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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

Shirley Chang

With

Kelvin Choung, Rachel Leung, Vivian Yu

Individual report

September 10 2015

Purpose:

The purpose of this lab is to prove that the acceleration due to gravity is approximately

9.80 m/s2 by performing several free fall tests and calculus base calculations. In the tests, we

would measure the distance of the falling object, which is a metal cylinder that generates sparks

at a constant rate according to the Hz generated. We will use the data of the distances to calculate

the time, velocity, and acceleration of the item that is being dropped without air resistance. By

finding out the positions and time of the free falling object, we would be able to find the velocity

and acceleration by using calculus and Kinematic equations. The approximate acceleration from

the experiment should end up being close to 9.80 m/s2, which demonstrates how and where did

the approximation of acceleration due to gravity came from.

Equipments:

-metal cylinder

-electromagnet

-on/off switch to control electromagnet

-spark generator

-long strip of paper

-meter stick

Procedure:

1. Understand how we will be finding acceleration from this experiment by doing the pre-lab

questions (a-e).

a. What equation would you use to describe the position y(t) of a freely falling object?

To find the positions of the freely falling object, we pick one of the Kinematic equations that

include final position (Yf), initial position (Yi), initial velocity (Vyi), acceleration (ay), and time

(t). In this case, we will be using the formula, Yf(t) = Yi + Vyi t + ay t2.

b. Sketch a plot of y(t). Dont worry about exact values, just the general shape.

Position (Y)

Time (s)

c. What do you predict the spacing of the dots on the paper tape will look like? Make a sketch.

The dots are closer together on the top, and further apart as it falls down.

d. Differentiate the equation for position to find an equation for the velocity Vy(t) of this object.

Yf(t) = Yi + Vyi t + ay t2

Yf = 0 + Vyi + ay t

Vy = Vyi + ay t

e. Sketch a plot of Vy(t). What is the slope? What is the y-intercept?

Velocity (cm/s)

Time (s)

2. Once the entire group member understands how we will be finding acceleration based on

position vs. time graph and velocity vs time graph, the experiment may begin.

3. We will be doing the experiment 3 times, set the spark generator to 20 Hz first run, 30 Hz

second run, and 60 Hz third run.

4. Make sure the equipments are working properly before performing the first run.

5. Roll out the white long strip of paper and tape it against the pole with one side of the wire

under it.

6. Hang the metal cylinder on electromagnet by turning the on button for electromagnet box.

7. Turn the spark generator to the appropriate Hz base on which run you are doing.

8. Have one person turning on sparks, then have another person pushing the off button on

electromagnet to release the object for it to fall.

9. Make sure to turn off the spark generator before carefully taking the long strip of paper off the

pole. There should be small holes on the long strip of paper which were burn by the sparks.

10. Circle the small holes, and number them in order to start measuring for data collection.

11. To collect the data, lay the long strip of paper on the table, and use a meter stick to measure

the distance from the first burnt hole to every other hole. For example, measure the distance from

first hole to second, then the first hole to third hole, then the first to fourth, and so on. Have four

members of the group repeating the same measurement and estimate the distances to 0.01 place,

then calculate average distance as the position of the object at certain time. Plug each members

estimated distance into a Microsoft word, and find average distance by adding them up, then

divide them by four. Note that all these calculation that appears on the data can be done on

Microsoft word by commanding the program to do the calculations for you with a given formula

without punching in the calculators.

12. With the data of distance being collected, the data of time and velocity can be collected by

calculations. Then the acceleration due to earths gravitational force can be found out by finding

the slope of position vs time graph, and velocity vs time graph.

13. Make sure the data are recorded with no experimental errors before starting the next run of

experiment with a different Hz.

Data:

Data 1: 20 Hz data

Dot# is the holes from top to bottom that were burnt on the paper by the high voltage electric.

Dist 1 is the distance that was measured by the first person.

Dist 2 is the distance that was measured by the second person.

Dist 3 is the distance that was measured by the third person.

Dist 4 is the distance that was measured by the fourth person.

Avg dist is the average distance of each persons measurements.

Graph 1: 20 Hz Position-time Graph

Y= final position

X= time

X = time.

Data 2: 30 Hz data

Dot# is the holes from top to bottom that were burnt on the paper by the high voltage electric.

Dist 1 is the distance that was measured by the first person.

Dist 2 is the distance that was measured by the second person.

Dist 3 is the distance that was measured by the third person.

Dist 4 is the distance that was measured by the fourth person.

Avg dist is the average distance of each persons measurements.

Y= final position

X= time

Graph 4: 30 Hz Velocity-Time Graph

X = time.

Data 3: 60 Hz data

Dot# is the holes from top to bottom that were burnt on the paper by the high voltage electric.

Dist 1 is the distance that was measured by the first person.

Dist 2 is the distance that was measured by the second person.

Dist 3 is the distance that was measured by the third person.

Dist 4 is the distance that was measured by the fourth person.

Avg dist is the average distance of each persons measurements.

Y= final position

X= time

Graph 6: 60 Hz Velocity-Time Graph

X = time.

Data Result: Calculated acceleration due to gravity based on experiment

Analysis:

To find the average distance, add the measurements up and divide by the number of

measurements. The equation of Average Distance would be

dist 1+ dist 2+dist 3+dist 4

4

Average Distance =

For example:

Refer to Data 1.

Average Distance =

4

5.39+5.45+5.51+5.42

4

= 5.4425 cm

To calculate time (t), add however many second based on the spark Hz it takes to generate a

spark to the time from zero second up to the number of hole you are on. For example, if the spark

rate is 20 Hz, then it takes 1/20 second for every spark that is being generated. From beginning,

it takes 1/20 second to burn the first hole on the paper, then it burn the second hole after another

1/20 second, then it burns another hole again after another 1/20 second because the sparks are

burning holes at a constant rate. In this case, the equation of the time would be

t = (1/20)x

x = the number of burnt hole from top to bottom.

For example:

Refer to Data 1.

t(x) = (1/20)x

t (1) = (1/20)1

t(1) = 1/20

t(1) = 0.05 second

To calculate the velocity, divide the distance by the time. The equation would be

velocity =

For example:

Refer to Data 1.

centimeter

second

10

V=

cm

s

V=

5.4425

0.05

V = 108.85 cm/s

To calculate acceleration from position time graph, plug all the data into Microsoft Excel, then

select Average distance (cm) for y-axis and time (s) for x-axis to make a Distance vs. time graph,

where it will automatically give you the equation of the graph based on the data. Then compare

the equation to the equation that we used to describe the position y(t) of the freely falling object

to find acceleration. The equation would be

Yf(t) = Yi + Vyi t + ay t2

For example:

Refer to Graph 1.

Equation of the graph: y = 470.91x2 + 83.692x 0.0715

Equation used to describe the position of freely falling object: Yf(t) = Yi + Vyi t + ay t2.

y = 470.91x2 + 83.692x 0.071 Yf(t) = ay t2+ Vyi t + Yi

470.91x2 = ay t2 470.91= ay, x2 = t2.

ay = acceleration on the y-axis

ay = 470.91

ay = 941.82 cm/s2

a 9.42 m/s2

y

To calculate acceleration from velocity time graph, plug all the data into Microsoft Excel, then

select Velocity (cm/s) for y-axis and time (s) for x-axis to make a Distance vs. time graph, where

it will automatically give you the equation of the graph based on the data. Then compare the

equation to the equation of velocity of the free falling object to find acceleration, which would be

Vy = Vyi + ay t

For example:

Refer to Graph 2.

Equation of the graph: y = 994.03x + 41.118

Equation of Velocity for the free falling object: Vy = ay t + Vyi

y = 994.03x + 41.118 Vy = ay t + Vyi 994.03 = ay, x = t

11

ay = 994.03 cm/s2

a 9.94 m/s2

y

To calculate the total distance traveled by finding the area under the velocity vs. time graph

between time = 0 and the time corresponding the last data point, use the formula

final velocity x final time

2

For example:

final velocity x final time

2

(510.75 cm/s)(0.4833333 s)

2

123.43 cm

Discussion:

We used second order polynomial as the appropriate equation for position vs. time graph

because according to kinematic equations, the equation for a position at a certain time is Yf(t) =

Yi + Vyi t + ay t2. In this equation, Yf (t) is the final position at a certain time, and the greatest

order of polynomial is 2, which means that the equation of the position vs. time should be in

second order polynomial. Similarly, for the equation of velocity vs. time graph we used first

order polynomial because according to kinematic equations, the equation for velocity at a certain

time is Vy = Vyi + ay t, where there is only first degree in the polynomial.

According to our data, 60 Hz gives a more precise value of acceleration due to gravity

because 60 Hz gave us more data to collect by burning more dots on the long strip of paper

compared to 30 Hz and 20 Hz. The velocity that we calculated was instantaneous velocity

because we were calculating the velocity of the particle at a particular instant time, which is the

distance where every hole is burnt on the long strip of paper and over how long it takes to burn

another hole since the last burnt hole.

The y-intercept of velocity vs. time graph is not zero because our initial velocity wasnt

zero. We dont know what the velocity from initial position to first dot because the spark was

sparking too fast for us human to drop the metal cylinder the same exact time as when it sparks.

We could have dropped the metal cylinder 0.003 second after the spark has sparked, but during

those 0.003 second, the objects position hasnt changed yet. For example, if a runner started to

run 10 second after the timer already started, the distance and velocity of the first 10 second

would be zero, which should be excluded from the runners actual velocity when he started to

run. In our experiment, we excluded the velocity from initial position to first dot because we

dont know when the metal cylinder started dropping did after it sparked. In this case, y-intercept

was approximated by the slope of the equation.

12

Referring back to the last sample calculation where the question asked to determine the

total distance traveled by finding the area under the velocity vs. time graph between time = 0 and

the time corresponding the last data point, the answer to this questions distance is 123.43 cm.

The distance does make sense if we calculate it this way. Our estimated distance is

approximately 134cm for 20 Hz, 137 cm for 30 Hz, and 137cm for 60 Hz, which is a lot more

accurate than finding the distance from just final and initial points. The more data that are

collected, the more accurate the distance should be because the change in velocity was also taken

into account into the calculation. Comparing to having the initial and final data, the distance

would be less accurate because they change in velocity wasnt taken account into the calculation,

but it is still a general approximation. As we see, with just final and initial data, we got the

number 123.43 cm, and as we go up in Hz per second, the number started to get closer and

closer, where eventually, 30Hz and 60Hz have the same distance rounded up. In this case, the

method of taking the area under the graph is not incorrect, but less accurate.

Our group actually did 60 Hz experiment run twice because we noticed a big gap in the

top middle of the long strip of paper, we estimate that we were missing two dots on the long strip

of paper, which totally effected our data. In that case, we re-do the experiment again and got a

better data from it. We believe that we did not tape the long strip of paper on the pole well, which

caused the big blank gap in between two dots at the top middle of the long strip of paper.

Conclusion:

In this experiment, the average of our acceleration based on position vs. time equation is

9.57 m/s2 compared to the average acceleration of 9.92 m/s2 based on our velocity vs. time

equation. We have a 2.3% error for our acceleration based on position vs. time equation

compared to the universal approximately acceleration of 9.80 m/s2, which is not too bad! The

average acceleration based on velocity vs. time equation had a 1.2% error, which had a lower

percent error than what I thought we would get. Through this experiment, I have experienced and

learned a lot of calculation methods to make calculation more precise, such as having final and

initial data compared to having 30 other data in between final and initial data really do make a

difference in the result. Also, we have learned to apply Kinematic equation into real life use,

where we used the kinematic equation and calculus skills to find the acceleration of the freely

falling object.

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