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ELE-351

Electrical Energy Conversion

DC Machines

5:10PM

Outline

Principles
P
i i l off DC machinery
hi
The equivalent model of a DC motor
Characteristics of shunt DC motors
Speed control of DC motors

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Rotating Loop Between Curved Pole Faces


The magnetic field is always perpendicular to
the rotor surface.

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Voltage Induced in the Rotating Loop


A source of mechanical power to rotates the loop/rotor.
g varies with the segment:
g
The induced voltage
eind = (v B)l

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Getting DC Voltage
(Commutator & Brushes)
The two isolated semicircular conductors always
connect the end of the loop with positive voltage to the
positive output terminal, by means of brushes (low
friction).

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Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop


Flow of current in the loop is required.
F = i (lB)
= r F sin

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Characteristics of DC Motors
Great performance for applications that require
wide
id variations
i i
in
i speed.
d
Main types of DC motors:
Separately excited DC motor

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Shunt
Sh
nt DC motor
Permanent magnet DC motor
Series
i DC motor
Compounded DC motor
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The Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor


Armature and field circuits.
Ea = k
ind
i d = k ia

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The Magnetization Curve of a DC Motor


Variation of the internal voltage with the field
g current ((that pproduces B).
)
winding

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Separately Excited
and
d Sh
Shuntt DC Motors
M t

SeparatelyExcitedDCMotor
(The field is fed from a separate source)
(Thefieldisfedfromaseparatesource)
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ShuntDCMotor
(The armature and the field are fed from the
(Thearmatureandthefieldarefedfromthe
samesource)
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Terminal Characteristics of a Shunt Motor


Plot of the output quantities (torque x speed).
nl
0
1

load0

load1

Response to a load variation (increase):


If: load,
,
EA,
IA,
ind,
(1< 0)
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Speed Control of Shunt DC Motors


Changing the field resistance (and the field flux)
If: RF, IF, , EA, IA, ind, (2 > 1)
The change in IA
dominant the
change in

2
1

Slope variation changes the control logic at low speeds!


The change in dominant the change in IA
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Speed Control of Shunt DC Motors


Changing the armature voltage (VA) with IF fixed
If: VA, IA, ind, ((2> 1)

Shunt or Separately excited DC machine


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Dual (IF and VA) Speed Control


If: RF,
IF,
and if: RF ,
IF ,
.
Since IF < IFbase this
method is good for > base!
If: VA, and

if VA , .
Since VA < VAbase this method is
good for < base!

Risk of overspeeding if the field opensdue to a blown fuse!


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Power & Torque in a DC Machine

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Power & Torque in a DC Machine

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