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# Section A

1 Which of the following groups correctly identifies kinetic energy, pressure and
angular momentum as scalar or vector?
kinetic energy pressure
angular momentum
A vector
vector
vector
B vector
scalar
vector
C vector
vector
scalar
D scalar
scalar
vector
2 Forces of 6 N and 8 N act at a point. Which of the following could not be the
magnitude of their resultant force?
A

1N

2N

10 N

14 N

## 3 A student releases a stationary object. He measures the distance, s travelled

downwards by the object and the time taken t. Air resistance is neglected. Which of
the following graphs shows correctly the relation between s and t2 ?
s

t2

t2

t2

t2

4 A rugby ball is kicked towards the goal posts from a position directly in front of
the posts as shown in the diagram. The ball passes over the cross-bar and between
the posts.

The ball takes 1.5 s to reach a maximum point vertically above the cross-bar of the
posts. What is the angle above the horizontal at which the ball was kicked?
A

21

38

45

52

## 5 A particle X moving with constant velocity collides elastically with an identical

stationary particle Y. If the direction of X after the collision makes an angle of 30
with the original direction of motion of X, what is the angle between the direction of
motion of Y with the original direction of motion of X?
A

30

60

90

6 Which of the following pairs of forces is not a valid example of action and
reaction to which Newton's third law of motion applies?
A The weight of a satellite in orbit around the Earth and the attractive force on the
Earth's centre of mass due to the satellite.
B The weight of an object resting on the table and the force acting on the object
due to the table supporting it.
C The forces of repulsion experienced by two parallel wires carrying currents in
opposite directions.
D The forces of attraction felt by two gas molecules passing near to each other.

7 A constant force acting on a body causes it to move from rest along a straight
line on a smooth horizontal plane. Which of the graphs of power P against time, t
best illustrates the motion of the object?

0
A

0
C

## 8 A pendulum bob of mass m tied to a string of

length I is set to swing in a horizontal circle. The
string makes an angle of 45 with the vertical, as
shown in the diagram below.
Which one of the following gives the correct
expressions both for the tension in the string and
the speed of the bob?
Tension
Speed of bob
lg
A mg
lg
2mg
B
lg
2mg
C
0.84
lg
D mg
0.84
5

9 A satellite is orbiting in a stable orbit around the earth. If this satellite is moved
to another stable orbit which is further away, which of the following quantities would
be increased?
A
B
C
D

linear velocity
angular velocity
centripetal acceleration
gravitational potential energy

10 The diagram below shows a ladder PQ, of weight W, leaning against a rough
wall.
Q

## The resultant forces at P and Q are R and S respectively. The ladder is in

equilibrium. Which triangle of forces is correct?
S

S
R

11 A load of mass m is hung from the end of a vertical metal wire. The load is not
allowed to fall freely but is lowered by hand slowly to the equilibrium point. If the
extension of the wire is x, then the potential energy of the mass m is decreased by
1
2
mgx, whereas the potential energy of the wire is increased by mgx only. Which of
the following statements explain the difference between the two types of energy?
A
B
C
D

## The wire has been stretched beyond its elastic limit.

The difference between the two types of energy is in the form of heat.
The difference between the two types of energy is in the form of kinetic energy.
Work done by the load is to overcome the force exerted by the hand during the
extension of the wire.

12 The r.m.s. speed of the molecules of an ideal gas at pressure p and volume V is
3
V
2
cr . The gas is heated so that its volume becomes
and its pressure becomes 6p.
What is the new r.m.s speed of the gas molecules?
A

3 cr

4 cr

6 cr

9 cr

13 An ideal gas exerts a pressure of 60 Pa when its temperature is 400 K and the
number of molecules present in unit volume is N. Another sample of the same gas
exerts a pressure of 40 Pa when its temperature is 300 K . How many molecules are
present in unit volume of this second sample?
N
8N
9N
8
2
9
A
B
C
D 2N
14 Which of the equations below is not applicable in an adiabatic change of an ideal
gas?
TV 1 constant
A dQ = 0
B pV=RT
C pV = constant D
15 The graph below shows the thermodynamic cycle undergone by an ideal gas
system.

## Heat enters the gas system at stages

A

PQ and SP

PQ and RS

QR and SP

QR and RS

Section B ( 15 marks )
Answer ALL questions in this section.
16 A conveyor belt is pulled horizontally by a motor on top of rollers in order to carry
boxes falling on it vertically as shown in the diagram below.
boxes

conveyor belt

rollers

The speed of the conveyor belt is always constant at 1.50 ms -1. The mass of each
box is 200 kg and after falling down, it takes 0.60 s to achieve the speed of the
conveyor belt.
(a) What is the extra force the motor must exert so that each box achieves the
speed of the conveyor belt?

[2]
(b) Calculate the change in kinetic energy of a box.

[2]
(c) Explain the motion of the box from the moment it falls on the conveyor belt to the
moment it achieves the speed of the conveyor belt.

[2]
(iv) If the frictional force between the belt and the rollers is 700 N, calculate the
power of the motor before and after a box achieves the speed of the conveyor belt.

[2]
17 a) State two conditions for the equilibrium of a rigid body when it is acted upon
by coplanar forces.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[2]
(b) A uniform lamina in the form of a semicircle of radius r rests in a vertical plane
with its curved edge in contact with a smooth vertical wall and rough horizontal
ground at A and B respectively as shown. The centre, O and point B are aligned.

.G

B
1
6

If the coefficient of friction between the lamina and the ground is , find the
inclination of its straight edge to the horizontal , when it is on the point of slipping.
4r
3
(given that the centre of gravity,G of semicircular lamina is
from the centre,O)

[5]
Section C (30 marks)
18 (a) State Newtons laws of motion.

[3 marks]

## (b) Derive the principle of conservation of momentum by using Newtons laws of

motion.
[2 marks ]
(c) A ship of mass 12 x 106 kg is moving backwards with a velocity of 0.50 ms -1
towards a dockside. In order to stop the ship, the engines are ordered full
(i) Calculate the initial kinetic energy of the ship.
[ 2 marks]
(ii) Assuming that viscous drag effects are negligible, calculate the value of
the constant force which must be exerted on the ship if it is to stop in a
distance of 15 m.
[3 marks]
(iii) How long will it take the ship to stop under these conditions? [2 marks]
(iv) If the viscous drag forces are not negligible how the answer in c (iii)
would be affected? Explain.
[ 3 marks]
19 (a) Define the gravitational field strength at a point.

[2marks]

(b) Planets revolve round the Sun in orbits which are assumed to be circular in
shape. Show that the square of the period of revolution of a planet is directly
proportional to the cube of the radius of the orbit.
[3marks]
(c) A satellite of mass 100 kg revolves round the Earth in a circular orbit of
radius 4.2 X 107 m with a period of 24 hours.
(i) Determine the angular momentum of the satellite.
[2 marks]
(ii) Determine the magnitude of the gravitational field strength at a point on
the orbit.
[2 marks]
(iii) Determine the energy required to lift the satellite from the surface of the
Earth to the orbit.
[3 marks]
(iv) If U represents the gravitational potential energy of the satellite in the
orbit, show that
1
U
2
Kinetic energy of a satellite =
[3 marks]
10

20 (a) State two assumptions made in the kinetic theory of an ideal gas.[2 marks]
(b) The internal energy of a gas is the sum of potential energy and kinetic
energy of the molecules of the gas. Explain why, for an ideal gas, only the
kinetic energy changes when the internal energy of the gas is increased
either at constant pressure.
[2 marks]
(c) The pressure p of an ideal gas is given by the equation
1 Nm 2
p
c
3 V
,
(i)

## State what is meant by < c2 >

[1 marks]

(ii) Use the equation to show that the total kinetic energy Ek of the N
3
E k pV
2
molecules in the gas is given by
. Hence show that Ek is
proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.
[5 marks]
(d) . A container with a volume of 3.5 x 10-3 m3 contains nitrogen gas at a
pressure of 2.18 x 106 Pa and a temperature of 33 C. One mole of nitrogen
molecules has a mass of 28g..
Assuming that nitrogen behaves as an ideal gas, calculate
(i)

[2 marks]

## (ii) the average translational kinetic energy of a nitrogen molecule.[2 marks]

(iii) the root-mean-square speed of a nitrogen molecule.

11

[1mark]