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MathFluencyStrategiesSummary

K2

Strategy

Explanation

Example

CountingAll/On

PreKtoKindergartenlevelthat
involvescountingeachitem.
Thenextstepisstartingwiththe
largernumber,thencountingon
theamountbeingadded.

5+2...1,2,3,4,5,and6,7

6+3...6,and7,8,9
6+3=9

Making10

Two
addends
(thenumbersbeing
added)thatmakeaquickten.
Learningthecombinationsthat
make10(1+9,8+2,6+4,7+3).

7+5+3
(7+3)+5
10+5=15
7+3equals10so10+5equals15

Doubles/NearDoubles

Doublesarefactsthathavethe
sametwo
addends
(thenumbers
beingadded).
Neardoublesarefactsthat
addendsdifferbyone.

Doubles:1+1,2+2,5+5,etc.

Neardoubles:9+8,5+6,7+6,4+5

AddingUp(subtraction)

Startwithsmallernumber,addup
toalandmark/friendlynumber,
fromthelandmarkadduptogetto
thetargetnumber.Addthetwo
numbersyouused.

Removal(subtraction)

Landmark/
FriendlyNumbers

Breakinguptheamountthats
takenawaysothattheonesare
thesameasthefirstnumberso
thatyoucaneasilysubtractthem.
Removethe
subtrahend
(part
beingsubtracted)inpartsthatare
thesameasthedigitinthe
minuend
(isthelargernumberthat
isbeingtakenawayfrom).

(22istheminuend,8isthesubtrahend)

228
thinkof8as2+6
so222=20then206=14
14isyouranswer

(41istheminuend,4isthesubtrahend)

414
thinkof4as1+3
so411=40then403=37
37isyouranswer

Landmarkorfriendlynumbersare
numbersthatareeasytousein
mentalcomputation.

Breakingeachnumberintoits
placevalue

Involvesbreakingupmultidigit
numbersintotheirplacevalue
amountstoaddorsubtractmore
quickly.

Compensation

Involvesdecidingwhichnumberto
adjusttomakeiteasiertoaddor
subtract.Compensate(adjust)by
changingtheothernumber.

Addingupinchunks

Addingmultiplesoftenswhile
keepingonenumberwholeand
thenbreakingaparttheonesinto
friendlycombinations.

Foraddition:52+39,
thinkof52+40=92,
thensubtracttheextra1addedto
the39atthestart
so52+401=91

Forsubtraction:3518,
thinkof3520=15,thenaddback
the2thatisthedifference
betweenthe18andthe20,
so3518+2=17

MathFluencyStrategiesSummary
35

Strategy

Explanation

Example

Landmark/
FriendlyNumbers
(Multiplication)

Landmarkorfriendlynumbersare
numbersthatareeasytousein
mentalcomputation.

9x25
10x25=250
25025=225
(Yousubtract25becauseyouonly
need9groupsof25,not10groups
of25.)

PartialProduct

Thefactorsinamultiplication
problemcanbebrokenapartinto
addends
(thenumbersbeing
added),allowingstudentstouse
smallerproblemstosolvemore
difficultones.

9x15=
9x(10+5)
9x10=90
9x5=45
90+45=135

DoublingandHalving

Inthisstrategystudentsdouble
one
factor
(numberbeing
multiplied)andhalftheother
factor,restructuringtheproblem
sothatitiseasiertosolve.

8x25

2x2

4x50

2x2

2x100=200

BreakingFactorsintoSmall
Factors

The
associativeproperty
(youcan
addormultiplyregardlessofhow
numbersaregrouped)isatthe
coreofthisstrategy.

12x25
(4x25)+(4x25)+(4x25)
100+100+100=300

RepeatedSubtraction

Startwiththe
dividend
(thewhole
beingdividedup)andsubtractthe
samenumberuntilyougettozero.

305

305=25
255=20
205=15
155=10
105=5
55=0
yousubtract5sixtimesso305=6

Sharing/DealingOut

Thestudentsknowsthewholeand
howmanygroups,butthestudents
doesnotknowhowmanywillgoin
eachgroup.Thestudentdealsout
intoeachgroup,untilthewholeis
alldividedup.

MultiplyingUp

Insteadofdividing,students
multiplythe
divisor
(thenumber
doingthedividing)

withfriendly
numbersuntiltheyreachthe
dividend
(thewholebeingdivided
up).

PartialQuotients

Inpartialquotientsdivision,ittakes
severalstepstofindthe
quotient
.
Ateachstep,thestudentfindsa
partialanswer
(calledapartial
quotient);thenthestudentfinds
the
product
(solutiontoa
multiplicationproblem)ofthe
partialquotientand
divisor
(the
numberdoingthedividing)and
subtractsitfromthedividend.
Finally,thestudentaddsallthe

partialquotientstofindthefinal
Demonstratesusingfriendly10sand2s
quotient.

tosolvetheproblem.Asthe10sand2s
arerecordedtothesideoftheproblem,
theyrepresent10x16and2x16.

ProportionalReasoning

Dividingthe
dividend
andthe
divisor
bythesameamountto
createasimplerproblem.Ifthe
dividendanddivisorsharecommon
factors,thentheproblemcanbe
simplified.

Theansweris24,youcanseethat
stoppingatanystepyouwillstillgetthe
correctanswer.