is clearly made of hundreds of old wooden hand planes, which Skogstrom purchased from a rather obsessive Finnish collector There's much to see, but much that the castal visitor will miss, The large planes and saws needed for boatbuild- ing are in an attached building avail- able for all working in. the center Upstairs in the main building is the Finnish necessity: a large sauna open wd the clock. Nearby is a fully equipped digital photography studio filled with equipment to make any photo- grapher envious, The studio supports the center, of course, but it can be used by visiting artists, It turns out. that along with his entrepreneurial talents, kogstrim is an accomplished maritime photographer ‘or those who have mo chance to visit, it costs nothing to visit the center's web page. The English-language pages are excellent, and don't miss the videos of BLUE MALIN.” Finnish Wooden Boat Center, Tornatoriatie 15, 48100 Kotka, Finland; su suomenprarcenckeshus fi ‘ore than a century ago, Pard Mathewson designed and built his first wherry for Catalina Island, California,’ Jim Dittmar and Tom Gib bons write, and now the last one known, to be in California is due for restora- tion. “Pard learned his trade build- aircralt frameworks of steam-bent spruce covered with fabric, His Catalina wherries, which replaced canoes, were fan instant hit, with sleek lines, stabil- y, and ease of handling. The early lapstrake wherries were 14" long and wide, Later wherries were carvel or strip-planked. The wherries were a plea- ‘sure to row and capable of carrying two passengers or a light cargo. Made for Catalina waters, they were popular with, residents and visitors alike, who rented yypes of boats, from ‘The last of the wooden Catalina wherties in California ie due for restoration in Long Beach, yas STARTED IN BOATS from the Editors of WoodenBoat Magazine AYotinitg “a Crew eee Prevention and Recovery — CREW OVERBOARD — by John Rousmaniere HiT reer Cong Na En CCL Tg I tl The range of lifejacket types, as defined by the U.S, Coast: Guard. Type ls the offshore lifejacket, which provides the best fioatation but is also the bulkiest a ind most uncomfortable. Type ll isthe near-shore buoyant vest, which is not as effective as a Type |, but is more comfortable; t's used in situations where quick rescues likely. Type ll comprises a range of specialized jacket types, such as those often seen on kayakers and dinghy sailors; these vests are meant to be worn continuously while on the water, but are not for extended survival inthe water: Type lV includes a range of throwable devices. Type V PFDs are special-use devices, and include the now-ubiguitous in alling overboard is, statistically, the most deadly accident afloat. The Fe: is that no human is at home in the water. It has been proved many times over that only the very rare human can swim more than a few minutes in rough water. All it takes to transform a dry, com- fortable boat into one that’s soaking wet and wildly rolling is one medium-sized wave that could have been kicked up by a pass- ing powerboat, On deck or below (or while going be- tween one and the other), you can be tossed heavily by a wave, a roll, or a collision. So, fatable vest. wear good deck shoes with effective nonskid soles. Put nonskid tape on hatchesand other slippery surfaces. When moving around, be methodical, look down to check that you're not stepping off the boat, and keep a hand or leg on a rail or lifeline to brace yourself against the boat’s rolls and lurches, just as you would when riding in a bus or a train on a rough read. If you feel unsteady, move in a “boxer's stance,” in a crouch with your legs spread father than usual. If you aren't confident in your balance, wear a life jacket even while daysailing—especially if you're alone. WOODENBOAT PUE P.O. Box 78 (41 Woo ‘worw.GettingStartedinbloats.con 1-800-274-49. Subscribe to WoodenBout M: 2 + Crew Ovennoann BLICATIONS, INC. alloat Li.), Brooklin, ME 04616 + Tel. 207-359-4651 * www. Woodentloat.com and Canada) lagazine: 1-800-274-4936 — Lire Jackets AND Harnesses — Iwo crucial safety aids are available for sailors ‘on deck: the personal flotation device (PED) nd the safety harness. We need buoyancy to keep our heads clear of the water, so we can still breathe even if we're exhausted and hypothermic: In 60°F water, wearing a PFD will double your sur- vival time from three hours to six hours. Still it’s often difficult to get crews to wear PFDs, even in rough weather, A good skipper counters this ten dency by stressing that safety is not to be taken for granted. Just because the sea is calm and the wind is light right now doesn’t mean that the weather won't change in an hour. The skipper must set the exaanple. The best rule of thumb for wearing life jackets and safety harnesses is this: You must have a very good reason not to wear one. Buoyancy takes several forms. A wetsuit or a dry- suit will support a person in the water, as will a sur vival suit used by commercial mariners. Emergency gear such asa Lifesling (see page 7) and a horseshoe buoy will keep Someone afloat, as will a boat's eock- pit cushion, but not necessarily high enough to keep mouths well clear of the water. PFDs are described by their U.S. Coast Guard “type’’ the designations refer to whether they are non-inflatable or inflat- able, the weight they can support, their freeboard (the distance the wearer's face is above the water), and their heave period (the time it takes for a swi mer wearing one to bob up in choppy water with his or her airway clear). The illustrations on the op- posite page describe each type. ‘As a rule, about 8 Ibs of buoyancy is needed to keep one’s head just barely clear of salt water in calm conditions, Much more buoyancy is needed to keep a person's airway clear in choppy water. An injured, unconscious, hypothermic, or otherwise disabled victim may drown even when wearing a low-buoyan cy PFD. Life jackets with about 15.5 Ibs of buoyancy (like the typical Type I and TIL vests) may not be buoyant enough to float passive swimmers on their backs with their faces up if they can’t tread water. yyancy of 22 to 35 Ibs (for instance, in the USCG. ‘Type I or many inflatable life jackets) usually can support even an unconscious person’s face well clear of the water: Life jackets and safety harnesses should fit just tight enough so they don’t slip off, and thigh or erotch straps can be added to make slipping off impossible— though these additions negate Coast Guard approval The equipment must be stored where people can get at it quickly, and an occasional man-overboard drill Hamesses are meant to keep their wearers on the boat. The short tether should have a quick-release shackle on the body end. fi will determine that. The gear should be maintained ac- cording to the manufactur- e's recommendations, in- cluding occasional rinsing in fresh water. Inflatable PFDs i and Harnesses. Inflatable PFDs have two advantages: First, when not inflated, they are comfortable to wear and unobtrusive. And when inflated, many have as much buoyancy (35 Ibs) as the Type I “Mae West” life jacket. Smaller inflatables carried in a pouch on the belt have somewhat less buoyancy, Either can be inflated manually by pulling the trigger to the CO, cartridge, or orally by blowing into an inflation ibe. Many inflatables also inflate automatically, some when the cartridge trigger gets wet, and oth- ers when the trigger is submerged and water pres- sure reaches a predetermined level. If the automatic inflation doesn’t work, the PFD ean still be in- flated manually or orally. Many inflatables double as safety harnesses. A life jacket helps you when you're in the water. A safety harness hooked to the boat with a tether keeps you out of the water. The tether should be at least 6’long, with perhaps. slightly shorter second tether to allow you to hook on at two places. The hook on the teth- cer outer end should have a locking mechanism so it doesn’t open acciden under sails or gear. Inflatables must be maintained with care. Me- ticulously follow the manufacturer's instructions and warranties. Replace cartridges and automatic- trigger mechanisms at least annually. Inspect the mechanisms with care to make sure they move easily. Check for leaks by inflating the PFD orally and leav= ing it inflated for two days. Store PEDs in dry places with CO, cartridges removed. Have a backup set of cartridges on hand at home and in the boat, and if you're heading off to sail in another area, be pre- pared to ship them ahead since they often are not permitted on airplanes for security reasons, ‘Crew Overzoaro + 3 Crew OversoarD REscuE PRocEDURES he accident known variously as “man I overboard (MOB),”. “person-in-the- water,” or “erew overboard” (COB) presents one of the most demanding and ag- onizing challenges that any boater will face, whether she or he is in the water or onboard the boat attempting to make the rescue. The rescue breaks down into three parts: (1) Lo- cate the victim. (2) Make contact with the victim. (3) Recover the victim on deck. The steps are so clear that they can be covered in a checklist posted in the boat. In rough water and in limited visibility, locating the victim may be dif ficult because the head is obscured. A victim can. help by pulling on a bright-colored foul- ‘weather jacket hood, splashing the water, or making noise. Experienced sailors carry signal mirrors, lights, flares, or whistles. Strobe lights have the advantage of being visible from 360 degrees, but they are hard to spot from a short distance and usually aren't as bright asa light with a focused beam, a flare, or a laser flare. Ifyou must signal for help to get the attention of the people on the boat and alert them to your plight, do whatever you can to make yourself visible. Show yellow or orange, shine a light, or blow a whistle. Once you have your rescuers’ attention in a.general way, you have to direct them to your position by repeatedly sending the same signal. Don’t assume they’ye seen you—or have kept you in sight—afier only one whistle. 4 + Crew Ovensoan Step 1: Locate Most people who fall overboard are quickly rescued because the rescuers acted prompt- ly on a plan that they'd practiced, and they used their basic sailing skills. Prompt action is essential if you are to keep the victim in view. A boat making 6 knots travels 100! ev- ery minute. In waves, the victim ean quickly disappear from sight, Even in smooth water, the average human head—which has been described by one safety authority, Pat Clark, as having the shape, color, and buoyancy of a halé-submerged coconut—is nearly invisible Gee sidebar at left). Do the following almost simultancously: (1) Immediately assign a spotter whose sole job is to point at (and shout encouragement to) the victim, meanwhile reporting distance; the spotter should stand in the field of vision of the helmsman. (2) Someone else should hit the MOB (man-overboard) button on the GPS; this records the present position as a waypoint, which you can then steer back to. (3) Turn the boat upwind or even 180 degrees so you stay as close to the victim as you can. If the victim isn’t wearing a PFD, toss one overboard. If there’s no PFD handy, then toss overboard a seat cushion, life ring, or Lifesling—or anything and everything that floats. If the victim is wearing an adequate PFD and hypothermia sets in and the person becomes unconscious, the head and mouth will still be clear of the water. The victim will be more visible if near a tall buoyant object, such as a fiberglass man-overboard pole or Man Overboard Module (MOM)—an inflat- able pylon with a light on top and an inflat- able life ring attached by a pendant. Some MOMs have an inflatable life raft that can be hoisted aboard by a halyard or tackle. Stored in a box on the after pulpit, when triggered the MOM drops into the water and its com- ponents are inflated automatically by CO, cartridges. The standard rescue of acrew overboard includes ‘these steps: 1) The person falls overboard: 2) The GPS's MOB button is activated to record the position, a spotters assigned. and the boat begins to ‘tum: 3) the jbis backwinded and the main fattened to aid ‘the boat in turning, and the spotter never loses visual contact: with the victim: 4), 5),and 6) the boat completes the turn and jibes: 7) ‘the jib is struck; 8) the boat is turned ‘vo windward, the main stuffed, and a line is thrown to the victim, who is recovered by one of several means. Finding may be sped up if the victim is wearing a personal locator beacon (PLB) or other electronic monitor. ‘Triggered auto- matically or manually, these devices may set off an alarm in the boat, send information to the boat so it can home in on the victim in the water, or send a signal to an overhead satellite that relays necessary information to the boat or a rescue service Srep 2: Make Contact Because even expert swimmers wearing clothes cannot swim more than a short distance without becoming dangerously fatigued, you must not count on the victim to swim even a short distance to the boat. The boat must come close to the victim. ‘The approach can be made either un- der sail or under power, though of course a turning propeller must be kept well clear of the victim and any lines that are in the water. Under sail, the approach should be made on a close reach, which allows you to slow down quickly by heading up or eas- ing sheets. Approach at a speed of no more than 2-3 knots, upwind of the victim so that the victim can be clearly seen and the boat doesn’t drift away. Any faster, and the victim won't be able to hold onto the boat ora line. ‘The first temptation is to bring the boat ? Caew Ovennoaro+ 5 Overs The elevator-lift method of recovery is detailed in this drawing: A line Is secured to.a quarter cleat, led forward to a turning block, then aft to a winch. The victim, standing on the line, is hoisted From the water directly alongside the victim a few feet away. That approach, however, poses two risks. First, you may sail or drift directly down onto the victim. Second, you may well be so close that the vietim will be screened from the steerer by the deck. Rather than taking the boat all the way to the victim, stop sev- eral yards upwind, toss a line, then pull the victim to the boat. Any line will do, but the one that can be accurately tossed the longest distance is the modern throw rope, sometimes called “throw bag” or “sock.” It’s a small bag into which a 50'-75' length of buoyant polypro- pylene line is flaked (packed without kink- ing). When the bag is tossed with a fluid underhand throw, the weight of the line carries it toward the target, 30’ or more away. If the bag misses, it can be reused after repacking the line or, more quickly, filling it with water to provide weight. The throw rope is so handy for rescues and oth- er purposes, such as use as a messenger to get a docking line ashore, that many boats Keep one handy in the cockpit. 6 + Carw Ovensoann Step 3: THE RECOVERY This often is the most difficult part of the rescue. Once the victim is alongside the boat, you have to get him or her on deck. Just 2’ of freeboard can seem like Mount Everest to a fatigued swimmer in the water and a crew on deck. A ladder on the stern or side might work, though the boat may be pitching or rolling so much that the victim can’t climb or stay on it, A rope ladder is a good idea in principle, but once the victim’s feet are on the bottom rung, the legs swing under the boat, leaving the arms to do all the work, Not many people are that strong. Be prepared to improvise. In one recov- ery system, called the “elevator method,” a line is draped over the side from the bow to the stern, with one end secured to the boat and the other end led toa winch, The victim stands or sits on the line and is winched up. This requires some agility and, usually, a per son on deck to support the victim, Another improvised method is to lay cushions on the deck and over the rail to be used asa slippery slide for the victim being dragged aboard, The Lifesling is a prepackaged flotation device that enables rescuers to make contact with a person inthe water, and haul him or her back aboard, as detailed here, The basic Lifesiing rescue is shown in ‘the drawing below. It includes these steps: 1) the Victim goes overboard: 2) a spotter is assigned, the GPS MOB button is activated, the boat begins to turn, and the Lifesiing is thrown: 3-7) the boat's sailed through the tum, and the Lifesling dragged to the victim: 8) when contact is made, the boat ls headed into the wind, the sails doused and the victim recovered as in tthe drawing at right. If you're unable to get the victim on deck, secure him or heralongside the boat with the face well clear of the water. Then get on VHF Channel 16 and send out a Mayday, saying, “My crew member is over the side and in the water” Announce where you are and how to identify your boat. The Lifesling System After nearly three decades of experience, including very many rescues, the Lifesling’s success and versatility are well proven. The system consists of a life ring at the end of a buoyant line secured to the stern, and it’s deployed from the boat and dragged astern into the victim’s hands. The ring is then worn by the vietim, and it doubles as a lifting sling when pulled to the boat and hoisted on deck by a halyard. ‘The Lifesling, therefore, addresses three important needs. It provides buoyancy for the victim, a secure link between the victim and the boat, and a reliable hoisting meth- ‘od. Once the victim is in the sling, he or she is safe, floating with head clear of the water, and attached to the boat with the line. The rescuer can take all the time necessary to stop the boat, douse the sails, and pull the vietim to the ing makes better rescu- ers: Accident stories show that even when the Lifesling itself docs not make the res- cue, the odds are still strong that if there's one on the scene, and a crew trained in its use, the victim will be recovered alive. The basic Lifesling rescue is shown in the illus- tration above. Crew Overpoaro + 7 £ INsTINcT WINING RESPONSE fer a short while, a victim who can't con- sistently keep his or her mouth above wa- ter will settle into the Instinctive Drowning Response (IDR). The most important IDR symptom is that drown- ing people don’t appear to be drowning. Because they can't breathe as their mouths rise and fall, they can't speak or call for help. As the man who identified IDR, Francesco A. Pia, observes, “Breathing must be fulfilled before speech occurs.” And because they lose voluntary control of their arms, instinctively thrust ing them out to the side to try to push themselves up, victims can’t wave for help or reach for lines, flotation, or a rescuer’s hand. The dilemma is that the person who appears to not need help actually needs it the most and quickest. Victims may be unconscious due to hypothermia, a head injury, or a phenomenon called the “gasp reflex,” in which they inhale * cold water and go into shock or, per- haps, suffer a heart attack. They will stay afloat if they are wearing suitable buoyancy, but they still may inhale water and drown unless some- one gets to them quickly. All this creates a strong ar- gument for wearing flotation—the more the better, because Type III life vests and Type II life jackets (both of which have less than 20 Ibs of flotation) may float an unconscious victim face-down, 2 John. Rousmaniere is the author of numerous hooks on sailing, seamanship, and yachting history, and has contributed numerous articles to WoodenBoat. His Annapolis Book of Seamanship, 4th Edition, from which this article is adapted, is to be published in the fall of 2012. @ + Crew Ovennoann A NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC TRAVELER SELECTION FREE E-Newsletter! “Mété is the leading sailing adventure writer of our tim —Carl Cramer, WoodenBoat 1. Go to woodenboat.com “Gut-wrenching action. The best ‘Tahiti’ novel Mutiny on the Bounty.” —Adventure Tl “A thrilling page-turner. A gripping search in a violent world of revolution in the 1920s,” —John Rousmaniere 2.Click 9 r= = = =~ =~ ~~ ~~~ ----- 1 Email albotrossewwnorton.com to order an autographed Stay in touch 1 copy of Sea of Lost Dreams ($24.95 loth) and receive « 3 | FREE hardcover copy of Ghost Sea, fist in the Dugger/Nello with ALL we do! | series. Check out amazon.com for eBook and more info. 33 a eae im - : GREE The Solution— 22 GETTING STARTED IN Boats, a removable supplement included in every issuc of WoodenBoat, This publication is produced for the absolute beginner; for your family, friends, and neighbors, members of local ‘community groups, colleagues at work— the people you know who should be {inspired into boats and boating. Share your pasion! November/December 2011 © 17 GURRDN, Pard’s Avalon Boat Stand. In the 1930s, Joe's RencA-Boat purchased Avalon Boat Stand, adding the wherries to his leet. Pard continued to build boats into the 1930s, selling some (© Al Bombard, who passed one ‘on to his son, Doug, litera cofounder of Catalina Express. He took his wherry to ‘Two Harbors, where a half-mile isthmus separated Catalina Harborand Isthmus re, where he became the director of what is today Two Harbors Enterprises. ‘One of his longtime employees, Ty Ewing, fell in love with the wherry, and Doug tured it over to him. Ty often rowed from the Isthmus Cove to the west end and. George Griffith of the Los Yacht Club took note of the wherry on one of these rows and thought of a fiberglass version, He bought one of the last wooden wherries from Joe's Rent-A-Boat and went on to prodiice 120 fiberglass wherries, now Known as Griffith Catalina wherries Later, Doug Bombard’s son, Randy working with Rick Ruppert and Lee Northrup, produced another fiberglass version, the Catalina Island Wherry, many of which are still active, and some of which have been seen as far away as New Zealand, “Earlyin 2010, Larry Drake purchased f the last'two wooden wherries, baile between 1920 and 1927, from Jay Guion of Joe's RentA-Boat and took it to Oregon to rebuild it. Shortly after ward, Doug Bombard, Rudy Piltch, and Jim and Sherry Dittmar formed the ‘Catalina Wherry Association to pm chase the last of the wooden wherriesin California. All wherry owners with long- time associations with Catalina, they plan to restore wherry No. 91 with a goal of permanent display’ at institution. The boatisat Marins in Long Bene! the 56” traditional Norse eraft being built by F Jay Smith at Aspoya Boats Anacortes, Washington, neglected to nention that the boat will be owned and operated by a nonprofit corpora tion called WILD Expeditions (www wildexpeditions.org; 360-774-6888), The founder is Geoff Briggs of Port Townsend, Washington, and fundraise ing for the project. continues, ‘0€ Youcha, who has be ally successful in developing boat building programs for disadvantaged youths at the Alexandria Seaport Foundation (ASF) for about 20 years (see WB No. 119), is starting to find success in his latest venture, Build- ing to Teach. Youchs has stepped out of his role as the executive director ‘of the foundation to head up this new ASF outreach program, which is intended to spread the ASF tech- jues far and wide. He wrote in carly September to let us know that fa startup grant from the Office of Naval Research has given the pro- gram a significant push down the launching ways. “I'm not yet sure of the final amount, but the first invest- ment of $80,000 is at least enough to get us started toward our goal of training enough nonprofit groups and industry partners to serve 4,500 Kids over the next three years,” he said. That would invoke about 50 nonprofits, using hands-on be building to tea technol. ‘ogy, engineering, and math concepts to fourth- through twelfth-graders The objective, as Youcha puts it, is nothing less than “to change how math gets taught in this country” Youcha's gifl for gentle persistence The Cure for the Common Career: Craftsmanship. Become a professiond wooden boat craftsperson with career traning trom The Landing School. iy a 18 © Woodenttoat 225, BETAMARINE ip stk charg Pomp Fic le Rew Wat Purp ibe Ol iter us UR Pup Model Shown Bots 38 SMOOTHER...QUIETER ‘Our engines idle smoother and quieter ‘because of our high inertia fywhee!, This is one of the many Beta Marine ‘exclusive features that make our diesel engines easier to live with, Engineered to be serviced easily + Beta Marine Superb Propulsion Engines using Kubota Diesel ‘+ From 10 ~ 150 HP including our famous Atomic 4 replacements, Also avaliable: Marine generators up to SOKW BETAMARINE (7) 227-2473 Phone 252) 2492473 wyrmbetamarinene.com ‘e-mail: info@ betamarinene.com PO, Box swap, NC 28810 are in use, including DARLING of 1907, rescued from decades of neglect (inset isa force of nature, and over the years he has become ever more skillful in the hard wsks of drawing publicity and pursuing fundraising in the cause of good works, He could easily have rested on the laurels of his success at ASF; it takes considerable courage set off on a completely new venture. A raise of the pint to him, if you please, and pass the hat for Building to Teach Alexandria Seaport Foundation, P.O. Box 25036, Alexandria, VA 22313; 703-549- 7078; wow alesandriaseaportorg fktors Si ble corre- spondent from Latvia, tells us of a fleet of fantail launches being used for excursions on the Daugava River and also along the city of Riga's canal, part ‘of an old moat system, which in recent years has been opened to small-craft affic. One of the boats, DARLING, 40 LOA with a beam of 7'6%, is a Germ; built 1907 canal boat, originally co Lutheran pastor in Sweden. Tom Stocklassa found her: e neglected for some 40 years after a 1950s-era res- toration attempt came to naught. He took on the restoration, retaining as ‘much original material as possible, The ‘original Bene engine was gone, so in its place a Nanni four-cylinder, 54-hp diesel takes the boat toa maximum speed of 12 knots, The most recent boat in the Ri Taunched in 2010, is a wooden strip-built launch based on a Selway Fisher hull. The new boat is powered by a Torqeeda electric motor. The other two boats are ‘glass hhulled latunches by Eleo Motor Yachts, imported from the United States, along with their electric drives, and finished ee ee (For teak and other boating woods. Cerne ar ee are ae ge ee Sea ee CU Omer UL SU SC UNIS RS Cee RCI Pine ec 1m - www.owatrol.com November/December 2011 © 19 ‘the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Maritime Museum in Madisonville, off in Rigs by Kan: www kmk.Iv/eng, i are operated | begin work on a form of local boat 1u Kompanija; see | construction that dates back to the 1800s," Jacqueline Cochran writes from, Madisonville, Louisiana, "Bob Doolit He, the manager of the museum's ongo- ing wooden boatbuilding course, says the style is called ‘freeform’ because it GOT {ith sheets of suude plywood sca bent around a series of molds 10, orm the initial shape. These pancls are attached with epoxy and stainless-steel ring-shank nails to a tapered cypress stem, then likewise glued and nailed at the stern to a 5 wide plywood transom, “As horizontal floor timbers are added in, the independently standing ¢ removed. Frames next, and like the ¢ de of Spanish ced “With the help of fellow students, the 18" hull, with its bottom still open, is tured upside-down. A plywood bottom panel, scarfjoined from two sheets to ed in one piece, closes in the hull e 100 boats constructed at the museum since 2002, 80 have been remosed from the site for completion at home, and 30 have been completed at the museum, some toa yachtlike finish “Doolittle said most students have “Git’-Rot® Works best without removing dry rotted fibers Can be sanded, nailed, drilled & painted Prevents spread of dry-rot causing microorganisms Perfect for use in transoms, cabin tops, joints, studs, beams & sills Proven in the marine industry for over 40 years 800.382.9706 info@boatlife.com www.boatlife.com a= IDE NUSA Celebrating 35 years of making the highest quality performance sails Specializing in custom design and detailed finish work s 508.748.2581 swesperrysails.com 1 Marconi Lane, Marion, MA 02738 20 + Woodentto Title t© no experi 4 boat, when. begin class. Ryan) Eady, who drives 40 miles from New Orleans to take the wvice-aweek eve: ning class, readily admits his own lack e with building Stave Houle of Minnesota built this "swing ferry a type of cableerry powered by river curent, one-sixth the length of the original turn-of-the-20th-century boat, but it's still large enough to function so that riders can appreciate the histone type of knowledge when started. “I learned | culture and part of that is the tradition itall here,” he said. “How to use all the | of boatbuilding,” said Don Lynch, exec- different tools—everything. tative director. “The freeform style has “The goal of the museum is to main- | long been used throughout south Loui tain the Uniqueness of south Louisiana | siana,” one example being the Creole skiff, which was typically built of 15! 10 16 lengths of cypress. ‘Greatly responsible for passing on the technique. was boat c 20th century Maritime. Museum, disonville, LA. 7047; Iphmm.org. carly during Pontchartrain 133 Mabel Dr 985-845-9200; ws ceQWearwater, Minnesota, depended on a swing ferry, the largest of its kind on the upper Missisippi, to take people across the Jean Paschke verites from her 1856 to 1930, when the gain from huh ferry yore nny carer eer) een rave Bette at Castor 9 Willow Street, Hull, MA 02045 Ph: 781-925-3312’ Fas: 781-925-8984 Rieu ease een ect eed TURN YOUR PA: INTO A PROFESSION Dae eed ert is Pee eee in the indus November/December 2011 ® 21 a dedicated committee, and a carpenter named Steve Houle, using what he calls ‘a carpenter's common sense.” It was completed in 2007, At more than 60) Jong, the original ferry was big enough to transport army wagons and thei horses, Houle’s one-sisth-size replica can be carried on a truck so that it can de shown in parades, civie celebrations, and asan operative display that people can ride. “The planning took yearsand years,” Houle says. ‘When we finally decided 10 go ahead and build it, the actual con- struction took a couple of months of weekends’ With no precedent, all kinds of recommendations came in regarding. size, and one even suggested having & pontoon boat disguised as a ferry. But study of the remains of the last ferry, mired on the riverbank, provided bet- ter ideas. ‘We studied it and took mea surements, and we have quite a bit of information here in Clearwater about HAMILTON MARINE Did © |----laae (fT FRU Captain's Varnish Regs $2§99 List4551 Quart Order 137765 Schooner Gold Varnish Xintertux. $3798 Ordert 733329 Quart list 49.37 ‘More than 10 times the UW resistance 100 times the abrasion resistance of regulr vanish o singe par coatings. $509 Quart Kit List 61.15 CTH BF Order# 138113 Paste Varnish 4 ele modes pehurthane vari ‘tates ich patio and prondes 9 truehand ied fish tt protects against heat water End alcohol. Dries qui, ideal tor al wood Order# 170826 Quart EPIFANES Premium Varnish Extemely high solids content and apertect balance of UY inhibitors 1000 mi 777 tem et Type. Order SELL Cea ____ 199982 27.99 \Woodfinish (No Send) 110044 37.99 Le Tonkinois Varnish A natural, erviron- ‘mentally friendly tung oil & linseed oi based varnish oil. Produces a fic, deep finish, very strong & durable. Type Original Gloss ord raso0n 34% 168366 litre List 39.99 Deks Olje “= Naturally protects make and maintains ‘wood, Fast and easy application Type Sie Order# SELL Satin#1 1 Lite 114184 26.99. Satin#l 255 Lite 114183 60.99 Gloss#2 Vive 114186 29.49 Gloss#2 25 litte 114185 66.99 Typographical errors are unintentional and subject to correction. 22 + Woodentoat 225 it. Ie was the size of a building. We had oscale it down. Finally we decided, We don't know how to do this, but we're going to do it anyway Houle built the framing of cedar and the decking of fir. ‘The result isa ferry that can navigate any body of water that has a strong and consistent current. The ferry's angle to the current forces the boat across the iver; the original ran on a I"-diameter cable 600° long that had to be lowered when a steamboat came by. Reverse the Angle, and the boat returns. An adjust- able leeboard that is peculiar to swing ferries helps to harness the current’s power, There is no keel and no rudder. “You need a good, snappy current out it being so wild that the bout is going to be dashed against rocks. Houle says. Houle, the author of Ferries in Minnesota, found the whole project to he a good experience. It was more fun than T realized it would be, he sas.” arch 1, 2012, is the deadline 10 apply for a total of $2,000 in grants offered by the Ed Monk Memo- jal Award Fund administered by The Genter for Wooden Boats in Seattle, Washington. “The mission of the award is to further maritime professionals’ knowledge of traditional marine trades in other cultures,” according (o a press release, Applicants can be from any region, interested in researching tech- niques from beyond their area. “Study and research may inelude eurrent and historical methods of boat construc- tion using different materials, designs based on the functions to be served by the boats, materials available for con- struction, and the state of technology.” Grantswill be awarded by April 1, 2012, John M. Goodfellow, a CWB supporter and an advocate of preserving al maritime skills, established the fund to encourage the study of tradi- jonal skills. WoodenBoat Publications has supplemented the fund. For further information, contact Dick Wagner, The Genter for Wooden Boats, 1010 Valley St, Seattle, WA 98109; 206-882-2628; worwewb.org. Across the bar John Fly Marsland, 104, February 5, 2011, Easton, Maryland. Mr. Marstand was a chemist by profession, but as a young man in graduate school at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the early 1930s, he became hooked fon sailing, He owned a succession of boats during his 30-year career with ll Oil Company, starting with the 21 Bear Boat FROLIC, which still sails ‘out of Sausalito, California. In 1950 he US55 WINNING BEAUTIFULLY The beautifully restored 6-Metre Lucie won both the Rule 2 and the Baum & K6nig Trophies at the 2011 6-Metre World Cup in Helsin! Big or small, marconi or gaff, old or modern, if it's wood, it goes better with Doyle sails. For beautiful modern sails that complement your wooden boat, contact your local Doyle loft doylesails.com. BETTER ENGINEERED SAILS DOYLE doylesails.com 800-94-DOYLE STRINGS moved to Connecticut, where he sailed first the 38" yawl VALKYRIE and later the 36 sloop GOLDEN VANITY. After retir- ing to Chesapeake Bay in 1963, he com- missioned Robinhood (Maine) Marine to build the 42" schooner ACTIVE, a Murray Peterson Coaster If design mod- ified to suit the shoal waters of Chesa- peake Bayand the Caribbean, He sailed ACTIVE. across the Atlantic Ocean in the early 1970s and wrote about the experience for WI No. 7, followed by ¥ Agroed Value 1 Fast Claim Service V Tailored Coverage Highest Potttion ‘Coverage Best Towing ‘Coveraize 1 Liveaboard Coverage RACE 2 Ditehbum 3 Albere 3 Dodge 2 Alden 2 Diunphy 2 Angelman 2 Egg Harbor 2 C Archer Ee 2 Aristocrat 3 Ele 2 Atkin MeGinnes 2 Bartour 2 Faitiner 2 Beate 3 Fay & Bowen 2 Benford > Feaship 2 Besotes 2 Fife 2 Blanchand 2 Fish Bros. 2 Brewer 2 Gamage 2 Brownell 3 Ganden WS. Burgess | Gardener 3 W. 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Memorial contributions may be made to Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. 1 Stephen Leroy Davis, 64, June 24 2011, Williston, South Carolina. A sea ¥ Low Premiums 1 Best Customer Service 1 Best Salvage Coverage 1 Highest Medical Pay Highest Personal 1 No Depreciation on new canvas, upholstery cor als for 8 years SCR. Hunt 2 Prowler 3 Hutchison 1B Rhodes ames Crt 2 Rice Bros {3 Hubert Jonson | Richardson Merit Riva 2 Morton Johnson | Robb 2 Kettnturs 2 Rybovith 3 Kson Sea Sled Lvtey| 2 Shepherd 2 Laders 2 Shock 2 Lats 2 Shit Cat Lake 2 Slikerft 3 Lyman asses 23 Mackay 3 Std 2 Mackewie 2 Stanley Mason, 2 Stephens 3 Matthews 18 Sweisguth Minnet Monk 3 Thompson 3 Moody “x Tolyera or Mone 2 Tipp 2 Murphy 3 Trojan 2 Nevins 2 Trumpy 3A. Nicken 2% Ulichsen Old Town 2 San Dam 2 Olsen 2 Viking Omen 2 Wageraker 2 Omens 2 Wale 2 Pacemaker Warner 2 Pine 2 Watson 2 Pembroke 3 Wheeler 3 Penbo 2 Whitwind 3 Penn Yan 2 Withole 2 Peterson 2 EWillams 2 Post “Wolverine 2 Peter 2 Yello Jacket srineinsurance.com 1.800.959.3047 sonal resident of Port Townsend, Washington, for much of his Davis was an architect in his native Kaho before turning to a second career as a commercial artist spe- ializing in marine illustration, He wrote from Port Townsend in’ the 1980s on several subjects for Wooden- Boat, including his own boat, a John Atkin-designed double-ender ROBIN (exSYLTU) in WB No. 12, and boa builder Bob Lange, profiled in WB. No, 68. Among his drawings was a cutaway view of the cold-molded racing yacht AIRFORCE published in WB No, 68 and a “Parts of a Ru about” series published in WB No. 77. In 2010, he left Port Townsend and Nampa, Idaho, for South Carolina to live closer to his daughter. Paul Robert (Sugar) Lindwall, 87, July 9, 2011, Santa Barbara, Califor: nia. Asa youth, Mr. Lindwall moved. with his family to Santa Barbara from Astoria, Oregon, and he early began Working with his father, Charles, on building and repairing boats. During World War II, he served with the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, primarily build ing and repairing landing craft. Upon returning to California after the war, he joined his father in starting Lind wall Boatworks, At first, they built commercial fishing boats, During the 1960s, the success of their fish boat designs inspired the construction of 10 large trawleryachts and ocean cruisers, among them the recently restored ANGELINA (ee Currents, WB No. 178) Paul. Reagan, 75, August 25,2011, Orono, Maine. In 1978, after working as a credit manager for Massach setts jewelry companies, Mr. Reagan, together with his wife, Helen, pur- chased Shaw & Tenney, Inc. tufaeturer of paddles and oars. in ‘Orono, Maine (sce WB No. 193).Shaw & Tenney had been in operation since the mid-1800s but was principally a wholesaler at the time. Mr. Reagan, however, successfully transitioned the company into a modern retailer fof spruce and ash oars and canoe paddles of the highest quality. He Wasa regular vendor—and good con pany—at sch venues as the Maine Boatbuilders Show and The Woode: Boat Show. Over the years, he broad- cened the company’s catalog not only with a wider variety of oars and idles Init also with specialty items for small craft, In 2003, he retired, selling the company to Steve Holtand, his wife, Naney Forster-Holt (see www. shawandiennes.com), ae, Since 1790 the hhlf-hull has been used to study hull design of form. “Today it has become 4 possession to be cherished a lifetime, For further decals please vist our web site PP ren the artistry becomes the mastery Half-Hull Classics 924 15h NW Seattle, WA 98117 (206) 789-3713 swoweehalfhllcom SILICON BRONZE C.D.A. Alloy 655 |SHEET& PLATE, ROUND ROD TSQUARE ROD. ROUND TUBING SweLoINGROD [FLAT BAR SQUARE TUBING EXCELLENT FOR BOAT REPAIR, KEEL FRAMES, RIBS, AND CHAIN PLATES Fabrication Properties Rating Corrosion Resistance Excallnt Capacity for boing cold worked Excolent Capacity for being hot formed Excelent ‘Suitability for being joined by: Brazing Excellent Oxyacetylene welding Good Gas shioided arc welding Excollont Resistance welding Excollont Hot forgeabiity rating 40 ATLAS METAL SALES 13900 W 12th Ave, + Denver, Colorado 80204 SB 000882-0149- 309-029-0149 I Fax: 1-305-623-0034 vns@atlasmetalcom ‘wovwatlasmetal.com Mai Laminated Sitka Spruce Oars straight or spoon blade {for frther information www.barkleysoundoar.com tel 250-752-115 toll free 877-752-5156 3073 Van Horne Road Qualicum Beach, BC ‘Canada VOK 1X3 oe tees ee ol eee CWB Gift Certificates make great Holiday Gifts! Gi Censfcates can be applied toward ‘ur anorchvinning workshaps and sling lessons n Seattle o at Cama Beach State Patk They can ais be used for merchandise, boat ental and move! PURCHASE BY PHONE: 206-382-2628 a The Center for WOODEN BOATS wwwrn.civs. ORG | 206 382.2628 November/December 2011 © 25 “S| REACH US ‘TO ORDER FROM OUR STORE: To order back sacs, hooks, plans, modet it, clothing Friday 8:0 an, 600 pm, EST (Saturdays, 9:0 pam FS) ' 1-800.273-SHIP (7447) (US. & CANADA) 207-358-4647 (Overseas) 2.Hlowr FAX 207.350.2058 Interset:hp://weswoodenboatstore.com Ema: wbstore@woodenboatcom ON-LINE SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES: Taternet tpe//wwn woodesboato Atganmocdenboat.com fll the link to Woodenflat Sub sexiptons to onder, ge a gi, renew, change mcr, or check Sour subscription satus (payment, expiration dae), TO ORDER A SUBSCRIPTION: To onder asubseripion (new, renal i ell Tore, Monvay thro Fray 50 an 0 5:00 psn, PT 18008775984 (US, and Canas 1818-487 2081 (Overseas) Internet itp /wweewoodenboat.om TO CALL ABOUT YOUR SUBSCRIPTION: Tyo have a question aout your subscription, am adres change, oF a missing or damaged ite call TolFree, Monday through Friday. 500 ta. c0 300 pam, PI 1800877-5284 (U.S. & CANADA) 818-487-2084 (Overseas) ‘TO CHANGE YOUR ADDRESS: Either call 1-800-977-5284 or write wo our subscription depart ‘ent (address helow) AS SOON AS YOU KNOW YOUR NEW ADDRESS, Please don't depend on your post fice to uot tt Pleae ge us your di aida a wel your new when Jou ‘oily and the date your new alse bevomes elective ‘TO CALL OUR EDITORIAL, ADVERTISING, AND BOAT SCHOOL OFFICES: Monday through Thursday, 800 am. 207-3594651; FAX 207-359-8920 for anything else: Subscription Dept. PO. Box 78 41 Wooden Lane OVERSEAS SUBSCRIPTION OFFICES: Australia and New Zesland oe ‘st Grown Nes 2065 NSW te Bam Figs (08) 180 8517 «Ena boatbooK@touthooksanstcom a Website: wrboathonkeaustccm.a Burope etna Eyecam bv erm Posto 1 tye EUR Gus (ZH Oucega (Sm) 2h EUR TAO GHP: The Netherlands Swe HURIO;0 CH Telephone: (0) 512 871990 Enna Wiieevccoma WoodenBoat Statement required by the Act of August 12, 1970, Section ‘3685, Tite 39, United States Code. Showing the ownership, ‘management, and circulation: ondenBoaris published bimonthly in January. March, May: July September, and November at 41 WoodenBoat Lane Brooklin, Maine 04616, Number of issues published annually sx. Annual subscription price: $52.00, The general business offices ofthe Publisher fre located at 41 WoodenBiot Lane, Brooklin, Maine 01016 The names and addtesses ofthe Publisher and Editor are Publisher, Carl Cramer, RO. Box 75, Brooklin, ME O4610: Ealior, Mathew P Murphy, RO. Box 78, Brooklin, ME OAG16. ‘The owner ks WoosdenBoat Publications, Incorporated, PO. Box 78, Brooklin, ME O4B16. The names ad addcesses fof stock holders holding 1% oF more of the total amount of Mock are: Jonathan A. Wilson, 2.0. Box 78, Brooklin, ME 4616, The known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security hokders owning or holding 1% or more of the total amount of bonds, mortgages, and other securities ae (Camden National Bank, Box 479, Elsworth, ME 04005 and Peoples United Bank, PO, Box $25, Bangor, ME 04402, ‘The average number of copies eae isute during the preceding 12 months ae A) Tonal number of copies printed 125.848 8) Paid circulation: 1) Sales dhrough dealers and carriers, street vendors, and counter sales os 2) Mail subseriptions: 35475 €) Total paid eicilaton: 7109 ) Free distribution by mail, earser or other meat sample, complimentary, and other free copies. ...2.615 ) Toul distribution: or F) Copies not distribute Office use, leftover, unaccounted, spoiled alter printing and returns from news agent: 56,119) ©) Tota: 125.843 The actual numberof copies for single ate nearest filing date are A) Total number of copies printed: B) Paid circulation: 1) Sales through dealers and carrer, street vendors, andl counter sles siz 2) Mail subscriptions saa82 6) Toul paid circulation en ) Free dlstribuion by nal, carver or other sample, complimentary, and other free copies. .. 2.817 ) Total distnibation: s.6n F) Copies not distribute: Office use, leftover, unaccounted, spoiled ater printing and returns from newsagents: 58,789) 6) Tota: 7.450 1 certify thatthe above statements made by me are correct and complete art Cramer, Publisher WoordenBoat Publications, Ine 26 + Woodentoat THE APPRENTICE’S WORKBENCH pe How to Fit Rails and Risers by Greg Rossel Ilustrations by Sam Manning fier a small boa planked, it’s time is framed and (0 fit and in- ke pieces— of these has its own idiosyncrasies, Let’s start with the risers, Risers Your thwarts are going to have to land on something—either a short leat or a long riser. The riser is the fore-and-aft piece that generally fol- lows the curve of the sheer. While some risers are narrow enough to be sprung into place, more likely they will have a crescentlike curva- ture similar to a narrow plank and will have to be spiled and sawn to their correct shape, Because the ser must follow the curvature of the hull, it will likely have to be installed with its curve running downward, opposite to the upward curve of the sheer. Begin by leveling the boat hwartships. The location of the r may be given on the plans— measured vertically down from the sheer. Then again, it may not be, in which case you will need to measure it directly from the blueprint with a e rule ‘One way to do this is to place a long spirit level athwartships so it rests on both the port and star- board sheers, and is perpendicular to the centerline of the boat. Ride a combination square on the top edge of the level and extend the ru er blade of the square to the desired distance below the bottom edge of the level. Slide the body along the level until the corner of the ruler touches a frame. Mark that frame and then mark the aining frames in the same way both the port and. starboard les. Spring and fasten a long flex- ible batten through the marks to check and adjust the fairness of the generated line accordingly, Lecation cf iser measured downward from the guewae with cambinctionsquareset ta dstatce wanted Use a straightedge and combination square to mark the riser’s location of risers, and locate thom symmetrically in the hull, ensuring the thwarts will lig level across them. If the riser is to be of uniform ‘h along its run, you will only have to spile one edge to get its shape (see WB No. 176). The other edge can be drawn parallel to the first. If itis tapered for appearance, oth edges must be established on the riser pattern, ‘A good choice of material for your spiling batten is inexpensive plywood—either 44" or 4". To avoid edge-setting, join up the stock for the spiling batten in place in the boat—tacking the separate pieces to the frames just below the draw line, Then glue or staple the separate pieces together with gus- sets, using enough serews in the gusset to ensure the pieces do not pivot relative to each other once re- leased from the frames. Mark the ington ade ‘oti pod stnpoguseted tomprand chadtofranee Spiing batten id fat pling ve transfered tapatamstack “wo ses laid out from ‘ann pattern ont planed nood frame locations onto the batten; then, from the riser line marked on each frame, swing a series of pencil compass ares onto the spiling bat- ten (sce sidebar, following page). Remove the spiling batten and transfer the curved shape onto a piece of softwood to make the top edge of the pattern. Lay out the low- er edge, either parallel or tapered, then cut to the marked lines, After fashioning the riser pat tem, it can be sprung into the boat, and fit to the lines on the frames. If it looks good, use the pattern to lay ‘ou two risers on your planed stock, making an effort to align the pat- tern to tak rage of curving grain, Cut out the risers with either a bandsaw or high-quality saber- saw. Then clamp them together ane November/December 2011 + 27 A Spiling Refresher piling is a technique that allows you to replicate the shape of a three dimensional curve onto flat building stock by recording re ence marks onto a pattern— called spiling batten tempo bent around the hull close to curve in question, Once marked, the batten is removed, tacked down flat to the building stock, and the reference marks transferred. ‘The original curve is then regener ated by connecting these reference long, stiff fairing bar ten. Draw the line with a peneil, and you've got the curve. While there are many techniques to transfer the line information and get the reference marks, perhaps the easiest is the one that utilizes a good-quality pencil compass. This method involves a technique from high-school geometry that you probably thought you would never use again: Use the pencil compass to swing an are from any given point on the hull to the spiling batten. marks with) ONT: eRe the en eee Wooden Boating Enthusiast eel Keep doing this at intervals until you've gone the entire length of the curved line you're trying to duplicate, Then, after the batten has been laid out flat on the stock (in this case, the seat riser pattern) from any two points on that drawn are, draw two more ares (don’tchange your compass settings) in the direc- tion of the original point. The two arcs will intersect at exactly the original starting point When spiling a seat riser, strike ies of ares from each marked »nto your spiling batten, La- bel the frame numbers on the bat ten to avoid confusion later. Tack your spiling batten to the pattern stock, then swing back all of those intersecting ares onto. the wood. Spring a flexible batten through the marks. Anchor it with nails set along the waste side of your curve, and draw the curve with a pencil. You've now replicated that curve on your stock, and are readly for the save —GR fr rcs vf VAPPRENTIC. ‘SHOP ree eee Tntroducing..The Apprentice 15 Doubleended days desigaed by Kevin Carey and but at ‘The Appremiceshop. Cedar on white oak lapstrake construction. Dynl deck with white oak tim. Sprace spars. simultaneously plane them to shape While it’ often possible to bend. in the risers cold, hea with either steam or with boili water poured over towels wrapped. their full length will make the job a whole lot easier. If you to steam-bend, apply steam for 4 hour for each 14” of thickness Bend and clamp the risers into place in the boat and let them cool. Fasten the first riser along its pre-ordained marks with screws Set the forwardmost end of the “opposite same distance from the stem as the first one. At the sé check with a spirit level that the second riser is level with the first so the thwarts will, in turn, lie evel athwartships. With that done, serew the second riser into place You are now ready for your thwarts (see WB No. 216), x them choose Inwales and Guardrails The inwales are the long, rectan- gular-sectioned, batten-like pieces ae Sas by Nat Wits. Sa Lauocked Jone 2011 ae my SEP 643 Main S: cre Peano PISA) 28 + Woodentloat 225 THE APPRENTICE’S WORKBENCH that run along the sheer of an un- decked boat on the inside faces of the frames, connecting the breast hook to the transom knees, or to the aft breasthook in the case of double enders. The guardr similar pieces, often halfro run on the outside of jem to stern at iched together sheerstrake, (guardrail and inwale), these pieces produce a structure similar to an arched truss bridge that makes for a rugged and strong shee 1 different philosophies ‘on fastening these pieces. Old-time construction called for fastening all together at the same time: counte boring the guardrail, then boring the long hole through all the four pieces of the “sandwich” at each frame and securing them with long rivets. Then the ends of the guard- rails in way of the breasthook and quarter knees were fastened with screws, producing a very strong structure. This method could be bit more difficult to repair if you had to replace a damaged guard rail, as the rivets holding everytl together would have to be replaced. Really long rivets can sometimes be hard to come by. An alternative fastening method is to rivet-fasten the inwale 10 the frames and sheerstrakes, and then to screw-fasten the guardrail to the planking only. This presumes a hardwood sheerstrake and might be a litle less rugged than the former method, but it's easier to repair Both ways work—it's your choic Stock selection is important. ‘Wood with continuous str will have a much better being installed without breaking than stock with defects, si knots, or short or convoluted gr Mahogany is quite prone to snap: ping at unfortunate times—such as when itis almost fastened in. So be prepared to limber up your stock with steam, Also, leave those frames extending a bit higher than the sheer, They can be immed later: Back Together (ce ae Cis Ue Meena ote Caeser Teen ing fast wet-out of fiberglass cloth Duce een to measure and mig and require no adcit Ce egal es eee eran moet rT lassic or resto en porizdn Is Ives that are easy eee eae nd.with ease after a Fitting the Inwales Generally, the ends of the inwales are fit into notches that are cut into the inboard edges of the breast- hooks and transom knees, Getting these notches cut right can be a bit icky. The inwale needs to transi- tion effortiesly from the frames onto, and into, them, A good way to verify the fit of these notches is to make up a short piece of stock that is the same crosssection as the inwale and long enough to extend past three orso frames. This can be easily sprung into the boat, so its fit can be fine-tuned. Ifa notch needs to be shaved or shimmed, this is the time to do it. Also, if you have the space, itis much easier o fit the inwale if its end butts against the breasthook or knee at a slight angle rather than cut sq Invales are easy to get too short. Start by measuring the rough length of the sheer along the frames from breasthook to quarter knee with a tape measure, Check twice, and cut the inwale several inches too long, Get your boat in the water and start enjoying it sooner Saas Ss es Sea ani Pern eet eee ea ee sere ane nnteeney Novemiber/December 2011 ¢ 29 HE APP ENTICE'S WORKBENCH Use short pieces of stock of the same, width and thickness as th to mark the angle of th Transfer this angle to the tend of the inwale first. Once that end fits satisfactorily, complete the inwale joint at the quarterkne jeasthook ‘The breasthook will have two notch: esat its aft end, one for each inwale, but you'll be fiting one inwale at a time, Capture the angle of one of the breasthook notches where the forward inwale butts up against it, and duplicate that angle fon the forward end of the inwale. Push that end snugly up against the breasthook, and clamp the rest of the inwale to the frames as far back as you can go. Because itis still long at this stage, it will be standing proud above the aft quarter kne At the breasthook, if the fit isn’t per fect, use a fine saw to saw through the joint between the end of the inwale and the breasthook. Then, loosen the clamps slightly and tap The Michigan School cof Boot Bulding & Maxine Technology Seize the Opportunity. Education programs built on 0 foundation of technical ond projet ‘management skils in Composite ‘Manufacturing, Marine Systems and Boat Preservation that offer you life changing career opportunites, wwwithemichiganschool.org For more inform tion about your carer rer and sain pe con 1 of daidlsacbarte tor cal 2601263, = Al =e "Slethear | ./ i : } 3) M4 ry Gen | Fs oad ‘ag tet emia ae 7 pmo ‘Sharyn rethought eine — oe cecal inion app thera a ether on Doth ots clone ah, on the after end of the inwale with tighten the clamps, eut again, and a wooden mallet to drive it forward repeat the tapping to close and close the gap newly created by Continue until the fit betwe the saw kerf. Is the fit tight? If not, _inwale and breasthook is tight. OP N@TCH FASTENERS The Highest Quality Fasteners» Many Years of Fastener Experience Top Notch will fill your fastener needs, whether it’s high corrosion, or just those hard to find items. cere ssn enteaaae nig Sey ARRON isascnar arte ccemtcrsemcamatetrs TRSRRER Sete cedar Meat si tee Vis 035 ees ae see 5 Navaho Ave, Suite 5, Mankato, MN 56001 Phone: 800 992-5151 Fax: 608 876-6337 Email: festenersotnfesteners.com «> Website: nfasteners.com Anne T. Converse WOOD, WIND AND WATER Photography A Stony oF tit Oreea House Cur Racr or Nantucket Photographs by Anne T. Converse Text by Carolyn M. Ford Live vicariously through the pictures and tales ‘of Classic Wooden Yacht owners who lovingly restore and race these gems ofthe sea 10"x 127 Hardbound limited edition 132 pages, 85 full page color photographs For more information contact: Anne T. Converse PAF 508-748-0638 ane@annetsonsere com ‘Neith, 1996, Cover photograph 30 + Woodenttoat 225 When the joint is tight, go to the aft end of the inwale at the quarter Knee and mark the spot where the inwale needs to be cut off to butt up against the notch in the knee. Then, to be on the safe side, add about 4" As you did at the breasthook, cap ture the angle on the knee and re- cord iton the inwale. Gut the inwale at that angle, and slightly long. ‘Check that the inwale is, in fact, a little too long. If itis, Tift its for: ward end out of the ‘breasthook notch, slightly loosen the clamps and insertitsafier end into the knee notch, and reclamp the inwale along. its length. This time the end of the inwale at the breasthook should be standing proud of the sheer. Saw through the joint at the knee, slight- ly loosen the clamps, and tap the forward end of the inwale with the mallet. The inwale will probably snap into the breasthook notch. If not, saw the aft end and tap again (and maybe again) until the inwale drops to fit against the breasthook perfectly. Then, after bedding the JINCKLEY CREWED CHARTERS Knowledge - Experience - Discretion Choose fistclass charter yacht, sail o¢ power, from our worldwide listings, andl get ready forthe best vacation youve ever fia, Rela and leave al the details 10 us—disriminating liens have counted on our for three decades Al. you bave to do is bave the time of your lifet inwale’s ends at the bow and stern, it is ready for fastening, Guardrails A welkmade guardrail not only provides protection, a sort of stem- to-stern bumper, but when well ex ‘ecuted, it can enhance and add a stylish verve to the sheer, To further enhance appearance, many build: cers will give them a slight taper thickness (andl sometimes in width) as they approach the stem and stern, This marries the dimensions, of the guardrail with the natural tapering of the planks in the ends of the boat, especially the bow. In- stallation is straightforward, as all you are doing here is basically wrap- ping, clamping, and fastening the unit into place It’s not unusual to have to plane ‘a small bevel onto the inner face of the forward-most part of the guard- rail where it changes from resting against the planking to resting on the side of the stem. It helps to cut a short sample piece on which to 0 Wood Teak Lumber True Contact Tha Hcy for a updated ling of or foie yc [New England « Caribbean - Mediterranean + Alasks Solid Teak Furniture THE APPRENTICE'S WORKBEN record the proper fit, then transfer that angle onto the guardrail itself. To accommodate the sometimes subtle convex surface of the sheer strakes (and provide space for bed ding compound), a slight hollow can be worked onto the inner face of the guardrails. “Don’t let it bind behind,” as the saying goes. With the guardrails fashioned and fit, it’s now time to fasten them. Clamp the pieces firmly in place and fasten from bow to stern with either rivets Finally, its time to wim off the frame ends. To protect the rails, cut a frame-sized hole into a piece ‘of cardboard and slide it down over the frame head toserveas protection. Saw off that excess frame and move to the next. With all the frames cut flush with the sheer; you ean finish the Jjob to perfection by smoothing and fairing all of the sheer components with a flexible sanding board. Gong Rist isa comaibuting editor for WoodenBost, DIAMOND TEAK Design Excellence Award Winner ‘The Best Waterproof Adhesives and Stainless Steel Hardware Teak from a Sustainable Source Custom Boat Parts Quartersawn Decking FEQ Grade, Kln-Dried Teak Planing, Edging, Sanding, Molding Services TOLL FREE 1.877.874.8325 OR 215.453.2195 800.504.2305 EEE 2072440122 oehinekleyyaht.com tina@hinekleyyacht.com 20. Box Six, 14 Shore Road, Southwest Harbor, Maine 04679 November/December 2011 81 WoodenBoat makes the perfect gift for those who share your passion for wooden boats ft (Nineteenth cise UNE isu eur eee a CUR an a ie RR Rne neta ea rces eee ale and history of wooden boats. $32.00 for the first one-year $25.00 for each additonal one-year subscription or renewal In Canada, add $5 US funds. Overseas, add $13.00 US funds drawn on a US bank. Order by Fax: (207) 359-8920 Order by Phone: (800) (818) 48° subscription, WoodenBoat magazine is also available in digital format. 84 US & Canada, Visit for more information. 2084 Rest of World Holi lay Gift Order Form Giez22 my sugscnprion GIFT OnE, Girt Two RENEW [1] NEW SUBSCRIPTION NEW SUBSCRIPTION [RENEWAL [1 NEW SUBSCRIPTION 1] RENEWAL by Bruce Halabisky Ilustration by Jan Adkins t two in the morning in April 2005, VIXEN, my reefed main and staysail, I had spotted a flash from the 34 gaff cutter, ran before a stiff tradew ‘theast of Tahiti, Forty days earlier my wife, VIXEN’s cockpit Laga 15 miles Point Venus lighthouse on Tahiti’s north shore. From » peered into the black nightand Tiffany, and T had left Honolulu, hoping to sail to the counted, “One Mississippi, two Mississippi...” to check Marquesas. After 31 days of beating against easterly _ the frequency. winds and currents, the Marquesas had proved to be As I counted flashes, my sleep-deprived mind spun an impossible goal. Instead, we had made landfall at off to reflect on what I had read of Capt. Cook’s visit to atoll 180 miles Tahiti in 1769 to observe Venus’s transit of the sun and northeast of Tahiti. We had spent a few days recover of Capt. Bligh who had anchored the BOUNTY for five on that beautiful island and were now making the final months in the lee of Point Venus to collect breadfruit with this his peer, and maybe a baguette or two, toric paradise of which I had read and dreamed, The A few hours earlier, while racing downwind under final challeng Rangiroa, a sparsely populated cor push to Tahiti where we hoped to find fresh water, cold Now, on my own little ship, I was closin; of our long voyage from Hawaii was to Above—The author's 24” Atkin-designed cutter, VIXEN, hove-to in light winds. Note the tiller lashed to port, the staysail backed to starboard, and the mainsail sheeted in tight. Note, too, the lack of wake; the boat has no forward motion, despite ‘enough wind for a camera to be held aloft by a kite (see Review, page 103) November/December 2011 + 38 find the entrance through Tahiti’s fringing reef and bring VIXEN safely to anchor. For the umpteenth time I studied the chart showing the entrance to Papeete harbor—a slender gap in the reef marked by red and green buoys. Unfortunately, our timing was off, It was the middle of the night, the winel was gusting over 30 knots, and VIXEN was racing down the ocean swells at 7 or 8 knots. Another hour at this speed, and we would miss Tahiti altogether. Anchoring on the open ocean was out of the question, back and forth all night not at all appeal more than a month of open-ocean voyaging, entering the harbor might become the most dangerou maneuver of the entire trip. Despite wanting to reach port as soon as possible, the seamanlike thing to «do was to heave-to and hold our position off the harbor I sheeted in the main, pushed down the tiller, and headled into the wind. Using the windward sheet wineh, Thackwinded the staysail and tied the tiller to leeward. VIXEN slowed down and her motion eased. The GPS showed us slipping sideways at about halfa knot. went below to sleep and Tiffany took the watch, checking every 15 minutes for ships. Despite the strong wind and steep waves, VIXEN settled into a comfortable rhythm to await the sunrise, Heaving:To Heaving-to is a technique long used by mariners to maintain a boat's position on the open ocean. Classic boats with long keels and heavy displacements such as VIXEN are particularly well suited for heaving-to, VIX- EN’s deep forefoot keeps her bow from being blown off, her long keel resists pivoting, and her heavy displace ‘ment prevents the hull from being tossed off station by waves and gusts of wind. VIXEN, an Atkin-designed 34° double-ender of 13 tons, has the added advantage of being gafFrigged. A reefed gaff mainsail has a center of effort that moves carly vertically downward when progressively reefed than down and forward, asis the ease witha mar- coni rig. Having the sail’s center of effort not move for- "ward as i's reeled helps to keep the bow into the wind when hove-to, Because of all these factors, VIXEN, and most classic gafrigged boats, heave-to and stay hove-to very easily: In the face of adverse conditions, heaving:to is the traditional boat captain's secret weapon. sailboat, however, will heave-to to a certain degree. Even a modern lightweight sloop will slow down and hee! less by balancing helm and rig so they hold the bow into the wind. And heaving-to is not just a way to wait for daylight to enter a harbor. Since visiting ‘Tahiti in 2005, Tiffany and I have crossed the Pacific, », and Adantic Oceans in VIXEN. Although not performed all that often, heaving-to has also proven effective in the following situations: + Sailing from Fiji to New Zealand in 2005, we hove-to fora few hours on the open ocean during heavy weather to take a break and get some much-needed rest # Sailing up Australia’s Great Barrier Reef in 2007, we hove-to behind a small island while we pulled aboard rath 34. + Woodentont 225 our dinghy, which was in danger of swam being towed. # In 2008, in light airs off of the Indonesian island of Bali, we hove-to at night to avoid unlit fishing nets. ing, while * O1F the coast of Madagascar in 2009 we hove-to briefly, with only a backed staysail, to replace a chafed peak halyard. *A few months later we hove-to off Richards Bay, South Africa, for two days to wait out a 70-knot south= ‘west gale, Although heaving:to is an invaluable tool for ocean sailing, one can heave-to ina dinghy to have luneh or {just to reduce heeling in a tender eraft while switching ‘skippers or bailing. Whatever the motive, the sideba page describes the basics of heavin, ith the jib backed and the helm secured, the Jib pushes the bow off the wind, the mainsail fills and the hull picks up speed; this forward motion allows the rudder to come into play and steer the bow back into the wind; the main lufis and the boat loses her headway; but she refuses to tack because of the backed jib. Then the cycle starts again by the jib push- ing the bow off the wind. In very heavy weather, the jib might be dropped alto- gether if the windage of the bow is sufficient to keep the boat from tacking. Ideally, VIXEN moves at less than a half knot while hove-to and creates a slick of flat water as we slip slowly sideways and to leeward. This slick seems to tame breaking waves to windward, but only if we are stationary enough to not sail ahead of the slick The most common problem T've had is having too uch sail up while hovesto, It's hard to keep the speed down while avercanvased, and keeping the speed down is essential to comfo! The other difficulty I've encountered is having the nerve to turn the boat into the wind when itis really honking and we are racing at what feels to be supersonic speed downwind (probably less than 10 knots, but still scary). This fear has always proven to be ungrounded, especially if the sails are allowed to luff a little while turning upwind. In extreme sea conditions or with boats that heave- to poorly, a drogue or sea anchor deployed off the bow might help keep the boat headed into the waves in a hove-to position, Fortunately, VIXEN has always responded well without resorting to a sea anchor. Sometimes, getting out of the hove-to position can take a bit of forethought—especially after a blow, when you will most likely be undereanvased and perhaps bit ‘wary to shake out reefs. Ifyou want to stay on the same tack, unlashing the helm will allow the bow to fall off, and you ean cross the jib and res up enough speed to tack, however, with a reduced rig a the sloppy seas after a gale can be a challenge. If you are not too unnerved, it might be time to shake out the reefs and power up before try ‘on the opposite D. The cycle repeats. down, the sails once again develop just enough power to steer the boat back into Four Steps to Heaving-To 1. Trim the mainsail and headsails as you turn upwind to a close-hauled position. 2. If the boat is heeling excessively or the wind is building, this would be a good time to strike all but the inner headsail (which I'l now refer to as the jib) and any topsails, and to reef the main, With a ketch or yawl, dropping the ‘main altogether might work best. 3. Back the jib. This can be cone either by tacking and not releasing the jibsheet as the bow comes through the wind, or by maintaining your course and using the ‘windward jib sheet to pull the jib across the foredeck. It may be necessary to improvise ‘a new lead for the sheet with a snatch block, to prevent the sheet from chafing on the rigging, In certain situations there might ‘be some logic to heaving-to on a starboard tack to have rightof-way over a port-tack vessel. To rely on “rules of the road.” however, rather than a vigilant watch and. common sense would be foolish. 4, Fine-tuning can now be done with the helm. Backing the jib forces the bow off the wind, and this is countered by steering the bow back into the wind either by moving the tiller to leeward or locking. the wheel. VIXEN responds best with the {iller simply lashed to leeward. ‘As the boat enters into ‘eye of the wind, the | wind, the boat develops just ‘enough steerageway for the Otherwise, you can bear off and wear ship by running downwind and jibing over to the new tack. Another option, if you have an engine, is to see if the thi still working and use it to power through the wind onto anew tack. i is Landfall Tahiti By 5 a.m, the mountains of Tahiti were visible, and an hour later I could see the palm trees and the surf bre: ing on the outer reef. A few surfers were already pad- dling out to the east of the harbor entrance. 1 q the tiller and bore off toward the entrance. Now, with plenty of daylight, the pass looked elementary. “Any fool could get through here,” I thought as we dropped sails and motored into the harbor. But the fact is that yachts g0 up on this reef every year, even with a well-marked, entrance. I would guess that these accidents often hap= pen at night when the prudent move would have been to heave-to and maintain position until daylight, ‘As VIXEN moved across the calm waters of Tahiti’s protected lagoon, I turned the helm over to Tiffany and went forward to prepare the anchor. The strong tradewindls cased as we got into the lee of the land, and little by little, my thoughts turned from the challenges, of heaving to and clearing the pass to more relaxed images of cold beer, fresh baguettes, and a swim in the ‘warm turquoise water. 2 Bruce Halabisky isa freelance writer and traditional wooden boat builder, Six years ago he left Victoria, Canada, with his wife Tigiany, and sailed to Hawaii. Having crosed the Pacific, Indian, ‘and Atlantic Ocvans, sith tu daughters born along the way, he ‘urvently in Meine, preparing to close the cic. November/December 2011 + 35 by Matthew P. Murphy ihe editors of WoodenBoat, along with its our sister I publication Professional BoatBiuilder, selected the winners of our third Design Challenge earlier this year. In our previous two challenges, we sought fuel-efficient powerboat designs—in the first, a day- boat the second, a weekender. For the third Challenge, we turned to sail. Inspired by the popularity of raid-type events— multi-day racing and cruising expeditions in small boats—we sought a fast expedition cruiser. The design ‘was to have been a new one, developed after September 1, 2010, and it had to be fast, seaworthy, and simple. In addition to these criteria, the boat must adhere to these parameters: Wt must have spartan overnight accommodat- ions for at least two people. These accom- modations must include a cabin, cuddy, or boom tent, along with a toilet and a galley that includes, at the minimum, a stove and storage for water and food. I The boat must be legally trailerable, though the maximum sailing beam may exceed the tailering limit, The maximum LOA must not exceed 40’. Simple setup, launching, and retrieval earned extra points, and water ballast and adjustable keels were permitted. 36 + Wooddentont 225 i The trailering weight was not to exceed 8,500 Ibs. M The boat must have positive flotation, watertight storage for gear, and mechanical ‘or manual auxiliary propulsion, HM The boat must have the ability to sail to windward in a gale—not comfortably, necessarily, but the ability to law away from a lee shore in such conditions we deemed (0 be important in such a boat. We had 50 diverse entries from 14 different cou tries, They included monohulls, catamarans, trima- rans, and proas, While a single design rose to the tops, the most in keeping with the demands of the challenge, the level of thought and sophistication behind some of the others was truly impressive to our panel of judges, which included builders, designers, and sailors. Here, then, is the winning boat—a simple, elegant trimaran from John Marples. Following that is a fleet of other notable entrants suitable for construction in wood. Oa ead ee eee ee ec TIOTOABNESANES ERTIES ___In which we sought a fast expedition sailboat. DC-3 Tri Designer—John Marples, Sonoma, California DG-3 Tri Particulars Loa 27782 m) Bear Salling IT's" 26 Trailering) 85" Q7; Dat Board up 8° go. Board dn va Weight 2400 Ihe (1,088 kg) Sailaren ——8765q ft (4. m') his 27" trimaran from John Marples met the I spirit of our challenge beautifully: It is, clearly, fast, seaworthy, and simple. Let's first consider its construction. The DC-8is built using the Constant Camber technique. This method, invokes the laying up of precurved sheets of plywood, ‘on a single mold; these panels are then joined together to form the hull. The same mold can also be used to, form other curved parts for the boat—for example, the n cabin top of the DC-3, he boat’s amas, or side hulls, are attached to the main hull by a Marples innovation: the swing wing. This hinged system allows the amas to fold back against, the main hull, reducing the beam from the 17’ sailing mode to less than 8'6" for trailering. The swing wing, is as simple as itis elegant: The ull spars, or akas, are Taminated from construction-grade lumber to a thick- ness of 3”. A single aka is made up of two sections, joined together by a pair of bolts. When one bolt is removed, the aka swings freely on the remaining one. The D prised our judges with its splitcabin arrangement. The accommodations thus provided are ample—and multipurpose. The crew cooks, sleeps, and, stows gear in the larger forward cabin. In expedition, mode, the aft cabin serves as a head and shower, and it locker for the outboard motor when the boat lering mode. In light cruising mode, the aft cabin may serve as private accommodations for another pair of guests iling the DC-8 will seem fast to a monohull sailor, but this is a conservative trimaran—both in its rig, and in the hull’s power. The rig is small when compared to a high-performance trimaran. Its alu minum mast swivels on its tabernacle, and it can be stepped in that tabernacle by using the boom as, a strut, with no need for extra gear. The displace- ment of each ama is about equal to the all-up cruis- ing weight of the boat. Thus, the ama will begin to bury and pieree waves when the boat is overpowered, alerting the crew that it’s time to reef. There'll be no exhilarating flying of the main hull of the DC-3—but, there'll be none of the associated disaster that can follow such adventure, either, Marples has 40 years of experience designing and going to sea in multihulls, so we take at face value his assessment of the boat's ability (0 sail to windward in a gale: "In gale force winds the jib would be rolled down to a small area and the il deeply reefed to make windward progress even in a heavy seaway.” Despite no hull flying, the DC-3 is a vehicle to adventure. November/December 2011 + 87 les Montaubin's Triboulet is a simple, economical tri fmaran—a so-called demountable one, meaning it can be disassembled for trailering. The ketch-rigged boat hi pivoting carbon-fiber masts, whieh the sails are fixed via sleeves. Roller furling allows quick dousing of these sails—as ‘well as reefing. ‘The boat’s small cabin has room for a toilet and galley, and stowage for an expedition’s worth of gear and food. Island ‘Trail 22 Designer—Kurt A. Cerny, Lery, France ne of the Island Trail 22% distinctive feanares is its pox keel. This flat-bottomed hull beneath a hull, bor rowed from the beach-kwunched boats of the New Jersey shore, allows the boat w sit boltupright on the beach, and its pointed afterend makes this transom-sterned ull effectively a double-ender underwater, easing the job of rowing. The hull is built of cored composite material, but the approach to the construction will be of interest to some ‘wooden boat builders—especially those working with stip planks, The foam-core material is laid up inside a female hal:mold of the hull, Hbergkassed on the inside, given string- ‘ers and bulkheads, and then removed from the form. Then, the hull molds are reversed on the strongback, allowing for construction of a mirror image of the first hull-half on the same molds. 38 + Woodentont 225 ‘Triboulet Particulars 22/10" (6.96 m9 1.85" (6.66 m0) 14.43" (46 m) 3877" 1.10 m) 838 bs 380 ky) 215 sqft 20sq m) The crew sleeps on a 4-square-meter tatami—a Japanese mattress. The aft end of the companionway hatch may be lifted, creating additional headroom, ‘The boat is built of plywood and epoxy. The main hull has stepped-out, filleted chines, which effectively create a spray rail. Lightening holes in the bulkheads and careful choice of scantlings keep the 22°10" boat's weight to just 887 Ibs, Auxiliary power isa Torqeedo electric outboard. Island Trail 22 Particulars Loa 22! (6.7 m) LW, 18°9" 6.71. m) Beam 68" 2.03 m) Draft 46°37 m) 2135 (19.79 my ‘The cockpit has wo seating areas: an after one with fore- and-aft benches, anda forward one with a bridge deck, which ‘must be crossed to enter the cabin, A hinged seat rotates out Of the way to combine the two spaces into a single 7'4"-long cockpit, The icebox is located in the cockpit, to starboard of the mizzenmast. The sink and stove arrangement deserves special mention: the stove mounts in a drawer on the port bulkhead and the sink to starboard; when they are in the stowed position in the bulkhead, they ate simultaneously accessible for use in the eockpit, for outdoor meal prepara- tion, A cockpit enc allows for additional living space. A pair of rowers can propel the boat while sitting on the bridge deck, or a 5-hp outboard motor ean be hidden in a wel ait ‘The boat has a simple water-ballast system and a 213-sq-f¢ catketeh rig. ‘wid stands for “What would Bolger doz", and tha the question that drove the creation of this desigs Although the hull is aluminum, the designers make clear that it could easily be converted to plywood, We find the ‘prospect tantalizing, The hull shape, they say, was inspired Bolger’s well-known box-ype boats. The ends are plumb, “ are the cabin sides, front, and back.” All surfaces are devel ‘opable, meaning that they can be formed from sheet stock, without torturing, The design duo offer three separate keel configura- tions: a centerboard, a fin with a bulb, and a eenterboard Rising Horizon Designer—David Arnold, Weeki Wachee, Florida WWD 26 Particulars Loa 26 (7.92) LW 24° 731m) Beam s'6"@.59m) Dratt Board up Board down Loaded displ 8,550 The (1, 610 kg) Trailer 157 8.1 cm) Sail area with pivoting wings. Twin rudders will ensure firm steer- ing on either tack. The sliding gunter rig has a short flat top, though the mizzen is lugerigged, in deference to Bolger. While the main spars are carbon fiber, the miz- zenmast is a spare oat, Twin headsails give lots of sail- combination options: They'd run well. wing-and-wing downwind, and in a blow the jib and mizzen will drive the boat. The accommodations meet our criteria, and include a *hi/low” table that can be raised for eating, or lowered to serve as a sleeping platform, converting the Veberth into a double. ising Horizon Particulars 2974" (8.94 m) 24 731m) 7710" 2.39 m) $3491 Ibs (1,585.5 kg) Sailarea —8095q 287m") Auxiliary engine 4—-hp outboard Biss Herizon was pleasant surprise At first las, and in profile, it seemed! like a rather conventional—albeit shallow-draft—ketch. But a closer study of its sections, rig: ging, construction, and sail plan revealed a sophisticated boat that adheres quite admirably to our design parameter: ‘Consider first the hull shape: I's not only shallow draft, Dut its also quite marrow at just 7710", Flat buttocks and hard chines, claims the designer, will allow her to plan “The design name is inspired by the thought af the boats reaching-speed potential, where a sailor in a much larger boat might be piazled at this small boat appearing over the horizon astern and disappearing ahead.” While the narrow hull is tender, the relatively lov rig reduces the lever arm of the sail pkin. “Dropping the mainsail,” says the designer, "is a very fast/effective way to greatly reduce heeling moment.” This ketch's ample mizzen (66 sq f0) will provide motive power—and balance when the main is dropped in a breeze, The mizzen will also be a good friend when maneuvering the boat under sail in tight quacters, ‘Shoal draft makes launching and retsieval a breeze, and the accommodations include all of our eriteria—and not much mote, Construction is of cedar strips over plywood bulkheads, partitions, and longitudinals. November/December 2011 + 39 le the outboard profile of this pretty, double-ended ketch suggests 2 simple daysailer, dhe details confirm ‘that this isa serious expedition boat—minimalist, bt serious. “The crew will live tinder a boom tent when the boat is at rest—or under the stars if they're out, and the bugs aren't. There's ample dry storage under the cockpit seats, and a tidy, compact galley stows in the cockpit. The hull is narrow, and thus tender in its form, but there are two water ballast tanks amidships, totaling 400 Ibs The hull will be driven by 206 sq ft of sail. The mainsail is gunter rigged—etfectively a high-peaked gaff Celeste Neo Designer—Gabriel Heyman, Goteborg, Sweden (este Neo nom he compos category of Design 6 enge III, Her designer, Gabriel Heyman of Gothenburg, Sweden, however, states that strip-planked construction is an alternative for this sleek monohull—though it would only make sense to build certain pieces, such as the cabin and keel easing, in composite materials. Sill, with strip planking aan option, we present the boat here. A waterline entry angle of 10 degrees, says Heyman, allows the boat to “slice through waves at speed.” But he forecasts a dry boat, 100. The philosophy of this hull form, he says, isall about average speed. So, while this boat won't 40 + WWooudentont 25 Loon Particulars Loa 28/1" (7.08 mi) LW, 207° (6.27 m) Beam 63°(.90 m) Dratt Board up 147 (38.56-cm) Board down 4'3° (1.29 m) Disp 1,780 tbs (807.4 kg) Sailarea — 2065q (19.14 m") configuration—so high as to nearly resemble a Bermudan rig. The beauty of this rig type is that the spars are all short cehough to stow in the boat when not in use, and short enough toease the job of rigging. ‘The inboard kick-up rudder is mounted in a trunk of its own, and can be removed like a daggerboard, though aastern-hung rudder is an option. And though i’s not one of the Challenge criteria, [can't help but call attention to this boat's sweet, sweeping sheerline; its beautifully balanced ends; and its nicely proportioned coaming. Adventure in style. Celeste Neo Particulars Loa 30'4" (9.25 m) LW 28°11" (881 m) Beam 716" 228m) Drate 6'6"(198 my Displ (light) 2.700 Is (1,230) Sailarea—— B49sq fe 2A") plane on a reach, it will exceed displacement hull speeds routinely, and be “extremely swift on all points of sailing.” ‘The hull form lacks stability, but this is compensated for with a deep “T keel,” which can be lifted for trailering, or for shoal-draft motoring. The mast has a hinge near deck level that allows it to he raised tahernacle-style using the jib halyard, While the cabin is small, it has room for wo double berths, two easy chairs, a galley, and a toilet—and adequate stowage. A boom tent, says Heyman, “could make little Neo Appear absolutely spacious.” his 27° sharpie ketch, says its design team, “was designed to stir up the conventional boat layout by putting the deckhouse aft so that the cockpit has a dinghy feeling with is ” Other unconventional items include hinged cockpit seat backs, which can be flipped outboard to overhang the water, creating “hiking seats," and an electric pod motor that ean be lifted clear of the water when not in 20' Sailing Canoe Designer—Peter Dunsford, Lynnwood, Washington though this handsome hngerigged yavl is truly a minic Attia eratee"comparea ht manyof the beats In this gallery, its amenities and seakeeping abilities meet the challenge requirements admirably. Like several of the bouts presented here, this one is meant for composite construction, but the hull ean be built “in any medium,” according to the designer. The boat's nearly plumb ends ‘maximize the waterline length; an arc bottom forward less- ‘ens the effects of pounding and adds structural strength, ‘while flattened bottom sections aft promote surfing. Twin lifting keels provide stability. The double-ended hall, says ‘Three Nines Particulars Los. 27'0" (8.28 m) WL. 25'10' (787 m) Beam 85°25 m) Draft Board up 10° (25.4em) Board down 4°6"(187 m) Displ (light) 2,650 Ibs (1,202 kg) Sailarea— 330sq (0.66 m") use, The small forward shelter houses the toilet. The galley, located in the main cabin, folds away under the cockpit when znot in use, The boat will accommodate up to four people. Martin prediets that the boat will be able claw off of a lee shore in 34 knots of wind and flat water, based on the ability of other sharpies from his office, The boat is presented as a cored composite construction, though wood is an option. 20’ Sailing Canoe Particulars toa 20° (610m) Bea 54" .62 m) Dratt 21" (88.67em) Disp 1640 Ibs (743.9 kg) ay Sailarea ——-200sqf (18.6 m") the designer, was inevitable given his requirements of low material cost and structural weight ‘The arrangement plan grew out of two basic ideas, says the designer: First all activities would be concentrated in the center of the bout, And second, the layout would be "general rather than specific,” which is to say that the space would not define the activity; "users would have their own eamping gear and established ways of doing things, and the design should be adaptable 10 those ways, not the other way around.” A cockpit tent provides shelter for the living space, and a sinall privacy hood shelters the occupant of the head. November/December 2011 ¢ 41 This 30-footer, says its designer, places more emphasis on performance than on accommodation, distinguishing it from typical cruising boats, The wide, flat hull is intended to plane, and stability will be provided by both the hull’s form and by an 800-Ib swing keel—and by the judicious positioning of the crew. The eel Can be raised with a blockand-tackle. ‘The plans show two rigs: a cutter and a fractional ketch; the designer prefers the latter. It employs two off-the-shelf Hobie Cat rigs, the forward one having sweptback spreaders Madness Designer—John C. Harris, Annapolis, Maryland ‘ere we have a proa—a long, skinny bull with a shorter: outrigger attached; the outrigger is always kept to windward, regardless of the direction the boat is traveling. ‘This, of course, means that the boat sails in either direc tion; bow and stern are interchangeable, depending upon the tack. To change direction, the boat is shunted—stopped and reversed—and one jib is lowered and the other raised, “Prous,” says the designer, “are the only boats I know that ean be reliably stopped, parked, and reversed on a whim, I have never heen on another sailboat type that I'd rather work into 42 + WooddenBont 225 Ballyhoo Particulars Los 30" (24m) 28" BTA) 88" 264m) 9" (22.86 em) 22m) 3,400 Ms (1,542 kg) Board down Disp (light area ‘etch SE qf (29.17 2) Gaer_/}\_ 30854 81 28.61 me} added, and the after one having two panes removed from ihe foot ofits sal. A T0-hp outboard mavor provides auxiliary Pow Below, the boat has sting headroom andaccomio- dations for two—perhapr three people. There's standing headroom under the companonvay dodger, and a cock tentexpands the sheltered space. Construction i taped-seam plywood, sheathed in two lajers of l-on cloth on the bottons, Loa 30'S" (0.85 m) uw 29'3° (8.91 m) Beam (overall) 20° (6.10) Draft Board up 17" 48.18 em) Board dawn 86" (08m Sallarea—— 364qf (33.820 crowded harbor under sail on a windy day’ “This proa is built of 6mm plywood using the stitch-and- glue technique. The aceommodations are sparse, but 90 Funinhibited adults” can eruise the boat for months, The ‘main hull houses two berth flats, one in each end; the pod to Ieeward hasan ample double berth, The outrigger has lockers {or lines and fenders, and the cruising essentials are stored in lockers in the main hull. The boat is demountable, allowing for easy trailering; a total of 10 bolts hold the huis to each other, and the trampoline is laced on with bungee cord. wer Francois Vivier deseribes his Jewell as a family Jdayboat with a cabin for two people, which will allow for short cruises. The design is lightweight and thus easily trailered and beached; the cockpit is wide and deep: the hull is stable yet fast; and the small eabin has space for two bunks, a galley, and stowage. A boom tent is optional, and ‘would ereate sleeping space in the cockpit for a third erew member. This kit boat is built of plywood, and the construc- tion is simple, as there is no keel, Rather, the wide bottom Evergreen 6.0 Designers Ihe designers of this handsome catamaran say that “the defining feature..is her rig: twin free-standing masts, one stepped in each hull.” Both of the square- topped sails are 140 sq 1, but the center of effor is lower than that of a conventional rig, There is no standing rigging, so the masts will bend in a gust, automatically depowering the rig. The masts each weigh only 36 Ibs, allowing easy stepping by one person. A 2-5-hp outboard motor, a yuloh, oF a sculling oar will provide auxiliary power. ‘The tubes that connect this cat's hulls together are —Laurie McGowan, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia and Michael Schacht, Kirkland, Washington Jewell Particulars Loa 19°8" 6.99 m) WL, 17'81/2" 6.40 m) Beat /6Y2" (2:30 m) Weight 1,520 Ibs (690 ky) Sail area 287 sq ft (22m) ‘d to the gurboards via the stitchand-glue Jiminating the need to precisely bevel and fit these joints; the rest of the kit's precision-cut planks must bbe beveled, Jewell’s rig is gunter, the virtues of which are described on page 40 in the description of Loon, The 1,500-1b boat is eas- ily trailered by most ears, and a single shroud per side allows for quick setup of the rig, The hollow wooden mast is stepped ina tabernacle, allowing it to be raised quickly by two people. Evergreen 6.0 Particulars toa 19'8" (3.99 m) tw 194" 6.89 m) Beam 8'5°-11'4" 2.56 m-3.45 m) Weight 950 Ibs (430.9 kg) Max. draft 2°94" @286em) Sail area 280g f (26m) telescoping, whieh allows the beam to collapse from 11'4"t0 '8'5" for trailering. The hulls each have space for a dry berth and or stowage, though there's also a tent chat pitches on the 8'5" bridge deck, allowing for cooler and more commo- dious accommodations, The hull profile shows nearly plumb tends, maximizing the waterline length and thus the poten- tial speed, and the high cutter-ike hull profile should be dry and comfortable. Construction is of multi-chine plywood and epoxy, - Matthew P. Murphy is editer of WoodenBoat. November/December 2011 ¢ 43 A frequent necessity for boatbuilding ‘ou don’t often need a rabbet plane, but when you do, it’s often the only tool—hand or power—that will do the jab, Sure you can cut nice, long rabbets ona tablesaw ora shaper, and you can use a router to make a rabbet along a curved edge. But none of these tools will readily shape a rabbet that has. changing bevel. The rab- bet plane is the best tool, too, for bevels that change in depth—for example, when making the gradually increas- ing rabbet, or gain, at the end of a lapstrake plank (see page 46). A rabbet plane can also trim a surface into an inside corner or up against a perpendicular surface, which makes it not only the tol of choice for uimming the cheeks and shoulders of joints for a final, precise fit butalso an excellent choice fora boatbuilder. Why not use a standard bench plane for making a rabbet? Well, itwon't work in any of the above situations, by Jim Tolpin Photographs by Craig Wester ations by Robert LaPointe because it lacks the one characteristic that makes a plane a rab rat extends all the way out to at least one side of the plane body. This allows the blade to produce a cut not only parallel to the base of the plane (as is the case with most planes), butalso 90 degrees to—and flush with—the side of the plane, The side of the rabbet plane then acts as a built- ‘ference surface. A number of hand planes are called rabbet planes, but many are actually shoulder planes, as ['ll soon explain, Although they all have side-exposed blades, they vary radically in size, shape, and accessories. To keep itsimple, I'll describe the three basic types of rab- bet planes that you might need—and I'll go on to sug- gest that you can probably get by with awning just one of them, rabbe plane: a blade Above—Rabbet plar made in a variety of shapes and sizes to fit specific needs, but they all have one thing in common’ ‘the blade extends the full width of the sole, allowing the eut to be made flush with the side of the plane body. 44 + WWooddentont 225 To control the cutting blade, low-angle rabbet planes (like ‘the Stanley No. 93 shown in the drawings) have backing Irons (shown in green) that can be carefully adjusted to support the bevel-up cutting edge. The jack rabbet plar ‘the photo at right, though used for larger work, operates on. ‘the same principle but uses a bevel-down blade, The Jack Rabbet. Yes, there really is a plane called a jack rabbet. It's similar to a standard Stanley No. 5 bench plane, also called a jack plane, but the sole allows the blade to extend out flush with each side of the plane body. Because of the plane’s length and mass, and because it has two gripping points, this is the tool of choice for doing large-scale work such as shaping a Keel rabbet. In fact, [would tend toward using this big, two-handed plane whenever I'm clealing with a dense hardwood or want to take thick shavings to make the work go quickly—say when hand-cutting ship-lap joints in panel stock The Shoulder Plane. At the othe of the spec- trum is the ubiquitous shoulder plane, epitomized in the Stanley No, 93 and available in other iterations through other manufacturers, past and present. Why is it called a shoulder plane? Because these small rabbet planes, which can be used with one hand, have bevel up blades and adjustable throat openings that optimize n for trimming the shoulders of joints—for exam- the shoulders of tenons. Because this task requires taking fine cuts across end-grain, you don’t need or want a big-bodied plane. What you do want is an easy: to-handle tool with a small opening, or mouth, ahead of the blade to reduce tearout and one with a be blade sitting at a low angle to make it easier to push across the end-grain, And that’s exactly what you get with the old No. 93. It almost deserves a country-and- western song of its own. OF course, you can use this plane or to cut rabbets as well—but because of and sometin ‘ed! mouth opening, it’s only ge to take thin shavings, making progress slow. I choose shoulder-type planes mostly for producing very small rabbets and for trimming machine-made rabbets and joint shoulders to final fit ny of its es-lim ‘The Filister Plane. The plane shown on the right side of the photo at left isn’t technically a rabbet plane, cither: I's a “moving filister” plane. This plane was designed primarily for cutting rabbets across end- grain, which were traditionally called—you guessed it—fillets, That's where this plane gets its name: filster planes cut fillets. The tool has a small blade ahead of the cutter to pre-sever the wood fibers, which goes a Jong way toward reducing tearout when going across Shoulder planes like the one at eft in the photo are versatile for most uses in boatbuilding. The moving filister shown at right is the tool of choice for shaping across-grain pieces, @ prime example being tenons in mortise-and-tenon joinery; however, they can be very useful in many ways, and the fence ‘can be beveled, as shown, to angle the cut of the rabbet. November/December 2011 + 45 the grain, Ithas a fence for controlling the width of the cut and a stop for controlling the depth. The skewed blade in this particular version helps keep the fence drawn tightagainst the wood and also lowers the blade’s effective cutting angle. This type of plane tends to be expensive, but it is probably the most versatile tool you can buy for general rabbeting work. The plane has two gripping: point and the mouth is large enough to allow large shavings, yetitis small enough (o allow you to use it singlehanded for small-scale work. You can even use it as a shoulder plane on large joints. If were to try to get by with only ‘one rabbet plane, the filister would probably be it. (OF course, once you go down the rabbit hole of choosing and using rabbet planes, you can’t have too mai Using Rabbet Planes Before I describe specific techniques, here are some fundamental practices and good habits for using rabbet planes: 1 First and foremost, check the edge for sharpness. It should plane nearly effortlessly across the end of a board and produce a see-through shaving. A dull cut- ting edge is inefficient, degrades faster, and requires more energy to use. You sharpen rabbet plane irons, exactly the same way you do those of standard bench, planes. Always thoroughly dry off the blade after sharp- ening, then oil it with a non-drying oil such as camellia. Wax the plane sole (and the fence on filisters) after every sharpening session, and whenever the plane seems to bog down. lot of times, a metal plane will feel dull when the problem is frietion between the metal and the wood. ‘out, try to choose stock that isdevoid of cross-grain in the area to be rabbeted. Be especially watchful for grain direction changes when hogging out large amounts of waste. 1 Choose the largest plane you can handle for the job at hand. Momentum is your friend, e that it cuts a square rabbet. Use one hand to push the plane directly forward while the other hand focuses on keeping the le of the plane against the guide fence, whether the ¢ is attached to the plane itself or attached to the ng cut In most cases, start cutting or trimming the rabbet at the end of the cut fa you, working your way back in four to six strokes until you reach the end closest to you, and only ig fulllength strokes. This strategy creates a track for the plane to follow, minimizing wandering and ensuring a rabbet of even width, A 'y common use of a rabbet plane in small-boat work involves cutting a “gain” in the hood ends of lapstrake planks, allowing the planks to be trimmed toa “rolling bevel” s0 that the faces of the planks at the very tends are flush to one another at the stem rabbet or transom 46 + WWooddentont 225 1M Always set the blade so it protrudes ust a hair’s width beyond the side of the plane that will run against the wall of the rabbet. If you make the blade exactly flush, the plane tends to drift away from the wall with each pass (and no one really knows exactly why), Try to get imto the habit of putting your plane away and with a coat of camellia oil on the blade and Cutting a Rabbet ‘To most woodworkers a rabbet is most typically a flat and square groove along the edge of a board, as in ‘what is known as ship-lap planking, These are usually machined, for example by a tablesaw or router, and then itis simple work to use a rabbet plane for cleanup and final fit, But in boatbuilding, rabbets are com- monly Vshaped and curved, for example along the side of the keel to capture the edge of the garboard plank, and continuing forward up the stem and aft along the deadwood, horn timber, and sometimes a sternpost to receive the hood ends of the planks. The bevel of this kind of rabbet—a “rolling bevel"— continually changes with the angle of the planking as meets these timbers. To create a keel rabbet (see “The Anatomy of a Rabbet,” WB No. 197), you typically transfer layout lines taken from the full-sized lofting to mark the rabbet, bearding, and apex lines, Next, chisel ‘out narrow portions of the rabbet at closely-set "sta- tions,” accurately accounting for the angle of the plank relative to the backbone timber's face. The: nect the stations by sawing a very conservative kerf the apex line and chiseling away most of the waste between stations. The rabbet plane—the heftier the better—comes into play to fair and smooth the rabbet to its final shape, going no farther than the rabbet and bearding lines. In a large boat, this is the province of the jack rabbet; in a small boat, a shoulder pkane or its shorter cousin, the bullnose rabber plane, may be nec essary, especially if the rabber’s curve is pronounced ‘reate a square rabbet entirely by hand, start by giving yourself a temporary fence to run the side of your rabbet plane against, Remember to take the first strokes at the end of the eut farthest away from you and ‘work your way back a little ata time. By the fifth or sixth Above loft—A filet, a rabbet across the end grain, can be cut first with a saw to the scribed line, taking care not to cut too deep. Above rightChisel in from the end to remove most of ‘the waste, but be mindful of the grain, and make several saw cuts to prevent going too deep. Right—A block rabbet pl of the rabbet to finished depth. Lower right— Finally, use the shoulder plane to finish the fille. c king full-length cuts. A fence like this stands at 90 degrees to the face of the board, but if you want to cut a rabbet at a continuous angle (but not ‘one with a rolling bevel, for which this technique won't work) you can cut the side of the fence to that angle. Set the blade to take as thick a shaving as you can reason- ably handle. As you approach the cut lines, back off the blade a bit to prevent overshooting. If you have a filister plan you can set the fence and depth stop to define and con: iol the final dimensions of the cut. This ensures con sistency, whieh is especially appreciated if there are a number of laps to cut Cutting a Gain A plank “gain’ is a rabbeted joint that changes depth the ends of lapsteake planks, as shown in the photo on page 46, In small craft, a shoulder plane such as the Stanley No, 93 would be an appropriate choice for cut ting a gain, since a larger plane such as the jack rabbet woud be overkill and would fi © work at 1. While it’ relatively easy to eyeball the taper, its not so easy to maintain an even width—so tack on a fence to ensure you don't make the rabbet too wide. Cutting a Fillet A fillet is a rabbet worked across the grain at the end ofa board, usually to create a lapped (and therefore a stronger) corner joint, for example on a boat’ interior joinerwork. You ereate the fillet by first establishing lay- ‘Out lines and then saving across the grain to simultane- ously define the rabbet’s width and depth, Ifthe grain isn't contrary, you can usually go ahead and remove most of the waste with a chisel driven from the end, Be conservative with these cuts, and if the chisel risks div- ing below the cutline, make board in the area of the waste, Remove the final waste down to the cutline with your rabbet plane, The fli ter plane with the skewed blade works best here. Work the face of the rabbet first, then finish up by laying the few more kerfs across the plane's side on the face and trimming the shoulder to fit as described below. Trimming a Joint Shoulder Even the most precisely cut machine joints may require abit of trimming to achieve a watertight fi—and that’s where the rabbet plane comes to your rescu its side, the rabbet plane suddenly becomes shoul- der plane, referencing the side of the body against the joint’s cheek to produce a 90-degree cut along the shoulder line, The length of th ccut runs straight, Set the blade to take a very fine shav- ing, and again be sure that the blade edge is flush (plus ahair) to the side and pa ry sole ensures that the allel to the sole. Jim Tolpin lives in Port Tounsend, Washington, and is currently ‘eaching hand tool woodworking at the Port Tawnsend School of Woodworking. For more information, lo go wuw:ptwoodschool.org. Further Reading: ‘The New Traditional Woodsoorker, by Jim Tolpin, Media PW Inc November/December 2011 + 47 BOAT-LIKE-OBJECT A Friendship sloop 23 years in the making by Bruce Kemp foshua Slocum and Mike Wright have far more in common than simply hailing from Canada. Each found himself “on the beach” with little money and 2 strong desire to go to sea as master of his own boat For Slocum, a Nova Scotia native bent on the first solo circumnavigation, which he started in 1895, that meant resurrecting the abandoned and decaying oyster sloop, SPRAY from a meadow on the appropriately named Pov- erty Point near Fairhaven, Massachusetts. For Wright a century later, it meant literally carving a Pemaquid style Friendship sloop out of the trees he dragged from the Catface Mountain forest on the west coast of Van- couver Island, British Columbia, Wright found himself echoing Slocum’s view: “Don’t let a shortage of material stop you,” he said, “or you'll never get your boat done The two men came to their boats in vastly different ways. Slocum, the veteran ship captain, found hi out of work when the world’s fleet of elegant wind: jammers was reduced to a string of ignominious tov barges. Wright, with a world of options to choose from, picked a lovely Friendship sloop design and worked on, it for 23 years before launching her off the beach, nself 48 + WWooddentont 225 Slocum’s story, recounted in Sailing Alone Around the World, is well known to anyone with a passion for wooden boats and an interest in singlehanding. But 1 didn't know Wright's tale until we met on the dock in Tofino on Vancouver Island's rngged west side. hen you first meet Wright, you're looking for somebody else. This is the guy they couldn't tie down in school, who spent time as a com- mando in an elite Canadian parachute regiment, then the wilds opted out in favor of an alternative lifestyle of British Columbia. Knowing this, I was expecting cross between John Wayne and John Lennon when I asked the skinny guy with the saltand-pepper beard— who turned out to be Wright himself—where to find the skipper of the sloop with the unusual name of BOAT-LIKE-OBJECT. The guy was short and grizzled, a ily unlikely candidate for BOAT-LIKE-OBJECT'S old man, But when we got to talking, he was confident, funny, charming, and all the other good thi make a determined boatbuilder. He also made it clear he was archly independent igs that Opposite page—Using local woods and working near the beach on his property on Vancouver British Columbia, boatbuilder ‘Mike Wright built Friondship sloop largely by himself. Twenty- three years elapsed before he saw her clipper bow cleaving the local waters. Right—During onstruction, Wright kept a running Journal of ideos and progress. The book now has a place of honor ‘aboard the finished boat, Below— At3#” LOA, BOAT-LIKE-OBJECT fs large for its type but provides ample cruising accommodations, which had been Wright's objective. a, BOAT-LIKE-OBJECT is a once-in-alifetime project whose idea took root sometime around 1988 while Wright was visiting his friend Bob Carr in Vieto- ria aboard SIRIUS, his SPRAY replica. After a lot of discussion, they came to the conclusion that *...a Friendship sloop the same length as SPRAY looked promising: it would carry a foot less beam, a foot or so more draft, a finer entry, and a lovely arched transom,” making it a prettier, faster, and more comfortable boat for voyaging. Wright had already owned several smaller boats, including a WoodenBoat Yankee skiff he built 20’ long, expanded from the boat's original 12", The elegance of Friendship sloops intrigued him and seemed to suit his nature, and he had already built and sold a 26' Friene- ship. This time, he had in mind something along the same lines only larger cured. rom then on, he rad boatdcign “bibles incleding Howard, Chapeles Yat Dane Teseledon38'LOS hull which hebeieed would November/December 2011 + 49 6a P= ‘Above—Wright used steam-bent yew frames, supplemented forward by double-sawn frames that had also served as molds {during construction. Right-Drawing on local woods such as tainly be the largest Friendship sloop afloat. It is among the largest, although one other, sailing out of Holland, Michigan, is also a $8-footet. And accord- ing to historian Betty Roberts of the Friendship Sloop Society, the original boats varied from 21 to 50’ long, with the average length falling somewhere between 30 and 40! Always conscious of the bottom line, Wright took the lines from a boat that Chapelle had described in Ameri can Small Sailing Craft to avoid the cost of involving a yacht designer. He felt that his previous experience as a hoatbuilder prepared him for expanding the plans by simply working from the table of offsets, Ignoring both Chapelle’s cautions a large boats singlehanded and Norman Skene’s warning in Blements of Vache Design that scaling up a design ean be dangerous, Wright nevertheless expanded the lines bya full 50 percent and proceeded to start building the Doat by himself on a remote beach. “Icjust looked right from the get-go," he said, “Like a Yankee skiff I once built to twice the size of the plans. Ie wasn’t that tough to do, because all the dimensions given in feet, inches, and eighths can be doubled up with no problem. That was luck and taking a chance. Td built the actual Pemaquid before—to the right size, t00. $0 that’s not much of an answer” I had asked him whether upsizing made him nervous—after all, this wasn't a burger and fries. “I just increased every offset by 50 percent—profile,halfbreadth, and body plan— and used Chapelle’ construetion plan as a guide, b at in a floor on every other frame and used bolts everywhere.” orn in England, Weight moved to Toronto, Berstogtt a et ean a te arncled back and forth batneen the wo countries before making up his mind to stay in “I think I crossed the Atlantic five times by the anad: ne 50 + Wooddentont 25 was 16. L kept going back to England and staying with my grandmoth Alter finally setling down in a Toronto suburb, he went to high school but left without graduating to enlist in the Queen’s Own Rifles—one of the oldest regiments in Canada. Later, a call went around for volunteers to join a new parachute brigade, which sounded exciting to him, so he signed up Like a lot of people in the late 1960s and early "70s, Wright became disenchanted with military life. He couldn't see spending the rest of his life taking orders. More important, the idea of actually having to shoot someone began fo get to him, After firn weekend with two girls he describes as “hippie chicks from Amster- * he made up his mind to sever his ties with the Canadian Armed Forces. The discipline and drive he developed in the army, however, have served him wel, and now, in hindsight, he admits that military training, helped see him through his project. Wright lives in a cabin he bui tain after leaving the army. His building materials ‘came from the surrounding woods. His neighbors, the local First Nations tribe, pitched in to help. On the west fancouver Island, boats are like ears in middle a. Wright had a beatup Piver trimaran that he ‘ended up buying for 50 bucks,” and he started build ing boats, first the Yankee skiff, then the 26’ Friendship sloop. Al the while, he had to keep leaving his mountain solitude to make a living. He worked as a technical writer in Alberta. Later, he completed a feasibility study for building a paddle-wheeler for the upper Fraser River. That boat never saw the water, but his work impressed Vietoria-based architect Nick Bavlf enough to hire Wright to turn a dilapidated building in Hazel ton, on the Skeena River, into a mock stern-wheeler ‘We did such a good job on it that people would go into the village office and ask when the boat was leaving, It ‘on Carface Moun-