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Chng 3: Cc loi anten thng

Gii thiu
Dipole nguyn t
Dipole c chiu di hu hn
Dipole na sng
Anten n cc (monopole)

Chng 3: Cc loi anten thng

Gii thiu
Dipole nguyn t
Dipole c chiu di hu hn
Dipole na sng
Anten n cc (monopole)

Dipole nguyn t (1)


Xt mt dipole nguyn t c cu to t dy
dn thng rt ngn c tit din rt nh t dc
theo trc z vi tm trng vi gc toa .
Phn b dng trn anten l ng nht:

I ( z ) a z I 0
T th vector A i vi ngun dng Ie:

e jkR
A
I e ( x , y , z )
d

4 C
R

Dipole nguyn t (2)


V cu to rt mng v nh ca
dipole nguyn t do :

I e ( x, y, z) a z I 0
x y z 0
R ( x x ) 2 ( y y ) 2 ( z z ) 2
x2 y 2 z 2 r
d dz

e jkR
A
I e ( x , y , z )
d

4 C
R
I 0 jkr /2
I 0 jkr
a z
e dz a z
e
/2
4 r
4 r

Dipole nguyn t (3)


Chuyn t h trc (x,y,z) sang h trc (r,,):

Ar sin cos sin sin cos Ax



A
A

cos

cos

cos

sin

sin


y
A sin
cos
0 Az

Do th vector A ch c thnh phn theo
phng z, do :

I0 e
Ar Az cos
cos
4 r
I 0 e jkr
A Az sin
sin
4 r
A 0
jkr

Dipole nguyn t (5)


Trng bc x t dipole nguyn t:

Ar
1
H A A a
rA

r r

1

H r H 0
kI 0 sin
H j
4 r

1 jkr
1 jkr e

Dipole nguyn t (6)


Trng bc x t dipole nguyn t:

E A j A

( A )

j
a
a r

HA
H sin
r sin
r

I 0 cos
Er
2
2 r

r rH

1 jkr
1 jkr e

kI 0 sin
E j
4 r
E 0

HA

1
1 jkr
1 jkr (kr ) 2 e

Trng bc x khu gn ca Dipole nguyn t

I0 e
Er j
cos
3
2 kr

jkr

I0 e
E j
sin
3
4 kr

E H r H 0

I 0 e jkr
H
sin

2
4 r

jkr

kr

1
1
*

Wav Re E H Re a r E H * a Er H * 0
2
2
khu gn, vector poyting thun o, trng cm ng chim u th.

Trng bc x khu xa ca Dipole nguyn t


E
Er
H

kI 0 e jkr
j
sin
4 r

E H r H 0

jkr
kI 0 e
j
sin

4 r

kr

Trng bc x ch c thnh phn ngang, in trng v t trng vung gc


vi nhau v vung gc vi phng truyn sng.
T s bin ca in trng v t trng c gi tr bng tr khng sng trong
khng gian t do.

E
Zw
H

Mt cng sut - Cng bc x


Vector poynting:

1
1
*
Wav Re E H a r
E
2
2

kI 0
a r
2 4

sin 2
r2

Mt cng sut:

kI 0
Wav
2 4

sin I 0

2
r
8
2

sin 2
r2

Cng bc x:

I0
U
8

sin 2

12

Kiu bc x

13

Cng sut bc x ton phn in tr bc x


Cng sut bc x ton phn:

Prad Ud

I0
8

sin 2 sin d d

I0

3

Prad

in tr bc x:

Prad

I0

3

1 2
I 0 Rrad
2
2

Rrad 80 2

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H s nh hng Din tch hiu dng cc i


I0
sin 2
4 U ( , )
8
D( , )
4
2
Prad
I0

3
3 2
D( , ) sin
2

H s nh hng:

H s nh hng cc i:

3
D0
2
Din tch hiu dng cc i:

2
Aem
4

3 2
D0
8

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Bi tp
Hy tm th vector ca mt anten dipole ngn biu din trn hnh v sau c phn b
dng cho bi biu thc di y.

I ( z ) a z I 0 1 2 z / l ,

l / 2 z l / 2

T tnh trng bc x khu xa, cng bc x, cng sut bc x ton phn, h s


nh hng v in tr bc x ca anten ny.

(a)

(b)

Chng 3: Cc loi anten thng

Gii thiu
Dipole nguyn t
Dipole c chiu di hu hn
Dipole na sng
Anten n cc (monopole)

Dipole c chiu di hu hn
Xt mt dipole c cu to t dy dn thng vi tit din rt nh v chiu di hu
hn t dc theo trc z vi tm trng vi gc toa .

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Phn b dng ca dipole c chiu di hu hn


Phn b dng trn anten c dng:


a z I 0 sin k z ,
2

for 0 z / 2
I e ( z)
a I sin k z ,
z 0 2

for / 2 z 0

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Trng bc x (1)
Gi s chia nh anten thnh cc dipole
nguyn t c chiu di dz .
Trng bc x t cc phn t dipole
nguyn t khu xa:

dE
dEr
dH

kI e ( z )e jkR
j
sin dz
4 R
dE dH r dH 0
jkR

kI e ( z )e
j
sin dz
4 R

Vi R l khong cch t phn t dz


n im kho st
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Trng bc x (2)
p dng phng php gn ng cho
trng khu xa:

r z cos

for phase terms

for amplitute terms

Trng bc x khu xa ca phn t


dipole nguyn t dz:

dE

jkr

kI e ( z )e
j
sin e jkz cos dz
4 r

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Trng bc x (3)
Trng bc x khu xa ton b dipole:
/2

jkr

/2

ke
jkz cos

dE

sin

I
(
z
)
e
dz

4 r
/2
/2

kI 0 e

jkz cos
j
sin sin k ( z ) e
dz
4 r

/2 2
jkr

/2

jkz cos
sin k ( z ) e
dz
2

k
cos cos
jkr cos
I 0e
2
2

j
2 r
sin

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Trng bc x ca dipole c chiu di hu hn (4)

k
cos cos
jkr cos
I 0e
2
2

j
2 r
sin

k
cos cos
jkr cos
E
I 0e
2

H
j

2 r
sin

E Er H H r 0

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Mt cng sut
Vector poynting:

k
2
cos cos cos

I
1
1
2
2
2
0

*
Wav Re E H a r
E a r 2 2
2
2
8 r
sin

Mt cng sut:

k
2
cos cos cos

I0
2

2
Wav 2 2
8 r
sin

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Cng bc x
Cng bc x:

I0

8 2

B0

k
cos 2 cos cos 2

sin

B F ( , )
0

F ( , )
Hm phng hng ca anten

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Kiu bc x trong mt phng ng

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Kiu bc x ca anten c chiu di 1.25

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Cng sut bc x ton phn


Cng sut bc x ton phn:

Prad

k
cos cos
2 cos
2
I0
2

2
Ud 2
0
0
8
sin

Prad

I0

C ln(k

d d

) Ci (k ) 12 sin(k ) Si (2k ) 2 Si (k )

12 cos(k ) C ln(k / 2) Ci (2k ) 2Ci ( k )


Vi l Si(x) v Ci(x) cc tch phn sin v tch phn cosin

cos y
Ci ( x)
dy,

y
x

sin y
Si ( x )
dy

y
x

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in tr bc x
in tr bc x:

Rrad

2 Prad
I0

C ln(k ) Ci (k )

2
1
sin(k
2
1
cos( k
2

in tr vo:

) Si (2k ) 2 Si (k )

) C ln(k / 2) Ci (2k ) 2Ci ( k )

Rr
Rin
for / 2
2 k
sin
2
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H s nh hng
H s nh hng

4 U ( , )
D( , )
4
Prad

F ( , )

F ( , ) sin d d

2 F ( , )

Vi:

F ( , )

F ( , ) sin d

k
cos 2 cos cos 2


sin

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H s nh hng
H s nh hng

2 F ( , )
D( , )
Q

H s nh hng cc i:

D0
Vi:

2 F ( , ) max
Q

1
Q C ln(k ) Ci (k ) sin(k ) Si (2k ) 2 Si (k )
2
1

cos( k ) C ln(k / 2) Ci (2k ) 2Ci (k )


2

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Chng 3: Cc loi anten thng

Gii thiu
Dipole nguyn t
Dipole c chiu di hu hn
Dipole na sng
Anten n cc (monopole)

Dipole na sng
Cu trc rt n gin d thit k ch to
in tr bc x l 73 gn vi tr khng c trng l 50 hoc 75 ca cc
ng truyn c bn nn rt d phi hp tr khng.
z

I ( z ) I 0 cos(k0 z )

0/4

0/4

I ( z)dz

y
0/4
x

(a)

-0/4

(b)

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Trng bc x
Trng bc x ca dipole na sng c th c tnh ton s dng cng thc v
trng bc x ca ipole c chiu di hu hn vi
/2

k
cos
cos

cos

I 0 e jkr
2
2

j
2 r
sin

k ( / 2)

k ( / 2)
cos
cos

cos

I 0 e jkr
2
2

j
2 r
sin

cos
jkr cos
I 0e
2

2 r
sin

cos
jkr cos
I 0e
2

j
2 r
sin

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Mt cng sut Cng bc x


Mt cng sut:

2
cos cos

I0
2

Wav 2 2
8 r
sin

I0

8 r
2

3
sin

Cng bc x:

2 cos
cos

I0
2

U r Wav 2
8
sin

I0
8

2
3
sin

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Kiu bc x ca Dipole na sng

Cng sut bc x ton phn


Cng sut bc x ton phn:
2

Prad

cos
2 cos
2
I0
2

Ud 2
d d
0
0
8
sin

Vi

I0

2
cos 2 cos
I0

d
Cin (2 )
sin
8

Cin (2 )

2.435

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H s nh hng
H s nh hng

D( , ) 4

F ( , )
2

4 F ( , )
D( , )
Cin (2 )

F ( , ) sin d d

2 F ( , )

Vi: F ( , )

Cin (2 )

F ( , ) sin d

cos 2 cos


sin

2.435

D( , ) 1.643F ( , )
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H s nh hng cc i Din tch hiu dng cc i


H s nh hng cc i:

D0

4 F ( , ) max
Cin (2 )

4 F ( , ) /2
Cin (2 )

1.643
2.435

Din tch hiu dng cc i:

2
Aem
D0
(1.643) 0.13
4
4
2

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in tr bc x Tr khng vo ca anten
in tr bc x:

Rrad

2 Prad
I0

Cin (2 ) 30(2.435) 73
4

Tr khng vo:

Z in 73 j 42.5

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Chng 3: Cc loi anten thng

Gii thiu
Dipole nguyn t
Dipole c chiu di hu hn
Dipole na sng
Anten n cc (monopole)

Anten n cc bc sng
Cu to anten n cc /4

M hnh tng ng

Cu to bi mt na anten dipole na sng t trn mt phng dn in


Anten n cc loi anten ngn hiu qu nht cho di tn vi bc sng t
200m ~ 600m

=> s dng ph bin cho di pht thanh AM vi f: 500KHz ~1500 KHz


S dng nhiu trong thng tin di dng
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