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Ricky W.

Griffin
Texas A&M University
Michael W. Pustay
Texas A&M University

INTERNATIONAL
BUSINESS
A Managerial Perspective

Fourth Edition

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

.
M.

4-


,

IMISP

-
--

2006

65.8
339
85

85

., .
. 4- . / . . . . . .
.: , 2006. 1088 : . ( ).
ISBN 5-469-00274-8
. .
, .
, .

;
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, .
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,
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65.8
339

Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Sadie River, New Jersey 07458.


.
.

ISBN 5-469-00274-8

, 2006

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.
.
, ,

.
.


I.
1.

42

2.

72

3. ,

120

4.

161

5.

215

.
6.

268

7.

323

8.

376

9.

420

10.

473

III.
11.
i

538

12.

589

13.

645

14.

687

15.

741

IV.
16.

798

17.

840

18.

884

19.

932

20.

969

27

32

34

36

I.
1.

42

?
?






,

45
47
49
49
51
53
56
57
57
59

64
65
65
67

67
68
68
68

2.

72

,


-

75
75
79
80
80
82
85
85
88
89
91
93
93
97
98
100
101
101
101
102
105
107
107
110
111
111

114
114
119

3. ,

120

122
122
123
128

10

'.




007
-
4.

'

129
133
135
137
139
144
145
150
150
151
152
152
153
153
160
161
164
166
170
175
178
181
186
186
188
190
190
195
198
201
203
203
203
205
205
206
206

\\

207
208


AFLAC
-

208
208
214

5. .... 215

217

-


,






221
221
224

,

^
,









,

235
236
237

252

253

254
254

226
227
227
229
230
235

237
239
242
245
246
247
249
249
251

12
I

257

257

262

II.
6.

268
,

271
273

273

275

277

279

281

285

285

286

290

294

299
299

........

300

301

301

302

304

305

306
306

'.

309
310
311

311

313

313

314

13


..
-

315
315
321

7.

323




-
-
1971


2002

327
327
330
331
338
341
350
354
362
364

366
366
368
369

369

372

372

8.



-







376

378
381
385
389
393
404
405
407
409
410
411
411
411

14






-
9.

,










I

412
413
413
414
414
419
420
423
424
431
438
438
443
452
453
454
456
457
457


-301
-


460
461
462
462
463
464

464
464
465
465
472

10.

459
460

473
476





Whirlpool .
-
,
II

Nike Inc.:

15

477
481
486
486
489
491
492
496
501
505
505
507
511
515
515
516
516
517
517
517
523
524
524
528
534

III.
11.

538

542
548
559
559
560
561
562
563

16


SWOT-

563
565
568
568
569
570
570
575
577
578
578
579
580
581
582
582
588

12.

589

592
592
599
600
608
612
615
619
623
624
627

628
628
630

630
631
631
631

YJ_

633
634
635
637

637
637
638

639

.....

640
640
641


Heineken

641
641

13.

645

647

650
650
652
656
656
657
657
659



..







663
664
666
669
672
672
673
674
...675
675

676
676
677

677

678
679

18


Slimline:
-

14.

679
679
686
687

690

692
693
696
698
701
701
704

705
705
707
708

709
711
713
717

718
718
724
728

731
731
732

733

734
734


Daimler Chrysler, ?
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734
734
740

15.

741
744
744

19

,





, ,

749
752
754
755
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761
766
767
769
772
773
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777
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778
778




:
Firestone
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Ben
&
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Nissan

779
780
780
780
784
785
785
791

IV.
16.

-
-

798
801
801
804
804
808

20

809
810
811
813
813

814
815
816
820
820
823
825
825
826
827
828

832
832
833

833

834


Pilbbury

,.

-
17.

835
835
839
840
842
843
845
845
846
853
860
863
863
864

gj.

865

866

868

871

873
873
875

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875

875
879



:
:
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879
879
881
882
883

18. .

884


...,





,

886
886
886
888
898
899
899
906
907
910
910
911
914

915
915
917
918



....

918
918
921

22

923

923

924

924

925

926

926

931

19.

932
935
935

938

941

944
945
946

946

948

952
952
956
958

958

959

959

960

960

961

961

963
963

964

964

965

"

966
966

20.

23

969

971
973
974
975
976
977

979
980
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984





, ,
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987
987
988
989
990
990
991
996
997
998
998
999
1000
1001
1003
1004
1005
1005
1006
1006
1006
1008
1008
1010
1011

24

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Beijing Carvel

Target Micronics :

Target Micronics


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Journal of Management, Southern Economic Journal, Land Economics
Transportation Journal.
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AG. Kommanditgesellschaft auf

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PLC (public limited com
pany). Swire Pacific Ltd.
GlaxoSmithCline PLC.

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Benetton Group SpA Fiat SpA.
SA
(societe anonyme);
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SA Hachette SA.

); invisible trade (
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Review, vol. 38 (1985), pp. 230-235; John H.
Dunning, Multinational Enterprises and the Global
Economy (Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1993), p. 3; Simcha Ronen,
Comparative and Multinational Management (New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986).

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Volvo Corporation.
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: Green Gables Books a Crowd, Boston Globe, August 10,1997, p. A1; Calvin Trillin, Anne
of Red Hair, The New Yorker, August 5, 1996, pp. 56-61.

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ruary 12, 2003, p. 17; India's IT Sector Spiced up by Weak Global Trading Condi
tions, Financial Times, January 22, 2003, p. 18; America's Pain, India's Gain, The
Economist, January 11, 2003, p. 57; New Chapter in Success Story, Financial Times,
February 5, 2003, p. VI; Soaring Indian tech Salaries reflect the country's brain
drain, Wall Street Journal, August 21, 2000, p. A13; Software Boosts India's For
tunes, Financial Times, July 3, 2000, p. 1; India Wired, BusinessWeek, March 6,
2000, pp. 82ff; Investment in India's Software Sector Doubles, Financial Times, Feb
ruary 7, 2000, p. 3; India Software Capital Praised for Its Growth, Financial Ti
mes, January 20, 2000, p. 7; New Corporate Gurus Tap India's Brainpower to Gal
vanize Economy, Wall Street Journal, September 27,1999, p. Al; Silicon Subcontinent,
Financial Times, March 15, 1999, p. 14.


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: Food Crisis for 34m Africans, Financial


Times, August 5, 1994, p. 3; World Bank Attacked
for Backing Nyerere, Financial Times, July 27,1994,
p. 12; World Bank Laments Its Tansania Role,
Financial Times, July 27, 1994, p. 3; Empty
Promises, The Economist, May 7,1994, pp. 11-12;
The Kindness of Strangers, The Economist, May 7,
1994, pp. 19-22; Developed Nations Want Poor
Countries to Succeed on Trade, but Not too Much,
Wall Street Journal, September 20, 1993, p. A10.

110

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(Survey of Current Business),
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,
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112

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Crestone Energy Corporation,
.
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- ,
( 10-14 ) .
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(Country Commercial Guide)
,
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; ,
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(Commodity Trade Statistics);
,
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, ( ).
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113

(Balance of Payments Statistics),


(International Financial Statistics),
(Direction of Trade Statistics)
, ().
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.
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. , , ,
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269 $922 .

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, .
,
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- -

2.

115

,
. ,
, $141 ,
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,
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.
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,
. 2002 . (Eduardo
Duhalde) ,
40%. ( 2003 .
.)
,
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. , 79%
70%
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) , .
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.
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.
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, ,
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$12,5 . , -

116

I.

,
, .

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?
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2. ?
3. :
? ( ),
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), .
4.
?
: Hard Times, Same Old Politics, The Economist, March 22, 2003,
p. 33f; Defaulter of Last Resort, The Economist, March 8, 2003, p. 38; Supreme
Cort of Argentina Kills Peso Decree, Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2003, p. Al;
Argentina to Blame for Its Sorry State, Houston Chronicle, February 14, 2002,
p. IB; With Peso Floating Free, Focus Turns to Inflation, Houston Chronicle,
January 8, 2002, p. 1; Argentina's Woes Need Long Answer, Houston Chronicle,
January 8, p. 1; Imports to Argentina Stopped on a Dime, Rending Supply Chain,
Houston Chronicle, January 24, 2002, p. 1.

: , , ...
, , ,
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,

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( Soziale Marktwirtschaft
). ,
,
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2.

117

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, .

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, , ,
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1972 . (Works Constitution Act, . Betriebsverfassungsgesetz).
,
,
.
, Soziale Marktwirtschaft,
.

,
.

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.

.
1972 .

.
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118

I.

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20% .
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,
.
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.
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, (
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, 70% .
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, ,
, , . . (J. . Rowling).
, .
, , -

3. ,

121

, 192
. Bloomsbur Publishing,
, ,
.

.
,

, . ,
Today I Will Raise the Flag ( )
, , , ,
.
,
. , ,
: !
.


. (Wang Ruiqin),
People's Literature Publishing House,
,
, . People's Literature Publishing
House 10 ,
10% .
, ,
$10, .
,
.
.
,
;
, Ha-li Bo-te.
,

. , ,
,
. , ,
(People's Literature
Publishing House), .
, 600 ..
,
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), .
- ?

, Harry Potter and the Leopard-Walk-up-toDragon ( , ).
: .
. , -
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122

I.

. , 2003 .
. Harry Potter and the Order of
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124

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.
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. , 2000 . Yahoo! Inc. ,
web- ,
. ,
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,
, .
web- , Yahoo!
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.

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.
, .
: Court Setback for French Buyers at Web Auctions, Financial Times, May 4, 2000, p. 3;
U.S. in Tentative Pact Protecting Europeans' Privacy, Wall Street Journal, February 24, 2000, p. B6;
Cyversquatters' Squeezed as Internet Arbitration Takes Off, Financial Times, February 23, 2000,
p. 18; Land of Laptops and Lederhosen, Financial Times, February 17, 2000, p. 14; Cross-Border
Regulations Create Hurdle for Cyberhoppers, Financial Times, February 16, 2000, p. 7; Border
Crossings, Wall Street Journal, November 22, 1999, p. R41; In Europe, Surfing a Web of Red Tape,
Wall Street Journal, October 29, 1999, p. B1; Judge Fines Yahoo! for Neo-Nazi Auction, Houston
Chronicle, May 23, 2000, p. A4.

3. ,

125

. 3 . 1 . 100 000

, ,
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, ,
,
,
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). ,
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-

126

I.

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, ,

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128

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, , ,
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130

I.

? ,

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,
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,

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. ,
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50 000 ; Toyota Honda,
,
. 2002 .
($3,2 ), ($3,0 ).
: Japan's Used Cars Find New Lives on Russian Roads, New York Times, February 12,
2003, p. C1; Russians Want Foreign Wheels, Wall Street Journal, December 24, 2002, p. A8; Why
the Japanese Don't Keep Their Cars for Long, BusinessWeeek, June 4, 1998 (online).

,

.

. , ,
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, ,
.
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, ,
. ,
1990 ., .
80- -

3. , 131

.

1961 ., ,
. 90-
- , , , -
,
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.
,
, . McDonnell
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National Aero - Technology Import and Export Com
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, ,
.7 ,
McDonnell Douglas
.

, ; 3.1.

132

I.

. , ,
,
,
.
Pilkington PLC, ,
.

,
. ,
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, - ,
8
.

.
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,
,
. 1954 .,
(League of Arab States),
, .
Baxter International ,

, ,
,
. Baxter
$6,6 . 9
- (Helms-Burton Act) , ,
,
.
,
,
, 1959 .
.
,
. -


.
,
, .
Sherritt Corporation,
,
Freeport McMoRan , (New Orleans)
.

3. ,

133

, -
,
, .
, ,
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, .
, 85% .
, ,
, , .10
,

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134

I.

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,

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).
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: .
(Margaret Thatcher),
- 1979 1990 .,
. 80- .
, British Airways, British Telecom, British
Airport Authority British Petroleum. (Brian Mulroney),
- ,
- 1984 1993 .

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.
.

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.
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,
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.


( ) , ,
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3. ,

135

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.

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;
.
,
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, ,
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. Toyota
, , $1,5 ,
,
.
.

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.
General Electric
,
.

, .

. ,
Carrefour
,
.11 ,
,
-

136

I.

.
, ,

.
.
. 2000 . BMW
Rover, Ford Motor Company,
,
.
, BMW
,

Rover ,
.

,
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
.
. , 90- .
,
. ,
Colgate-Palmolive, S.C.Johnson & Son, Kubota Volkswagen
, ,
.
, 90- 24,5%.12
.
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,

3. ,

137

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.
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,
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.
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(forum shop
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. (principle of comity) ,

,
.
.
1. ;
,
.
2.
.

138

I.

3. , ,

13
.

.

.
.
(arbitration) ,

, . ,
,
,
. , IBM Fujitsu
Fujitsu
, IBM.

. , IBM Fujitsu
(American Arbitration Asso
ciation):
. 14

( , -').


,
,
-
. 1 5
,
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1976 . (Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act) ,

. ,

IBM IBM
, IBM

.

.
2000 -

3. ,

139

IBM, ,
IBM .
, ,
,
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.
, ,
. .

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, , ALCOA
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,
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140

,

,

.
, ,
,
,
.

McKinsey and Company

.

Venture 2000

.

4000.
,
, 67
,
,
McKinsey .

,
,

,
. McKinsey

I.

, 20
30%
.

. Hin
dustan Lever,
,

,
. ,
( Tafa
Mahindra & Mahindra),
,
. ,


,
. General
Electric, , $80

. 1600

GE,

.
: GE Takes Advantage of India's Talanted Research Pool, Wall Street Journal, March
26,2003, p. A10; Bombay Dotcoms Arise, Financia Times, Mat 25,2000, p. 27; India Wired, Busi
nessWeek, March 6, 2000, p. 82ff.


(technology transfer) .

. ,

, , General Electric
General Motors, .
,

,
. ,
,
-
.

3. ,

141

General Motors
Buick ,
GM -
,

.
(
)
,
. ,
, , , . .,
.

.
,
. ,
,
,
. ,

.

. ,
.
: (Convention for
the Protection of Industrial Property Rights),
;
(Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and
Artistic Works); (Universal Copyright
Convention);
(Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, TRIPS)
,
GATT.
.
. ,
.
,
,
.
(Business Software
Alliance), 2002 .
$13 . . 3.2,
42% ,

. , ,

142

I,

. 3 . 2 .
-

, -
, $3 .
, ,
-. , Star Wars: Episode I
The Phantom Menace ( : -1 )
,

, -
.17
-
. ,
, ,
(first to
invent).18
. ,

, ,
.
, (first to file),

3. ,

143


.
: ,

, .

. ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
,
.

,
. ,
,
,
.

, .
CyberOptics, (Minneapolis),
LaserAlign ( ,

).
, - ,
.
CyberOptics Yamaha,
CyberOptics - ,
Yamaha .
,
,
. CyberOptics ,
Yamaha 26 ,
LaserAlign, , .
, CyberOptics , Yamaha
CyberOptics ,
Yamaha, CyberOptics.
Yamaha
. 19

" . ,
,
.
,

144

I.

,
-
. , /. . Penney,

, -
, <</ . Penney Collections .
,
/. . Penney , ,
- ,
.20

.

, .
. ,
, 1989 .
Texas Instruments (TI)
; ,
77 .
, Fujitsu,
Texas Instruments , Fujitsu
, ,
, TI. ,
, Fujitsu,
Texas Instruments

21
TI .


,
,
. ,
,
.
;
;
, ,
.
.
,
,

.

3, ,

145



.
.
,
(political risk assessment)
,
.
,
.
:
+ ,
;
+ , /
-
,
, , . .;
4- ,
.
. 3.1,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
;
, .

, , .
(macropolitical risk) ,
;
, -, , 90- .,
. (micropolitical risk) , -

146

I.

.
, 70- .,
, .

. Disneyland Paris McDonald's
,

.
,
, . , 2003 .
TotalFina Elf SA, Royal Dutch/Shell Chevron Texaco
-
. 22
, ,
. 3.1

3. ,

147

, ,
, .
.
-f : ?

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-f :

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,
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.
,
.

.
. ,

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. -

148

I.

,
.
,
.
,
. 3.2
,
Euromoney.
,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
. ,
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,
.
,
, ,
. ,


, .
,
.
Disney
land Paris McDonald's, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

3. ,

149

3.2. 2002 .
: ,
Euromoney: Euromoney, September 2002, p. 21 Iff.

150

I.


. , , ,

; ;

.

,
. , ,
,
-
, .

,
,
. , (Overseas Private
Investment Corporation, OPIC)
, ,
.
, 2002 ., OPIC
Decision Technologies International
$1 ,
. 2 3
OPIC , ,

. (Multilateral
Investment Guarantee Agency, MIGA), ,
.
, Lloyd's of London,
.24

.
,
,
, .
, , ,
.
, , -
.
,
,

3. ,

151

. , ,
,
.

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.
. ,
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,

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.

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,

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.

1. ,
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2. ?
3. ?
4. .

I.

5.
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6.
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7.
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8. ?
.
9. OPIC
?


1.

, ?
2.
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3.
? . (

(Bureau of Export Administration),
web- .)
4. 3.2
2002 .
?


, ,

, .
4-5
.
:
; ;
; ;
; ;
; ; ;
.

3. ,

153

,
.
;
.
,
, ,
. . ,


. ,
, ,
.
,

.

, ,
.

1.
,
?
2.
?
3.
,
? .
4.
,
( , )? ,
.


007
2000 .
, 007, The World Is Not Enough
( ).
,
. ,
,
. ,
, -

154

I,

: ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , 40%
,
(. 3.3). ,
.
, ; , - .
: ,
,
.

(Azerbaijan International Operating Company, AIOC),
,
, Exxon Mobil, Unocal, Pennzoil Lukoil. AIOC
$8 $10
4 .
,
. 850
.

3 . 3 .

3. ,

155

;
550 . ,
, ,
.
, 1994
1996 ., . 2000 .

, .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,

, , , .
(,
,
,
, .)

,
, ,
.
,
( ),
.
-.
, 1236
( , $2,9 ),
, ,
, Exxon Valdez
.
.
, Ragin' Cajun Margaritaville,
, ,
:
$650. ( )
,
.
1993 .
. ,
,
, .
, , -
.

156

I.

,
( ),
. Unocal,
,
. ,
, 70- .
. 20012002 ., ,
-.

.
,
.

. ,
( , ),
.

.
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
. 1997 . Chinese National Petroleum Company
60%- Aktobemunaigazs,
, , 1
220 .


1880 .

,
, , , ,

. , ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. -

3. ,

157

38% , 1949 .
5%. , (
) ,
.
,
, .
1997 .
1200 .
,

, .
, -
. ,
15 20 ;
,
160 , .

1. ,
. ,
. -
, ;
, . 1 10(10
) -
.
2. , ,
$100
, .
, 8% ,
.
.
.
,

.
,
, .
?
?
3. 2001 . .
?
4. Kim ()

-

158

I.
. ,
,
,
. ,
, , ,
,
?

: Baku-Ceyhan Pipeline No Longer Just 'Legend', Houston Chronicle,


September 22, 2002, p. 9D; Tengiz Gamble Starting to Pay Off, Houston Chronicle,
October 23, 2001, p. 1; Moscow Strikes the First Blow in Caspian Oil Pipeline
Battle, Financial Times, March 26, 2001, p. 6; Turks to Buy Azerbaijani Gas in Boost
to U.S.-Backed Plan, Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2001, p. A21; Baku Pipeline
Run into Hitch, Financial Times, June 12, 2000, p. 5; Oil Firms Eye Caspian Area,
Houston Chronicle, November 28, 1997, p. 1; Unocal to Route Turkmenistan
Pipeline through Afganistan, Houston Chronicle, November 11, 1997, p. 4C; Older
Oil City Enjoys New Boom, Houston Chronicle, October 7, 1997, p. 1; Texaco,
Mobil Expect Deals with Kazakhstan, Wall Street Journal, October 3, 1997, p. A6;
China's Rebellious Province, The Economist, August 23, 1997, p. 29; Superpowers
Circle Caspian, Financial Times, August 8, 1997, p. 4; Resourceful Competitors,
Wall Street Journal, July 28, 1997, p. A18; Oil Companies Rush into the Caucasus to
Tap the Caspian, Wall Street Journal, April 25, 1997, p. Al; The Combustible
Caspian, The Economist, January 11, 1997, p. 45.

: ,

. ,
. ,
.

-.
. ,
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
.
; , ,
: ?
. -

3. ,

159

, . (
the Diet; . . . .)


, , ,
.
, -
-
.
(MITI).
,
,
, .

, -.
, ,
;
.
.
,
. , 1986 .

(Gaigokuho-Jimu-Bengoshi).
1994 .,
(Foreign Attorney Law).
,
, .
, ,
,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
47
.
;

, .
, ,
, ,
, , .

, ,
.
, -

160

I.

.
. ,
,
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, - .


.
. (shinyo)

. ,

.
, ,
, ,
.

,
.
, ,
. ,
,
( ). ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
-
The Diet , , ; ,
.
, . ,

, .

, " Alone" (" "),


.
:
4- ;
+
;
4-
;
4- ,
, ;
4-
;
4-
;
4-
.


, ,
. , Signs (), Road
to Perdition ( ), Spider-man (-), Jurassic Park
( ) Chicago (), -

162

I,

, Crouching Tiger, Hiden Dragon (


, ), Chocolat ()
.
. ,
, 20- .;
,
, .
,
, ,
.
End of Days ( )
$66 (
$100 ).
$142 . Stuart Little 2
( 2) $64 , $94
. , The Crying Game
( ) ,

.
,
. , 2
, , .
,
,
. , $163 ,
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (
) .
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
; ,
.

. ,
, .
, , (
) .

, ,
.
, .
, ,
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone ( ),
Harry Potter and
the Sorcerer's Stone ( ).
, ,
.
,
.
, .

4.

163


, ,
,
. ,
, (
Time to Kill, ),
. , Home Alone ( ),
.
, -
, .
, ,
- ,
. ,
, ,
. I Am Sam ( ),
,
. ;
, ,

, The Bourne Identity ( ).
,
. , (Vanilla
Sky ), (Lethal Weapon 4
4) (Air Force One )
.

. Schindler's List (
) ,
. ,
Universal Studios, .
, , ,
,
, .
.
11 2001 .
, ,
.1

164

I.

,
,
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4.

165

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4.

167

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.

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.
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.

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(social stratification).

, , .


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168



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1850 .

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), , ,

169


.


.


.
, ,
,
,
,
,
.

90- .
,
.
Fujitsu, ,

,

.

.


.
: Fujitsu to Institute Merit-based Pay
For All Employees, Wall Street Journal, March 26,
1998, p. B5; Richard G. Newman, K. Anthony Rhee,
Self-Styled Barriers Inhibit Transferring Manage
ment Methods, Business Horizons, May-June
1989, pp. 17-21.

,

, .
.
* .
salaryman
, , . ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
, . . .

170

I,

(social mobility)
.
.
, ,
. ( )

, , ,
.
,
,
.
.
-
,

.
,
.
(,
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, ,
,
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,
. , 3000
10 000 .5

. -
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, , 153 ,
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184

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AFLAC $10 ,
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$300 000 .

, AFLAC
.
, $2,2 ,

4.

209

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25% .
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. 3,6 , $30 .
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:
, .
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,
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, .

210

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AFLAC 85%
. ,
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),
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.
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.
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;
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rine & Fire Nippon Life.
AFLAC
,
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AFLAC Dai-ichi
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Dai-ichi Mutual AFLAC
.
Dai-ichi Mutual 350 000
AFLAC. 2001 .
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quack () ga-ga,
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4.

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, AFLAC,
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?
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,
.

.
AFLAC, ?
AFLAC?
4. AFLAC ,
75%
.
? -
?
: AFLAC Duck Loses Some Quacking on Way to Japan, USA Today,
2003 (online); AFLAC Incorporated Annual Report for 2002; Charles D. Lake II,
Developing New Opportunities in a Weak Japanese Economy: AFLAC Adapts to
Change, Japan Economic Currents, no. 20 (May 2002), p. 4ff.; Bullish on AFLAC's
Duck, BusinessWeek online, April 30, 2002 (Web site); Duck and Coverage,
Fortune, August 13,2001 (Web site); Duck Ads Have 'em Flocking to AFLAC, USA
Today, September 18, 2000 (Web site).

212

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.

( ), ,
,
.

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Mills Johnson & Johnson, ,
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(codes of ethics)
,
.
,
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,
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,
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.

, .
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.
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Vivendi, ,
,
.
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Vivendi, .

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$21 . , Vivendi ,
,
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5.

229

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Vivendi
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(Guillaume Hannezo), ,
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: ,
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2002 . ,
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.
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, ,
. ,
,
-
.
: Janet Guyon, Getting Messier by the Minute, Fortune, May 28, 2002, pp. 62-66; Janet
Guyon, Reviving Vivendi, Fortune, July 8, 2002, pp. 104-110; How Messier Kept Cash Crisis at Viven
di Hidden for Months, Wall Street Journal, October 31, 2002, pp. A1, A15; The Dark Horse in the Vivendi
Race, BusinessWeek, February 10, 2003, pp. 98-99.




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230

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232

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1997 .
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.

5.

233

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,

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,
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, ,
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: Philip M. Nickols, Dealing with an Eruption of Coruption, Financial Times, May 30, 2000,
Managing Risk supplement, p. 15. .

234

I.

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,
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235



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tional stakeholders), ,
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236

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238

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239

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,
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240

I.

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241

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,
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,
, . , -
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.

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,
, ,
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242

I.

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,
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.

5.

British Petroleum
Exxon
Mobil.
, .
British Petroleum
(John Browne)
,

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Petroleum
18%.



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Petroleum :

.
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, .


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,
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, .

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.
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:
,
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243

, ,

.

,
,
.

2001 .,
$15,6 ,
,
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, ,
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160 .
, , ,
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National Wildlife Refuge),
.
,

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Texaco. , ,


,
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, ,

, ,

.
, - .
,
.
: Cait Murphy, Beyond Persuasion,
Fortune, September 5, 2002, pp. 105-110; Darcy
Frey, How Green is BP? New York Times Maga
zine, December 8, 2002, pp. 98-103; Can Oil Gi
ants and Green Energy Mix? BusinessWeek, Sep
tember 25, 2002, pp. 90-93.

244

I.

. (ethical compliance)
( )
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, , ,

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24
.
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lanthropic giving)

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, .

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5.

245

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246

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247



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reign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA) 1977 .
, , ,
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Mobile Oil
.
,
$78

248

I.

;
34
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3 007.) , FCPA
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,
.
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Unocal
,
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IBM, Citigroup
. 35

(Anti-Bribery Convention of the Organization for Eco
nomic Cooperation and Development)
2000 .; 33 .

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tion, ILO), ,
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250

,


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.
, ,

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, ,
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,
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,

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Day, , ,
.)


. ,
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.
,
, ,


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.
: Warninng to 'Conflict Diamonds' Trad
ers, Financial Times, April 29, 2003, p. 6; Talrs
End in Agreement to Track Diamond Shipments,
Houston Chronicle, November 30,2001, p. 36A; Di
amond Town in the Rough, Wall Street Journal, July
5, 2001, p. B1; Jon Lee Anderson, Oil and Blood,
The New Yorker, August 14, 2000, p. 45ff.

(
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5.

251

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252

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253

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254

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web-?

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.

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130- ,
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, .
Prestige (Jacques Chirac)

.
1999 . Erika,
15 000 400 .

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, , , , -

5.

255

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.
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- ,
,
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, , Prestige
.
,
, 2003 ., .
,
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(Civil Liability Convention),
(International Maritime Organization).
,
$80 .
Intertanko, ,
95% , , , -

256

I,

. , ,

(International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund),
. ,
, $180 .
Prestige
.
.

25% , ,
. - , ,
,
.

1. Prestige.
2.
Prestige.
3. , ,

?
4. ,
,
?
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Disaster, Financial Times, November 20,2002, p. 6. .


,
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.


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,
,
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son & Hedges, Parliament Vir
ginia Slims. ( Philip
Morris Altria
Group, ,

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Philip Morris.) British American
Tobacco (BAT),
, ,
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, ,
Brown & Williamson).
,
1999 ., R.J. Rey
nolds, Camel,
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,

.

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70- 80- .



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-

258
.
. ,

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.


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(
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259
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260

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American Tobacco ?

: Philip Morris Buys in


Greece, Financial Times, May 7, 2003,
p. 21; Is Big Tobacco Headed for Another
Round of Trouble?, Financial Times, May
7, 2003, p. 13; Tobacco Sector Accused of
'Invisible' Anti-WHO, Financial Times,
August 3, 2000, p. 3; U.S. Embassies Stop
Assiating Tobacco Firms, Wall Street
Journal, May 14, 1998, p. Bl; Getting
Acquainted, Business Eastern Europe,
April 22, 1996, p. 17; Sten Sesser, Opium

262
War Redux, The New Yorker, September
13, 1993, pp. 78-79; Smoking Level
Lowest in 50 Years, USA Today,
November 17,1994, p. Dl; Cigarettes May
Find New Foe in Trade Rep, Wall Street
Journal, August 1, 1994, p. Bl; Tobacco
Companies Race for Advantage in Eastern

I.
Europe While Critics Fume, Wall Street
Journal, December 28, 1992, pp. Bl, B4;
U.S. Cigarette Firms are Battling Tai
wan's Bid to Stiffen Ad Curbs Like Other
Asian Nations, Wall Street Journal, May 5,
1992, p. C25; Opiate of the Masses,
Forbes, April 11, pp. 74-75.



(Peter Hessler)

? .
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. :
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263
,
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The New
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.
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, .

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Caterpillar, Inc.
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. , , 30%
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. 114 , ,
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.
,
, , Caterpillar
,
. 80- . Caterpillar,
Komatsu Ltd.,
, ,
. 80- Komatsu
, 40%
Caterpillar,
Caterpillar 11%. ,
Caterpillar ,
. 1985 1995 .
(
80 ).
Komatsu, Caterpillar
. Cat, 40
44% 1998 . 144
. . 2003 .
115 120 .
Komatsu 30-33%
1995 .
Cat.

Komatsu.2

Caterpillar
,
, .
,
,
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,
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, Caterpillar -

6.

271

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, ,
.


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,
. Cater
pillar, $5,2 ,
, ,
.

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.
, ,

272

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6.

273


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Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations),
, , ,
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.
,

. , 90- .

6.

275

- , 40 ,
10%
.
,
, , .
:

.


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( ), 1776 .,

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.

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tage). , ,

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6.

277

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, (theory of comparative advan
tage). , ,

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.

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6.

279

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280

II.

, , . 6.1 6.2,
.
; .

, -
, , ,
.
. 6.3 .
, .
1. -
. 6.2.
2. 12 ().
3. 1000 ().
4. 125 .
6.3
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,
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) , 2
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, ,
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,
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6.

281


, .
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
,
.

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(Eli Hecksher) (Bertil Ohlin)
(theory of relative factor endow
ments); (HecksherOhlin theory). :
1.
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.
2. , ,
, .
, ,
,
.


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,

282


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, ).

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$1 (. 6.3).
(
1947 .) , 1947 .
$2,551 182,3

6.


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,
,

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.

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.
;
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,
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283

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,
,

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.
,
, ,
.
,
,

,


.
,
.
,
,

,


,

, ,
.
:
(Peter Rodriguez)
.
Leonard Bierman et al., The Legal Environment of
Business, 3 rd ed. (Dubuque, la.: Eddie Bower Pub
lishing, 2000). .

- ( $13 993 - )
$ 1 . , ,
$1
$3,093 170,0 - ( $18 194
- ). , ,
.
$4201 ($18194 - $13993) , .
,
: 30%
. -

II.

. 6.3. 1947 .:

. ,
.
(Leontief paradox).
50
, .
. , ,
, 1947 .,
.
1951 ., ,
6% . ,
, ,
, - ,
.
,
, .

: .
,
, (
), ( ) ().

. , ,
.

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,
Boeing.

6.

285

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), ,
.
,
. (
, ,
, ) (
,
)
Boeing, .

,



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). ,
, :
1)
; 2)

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); 3)
.
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) , ,
, .

, ;
- .

,
, .
(interindustry trade) ,
, ,
(,
).
.
(intraindustry trade) ,
, .
, Toyota , ,
, BMW . -

286

II.

40% ;
.
1961 . (Steffan Linder)
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
. ,

BMW , ,
, ,
. Toyota
, ,
.
,
. (country si
milarity theory), ,

; ,

.
, ,
, .

.



.
(,
, ). 60- .
(Raymond Vernon)
,
,
,
,
. ,
: ,
.
. 6.4.

6.

287

. 6.4.

288

II.

,
, (
)
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
. ,
, -
-
( , , , , ).
, -
,
. ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
Apple Computer.
, 1976 . (1
), (Steve
Jobs). ,
( 50 ,
), ,
.5
Apple
, ,
. ,
( Hewlett-Packard,
Intel National Semiconductor). ,
-,
Apple. ,
Xerox. ,
Apple,
1976 . $7,8 1978 . $5,7
2002 .
, ,

, . ,
,

.
,

6.

289

,
. Apple
Apple II, , -
- 1977 .

130 000 .
, Apple II
,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
(
, ).

.

. ,
(
Hyundai Samsung),

. , Tatung, Mitac International,
First International Information Systems (
),
,
. Apple

,
. ,
,
, . ,
,

. 6 , ,
Apple
. ,
,
.
,
,
. -

290

II.

, ,
,
.
. ,

, .

, .

. ,
, ,

,
.

.


80- . (Paul Krugman) 7 (Kelvin
Lancaster) 8
.

. ,
,
.
,
. ,

,
. , Caterpillar Komatsu, Unilever Procter &
Gamble, Toyota Ford, -
,
.
,
,
.
, -
- ,

, .
. ,
( ,
,
),
. , -

6.

291

Waterford Wedgewood
Company Louis Vuitton
. Coca-Cola
PepsiCo
.
- - .
- - ,
(research & development, R&D),
. , Airbus
$12 -
380. ,
, ,
- -
, . -

. , ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,
.
? Airbus
,
, ,
- .
-,
,
.
,
,
.

,
.

,
.
. ,
, Monsanto Eli Lilly,

, ,

. ,

292

II.

:
, .
,
, .

(Aalsmeer Flower Auction).
7000 , , 1300 , ,
, .
19 .
.
2000 . 1,45 .
.
, ,
, .

,
,
.

, .
,

. ,
,
.
web- (www.FlowerAccess.com).
,
( , ) .
: Dutch Flower Auction Blooms, Financial Times, October 11, 2001, p. 26;
www.FlowerAccess.com.

,
.
.


.
,
,
.
,
,
. -

6.

293


,
, .
,
. , Amazon.com
web- .

,
.
Amazon.com

. ,
web-
. ,
- ,
.
, .

,

.
,
.
,
. ,

25-30%
.9 ,

( 64 ),

. ,

, .

, .
, ,
.
, ,
,
( Samsung)
,
.10
(, Intel Advanced Micro Devices)
, ,

294

II.

,
( Pentium 4 Athlon),
.

(theory of national competitive advan
tage),
(Michael Porter), .
,
,
: ;
; ; ,
. . 6.5,
.
.

, .
^,
. ,
,
.
. 6 . 5 . ,

6,

295


, -
, .
.
, ,

. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,

,
, ,
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, DVD-
,
,
.
.

, , eBay Amazon.com,
,
.
.
-
,
, ,
.

,
.

, ,
, , ,
.
, Apple
70- .
.
-
, Apple
.
, -

296

II.



.
, .

.
,
,
, ,
. , ,

. , ,
(, , ,
),
.

. , ,

,
, .
,
,
.
.
,
.
, ,

. , DaimlerBenz, Porsche BMW,


, , ,
. ,

. -
: Nokia

, .
:
,
, ,
. ( )
, ,
-

6.

297

. ,
,
. ;
. Porsche, Daimler-Benz BMW
,
,

. , ,
Volkswagen Opel,
,
.
, ,

.
,
, ,
, , .
,
: Sony, Caterpillar,
.
, ,
,
,
. . 6.6
.

298

II.

Nokia , .

: 1865 .
Nokia ,
, .
Nokia (Frederik Idestam).

. ( )
,
. ,
.
60- . XX .
. 1967 .
Nokia , Finnish Rubber Works Finnish Cable Works.
1981 . , :

,
Nokia 5 1 % Finnish Telecommunications Company.
Nokia ,

. , 1982 . Nokia
. Nokia
.
, (
, )
.
Nokia.
, . ,
,
.
, ,
Nokia .
, , Nokia
. , .

.
WAP (wireless application protocol ,
). WAP, ,
, .
: Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003),
pp. 386-387; It Takes a Cell Phone, Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, pp. B1, B4.

6.

299



,
.
,
.

1,
:
(). ,
:
, ,
.
(portfolio investments)
, ,
;

.
,

,
.

-, , ,
.
, 2001 . , ,
$95 ,
$2,1 . (
, ,
), -

300

II.

, $396 ,
$3,2 . 11
(foreign direct investment, FDI)
.
10%
, ,
.12
,
, ,
,
. ,
24- ,
(Peter Minuet)
.13 .

30
. . 6.7, 1967 . (
) , ,
$100 . 2001 . $6,8 .
( 90- .) -

6 . 7 .
-, $

6.

301

. ,
. ,
.
.


. (.
. 6.4, ), 2002 . $1,3 (
).
, $283,3 , 21%
. , . 6.4, , 87%
.
,
, 2002 . $1,5 (. . 6.4, ).
,
($255,4 ) ($152,5 ).
, . 6.4, , 63%
, .
, . 6.4,
, ,
, ,
. ,
( 8).

,
, .

.

(. . 6.8),
.
,
:
.
.


? -
, , ,
:
. ,
, ,

302

II,

.
,
, .


(
) (
).
. , 2001 .
$4,5 ,
$6
.

. ,
.


. ,

6.

303

. 6.8. , 1982-2002

, ,
.
,
(ownership advantage theory), ,
, ,

. ,
, ,
.
, .
Caterpillar,
, , ,
,
, .
Caterpillar, Komatsu,
, .

304

II.


,
,
. ,

,
,
,
.
, McDonald's ,

McDonald's , Boeing

.

. (transaction
costs) ; , ,
,
, .
, :


,
. (internalization theory),
( , ,
,
) , ,
,
,
. ,
Toyota
.


. , Toyota
.
, ,




. , McDonald's

McDonald's.
,

6.

305


.


FDI. ,

, ,
. ,
?
,
(John Dunning). (eclectic theory)
,
:
,

. ,

,
.
FDI
.
1. ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
. . Caterpillar
,
.
2.
.

. , Caterpillar
, ,
,
,
.
3. .
,

.
: ,
, ,

306

II.

;
;
.
Caterpillar.

,

,
, ,
,

.
: ,
(. . 6.5).
-- ^

^ -

6.5
,




, ,
, .
.
,

6.

307

.
-
,


. , Novolabs,
,
, .
Novolabs
, ,
,
.14 GumSung Plastics,
, $8

. , .
.15
CultureQuest,
,
, .
.
,
. , Heineken

, .
, ,

, ,
.
, ,
. , Citrovita,
,
,

. Citrovita

.

,
, .
.
,
. , -

.
, -

308

II.

,
. , Ayala Corporation
.

,
,
(. 6.1). :
8000
600 .
$24
.16
6 . 1 .

.
.
,

. ,


. 90- . Acer Inc.,
, $100
, ,

Acer Inc. .17

6.

309



,
. , ,
,
, .
.

. ,

( ,

). KFC
,
; ,
.
IKEA
.
.
.

,
. ,
,
. ,
, Time Sports Illustrated, Toyota

. ,
.
Delta Products,
, ,

, .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
, Delta
, ,
( ). 18
.

. , ,
,
-

310

II.

.
. , Pari Mutuel Urbain
(PMU) 7000 ,
. ,
, ,
,
$6 .

, ,
25%,
19
.
.

. ,
,

,
.
,
,
. ,

.
, ,
, -
.

,
(just-in-time, JIT). JIT
, ,
, .
, Samsung

- ,
. 20


.
,
, ,
, .
.
,
. ,

6.

311

90- Fuji Photo Film Company $200


,
, (
).
, .
Fuji
3,7% , ,
, Kodak Fuji,

21
( 9).
, .
(, )
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
(,
), .

,

,
. ,
Hyundai $118,5 ,
, ( 2005 .)
2000 .22
2003 ., Toyota

. -
, Toyota
$133 ;
, ,
, .23


: 2001 .
$7,7 .

312

II.

.
, .
,

.
.
,
,
. (
,
) . ,
,

( , , ).

,
.
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,

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,
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; 3) -
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,
.

.
, , ,
.
,

6.

313

,

, ,

.
.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.

1. ? ,
.
2.
.
3. ?
4. ,
, ?
5. ?
6.
.
7. ,
.
8.
.
9.
?
10. .
11.
?


, (
), ,

:
.
? (:
,
? ?) ,
. 6.2 . 6.1?

314

II.

2. ,
(), (Ross
Perot) , ,
(
, ,
).
,
.
3. , ,
?
4. Hyundai
.
) , ,
Hyundai
?
)
?
) Hyundai
?
I



, IBM, Apple, Hewlett-Packard Dell.
,
, Sony, JVC, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Toshiba.

(Ford General Motors),
(Toyota Honda).
4-5

. ,


.

( ),
, ,
. ,

.
.
,

6.

315

. ,
, ,

. ,
, .

,
. ,
.
1.
? ?
2. , ,
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3. ?
4. , , ,
,
,
, .
.
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(William Echickson)

, ,
(Peter Ingelbrecht) .

--, 35-
(Laurent Coppieters) Rent-a-Holiday .
, ,
, .
Microsoft Corp. (Greg Slyngstad) (Steve
Murch) .
14 , Microsoft Corp. -
. : Microsoft
, - . 1997 .,
,
VacationSpot.com, ,
, .

316

II.


, ,
. Rent-a-Holiday
,
, .
,
.
, Yahoo!.
,
, .
:
Rent-a-Holiday VacationSpot.com , . Rent-a-Holiday
,
. ,
,
,
.
?
. ,
, -
, .
:
, ,
.
.
, .
, .
$400 000
. , 1997 .,
$850 000 -.
,
.
Microsoft
, (Jay Hoag),
Technology Crossover Ventures ,
, Real Networks CNET. ,
. , $5 Technology Crossover
Ventures $4 .
,
,
.
IBM Procter & Gamble -

6.

317

, 55
, .
, , -,
.
Rent-a-Holiday
.
10%, (, web-)
. International Data Corp., 320 000
- . , , ,
.

. ,
.
VacationSpot.com 45 , ,
. ,
:
.
,
.

,
( 9000 ). , ,
,
,
. Rent-a-Holiday

web-.

. , ,
.
, ,
VacationSpot.com
.
,
online.

,
.
,
.
,
-. ,
Rent-a-Holiday - Lycos Inc.
VacationSpot.com Yahoo!, Microsoft

318

II.

Expedia, Preview Travel, Travelocity, .


, , .
web- VacationSpot.com
Rent-aHoliday.

, .
. ,
VacationSpot.com
; ,
.
:
, .

, , .
-
, .
Rent-a-Holiday.
,
.

VacationSpot.com; ,
.
,
- , .
, 20%,
, VacationSpot.com
Rent-a-Holiday. VacationSpot.com
Rent-aHoliday,
. , Rent-a-Holiday
, VacationSpot.com,
,
.
.
, .
20% .
. VacationSpot.com
,
.
,
. Rent-a-Holiday
, ,
-. VacationSpot.com
. -

6.

319

, .
,
,
( ). ,

.
:
,
, , .

1. ,
, ,
.

?
- ?
2. - ,
?
?
3.
, ,
? ,
, ?
: Home Field Disadvantage, BusinessWeek E. Biz, December 13, 1999,
p. EB72ff. .



.
.
,
, ;
,
,
, .

320

II.

.
, ,
,
.
1997 . .
(Special Ad
ministrative Region, SAR),
,
(Basic Law). , 2047 .
, ,
. ,
. ,
:
,
,
, .
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. -
,
,
.
-.
2000 . 619
- , 570,
236. 80- 90- . (,
-) .
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
. ,
, .
, ,
,
,
.

6.

321

(hongs -~
)
. , Jardine Matheson
and Company, (William Jardine),
.
, , .
, , ,
,
, .
,
.

, .
, .
,
.
90- .,
,
, .
-

.
. 80%
"
, : ,
, ; ,
; , ;
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, .
,
( guanxi),
.

, .
.

.
-
.
: -

322

II.

, .
,
; 88: .
. ,
,
.


Astra 90%.
:
-4-

;
+ ;
4-
,
- ;
:f ;
+
;
4-
.

Astra?
i

Astra International
- ,
Astra International 125 000 .

324

II,

Astra
, 400 000 .
Astra
, , ,
, (,
). Astra
80- 90- .,
()
4%
. ,
,
,
Astra
.
90-.
- ,
32- ( 1966 1998 .).
,

,
. 1996 .
,
,
.
,
, .
, Astra
$800
,
Astra .
1997 . Astra
. ,
()
74%. (
8.) , Asfra ,
,
. -
Asfra ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, .
, , 39%
Astra
(Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency, IBRA). ,
,
, (
Astra) .
90% . ,
$18
,
.
: -

7.

325

, 30%
.

Astra (Rini Soewandi).
( 40 , 1998 .
Astra), -
. ,
,
, .

20%. -
Astra;
70 .
, -
, Astra Microtronics Technology
( $90 ).

. ,
Astra
,
.

. ,
.
,
.
. -
,
. Astra
,
. , -
, (
,
Astra).
,
, .
,
, , ,
. - , Astra

.

. ,
- Astra
- IBRA,
$81 . IBRA
Astra . -
, ,

, .
, , IBRA
- ,
. , - , Astra

326

II.

. , , , 2002 .
$400 ,
1
2001 .
Astra : ,
( Astra International),
, .
Astra ,
. , ,
,
.
Astra ,
,
. ,
,
,
Astra
. , Astra,
: ( ,
),
,
,
.
,
.
.
(international monetary system)
,
. ,

.
, ,
(,
),
.
,
,
.
(balance of payments accounting system)
,

- - .
, ,
,
,
, ,

7.

327



,
, -. ,
, ,
2
VII . . .
XVI-XVH .

.


,
. (gold standard)

, , *
,
. 1821 .
, . XIX .
,
, , -, ,
.

. (exchange rate)
, .
(fixed exchange rate)
.
,
(pegged)
. ,
4,247;
(par value) ,
.
, $20,67.
,
4,247 = 1 = $20,67.

: 1 = $4,867, $20,67/4,247.
,

328

II.

,
.
. , Jardin Matheson
100 000 Twinning & Company,
. Jardin Matheson
Twinning & Company ,
,
, , .
, - Jardin
Matheson 100 000
,
. , Jardin Matheson
, Twinning
Jardin Matheson
. , ,
Jardin Matheson

.
1821 . 1918 .
,
, .
,
.

, .
, ,
(sterling-based gold standard).
.
(.
7.1), , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , .
,
. ( CultureQuest,
, ,
.)

. ,
, XIX .
.

, Barclays Bank, Thomas Cook Lloyd's of London,
,
XIX .

7.

329

7.1. 1913 .

330

II.



.
(, )
(-, )
. , ,
,
.
(1920 .) (1922 .)
,
,
. , , ,
,
, .
, .
( )
.
1931 . .
,
,

.

, (
),

.
.
,
( ; ,
, , , , )

. ,
()

, .
, ,
. (
20%,
,
.) ,
,
,
. ,

7.

331


(beggar-thy-neighbor), (. . 7.1),
.
:

1939 . .
-

, ,

, . 7.1. :
1929-1933 .

332

II.

, . ,

,
(, )
. ,
, ,
,
. 1944 . 44
- ( -),
. -
,
. ,
,

:
.
. (International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD)
(World Bank). ,
1945 .,
.
50- .
:
.

, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

(World Bank Group . . 7.2). ,
$126 ,
184 -.
,
- .

(17%); (8%), (5%),
(4%), (4%) : , ,
, , . ,

, .

. ,
,

7.

333

. 7.2.

. 1998 2002 .
, , $15 .
,
,
. $200 ,
2002 .
.
,
(,
).
-.

, . ,
,
. ,
(hard loan policy).
,
, .
50- .
,
,
. 1960 .

334

II.

, MAP (International Development Association, IDA).


(soft loans)
, ,
. MAP ,
( 0,75%). ,
( , 35-40 ),
10 .

.
$25 , 2002 .
, .

, ,
, .
1998 2002 . , MAP,
$7 .

. , (International
Finance Corporation, IFC), 1956 .,
.
,
,
. , 2002 .
Lafarge Surma Cement Ltd. $10
$35 ,
( $60 ), 1,2
. ,

. 2002 . , ,
$5,8 .
,
, (Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency, MIGA), 1988 . ,

- (
3).
,
.
, 2002 .
$18 Societe Wationale de Telecommunications du
Senegal. Ikatel SA,
. 2002 .

$1,3 .

7.

335

,
,
, .
,
,
.
(
, )
.
Forests and Frogs
Epipedobates Dendrobates. , poisondart frogs ( ),
, .
(campesinos),
$50 , . Forests and
Frogs ,
. Forests and Frogs,
7500 : ,
, , ,
, . Forests and Frogs
,
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). ,

(
$2 ).
: Poisonous Customers Hop to the Aid of Peru's Forests, Financial Times, May 3-4, p. 22;
Micro-Loans Help Entrepreneurs, Houston Chronicle, August 12, 2000, p. 1; www.cires.org.


, (African Development Bank),
(Asian Development Bank)
(Inter-American Development Bank).
.
, ,
, (European Bank for Reconstruction and Deve
lopment, EBRD).

.

. ,

-

336

II.

.
25% .
. -
,
, ,
-
,
. ,

, -
, (International
Monetary Fund, IMF).
. . 1

:
1) ;
2)
;
3) ,
,
;
4) ;
5)
;
6)
.
,
. 2003 . 184
.
, ,
(quota), .

. ,
.
.
1.
, .
17% .
6% ;
(5%), (5%) (3%).
2.
(
).

7.

337

3.
.
25%
.
,

( IMF
conditionality). ,
$21

,
,
,
chaebol (
), .

$10
,
,
. 3 , ,

,
Astra International
. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
. , 1998 .
,
.
, ,
, .
.

. , -
.

. ,
$35 .

.
, -
. ?

338

II.

(convertible currency), . . ,

.

. XIX .,

. , ,
.

, -
.

1 % . ,
,
,
1 %
.
, -
.

. - ,

. , -

(adjustable peg),
,
.
.
$2,80. (
, $35.
, ,

.) ,
$2,772 $2,828 (1% $2,80). ,
$2,76
,

.
,
$2,772 $2,828.
-

,

7.

339

. ,
,
.
, 1960- .
,
. , ,
,
, .


.
, .

,

- .
, , ,
. ,
,
.
.
: ,
,
.
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
. -
,

. , ,
- , .
,
.
,

.
1967 .
,
, 14,3%

340

II.

( , $2,80 $2,40).
1969 .,
.
- .
, 70-
.

,
- .
, , - ,
.
,
, ,
. -

.
,
, 50- 60- . ,
, .
,
,
- . (Triffin
paradox) ,
(Robert Triffin),
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
.

,
,
, .
1967 .
,
(special drawing rights, SDR).

,
. SDR
,
, SDR .

7.

341

18,4 SDR, 1,2% .


SDR
( , ,
) ,
. 2003 . SDR $1,39.

,
,
. 70- . -
- .
1971 . ,
.
,
,
. 15 1971 .
,
$35 . - .
, .

,
.
.
. (Smithsonian Conference),
1971 .,
(. . 7.1)
,
.
( $38 ), -
, ,
, . ,
2,25%
1%, - .
1971 .

,
. , ,
, ,
(,
). 2,25%
1972 .
. 1973 .
. 1973 .
10%. 1973 . ,
, -

342

II.

. (
. 7.2.)
( )
. 1973 .

.
,

.

(managed float)
, , (dirty float),

.
.
7.2

7, '



,
.
,
(1821-1914) -
(1945-1971),

,
. ,

,


,

. ,

,

,

. ,


,

.


, XIX .,
- .

-

343

.




. ,

.
,
( ),
,


.

,

.



.
1967 . , 1969 .
1971 .
.
,

.
,

;
,


, .


, 1976 .
(Jamaica Agreement)
,
.
.
,
- .

344

II.

,
(),
. 1979 .

(European Monetary System, EMS).

(exchange rate mechanism, ERM).


2,25% ,
.
1999 . . (
10.)
7.2
.
. ,
,
,
, -
. , , , ,
. ,

. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
. CultureQuest,
, ,
, .
. ,
,
. 1976 .
,
, . ,
,
,

.
(. . 7.1)
1985 . Plaza -. ,
(Plaza Accord),
,
,
. 1987 . 46% -

7.

345

7.2. 2002 .
: IMF, International Financial Statistics, April 2003, pp. 2-3.

346

II.

41% . ,
,
1990 . ,
, . (Louvre
Accord)
. 1990 . ,
.
. . 7.3
, - .
. 7.3. , 1960-2002 .


.
, ,
-
;
.
. -

7.

347


. 6,
Caterpillar Komatsu,
Caterpillar
80- ., ( )
Komatsu 80- 90-.
, 1995 .,
Komatsu Caterpillar.
. ,
1973 ., .
- 1973 .
, ,
. -
, (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC),
, $3
1973 . $12 1974 .
- .
, 6,1% 1973 . 11,1% 1974 .
1974 . - $60
. -
,
,
.
, .


.
.
,
.
,


. .
: ,
,

(
). ,
.
, -.


, .

348

II,

,
. ,
. ,
$90 , $67 .
1978-1979 .,
. $13
1978 . $30 1980 .,
, .
,
, ,
.
, 1982 .
.
,
,
, .
. 40 ,

. -
, -,
1980-.
.
1985 . (Baker Plan),
.
,
- ,
- ,
, ,
. ,

, ,
,
. -
. -,
-
. 1989 . (Brady Plan),
,
. ,
,
,
.
90- .
. -
,
, ,

7.

349

( ,
2).
. 80- .
.
1997 ., ,
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
. 2

, 20%. ,

.
, ,
. ,
. 7.4, ,
( (contagion)
).

;
.
$100 ,
. 8,
, ,
. , 2
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

, .
.

350

II.
. 7.4.




.
,

.
, ,
,
. ,
,

.
,

. :
1)
;

7.

351

2)
,
,
, . ,

,

. ,

, ;
3)
,
(
1997 . ). ,
,
;
4) ,

.

:
1) ,
(, );
2)
, ,
;
3)
. -
, ,
.
,
. , (, ,
),
. ,
.

. ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
, .

II.

,
,
()
.
,
56 58
, 20 000
.

,

.
,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, -

,
, ,


.
,


,
.
,

,
, .


,
.
,

(
),

.

,
,
.

,
,

.

.

,
,
,
.



,
,

.

,
( ,
)
.
,

.
, ,

? ,
,

,
,

.

7,

, ,

,
,
. ,

,
. ,
,

,
.
?


, .
Micron Technology,

. Micron

, Sam
sung, LG Hyundai.
Micron, ,

,

.


94% .
(
,
Micron)

.
, Micron
,

,

Micron .
, Micron
.
,
,

.

,
,

-
, .

353

.
,
.


,

,
.


$100 .
?
,
, .
,
,
, .

? ,

,
,
.


1. ,

,
.

?
2.
,
Micron'!
3.
,
,
,



. ?
.
: Who Needs the IMF? Wall Street
Journal, February 3, 1998, p. A22; Suharto Fami
ly Benefits in Peril from Spirit of Reform, Financial
Times, January 16, 1998, p. 16; Fingerprints of
Korea's Cash Woes Cover Globe, Wall Street Jour
nal, December 15, 1997, p. A16; Micron Techno
logy Opposes U.S. Role in Korean Bailout, Wall
Street Journal, December 2, 1997, p. B6.

354

II.


, ;
4) .
;
.
, -,
, . -,
,
.
.

.
, ,
; , ,
.
,
.

().

,
.
.
, , ,

.
.
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ().
. 7.3
.
, Mercedes-Benz
(merchandise export),
Dom Perignon, ,
(merchandise import). (
trade in visibles
.)
() ,
(balance on merchandise trade). ,
, , -

7.

355

7.3

, (merchandise
trade deficit); , ,
,
(merchandise trade surplus).
, ,
,
, , , , ,
.
(service export),
, , (service
import). (
trade in invisibles .) ,

,
,
, .

(balance on services trade).
,
, . ,
,
(export of the services of capital) .
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
(import of the services of capital)
. ,
, ,
. ,
,

.

356

II.

, ,
(unilateral transfers),
.

. , ,
,
; ,

,
.
.
(current account balance)
,
, .

, ,

.
.
(capital account),
( ),
. ( . 7.4)
:
.
,
, . ,

7.4

7.

357

.
, ,

10% .
,
, .
: .
(short-term portfolio investments)
.
:
; , ,

;
; (
), .
(long-term portfolio investments) , ,
,
,
, . ,
IBM
,
, -,
. ,

(California Public Employers Retirement System Pension Fund)
British Airlines,
. Ford Motor
Volvo,
.

. ?
,
, . ,
, ,
.
- ,
. (
,
,
.)

.
1.
.
2000 . Lycos,

358

II,
4

web-, - Terra Networks SA $8,5 .


, ,
.
,
.
2.
. 90- Kmart
Kmart Zeller (
Hudson's Bay) $168 , .
, IBM
, IBM
, IBM
, , IBM
.

.
1.
. Ford Jaguar Motor Company
1,5 .
,
Delta Air Lines
.
2.
. 100 000
GM ,
. ,
Japan Air Lines ,
.
.
. 7.5
.
. ,
(official reserves account),
, .
,
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) (SDR);
4) .

,

7.

359

7.5

. ,
. ,
,
, . SDR
( - ,
) .
.
.
,
.
:
+ +
+ = 0.
-
.
(errors and omissions account) ,
:
+ +
+ + = 0.
. ,
2002 .
$28,5 . , -

360

II.

.
, - ,
,


,
.

,
( ,
, ).
, ,
(flight
capital) ,
,
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
( )
(
). 2002 .,
- ,
, ,
, $22 .5
.

,
,
.
, .
,
,
.
.
. ,

, ,
.
,
.
,
2002 .

7.


?
? ? ?
,
,
.


,

.
, $251
$515 ,
49%.
,
,
;

.
,
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
1995 .
,
, 3%
, ,
,
, ,
1990 . $143 .

, ,
- -,
,


. 1990 1996 .
84%
,
. ,

,
/
.

, ,
,
.

361

,
,

. 2001 .

.

,
$450 .
2000 .;
,
.

,
,

. ,

,

, .

,
. ,
,
30 ,
6,5%;
$16,3
(6,5% $251 )

. ,

.
(
,
)
,
.
: EI Salvador Switching to U.S.
Dollar, Houston Chronicle, December 30, 2000,
p. 1; Survey of Current Business, July 2000,
p. 51; Dollar's Share of World Reserves Grows,
Wall Street Journal, September 10, 1997, p. A2;
Russia Counts Cost of Change as US Set to Issue
New $100 Bill, Financial Times, January 16,1996,
p. 20; Where is the Buck? Dollars Make the World
Go Around, Fed Says, Houston Chronicle,
October 13, 1995, p. 2C.

362

II,

2002
.
. 7.6, 2002 . $682,6 .
. 7.5,
.
; 2002 . $78,4 .
56% .
,
1965 .
* . (
GM,
Ford Chrysler
$59,8 .) , . 7.5, ,
46% 2002 .
. 7.6, ,
2002 . $1166,9 . . 7.5, ,
;
$203,9 , 17% .
, . 7.5, , $546,6 ,
47% 2002 .
.
$289,3 2002 .,
($87,8 ).
$240,5 ,
($80,3 ). , 2002 .
, $48,8
(. . 7.6).
7.6 - ,
;
, .
,

. , ,

.
(. . 7.6).
2002 . $244,6
$256,5 ;
() $11,9 .
( )
$56,0 . *Auto Pact ( )

(Canada United States Automotive Agreement), 1965 . . .

7.

363


2002 ., $503,4 .

(. . 7.6). (
) $123,5 ,
( ) $30,1 .

$484,8 . ,
$113,0 . 2002 .
$478,6 ,
,
.
2002 .
$3,7 . ,
, , ,

II.
. 7.5. , 2002 .


.
.
2002 . $28,5 . , 2002 .
:

(-503,4 )

_

+
+
(+478,6 )



,

.

.

7.

365

. 7.6,
, 2002 .

? ,
, .
, ? ,
( )
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
, .
,
,
.
: -

366

II,

, , .

. (official settle
ments balance) ;
,
,
.
,
, .
.
, , ,

.
,

, .

.
.
;

.


.
,
( )
.

, . 6
7.7
, .


,
.
-
, .
,
.

7.

367

. 7.7.

, XIX .,

, ,
.
,
.
- , 1944 .,
.
,
,
,
.
, ,

$35 ,
- .

368

II.

, 1971 .
- .

.
; ( )
.

,
, ,
1973-1974 .,
80- . 1997-1998 .
,
, .

,
- - ,
.
.
, ,
.
,
;
, .
, ,
.
,
, , SDR,
. ,
,
.

.
.
. ,
,
.
.
,
.
.

1. ?
2.
?

7.

369

3. - .
4. ?
5.
?
6. - 1971 .
7.
.
8. ,
, .
9. ,
?
10.
.


1.
XIX .
, 1945 .?
2. - .
?
3.
?
4. ,
?
5.

?
6.
?


,
.
. 7.3 7.5,
,
.
1

, Wal-Mart
Sony Corporation $1 . -

370

II.

, $1 .
,
( ) .
:
?
: ,
.
,
,
. WalMart Sony $1 ,
,
, .
Wal-Mart Sony ,
,
,
.
,
.
, Wal-Mart Sony $ 1 ,
Sony ?
Sony
$1 . Sony :
1) Sony ,
,
;
2) , $1 ,
Sony ,

( ) .
. ,
Wal-Mart
Sony
:

,
.
,

7.

371

(
,
).
.
2

,
-, $1000
, .
:

$1

$1

,
$1000 .
, .
,

. ( ,
.) ,
$1000,
.
,
.

,
, .
, ,
, . ,
,
.
,
.
3

Mitsubishi 51% $846


.
:

$846

$846

372

II.

,
,
:

. $846

,
. ,

:
$846 , $846 .
, 1 2,

. ,
. ,
, -
( 1).
,
.
:
?
1. ,
2004 . , $1400
( ) .
2.
$1400 United Airlines (
) - .
3. Ford Motor Company () $2,5 .Jaguar Motor Co (
).
4. $500
, .


: ?

:
4-
;
4-
(
);

7.

373

4-
.

:
1) .
( );
,
(
);
2) .
(
),
( ). ,
, ,
( ).
, ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
,
,

,
, ,
-
. . ,
,
.
,
,

.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,

374

II.

,
, .
,
. ,

.

(Milton Friedman),
. ,
,
Toyota Camry Sony,
, . ,
,
( , ), , ,
, ,
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?
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?

7,

375

, ,
:
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);
4 ;
4 ,
;
+ Merrill Lynch;
4 Boeing Aircraft, ;
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,
. ,
, ,
, .
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3. ,
, ?
?

,
$25 $30 .
:
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;
4- ;
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;
4- ;
4- .


2002 . ,
. 12
, . ( .)
12 ,
(), , , . ,

,
. (,

8.

377


.
.)

, , . ,
2002 . , ,
,
.
.

,
,
, .
,
$25 $30 ,
.

, . ( ,
.) ,
Volkswagen $675 SEAT
, Volkswagen
80-. , 80- .
.
, , ,
, Volkswagen
.

.
, -
, . ,
,
.
.
,
.
,
. ,

,
, .
.
,
-
(European Central Bank, ECB), -
, . ,
.
, 2003 .
, ,
.
,
, ,
.1

378

II.

,
,
. Marks and Spencer,
,
, ,
.
, Marks and Spencer
Maytag Corporation, ,
( Marks and
Spencer) ( Maytag Corporation).
,
. ,

.
, ,
,
.


(foreign exchange) ,
, .
, (
)
, .

. . 8.1
.
,
, .
,
. , . 8.1
,
.
.
. 8.2 .
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
(

. 8.2.). , ,

8.

379

. 8 . 1 . ,

:
.2
8.3 .
, , (
,
). , , .
, (5) . 8.2. ,

380

II,

(D) ( $0,009 ),
(200 ).
7, ,
.
8.3
; ,
.
, ,
.
, . , . 8.4
6 2003 ., Wall Street
Journal. .
(direct exchange rate), (direct quote),
, . ,
,
, 6 2003 . $0,008321/1.
(indirect exchange rate), (indirect quote),
, .
,
, 6 2003 ., 120,18/$1.
.
( ) , ,
,
. ,
.

8.

381


, ,
. ,
: $1,89.
0,529 .
,
.

,
.
,
,

,
,
.

. . 8.3
,
-,
(
).
,

(
,

).
, .
,

, , ,
- .
,
,
, ,

,
.
. ,
$1,73,
$1,74.
, .
, .
.
:
$1,73,
$1,74. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.


,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
. Toyota,
,
,
, ,

382

II.
. 8.4.

8.

383
. 8.4

: Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2003, p. B8. Wall Street Journal.


2003, Dow Jones & Company, Inc. .

.
$1,2 . -
(. 8.1). ;
-, .
66% .
. 8.5, 90%
.
- .
- ,
(transaction currency) .

384

II.

8.1. .
, ,
.
, , , , ,
, , , , , -, -

8.

385

. 8.5. , .
( ).
, 200%


( /. P. Morgan Chase,
Barclays Deutsche Bank),
-, ,
.
.
,
, , . ,
J. P. Morgan Chase 10
1,649 . ./$1 1,648 .
./$1. $3679,78. (
: J. P. Morgan Chase
10 000 000 1,649, $6 064 281,38,
10 000 000 1,648, $6 067 961,16,
$3679,78.)
, , ,
.
,

386

II,

. , ,
.
()
,
. , ,
, $1 (
), .

.
,
,
. , ,
, , ,

. -,
online
.
,
,
. ,
,
. , ,

. , $100 000
20 000 - Avril Lavigne U2,
,
General Motors, $20 ,
. ,
,
,
.

:
4- ,
,
,
,
.
() ,
,

;
,
( -

8.

387

,
$1,2 . ,
online,
.
,
.

. , , Deutsche Bank, Citigroup UBC,
. Deutsche Bank, 90% (
, ) . ,
. Barclays
Charles Schwab Corp.
,
,
.
, ,
,
.
online.
,
.
FXall.com ,
: Bank of America, Goldman Sachs, Credit Suiss First Boston, J.P. Mor
gan Chase, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, UBS Warburg HSBC. (Paul Kimbeli),
FXall.com, ,
. - , , ,

web-
.
: Foreign Exchange Banks Charge into Online Battle, Financial Times, August 15, 2000, p. 19;
Banks Move toward Online Currency Trading, Financial Times, June 7, 2000, p. 20; Deutsche Bank,
Chase Manhattan Join Move toward Online Currency Dealing, Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2000, p. A43D.

).

,
, .
,
,
;
+ ,

.
,
.

388

II.


. 7,
, - ,


. ,
, . , ,
,
,
.


, , ,
. ,
, 100 000
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
,


.
.

. ,
,
(convertible currency) (hard currency).
, ,
, . ,
- ,
, -
,

8.

389

(inconvertible currency) (soft currency).


.
-
,
.
. ,
- ,
.
.

? ,
.
,
. - (spot market) ,
, ,
, . (
, .
,
.) ( ) 40%
.
(forward market) ,
,
. , ,
, 30, 90 180 .
, Wall Street Journal ,
, 6 2003 ., - $1,6099,
30 $1,6068,
180 - $ 1 , 5 9 1 1 .

,
30-
90-
180-

. - (swap transaction) ,

, . ,
-
,
10 30 , 10 -,

390

II,

,
10 ( ,
) 30- , ,
.
,
- ,
.
,

. , ,
.
(),
-,
. .
, DaimlerChrysler 10,7
42 . ,
DaimlerChrysler,

42 .
,
.

, .
(currency futures). ,
, ,
. ,
, (,
12,5 125 000 )
(,
). , ,
,

. ,
,
. ,
, .

98 . 1%
, .
(currency option)
( )
.
(call option) ,
. (put option) ,
.

8.

391

. ,
(
100 000 ),
( 50 000 ). . 8.1
, 6
2003 . - , ,


.
5% , .
,
,
() , .
, Toys R Us
Sony PlayStation 2 140 90
.
90 , Toys R Us
140
90 . , ,
,
90 . Toys R Us

. (
18.)

-. ( )
-, ,
(forward discount). -,
, (forward
premium). , . 8.4, Wall Street Journal 6 2003 . $1,6099.
$1,6004,
.
:

392

II,
8.1

8.

393

; Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2003, p. B5. Wall


Street Journal. 2003 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. .

, ,
.
- ( ),
.
. ,

. ,
,
.
,
, .
,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
. , -


.


. (arbitrage) ,
- -

394

II.

.
,
: .
.
:
, ,
( ),
, (
).
,
( ,
. .).
Gaieties Lafayette
( , 6).

(theory of purchasing power parity, P P P ) .
,
.
,

( , ),
, .
. ,
US $0,80 = Can $1.
, Levi's US $24
$30 .
,

, Levi's
(, , ).
, ,
, .
,
,
(),
. ,
;
, .
,
US $0,60 = Can $1.
.
, US $18 $30 Levi's,
$6.

8.

395

:
,
Levi's Levi's . , ,
,
. -,
Levi's ,
. -,
Levi's ,
. ,
, ,
Levi's, , ,
.
,
.
?
, ( )
( ) , $6.
-- ( , ) -- (
); ( ) - ( -);
( ) ( )
,

.

,
.
,
,
,
-- . ,

( ),
,
, ,
.
,
.

.
, , .
2001 . $35 990 (

2001 .). 2001 . $35 815.
,

396

II,

.
.

$27 430, , ,

. - ,
(,
. .),
,
.


. ,

.
The economist
, Big Mac
McDonald's (. ).
, , Big
Mac ,
.
.
,
.
, $1,2
, . ,
,
,
.
.
(
- )
($1,2 )
($17 ).
,
,
. ;
:
; .
(two-point arbitrage),
(geographic arbitrage),

. , 1 $2 - $1,80
. ,
. /. P. Morgan Chase $1,80

8.

397

, 1 .
- $2.
( ) , ,
/. P. Morgan Chase $2 $1,80.
,
.
,
. ,
-,
- .
,
. ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
. , 1 $2 , , $1 120 ,
1 200 .
,
.
,
(three-point arbitrage).
. . 8.6
:
1: 1 $2.
2: $2 240.
3: 240 $1,2.
1 ,
1,2; 0,2.

, (
, ) - . -
(cross rate) ,
(
).
, -,
, .

398


.

. Big
Mac, The Eco
nomist ,
:


Big Mac.
: 12%.
, 1986 .

,

. ,


,

. ,
,


.
, ,
Big Mac McDonald's,
118

.
Big Mac
,
,
.


.

Big Mac .
,

II.

.
Big Mac
$2,71.
($1,20);
($4,52). ,
,
.

(
Big Mac) .
Big
Mac
( 3,65
).
8,28 , ,
56%
. Big Mac

.
,
$1 .
, $1,10,
10%. ,

.


.
3 1 %
;



.


30-50%.
, .
,

.

8,

, ,
,
. ,
: Big
Mac ,

; ,
,
, ,
(,
).

;
,
.
, 90-,

,
, ,
,
.

1999 .
,
Big Mac ,

.
*
(Li Lian Ong),
. ,
Big Mac

.


. , ,
,
.

,
.

,

399



.
,
.
,
,

,
( Big Mac),

. ,




.
,
Big Mac
.
Big Mac ,

. ,
,

,


.
,
Big Mac,
. ,
,
.
.

.
* The Big Mac Index: Applications of purchasing
Power Parity. Palgrave Macmillan,
2003.
: McCurrencies, The Economist, April 26,
2003, p. 68.

400

II,

, :
.
2
, -, , - .
3
.
4
.
: McDonald's; The Economist.

8.

401

. 8.6.


1/200, - , :


.

, , ,
- .
,
.
,
,
-. ,
, , , ,
.

.
,
. (covered-interest arbitrage)

402

II.

, ,
()
.
, .
, ,


,
.
,
( ).

. , 90-
12% ( )
8% - ( ).
-
, . ,

. , -
, , 90-
. - . , -
,
90 .
-

,
. , -
$1 , ;
- $1,60; 90- $1,59.
:
1) - 8%;
2) ,
12%, 90
.
, -
- 90 8%
( 2% 90 ), 90-
:
$1 000 000 1,02 = $1 020 000.
-
90 . ,
$1 000 000 625 000 - $1,60/1. , 12%
( 3% 90 ),

8,

403

625 000 xl,03 = 643 750.


,
, 643 750 90-
90- $1,59/1,
90- :
643 750 $1,59/1 - $1 023 562,50.
, - ,
,
($23 562,50 $20 000).
,

.

- .
,
, ?
- - ,
. -
. -
, - . 90-
,
. , , ,
-.
.
,
, ,
,
90-
. ,
, , ,
,
,
90 . ( ,

- .)
, ,
,


.
:
? 1930 .

404

II.

(Irving
Fisher) ,
.
,
,
" (international Fisher
effect). ,

. , ,
,
.

,
.
.
,
,
, .
, ,
.

.
. ,
, ,
( ),
( ),
( ).
.

8.

405


;

, ,
.
- , ,
,

. ,
,

. ,
,
,
.

,
. -
, ,
, .
(. . 8.2).
.

,
. (correspondent
relationship) ,
, , () . ,

,
. - ,
,
,
.
, .


.
. ,
,
, ,
.
,

. -

406

II.
8.2


,
.
.
, , ,
(subsidiary bank); ,
, (branch
bank).
() .
, (affiliated bank), ,

.
.

.
,
.

. -

8,

407

.
, Hallmark
Hello Kitty $10 ,
:
4- ;
4-
;
-4- ;
+
.
( , )
,
.
.
. ,
.
,
, Nomura, Salomon
Smith Barney, Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch.

,
.

,
.


. (
) 50- .,

, ,

.
, ,
.
(eurodollars) , .
(
) ,
, ,
. ,
(
), ,
. (eurocurrency) -

408

II.

, ,
. , ,
$9 ; 45%
3
.

.
, (
).
LIBOR (LIBOR, London Interbank
Offer Rate). LIBOR ,
.

,
().
, . , (
),
. (,
, )

, . -
, ,
. -,
,
.
70- . ,
,
(Federal Reserve Board),

,
. ,
, .


. ,
(international banking facility, IBF),
,

.
,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
, -

8.

409

.


.


,

.
:
. (foreign bonds) ,
,
. , Nestle Corporation, ,
, ,
. (eurobonds)
, ,
. , American Airlines
$500 , ,
, ,
.
(. . 8.7).

. ,
, ,
, -

. 8.7. 2001 ., $

410

II,


( , ,
) .
.
(global bonds)
, .
. ,
, $1,5
, .
, 0,225 . 0,225
, ,
, ,
$1,5 , ,
$3 375 000.
, , Matsushita Electric, Citigroup
Household Finance, .
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
, .

, ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
. , Walt Disney Company
51% Disneyland Paris .

. , British Airways
, - ,

8.

411

. . (country fund) ,
.

. ,
( Merrill Lynch, Daiwa Securities
Deutsche Bank),
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
. CultureQuest,
, ,
, ,
.


, .
,
, , , ,
() . ,
,
.

, .
,
,
, .
, - ,
,
,
, ,
,
.


.
1

412

II.

, ,
.
, .
,
( , , -),
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, .

.
-
. ,

.

.
, , ,
.
. , ,

.
. ,

- .


. ,
,
.

, .

( , ) , ,
.

1. ?
2.
?
3.
?

8,

413

4. ?
5. ,
, .
6. ,
.
7. .
8. ?
9. .
1


1. ,
.
?
2.
?

(, ),
?
3. ,
?
.
4. , - 90-
$1,65; 10%,
6%. , ,
- , 90-
,
, .
5.

?
6. ,
?
1


, . 8.4,
.
1. -
? ( :
? , ,
?)

2. -
? ( , ,
?)
3. -
.
4. 180-
.
5. ,
? .
6. ,
.
7.
.
8. ,
, .
9.
?



1997 . -
Goldman Sachs & .
( )
. Goldman Sachs ,
,
, ,
. Goldman Sachs ,

, . ,
, ,
,
80%. -

1995 .
, .

, .
,
,
.
, $38,7
.

8.

415

, Goldman Sachs .
, ,
.
,
. , ,
,
,
. ,
$10 ,
. 20 1997 . ,
20%,

.
. ( , )
,
.
,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
.
,
,
. , ,
,
,
. ,
, .
, ,

. -

, Siam Cement.

, . ,
Goodyear, , . -,
, ,
- ,
. -,
: ,
. ,
20%.
, ,
. ( )

416

II.

, .

, ,
,
. 20%,
,
.
, ,
,
. 1997 .
21%,
14%, 13%. , .
, ,

,
.

. ,
,
, ,
. 1997 .
60%, 45%,
40%, 30%
.
. , ,
( Coca-Cola, Gilette Whirlpool),
, ,

.
,
,
, , .

$100 . ,
- .
, , ,
,
. ,
, :
?

1.
?

8.

417

2.
,
?
3. ,
1997 ., ,
?
4. , .
,
?
5. , ,
(,
)?
: Goodyear's Thai Subsidiary Sees Bad Year, Wall Street Journal,
September 5, 1997, p. A9; The Real Lesson from Asia, Financial Times, September 2,
1997, p. 15; Asia's Endangered Tigers, Financial Times, August 30/August 31,1997, p. 6;
Thais Count Cost of Baht Defence, Financial Times, August 29,1997, p. 5; The IMF:
Immine from (Frequent) Failure, Wall Street Journal, August 25, 1997, p. A18; Thais
Face Slow Economic Climb, USA Today, August 12,1997, p. 4B; Southeast Asia Seems
Still on Track to Grow Despite Currency Slide, Wall Street Journal, August 5, 1997,
p. Al; Economic Troubles in Thailand Stroke Betting against the Baht, Wall Street
Journal, February 10, 1997, p. A14.

,

. ,

: .

. ,
,
,
.
,
. ,
*Kiasu () ,
. ,
,
. . .

418

II.

, ,
. .
-:
,
.

.
;
.

, .
,
.

,
, .


,
.
,
: web-, , .
,
,
- .
-. ,
, .
-:
, ,
. .
,
. ,
,

, ,
.
,
.

, . ,
, .

,

8.

419

.
,
:


. 90- .
:
, , , (credit card, cash, car,
condominium, country club).
Mercedes-Benz, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
. : kiasu -
. , 80 000
, .
,

- .
kiasu
.
? ,

, ,
.
-
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
, .

*, :
, , ,
, ,

.

.
:

;

;

;
,
;
;

.


. 1998 . 32
. 2001 . ,
, : - -

9.

421

,
,
, .
,

40%;
, .
.
,
, ,
. ,

, ,
,
, .
(, Ford General Motors),
, {Whirlpool General
Electric).
. ,
,
.
, 800
, 840 .
,
, 1 .
, 2001 .
20- .
2010 .
97,5 . , 2002 .
8 30%
. 201
1974 .,
, ,
.
, 5,4
; , ,
.
, .
,

.

.
,
,
,
.
1000 .
.

, (),

422

II.


.
, , . ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, , , , ,
,
.

. ,

. , 2003 . International Steel Group
Bethlehem Steel; U.S. Steel
National Steel Corporation. ,

. Parkview
Metal Products, .
,
$200 000.
, 2002 . ,
, 900 000 .
- ,
.
, 200 000 -
,
.1


, .
, ,
, ,

.
:

.

,
. ,

.
,

,
. ,
,
.

9.

423



,

.
:
1)

?
2)
,
, ,

?

,
.
(free trade) ,
-
. (fair trade),
(managed trade),
.
,


. , ,

,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.

, , -

424

II.

, ,
, .
,
Sony, Volkswagen Caterpillar,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, U. S. Steel
Nucor, .

,
, , .
,
,
.
,

, 6:

. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,

.
,
; ,
.
,
.
.

. ,
, ,

.
,
, ;

. ,
,
. -

9,

425


,
.
.
,

. ,
,
,
.
120 000
,
, , , .
, ,
, ,
, 97% ,
2
.
,
,
,
, .
, ,

. , ,
, ,
.
1954 .
, ,
.
,
, 40
.
,
,
, ,
.3
. ,
, (infant industry
argument) 1791 . ,

,
.
,
, ,
, . -

426

II.


, . ,


. ,
, .

. ,
,

( , , ).

. , 1970 .
,
22%.

.
.4
, ,
,

. ,

,
, . ,



. , ,
, .
,
.
.
, ,
,
.

,

. ,
,
, .

, -

9.

427

(
). ,
Barley -Davidson. 80-
,
.
,

. ,
,
,
30- .
. ,

, ,
,
.
,
6: .
,

, . ,
,

. ,
,
, ,
.
80-
,
(strategic trade theory).
,
.
(
) ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

428

II,


,
.
,
, ( ) .
, Framatome
Mitsubishi
,
,
. . 9.1
. Mitsubishi , a Framatome
(. ), Mitsubishi
$10 , Framatome .
Framatome , a Mitsubishi
(. ), Framatome
$10 , Mitsubishi .
, (.
).
, $ 1 ,
, .
,
,
.
,
, ,

. 9 . 1 . :
, $

9.

429


. Framatome
$2
, , . 9.2.
Framatome $2
,
(. ). Framatome
Mitsubishi,
Framatome , ,
. Mitsubishi
, Framatome $1
. Mitsubishi
, Framatome $12
. , Framatome
. Mitsubishi , Framatome
,
Mitsubishi .

. 9.2. : ,
Framatome $2 , $


$2 ?
1. Framatome
.
2. Mitsubishi
.

430

II.

3. Framatome
$12 ,
$2 .
,
,

$10 ($12 $2 ,
).

,
. ( ,
, ; .
.
, .)
,
,
,
. ,

, -
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,
,
. $2-
Framatome $3
Mitsubishi, : Mitsu
bishi
. ,
.

9.

431


, ,
.
,
.

,
.
.
,
.
. ,
,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
. ,
, .
,
1990 .
.
2,
( , )
.
(export promotion strategy)
,
- , (
, ). (
, , )
(import substitution strategy).


. ()

, , .
, 2,
.
.
.
,

432



,
Airbus
-.
Airbus,

Boeing Boeing 747
.

1969 . Boeing 747

.
Boeing 747 495
,
-
.


,
,
.
Boeing

Airbus
.


.

,

Boeing,
Airbus.

II.

Airbus
,

747 Boeing.
Airbus
650 ; ,
380, Boeing 747.
Airbus,
-
17%
Boeing 747.
- -
380
$12-16 .

Airbus
$3,5
,
( Airbus
, ,
).
Boeing, Airbus
,
,

.
, Boeing,
Airbus
. Airbus ,
20
1500 ,
380 .
Boeing,

,

. ,
(MITI)
,
.
( 2001 . MITI ,
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.)
50- 60- . MITI

,

9.

380
.
Boeing
, ,
380 ,
Airbus
.
,
380,

Boeing, 747.


.
,
,
Airbus,
,

.
, 1999 .
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG

$750 ,
340
Airbus.
,
Boeing,
,
,
.
, Boeing


,
.

,

433

Boeing
.
1992 .
,
.

,

Boeing .

Airbus

.


(
).
Airbus
380,
, ,
,

,

.
: Airbus Wins First Orderfor Super Jum
bo from Emirates, Financial Times, May 2, 2000,
p. 1; US Critical of UK Aid to Airbus Super Jumbo
Project, Financial Times, March 14, 2000, p.1; UK
Backing for Airbus 'Superjumbo', Financial Times,
March 14, 2000, p. 9; Loan Sparks US Charge of
Illegal Subsidy, Financial Times, March 14, 2000,
p. 9; U.S. Questions Need for Loans by Britain to
British Aerospace, Wall Street Journal, March 14,
2000, p. A27; U.S. Delay on Airbus Challenge Con
cerns Boeing, Wall Street Journal, January 24,
2000, p. A3.

( ),
,
(
). 70- 80- . MITI
(
,
).
,
. CultureQuest, -

434

II.

,
.
,
,
,
(industrial policy).
,
,
.

,

MITI.


. ,
,

. :

( ,
, )
,
.
,
.
. 80- MITI

(high-definition television, HDTV),

.
, HDTV

,
, ,
, MITI .

HDTV
.

, ,
,
,
. ,

9,

435


.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,

,
5
. , ,

,
.

,
, -
- . ,
, ,
,
. 6

.

,
, , ,
,
, . ,

,
, .
,
, , -, , -,
. ,
, ,

436

II.

,
.
, ,
,
,
? (public choice analysis)
,
,

: , ,
,
,
, ,
. ,
1920 .
.
,
$630 .
, ,
, ,
$10,5 , $40 . ,
,
(. 9.1).
,
, ,
,
$40. , , ,
,
,
, ,
, , .
,

,
. 7 ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
, ,
.

9.

437

9.1.

? .
,
' (Tip O'Neill):
.
,
.
, ,
, .
,
, .

, , .
, Nissan Toyota
, 80- .

. Nissan Toyota
,
( , ,
), ,
. :
Toyota Nissan ,
.

438

II.


,

.

: .
XVI .,
. ,
, /
. ,
,
, ,
.


~- ,
. ,
( , export tariff)
( , transit tariff).
, ( ,
, import tariff). :
1) , (ad valorem tariff).

. , . 9.1 (
),
2,1%
;
2) (specific tariff).

. . 9.1,

;
3) (compound tariff)
.
6,4%
9,9 .
, ,

. ,

. , Target

$400 . -

9.

439

9.1

-, Target
2,1% $400, $8,40
, ,
Target .

,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
5,5%,

, 3,5%.
,
,

. ,
-
,
. -

440

II.


, : ?
(Judith
Barzilay), .
, Marvel Homo
Sapiens. , ,
: , ,
, -,
.
. , -
, , .
, 1961 .
,
. ,
Marvel, ,
, , , .
Toy Biz, Inc.
, Marvel, 90
, -,
X. ,
12%.
Toy Biz
.
, , ,
Marvel , ,
, , ,
, . ?

, , ,
.
.
1.
. . 9.3,

, -.
,

.
. ,
, -

9.

441

, 6,8%;
Toy Biz .
. 2003 .
, , .
X ,
(, Homo Sapiens),
, .
, X ,
. , - , ,
, ,
- .
, , -, ,
. ,
, .
Toy Biz ,
. ,
Marvel , . -.
; . ? (Chuck Austen),
Marvel X,
. , ,
,
.
: -
, ,
.
: Is Wolverine Human? A Judge Answers No: Fans Howl in Protest, Wall Street Journal,
January 20, 2003, p. A1; United States Court of International Trade, Slip Op. 03-2 (January 3, 2003), Court
No. 96-10-02291; United States Court of International Trade, Slip Op. 00-159 (November 28, 2000),
Court No. 96-10-02291.


. ,

,
( , ).
, ,
.
2.
. ,

,
.

442

II,
. 9.3.
, 1999 .

,
. , ,
$2000 .
,
. ,
. ,

, . . 9.4
D Dr

. , ,
$2000.
GM, Ford Chrysler,
, -
, GM,

9.

,
.

:
$1900 33%
. ,

22%.

.
,
,
,

. 10-15

:
, .

, .

, .
,

443

, ,
,
,
.
:
, ,
,
. ?

,

,
.
,
.
,


.
: Car Importers Take Apart Customs
Regulations, Financial Times, June 29/30, 1996,
p. 2.

Ford Chrysler , .
,
,
.
, , , .
Toyota Mazda,
,
, ,
.


. ,
,
,
(nontariff barriers, NTB).
: ,
.

444

II.
. 9.4. , -,

.
. ,

(, ).
,
( ,
), .

.
(
,
10) .
(tariff rate quota, TRQ)
;
, ,
,
. . 9.5, 100 000
, TL;
, . ,
, .
, ,
350%.
, :

9.

445

. 9.5.


. ( )
, ,
.
, , ,

.

,
. ,
.
, , 2 .

17% , . (
, , 8 .)

( ),
, . , 2003 .
21 ,
7 .
?
,
, ,
,
.
, -

446

II.

Archers Daniels Midland (


, ). ,
,
.

,
, ,
( , $1,9 ) ,
. ,
, Ghirardelli Chocolate Company -
( ) Corsicana (
, ),
,
,
.
,
, $2
: , ,

.

. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.
.
,
. (voluntary export
restraint, VER)

.

,
. , 1982 .
,

, (

). ,
1996 .
.

9.

44/

, ,
14,7 . ,
,
.

,
.

.

. ,
(/ )
,

. , 1990 .,
, .
.

.
, ,
, .

. 10, ,
,
.

. ,
,
, .

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
.
.

,

, .

448

II.

, .
,

.
, ,
8
12 18 .
,

9
.
, 7%,

10
.
.

. ,
( ,

11
).
, ,
. 12 , ,
,

. 1 3 18
; ,
, 18.

. . 14
,
.

-
. ,
Guardian Industries (
)
,
25% ,
. Guardian ,

. , ,

,
, ,
. 15
keiretsu ( ,
,

9.

449

) ,
.
, AIG, ,
1946 .,

. ,
,
keiretsu. , ,
,
, , ,
.

.
,
,
.

, , . ,
-
16
.
, , ,
,
, .
,
,
.


- .
,

, .

: .

450

II.


,
.
, ,

. ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, , ,

, 12%
. ( , ,
, ,
, , ,
, 12%.) ,
. 17
.

,
. , ,
600
. 18

70% .
, , TF1
Canal Plus, 40%
, , , 60%
, ,
, .
. 40% ,
1700 , AM FM,

.19 ,
. 20
, ,

, .
.
,
.
,
; ;

9.

451



;
,
. ,
,
(National Health Insurance Bureau),

.
(Central Board
of Film Certification) ,

. ,
,
(State Standards Committee).
.
,
. ,

,

.21
;

, Barley -Davidson BMW.22
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
,
,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
, .

.
1991 . .
,
,
.
,
, , .

452

II.


.
.
.

,
.
, ,
, , ,
.23
2003 .
. ,
.

, .24
.
,
,
, , ,
.

. ,
33%;
49%.
30%, 40%.25
,
, ,
.
, .

,
. , ,
; ,
.

. ,
,
. . 9.6
.


,
-

9.

453

.
,
, ,
. ,


.



. ,
,
, ;
.
,
, , .26
,

.27

,
,

, , ,
.
: ,

454

II.

,
, ,
. .

. , 2000 .
Toyota $133 ,

.

.

,
. , ,
.
,
,
- ,
.
,
, , ,
.

(foreign trade zone, FTZ) ,

.
, (
Caterpillar,
. , ), ,
(, ,
).28
. ,

(. 9.2).
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
maquiladora (
)
. Maqui
ladora , ;
Maquiladora
. -

9.

455

9 . 2 .

,
.
, Maquiladora,
.
, ,

. ,
Maquiladora,
. ,
Maquiladora, ,
.
, Maquiladora,
( ),

.
(NAFTA) ,
Maquiladora,
, . , -

456

, ( ), (
, - )
,
.

,
( ,
), ,
,
,
(
).
. , Boeing Airbus
Air Canada 200
. ,
, Air Canada
, ,
, , .

,
.
,
,

, ,
. - , (Export-Import
Bank, Eximbank),

; 2001 . 2300
$12,5 . , Boeing,
- ,
. ,
De Francisci Machine Corporation
$7,9 , -


. ,
,
.29 ,
, (Overseas Private
Investment Corporation, OPIC),
( 3).
-

9.

457

OPIC .
, , ,
, ,
.


,

, , .
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
(International Trade Adminstration, ITA).
, ,
, .


(International Trade Commission, ITC),
.
,
,

, .
,
(Canadian International Trade Tribunal),
,
: ,
, .


,
.
(countervailing duty, CVD)
, - ,
, .
,
, -
.
-

458

II,

, ,
.

.

, ,
,
. ,

:
,

;
,
.
,
,
,
. ,
,
,
.


, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
- ,

.
25% .
,
,

(
). ,
Hynix Semiconductor,
,
, .
30
35% Hynix, . 30

9.

459


, ,

,
. . , ,
,
.
.

;
. ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
. ,
,
,
-.

.
,
, ,
.

,
.

,
( Toyota
Nissan), . ,

Sienna Toyota,

Sienna? ,
Toyota ,
,
?
?

.

460

II.

-301
,
, 301 1974 .,
-301. -301,
( )

.
,
, .
,
(
) ,
.
-301 ,
, . ,
90- ,

,
.
(Carla Hills)
,
,
. 31
-301 1994 .
,
( )
,
. -301
.
,
.
, -301
, ,
. ,
-301,
. ,
, ,

.


,
. , ,
?

9.

461

,
, :

,
;
,
;
.
,
, , .
.
,
,
.
,
(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles,
GAAP). ,
,
. ,
,
,
,
, .
,
; .
,
, ,
,
.

.
, , ,
, .
, ,

.

,
: ( ),
, ?


. -

462

II.


,
.
.

. ,
, 1974 .,
201,
,
,
(ITC)
, ,
ITC. ,
, 2002 .
,

.

,
, ,
. ,
.
,

.

, ,
,
,
. ,

, .

.
,
.
,
.

.

9.

463

,
, ,
, ,
- ,
.


, ,
.
,

. ,
.


.


.
,
,
.

. -301


.

1. ? ?
2.
,
?
3. .
4. -

?
5.
?
6. .
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. .

464

II.


1.
.
2.

(
).

?
3. ,
, .
, .
4. 1992 .
.
? (:
?
?)
?
5. ,
?



, ,

. ,

, -
. ,

.
, ,
, .
,
,
(National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers).

.

(Market Access Sectoral and Trade Barriers Database);

9.

465

web- . web-
,
. ,
, .
web- , 9,
web-, .



Lands' End
200 000 . ,

,
2000 .
.
,
, . Lands' End
,
.

, .
Lands' End :
.
1000
, ,
.
, -
.
?
,
, .
,

,
,
.
( ). ,
,
.
, , . ,
,
. ,

466

II,

-
, . -
.
,
.

, .
(David Lee),
Ltd., , 90-
.
,
.
, , GAP, Limited Calvin
Klein, ,
; ,
.
,
,

, , .
( ,
), 1,2
, ,
.
, ,
,
? 1957 .

. 60-
.
-
X, - Y, , , .
, (,
, )
.
,
.

.
,
. (Marjorie Yang)
1978 ., ( )
Esquel Group.
Esquel .

9.

467

( ),
Esquel $500 , $50 .
Esquel, 43 000 ,
48 5 .
Esquel , Polo Ralph Lauren,
Tommy Hilfiger, Brooks Brothers, Hugo Boss, Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Abercrombie &
Fitch Lands' End.
.
1978 . , (
) .

.
12 .

,
. Esquel ,
. , ;
.
,
- ,
. ,
,
, .
?
?
Esquel
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
. Esquel 2000
, .
.
,
,
. ( )
.
,
, . ,
,
, . ,
,
.

468

II.

.
(Richard Sutton)
, - Lollytogs,
, Target, Sears Mervyn's,
Bugle Boy. Lollytogs, ,
$100 , 95% ,
.
. -
15 , .
. 10
,
. ,
, ,

Kmart.. Loolytogs
, . ,

, - .
,
.

. -
, ,
,
.
.

? , ,
.

.
,
.
. William E. Connor & Associates Ltd. 27
, 31 .
- , 250 800 ,
, ,
, (),
-,
. - ,
.

(,

), .

9.

469


.

, ,
, .

. ,
,
,
. , ,
. 350 ,

.
, ,
,
. (Jimmy
Lai), , .
, , ,
. ,
(
, ).
.
.

1.
? ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. .
? .
: Andrew Tanzer, The Great Quota Hustle, Forbes, March 6, 2000,
pp. 119-125. .


.
,

, , -

470

II,

,
.

,
.
,
zaibatsu ( . . .).
, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo
Yasuda,
,
.

30- . ,
, .
-
, ,
7 1941 .
;
.
zaibatsu
, ,
, ,
zaibatsu
. ,
, zaibatsu,
.
,
keiretsu ( . . .).
Keiretsu ,
, .
zaibatsu, , keiretsu
,
. , ,
keiretsu, , ,
. ;
,
. Keiretsu .
keiretsu, ,
; keiretsu
. keiretsu ,
, ,
.
keiretsu
. 1990 . -

9.

471


keiretsu. keiretsu
,
.

; 1954 1972 .
10%.
,
. ,
1962 ., 300%.
,
,
, ,
. 1971 .
.
,
1970- .,
.
308 ,
. 1985 .
(
) ,
( 7).
,
.
,
. ,
;

.

,
.
, ,
80-
.

, .
1991 .
.
.
,
,
,
, . 2000 .

472

II.

-
. ,

,
.


,
.
-

-;
- ( )
.
. ,
,
.

:
GATT ;

;
,
;
,
.


? : .
, 1917 1982 .,
, :
, ;

;
; ,
, .
,
, -

474

II,

,
( , , ).

,
, ,
,
(GATT)
().
, ,
.

( 2000 .);
, ,
. Volkswagen, , $1
, (
Volkswagen Beetle Jetta).
, 2003 . , ,
,
, , ( 4%)
2005 . Volkswagen,
- .
Renault Peugeot,
,
.

(North Ame
rican Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA). 1994 .
,

, .
NAFTA
,
,
. ,
NAFTA
;
$100 .
, ,
.

( ,
),
. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
.
.
,
, -,

-

10.

475

. , , Flex
tronics International, Solectron SCI Systems, $2
,
Cisco, Ericsson Compaq. ,
,
, ,

.
, .
UPS Federal Express ,
,
. ,
, (
), (
).
.
, Servicios Textiles de Baja California ,
, 20 ,
, .
,
, .
Seagate Technology, . ,

. , America West, GAP U-Haul,

. ,
maquiladora, $1 ,
50 000 .
,

.
, ( , )

.1

9
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,

. ,
.

,
. , -

476

II,



.
,
(
Mercosur NAFTA),
-.
, ,
: 12
, .



,
,
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
.
, 1930 .

53% (
-). ,
, ,
, -

10.

477

.
,
.
, ,
, , 1947 .
( ),
(International Trade Ogranization, ITO).
. ,
-
. ITO
(General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT),
. 1947 1994 .
, GATT ( GATT
, ),
. GATT
,

. 1995 .
,
GATT.

GATT ,

.
().
,
.
,
, GATT,
. GATT
,
, (. . 10.1).
, GATT,
. , ,
, 40% 1948 ., 3% 2003 .
. 10.1, , GATT,
.

,
GATT
.
(most favored nation, MFN), ,
, , -

478

II.
10.1
GATT

. (
.)
GATT,
.
,
. 1 0 . 1 . GATT

10.

479

20%,
GATT
20%. , GATT
,
, GATT.

.
1.
, GATT
,
.
(genera
lized system of preferences).
. ,


,
.

-

480

II.

,
.
2.
,
, NAFTA.
GATT
. ,

. GATT

. , GATT ,

.
,
,
.
GATT ,

, . ,
, ,
1955 . GATT,
.

. ,
GATT

.
( ) GATT
1986 . 1994 . ,
GATT , 1995 .
,
4,3 3%.

,
.
GATT
. ,
GATT
(. 9).

.
,

GATT.

10.

GATT
,
-

,
(MFN status).
GATT
, GATT.
,

, ,

.
,
,

.
:

- ,

.

481

(normal trade relations,


NTR)
.
.
,


:
,
,
.
.

MFN
.
,


,


,
. NTR
MFN.


, (World Trade Organization, WTO),
1995 . 2003 . , (), 146
30 -.
,
.
:
1)
, ,
( . 10.2
);
2)
.
,
. , 1994 .
(Information

482

II.
. 1 0 . 2 . ,

Technology Agreement).
, ,
. ,
, 1997 . 2001 .
-
. -
2005 ., ,
,
.

,
,
; 2
3)
.
GATT
, ; GATT
. GATT
. -, GATT -

10.

483

, :
,
, ,
, . -,

GATT.
. ,
.

,
.
.

, . Cairns
Group, ,
, , , ,
,

-. 1974 .

(Multifibre Agreement),
, 65%
, $250 .
9.
,
.
(General Agreement on Trade
in Services, GATS).
, .
,
. ,

.
(national treatment),

, . ,
, , ,
, 10%
.
,
.
,

. 2000 . -

484

II,

,
.

(Agreement on Trade Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, TRIPS).
,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,

.
/


, ,
,
.
,
,
. -


.
, (Trade-Re
lated Investment Measures Agreement, TRIMS).
:
, $7,7 ,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
. TRIMS,
,
,
. TRIMS
,
:

10.

485

, :

;
:
;
:

3
.

.
. GATT
.
,
, , ,
: ?
, ,
. , ,
, (
, ,
), .
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
. , , ,

. , 2003 .
$248 .
, ,
Bombardier,
.
Bombardier
Embraer
$1,7 . 4

, , ,
, .

. , (,
,
),
.
, -

486

II,

. ,
,

. ,
,
.



,
.
,
.
, .

.

.


. ,
,
. ,

, ,
, .
: , , ,

10.

487

.
.
. ,
,
( , ).
NAFTA;

, .

.

, .
,
(trade deflection).
, ,
, (
) , ,

. , ,
,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, , - .

(rules of origin).
, ,
,
, . ,
, NAFTA,
, ,
.
. ,
(customs union), ,


, .
, ,
. ,
,
, .

488

II.


(Zollverein), 1834 .
. , 1870 .,
,

. Mercosur (
, , ,
).
.
. ,

,
.
,
( , )
.
.
, ,
. ,

,
, .
,

.
,
.
.
.
,
,
,
( - ,
, )
.

, () .
.
,
.
, ,
13 ,
( ).
. 10.3
.

10.

489
. 10.3.



. ,

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,

,
.

. ,
,
.
,
, ,
-

490

II.


, .

, ,
.

, ,
, ,
-
, .
, General Mills, Toyota
Samsung, ,
.

, .
,
, Unilever, Renault Siemens.
,
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
NAFTA, ,
, Ford, GM Chrysler,
,
.

.
, ,
,
.

10.

. . :

491

'

'

'



().
337 :
() $7,9 ,
(. . 10.2 10.1). 2004 .
10 (. . 10.3).
452 ,
$8,2 .
10.2
, 2001 .

, ,
GATT,

.
, , ,
(, ) 1957 . -

492

II.
10.1.

,
, (European Economic Community, EEC),
.

,
15. 70- . ,
, .
80- , ,
12 . 1993 . 12
;
. 1995 .
, . , , ,
, , , , ,
2004 .
.
,
.

.
, , ,
.
(

10,

493
10.3
, 1 2004 .

), (
).
,
, , :
4- (-
, );
4- ( );
4- ( , , );
4 ( ).

,
, ,
.
. (Council of the Eu
ropean Union), , 15
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
( ) .
, ,

494

II.

; ; , ,
; ; ,
; .

.

. .
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
, (62 87
).
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
. (European Commission)
20 , . ,
, ;
.
, ,
.
, . ,

$100 . :
;

, ;
,
;

,
(Common Agricultural Policy, CAP)
;
,
24 000 ( ). . (
11 ,
!)

10.
. (European Parliament)
626 ,
, .

,
. , 99 ,
, 87 ,
40%
(. . 10.2).
.

.
. ,
,
, (
).

20 1999 .
, ,
,
, ,
. ( )
,
(
, ). ,
,
.
. (European Court of Justice) 15
, .
,
.

, ,
,
.
.
450- ,
.
,
. ,
Cassis de Dijon ( )
, .
. ,
, ,
: , , -

496

II.

.
(
. 10.4, ).
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.


,
. (
,
.)
.

.

.

: ,
.

, ,
. ,
35 , .
,
, , ,
,
,
.
,
.
,
, ,

. , ,

10.

497

. 10.4.
( 189 )

498

II.


,
.
, ,
50%


.

, , ,
. ,
,

, ,

,
.
,
,

,
.



.

,
,
,
, ,

. ,
, ,
.
1. ,
,
,
.


,


,

.


.

,
,

. ,


,
,

.

. ,
,
,
,
,

.
(

)
,

,


.

2.

: James N. Gardner, Lobbying, Euro


pean-Style, Europe, November 1991 (Number
311), pp. 29-30; European Bureaucrats Are Writ
ing the Rules Americans Will Live By, Wall Street
Journal, May 17, 1989, p. A1; Lobbying Brussels
in Anticipation of 1992, Wall Street Journal, March 6,
1989, p. A12.

, ,
(~) (
). .
, -

10,

499

;
.

(harmonization) . ,
, , ,
,
, .
,
, ,
. , ,

. ,
$260 (
1988 .)
.5 , ,
, ,
.

, ,
, . 1979 .
,
Cassis de Dijon. .
Rewe Zentral AG ( ,
) Cassis de Dijon,
, . Cassis
de Dijon :
. Rewe Zentral ,

, .
.
,
(mutual recognition): , ,
,
, ,
. Cassis de Dijon
,
.
, ,
, Cassis de Dijon
. ,
,

. ,
Cassis de Dijon,
: -

500

II,


.

, .
1985 .

(White Paper of Completing the Internal Market).

, ,
. , ,
1986 . (Single European Act),
1 1987 . ,
(,
) 31 1992 .
,
,
279 . ,
, 1992 . ,
, 1992 .
,
35 ! (

), 35-
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
,
, .
.

, ( 15
),
, .

;
. ,
Samsung ,
, ,
. , .
Samsung
, -

10,

501

,
. Samsung ,
,
, ,
6
.
,
,
.
$84 1985 . ( )
$700 2002 . 1985 . 500
.


, .
.
,
, .
.
,

. , ,

- ,

. ,
1991 .
,
.
, .
(Treaty on European
Union) (Maasrticht
Treaty). 12 , 1 1993 .
.
,
:
1)
;
2) ,
,
;
3) , ,

.

502

II.

,
, .

, ,
;
( )
, , .
,
(cohesion fund),
, 90%
.
, , , (
, ,
).
,
(economic and monetary union).
, ,
, , ,

. ,
,
, 2001 . .
1 1999 .
11
.
.
( 1999 2001 .)

. 2002 .
,

.

. (
8, .)

, .
0,4
2% ,
,
. . , 8,
,
. ,
( )
,

10.

503

. ,
$25 $30
.
, , .

.
(European Central Bank)
,
. ,
3%
,
- .
, 2003 . 3%
, ( 0,25%).
,
- ,

. , ,
,
. 2003 .
, .
,
, ,
- .
,
.
(Treaty of Amsterdam), 1997 .,
.
:
4- ,
, , ;
-4-
;
4- ,
-
, .
(Treaty of Nice), 2003 .,
,
.
.
.

,
, .

504

II.

, ,

. , ,
.
27,
.
, . ,
, ,
.
.
. ,

, .

, .
.
, British Airways, Lufthansa KLM,

Alitalia, Iberia, TAP Olympic Airlines,
.
,

. ,
,
. ,
,
( ) . (
, ) .
(
, )
.


. , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
25 . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
. ,
2002 ., -

10.

, , , , .
, ,

. , .
,

-

505

, :
1) ,
. 71 74%,
, ;
2)
.
3)
, 62% .
: Office for Official Publications of the
European Communities, Who is Who in the European Union? What Difference Will the Treaty of Nice
Make? Luxembourg, 2001.

, , ,
.




.
. ,
;
(European Free Trade
Association). , ,
.
,
(European Economic Area),
, , 18
. ,
(), . , ,
, 1995 . .


(North American Free Tra
de Agreement, NAFTA) -

506

II.

. , 1994 .
,
,
1988 .
: 2002 .
$417 . ,
,
( ) .
,
.
NAFTA
. 15
, ,
NAFTA.

. NAFTA


NAFTA, . ,

, NAFTA
,
( ,
, ,
).
,
,
.


, , NAFTA,
,
.
(screwdriver plant) ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. ,

,
. ,
,

,
, -

10.

507

.

. ,
NAFTA :
, ,
65,2% , ,
.
NAFTA ,
,
;
.
, NAFTA
, ,
NAFTA.
,
; ,
CultureQuest,
.
NAFTA
,
. , NAFTA
.
, .

(fast-track authority),
. ,
,
, ,
.


;
. , ,
,
. ,

.
. 1983 .


. (Caribbean Basin
Initiative, CBI) :

(, , . 10.4 -

508

II,

! .

10.4

10.

509

10.2). ,
,
,
, ,
, . ,

, ,
CBI ( ,
, , ,
).

()
.
Mercosur. 1991 . , ,
Mercosur
. ,
( ) ,
85% Mercosur.
Mercosur 1995 .
, Mercosur
,
, Mercosur.
269
$922 .
Mercosur
. Mercosur
,
1989 .
, .
Mercosur
. 2001 . 17%
Mercosur, $88 ,
.
Mercosur
.
, $18

. 7 , FDI -
,
(. 2).
. (Andean Pact)
, 1969 .
: , , , .
,
.

510

II.

1973 ., 1976 .
.
20
;
5% .
: ,
,

. ,
,
.
Mercosur 1991 .

.
,

,
, , .
: 2001 . 11%

. . -

10,

511



.
-
,

. ,
, , .
, (
)
.
-
- .
,
, -
.
- (ASEAN).
( -
) .
- .
,

. ,
.

.
.
, 70- .
, ,
,
.
1 1983 . -
(Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Trade
Relations Agreement, ANZCERTA, CER).

. CER

, , ,
, . ,
(
, ),
, CER
.

512

II,

- . (Association af South-East Asia Nations, ASEAN)


1967 .
(. 10.3).
, , , ,
, . , ASEAN
90- . , ASEAN,
: 2001 .
$18 000, $410.
10.3. ASEAN

ASEAN,
ASEAN (ASEAN Free Trade Area,
AFTA); AFTA 1 1993 .
AFTA 2003 .
5% ,
2010 . , ,
, 40%
8
, AFTA.
Mercosur , ASEAN
: 1)
ASEAN,

; 2)
ASEAN
, NAFTA.
ASEAN
23% .
ASEAN , -

10.

513

ASEAN.
ASEAN , 2003 .
ASEAN ,
9
2004 .
,
,
, AFTA. ,
AFTA
San Migel, 90%
, Delta , 40%
. San Migel
ASEAN
, AFTA.
- . -
(Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC)
21 (. 10.4).
1989 .
- . ,
1994 . , ,
,

2010 . 2020 .
10.4. -
()

--.

514

II.

, 1996 .


- . 2001 .
$2,7 , 45% .
.
. . 10.4 10.5,
:
(South African Development
Community, SADC), -
(Monetary and Economic Community of Central Africa, CEMAC)
(Economic Community of
West African States, ECOWAS).
, 70- 80- .,
.
,

, . 10
10%
.

10.5.

10.

515

,
,
.
GATT. , 1947 .,

. 47 ,
, GATT, -

, .
GATT, ,
GATT
. 1995 . GATT .

.
,
.

,
.
,
.

.
.
,
377 $7,9 .
, 1987 .,
,
.
;
,
.
, ,
. ,
NAFTA, 1994 .
NAFTA
.


.
Mercosur .

516

II.


,
.
, ASEAN
,
.
.

1. (MFN)!
2. MFN
?
3. GATT.
4. ?
5.
?
6. ?
7. ,
.
8. NAFTA.
9. (CBI)?
10.
?


1. ,
, :
?
2.
?
?
3.
?
4.
, ?
5.
Mercosur?
6.
?
7. MFN ,
?

10.

517


NAFTA
; NAFTA

,
,
. ,
, NAFTA
.
4-5
. , ,
, NAFTA.
, ,
, NAFTA, ,
NAFTA.
, ,
/
, ,

/ .
12 .
, ,
NAFTA.
,
. .
NAFTA.
, NAFTA
.

1. NAFTA
, ? .
2.
NAFTA?
3. NAFTA
NAFTA?

Whirlpool


, . -

518

II. :

,
, , ,
, . (
,
. , ,
, ,
.

.)
,
.
,
( ), 15
. ,
,
, , ,

.

.

, , ,
.
,

.
,
, Whirlpool,
. :
,
Whirlpool
: -,
, ,
(consumer value gap) ,
, ; -,

. :
,
;
. ,
, Whirlpool ,
,
, ,
, .
,
,

10,

519

,
11
.
Whirlpool

, .

Philips Industries,
. Whirlpool
Philips.
Whirlpool

:
1) Whirlpool
: Bauknecht,
; Whirlpool,
,
; Ignis, , ,

.
Whirlpool
,
;
2) ,
,
Whirlpool 13

;
3)
, Whirlpool
,
;
4)
,
.
,
,
.

;
5) Whirlpool
,
,
. , Whirlpool Europe
,

520

II.

,
;
Marion, Whirlpool,
. ,
Whirlpool
(
) .
,

.
,
, Whirlpool $2 ;
$1 .
,
, Whirlpool ,
. , 2002 .
Polar SA,
.
, 2004 .
. , Whir
lpool , .
,
, Bosch Siemens Hausgerate
.
(
62%, 34%
, 20 ). ,
$350
,
, .
Electrolux, Whirlpool
, DaimlerBenz AEG Hausge
rate. Electrolux,
20 25% ,
6%. , Electrolux ,
, ,
25 12 000 .
, Whirlpool
.
, 2002 .
$81 $2,2 . ,
Whirlpool, 2004 ., ,
.

10.

521

1 . , ?
?
2. Whirlpool
(Bauknecht, Whirlpool Ignis),
,
?
3. Whirlpool ,
Whirlpool ?
4. Electrolux Bosch Siemens Hausgerate
Whirlpool
?
5. , , -
?

: Whirlpool Corporation, 2002 Annual Report; Whirlpool Expected


Easy Going in Europe, and It Got a Big Shock, Watt Street Jourhal, April 10, 1998,
p. Al; Whirlpool Net Doubled in 4 th Quarter; Gains in Europe, Revamping Are
Cited, Wall Street Jourhal, February 4, 1998, p. A6; Despite Setbacks, Whirlpool
Pursues Overseas Markets, Wall Street Jourhal, December 9,1997, p. B4; Rough and
Tumble Industry, Financial Times, July 2, 1997, p. 13; Whirlpool to Build Washing
Machines with European, Fuel-Efficient Design, Wall Street Jourhal, August 19,1994;
Rahul Jabob, The Big Rise, Fortune, May 30, 1994, pp. 74-90; If You Can't Stand
the Heat, Upgrade the Kitchen, BusinessWeek, April 25, 1994; A Chance to Clean
Up in European White Goods, Financial Times, December 13, 1993, p. 23; Maytag,
1993 Annual Report.

,
, . ,

, . ,
,
,
. .


- .

522

II.

(NAFTA)

. , ,
, ,
- ,
, ( )
. ,

.
,

. ,
, , ,
.

,
.

.
;
,
. 60- .
, -,
maquiladora. ,
( 3600),
,
.
, John Deere, Zenith, Mattel, Sony, Samsung Siemens.
maquiladora ,
;

.
maquiladora ;
20 30 ,
. ,
, ,
.
maquiladora
, , , .

.
,
, . ,

, -

. ,
, , , . ,
( ,
), .
1994 ., NAFTA ,

. ,
.

,
(
caciques, ).
1994 . ,
(Ejercito Zapatista de Liberation National, EZLN),
, ---- . , ,
,

.

.
.
,
( ), .
,

. , ,
40%,
,
, .
-
Cinco de Mayo, , ,
,
.
, ,
.




Kodak Fuji.
,

.
Kodak
,
,


Fuji,

.

Kodak 70%
; Fuji
11%, 19%
,
Polaroid, Konica,
Agfa-Gavaert,
.

-: Fuji
67%, Kodak 11%,

.


: Kodak
36%
,
Fuji 33%,
- 31%.
Fuji


(
, 40%)

,

Kodak

. 80- .
, 90-
. .
,

,
3,7%.

Kodak,

, ,

Kodak:
$750 .
Kodak,

,

Fuji
,

,

,

,

Kodak
Fuji.


,

,
70% .

II

Fuji,
Kodak

.

,

,

.
,

,
. Fuji


,

,
Fuji. Kodak, Agfa
,
,


,
;
.
Kodak
,
Fuji
.



Kodak

Fuji,
,
.
, ,

.
Fuji

525
, ,


.
Fuji
3,7%
.
,
Fuji
,
Kodak
.
Fuji
,
,
,
.
Fuji Kodak
, ,

.

,
,
,


. Fuji

Agfa,
1990 . 5%
,

. ,
Fuji , Kodak

,

. ,
Kodak

3%,
Kodak
.
Fuji ,

526
Kodak
,
70%
.

Kodak ,
15%
,



. ,
Kodak,
Fuji
, 65%

. ,
Kodak,
Fuji

,
Kodak .
, 1996 . Fuji
Wal-Mart
,


Wal-Mart Sam's Club.

Kodak

Fuji
().

20 000 ,

(
)
,


. Kodak,

Fuji,
Fuji .

II.
,
Kodak ,
,
,
.



Kodak ,
.
,

,
Fuji
Kodak
.
,


Kodak

.

,

,
,
Fuji, Kodak. (


Fuji
.) ,
,


Kodak.
Kodak (,

),
.

Kodak
. ,
,
-

^ II
,
,

]

.


, . ,


,
, ,

. ,




,
Kodak ,

.

1.

2.

Fuji,
,





.
,
Fuji
,


?
-, Kodak
,


,

527

3.

4.


.
? -
?

Fuji, ,
Fuji
Kodak , Kodak
Fuji
.
,
Kodak ,
?
Kod
ak
,

?

: Big Yellow's Digital


Dilemma, BusinessWeek, March 24, 2003,
p. 80; Kodak Faces Fuji Challenge in
China, Financial Times, February 27,2001,
p. 17; Focused Kodak Roars into the Lead
in China, International Gerald Tribune,
June 8, 2000, p. 13; Fuji: Beyond Film,
BusinessWeek, November 22, 1999, p. 132;
Kodak and U.S. Government Team Up for
New Drive on Japan's Film Market, Wall
Street Journal, February 4, 1998, A4; Fuji
Photo Film Co., Ltd., Annual Report 1997;
WTO Weighs Up Fuji-Kodak Dispute,
Financial Times, Aril 18, 1997, p. 9;
Exposed: Kodak's Path to the WTO,
Financial Times, June 16, 1996, p. 5; Fuji
Invests $100 Million in U.S. Plant, Wall
Street Journal, February 21, 1996, A3;
Kodak Says Fuji Response a Diversionary
Tactic, Business Wire, July 31, 1995, p. 1;
Kodak Boosts Pressure on Washington to
Force Tokyo to Open Photo Market, Wall
Street Journal, June 1, 1995, p. A4; Kodak
Exposes Fuji's Market Grip, Financial
Times, June 1,1995, p. 7.

528

II.

Nike Inc.:


, Nike
,

,
,

.
, ,

,

.

, Nike

.
90- ,

, ,
,
,
.


,

Nike,
,
.
,
,
(
)
(Campaign for Labor
Rights), Global Exchange,
-,
--

Nike ,

,

,
.

,


- ,
,
Nike.
,
,
(
)

( ,
-). ,
,
Nike


. Nike

;
,
,


, ,
- ,
. ,
Nike,

,
.

Nike
Nike
.


Nike, 1990 ., -

II


Nike,
:

,
.

.
Nike
1992 .
,

, .
,
,
,
,

,
,
.

,
Nike


.
,
Nike

.
Nike
,
,
.


MESH (Manufac
turing-Environment-Safety-Health
-
-).
MESH
,

,

529

,




.
,
, Nike
,

,
.

Nike


.

;

.


,



.

(

,
).
,
,



.
,
,

.

-

530
PticewaterhouseCoopers, a


Nike
SHAPE (Safety, Health, Attitude of
Management, People Investment and
Environment -
- -
- ).
Nike

,
.


Nike

,


.


,
:

,

,
.


(
Nike,

).

II.
( 1996 . ,

,
,
Nike
10 ).
,
Nike


,
,



Nike,
- .
Nike
,
Nike

,


.
,

Nike. ,
, Nike

,


Nike.


Nike,

.

Nike


,

, Nike

-

II
,
(Andrew
Young) 15 Nike

.

,

;
,

;
.
,
,
,

,
.
,
Nike 1997 .,
,
,



. :
Nike
,
...
Nike
,
,

.
Nike


,
,


. , Nike

531
Nike
.



.
, Nike
,
;
.
(Garry Trudeau)
Doonesbury,
Nike
.
, ,
,
,
,




.
Nike,
,
,
,

.

.
,
,

. Nike
,



,

.
Nike
,
, -

532
,

,
,

. Nike
,


-


.




,
,
,
,

.
Nike,


1%.

Nike
.
,
Nike,
Nike.


(

Nike
)
,

.
Nike -

, -

II. .
,
. '
1998 .
Nike
,

Nike.
.


.
-
-,

, Nike



.



web-.
,


,

web-,


.
,
,


, ,
Nike,

Nike -
,
.

,
,

II
Nike,
.
Nike



Nike, ,
,


,

.
,
Nike

,

,




,
Nike.
,
Nike

,

,

.
,

,

.



Nike,
.

: Nike

533


?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.




Nike,

?

Nike

?

Nike
?
?


,
?
Nike
, ,

,
.



Nike?

Nike
?

,

Nike?

:
: Richard Ivey School of
Business, University of Western Ontario,
Case number 9A99C034, Nike Inc.:
Developing an Effective Public Relations
Strategy.

534

II.




.

.
- ,
,


:

, .


,
,
:
,

, ,

.
, ,

,

.


,

.
30
,

.

,


.
,

-



.

.
2002 .

34 ;

.
,
, ,

.

. ,

- ,

.
,



,

.



. ,
Falun Gong (
. . .),

,




. ,

,

, -

II
.
,
,

,

China Telecom.

,
,

,
.
1999 .

,

-,
-.
,


-.



,
,
online.



,
.

,
,
,
.
,
,


.

,

535


.

,
, -


.
,

-

.
,


,

.
,
,

,
.

,
,



.
,


,

Linux ,
Microsoft.


Red Flag Linux,

,
Windows
2000 Windows XP. -

536

II.

-
,
,

Linux
.
,



.


. ,
Intel
-
,

.
,

-.

1.

2.

3.

,

.
,
.
1 10 (10
).
,
-
.
,


.

?
?

,

?

4.

5.


, ,


?
,
,



?

: China Looks to Linux as a


Way Not to Get Locked into Windows,
Wall Street Journal, April 24, 2000, p. All;
China Creates Office to Regulate News on
Internet Sites, Wall Street Journal, April 24,
2000, p. A21; State Control Gains Upper
Hand among China Websites, Financial
Times, April 18, 2000, p. 7; BeijingSet to
Step Up Curbs on Internet, Financial
Times, March 22, 2000, p. 6; China
Reverses Harsh Internet Rules, Easing
Threat to Trade, Wall Street Journal,
March 13, 2000, p. A21; China Restricts
News Further over Internet, Wall Street
Journal, February 22, 2000, p. A26;
Microsoft Is Test Case for Chinese Rules,
Wall Street Journal, February 17, 2000, p.
A13; Internet Firms Seek to Sway
Lawmakers to See Benefits in Wider China
Trade, Wall Street Journal, February 15,
2000, p. A6; China Cracks Down on
Internet Chat, Houston Chronicle, January
27, 2000, p. 15A; Government Shadow
over China's Web' Grows, Wall Street
Journal, January 26,2000, p. A17; Internet
Phone Service Catches on with Millions in
China, Wall Street Journal, December 21,
1999, p. A14; E-Business Is Tapping
China's Online Wonderlust, Wall Street
Journal, October 27, 1999, p. A13; Intel
Becomes Cautious on China, Deferring
Decision on Net Center, Wall Street
Journal, October 26,2000, p. A21.

Disney no
.
:
;
,
;
;
;

.

- ,
Coca-Cola McDonald's.
, , , ,
,
Coca-Cola ,
McDonald's. Walt Disney Company
.
, 2002 . 86% Disney,
$25,4 ,

11.

539

5% .
Coca-Cola McDonald's,
.
,
Disney
. , , 1955 . (
) .
, , (
) 1971 . .
, Disney
. ,
; , .
, ,
1998 ., , ,
2001 .
,

.
1984 .
;
. ,
, ,
Disney .

( Disney
).
Oriental Land Company,
. Disney
,
.
:
100- ,

, .
.
Disney
.
,

: ( ), (
).
, . ,
,
,
.
, 2 ,
350 .
, Disney
.
1988 .
Disney
.

540

III.

Disney 49%,
5 1 % .

Disney
. Disney

,
. .
, ,
. ,

Disney. , ,
,
,
. 12 1992 .
.
, :
.
, ,
,
. Disney

,
.
.
Disney

. ,
12% , .
, ,
,
.
. , Disney

. ,

, . , ,
,
.
, 1994 ., .
(
) .
, Disney,
, , . 2001 .
,
.
; , 2002 .
, ,
.
Disney ,
. ,
, 43%

11.

541

$3,6 , $314 .
, , $2,9
,
57% .
Disney
. Disney Chan
nel 15 ;
Time Warner's Cartoon,
54 . ,
Disney , 22
.
$159 .
, Disney
. ,
, Walt Disney International. ,

. Disney ,
( )
Disney (,
, , ) 80%
,
$2 .1

,

,
, ,
.
, ,
.

,
,
,
.
Disney
, , ,
, ,

.

, Disney
Channel . , ,
, Disney
,
. ,
,
. -

542

III,


,
. ,
Time Warner's Cartoon Network,
,
. , -
Disney ,
( , ) .

, ,
.


,
Disney, ,
. ,

,
,
.
.
, ,
, - ,
,
.
,
- . ,
Disney 5
, ,
,
.

,
.

.
,
, .

. 11.

543


,
3
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. . 11.1

, . . (
CultureQuest, ,
.)

,
,
. ,
,
. , ,

,
.
,
, .
.
,
, . ,

,
,
.
, ,
Nike, ,
,
. 4

, ,
. ,

Mercedes-Benz -

544

III,
11.1


11.

545

,
(
5
). , ,
, ,
(.
6),
(
). Nissan
,
,
.
. ,
,
Nissan .
Nissan ,

.


. 6
. 3 4,
, ,
.
, :
, ,
,
( ) . . ,

.
,
, .
,
,

546

III.
. ,
Tyson Foods
, .

,
.
Tyson
,
, , .
Tyson
7
$250 . ,


, .
, ( ).
,
,
. 8

.9 ,
McDonald's,
,
.
McDonald's ,
McDonald's ,
.

.
McDonald's
, Wal-Mart,
.

, .

,
. ,
BMW, -
, BMW.
- -
BMW
, ,
. ,

.
: -

11.

547

? ,
,
,

, .
,
, ,
.
BMW ,
BMW ,
.
BMW,
.
,
,
. ,

, .

, ,

, .

,
, - -
.
, /

.

,
. ,

, , - .

.

.


. ,
,
,
. ,
,

548

111,


,
.
Nokia, -
, .

. Nokia,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
.
Nokia, , -
,
.
(Jorma Olilla) .
. Nokia,
,

, .
Nokia
. ,
Nokia
, - ,
,
, .10
General Electric
.
12 ,
.
,
.
,
,
GE.11
I



( ,
) , ,
.

11.

549


(home replication strategy),
. ,
,
,
, . ,
-,
. ,
, Mercedes-Benz,
,
,
. MercedesBenz
, ,

.
, , ,
, , ,
150 ,
.

- Pret A
Manger.
(multidomestic strategy)
,
. 1 2
,
- . ,
,

.
:
;
, ;

550

III.

. .
, (,
,
). , :
, , , , ,
Earl Grey. ,
90 . , , .
PretA Manger (- , ) -
, . , PretA Manger
.
-
, .
- PretA Manger ,
. 1986 . , (Sinclair Beecham) (Julian Metcalf),
, . ,
- PretA Manger,
, , .
,
. PretA Manger
, ;
.
, , 33
. Pret A Manger ,
: ,
, . "-"
. , ,
, .
,
. Pret A Manger .
,
,
. Pret A Manger
. ,
Pret A Manger ,
. ,


. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
. , -

11.

551

. Pret A
Manger ; ;
( 38% 25 ).
,
.
, (Andrew Rolf).
,
$1500.
Pret A Manger
. :
-, .
: - ,
. - Pret A Manger 130,
-
.
,
40.
Pret A Manger - ,
.
- Pref A Manger (
),
, . ,
- , , ,
, . , Pret A Manger
, .
-, , ,
, - .
, - , .
, 2001 . McDonald's 33% Pret A Manger. ,
, , web-
: McDonald's ,
. , . ,
: ,
.
: Ian Parker, An English Sandwich in New York, The Guardian, August 9, 2002, p. 3B;
Thinking Outside the Burger Box, BusinessWeek, September 16, 2002, pp. 66-67; Scott Kirsner, Rec
ipe for Reinvention, Fast Company, April 2002, pp. 38-42.

, ,


.
(global strategy)
, . ,

552

III,

( ),

,
.
.
,
,
.
, , ,
.

,
,
,
.
,
,
, -
.

:
. ,
. ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
,
. , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, (trans
national strategy). , ,

( )
(
). ,
,
.

11.

553

,

.
, ,
,
(, - -
, ), -
.
, ,
.
.
, Microsoft
,

. ,
, :
, ,
,
.

.
IKEA
,
.
11.1
: (local respon
siveness) (global integration).

:
; ,
; ,
, .
,
,
( ,
, ,
).

. ,
,
,
, ,
.

, -

554

III.

1943 . (Ingvar Kamprad)



().
1950- IKEA,
,
,

. IKEA

,

.
-.
IKEA ,
,
, 150
70 000
. 2001 . IKEA,
, 255
.

,
,
. , IKEA

$200.
IKEA,

,

. ,
Industrial Design A-Z (
), ,


:
.


.
IKEA
,
;

.
,

. (Bill Agee),
,
- IKEA
, :


,
.
,
.

,
(

). -
(Josephine Rydberg-Dumont),
IKEA,
:

.
.
.

,
IKEA

. ,

.

-
. IKEA
,

.
(Christian Mathieu),
IKEA,
:
,
, 1,5 .
, -

1 1 .

IKEA ,

. :

( , - ). (
)
.
. :
. ,
!
, !
: IKEA:
Unboring (IKEA: ). - - ,
: ,

.
IKEA
:

, .

IKEA
,
, 110
34 . ,
IKEA
.
,

,
.
(Kent Nordin),
IKEA, : ,
.

, ,

.

.

,
.
IKEA

.

555




;
IKEA.

IKEA
,
IKEA,
.

25%.
IKEA
,

.

, ,

.

, (Ruth Eaton),
"Ideal Cities: Utopianism and the (Un)Built
Environment" (" :
() ").

. ...
,
.
, .


, ,

.
IKEA ,


.
: Russia, With Love: The Multi
nationals' Song, BusinessWeek, September 16,
2002, pp. 44-46; Eryn Brown, Putting Eames
within Reach, Fortune, October 30, 2002, pp. 98100; A Prefab Utopia, New York Times Magazine,
December 1, 2002, pp. 92-96.

556

III.

. 1 1 . 1 .

, ,
. 11.1. , Toys R Us
.
,
,
. ,
,
, , (
) , ,
,
,
. ,
,
.

,
.
,

11.

557

.
, , ( Kraft, Unilever
Cadbury Schweppes),
. , ,
,
, . ,
,
.
,

.
,
, . .

. Sony
Matsushita,
. ,
,
(, CD-,
DVD-)
. , ,
,
,
,
.

, .

Ford Motor Company. , Ford

.
,
. ,
, Ford
. , Ford,
,
.
,
,
.
.

,
.
.

558

III.

General Motors
,
. 80- .
-
,
,

. 1984 . General Motors
Toyota
, NUMMI.
, GM
,
,
,
Toyota ( ,
, kaizen (
),

-).
GM

Saturn.
( 90-) ,
NUMMI,

GM, Adam
Opel AG,
.
,
,


,
GM:

GM.
GM ,
, Saturn
NUMMI,
,
,
,
.
: GM is Building Plants in Developing
Nations to Woo New Markets, Wall Street Journal,
August 4, 1997, p. A1; Hoover's Handbook of
American Business 2003 (Austin: Hoover's
Business Press, 2003).

( -,
)
. -

.

,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
, .
,
-, -

11.

559

.
,
.



,
,
.
, ,
13
.

--
(distinctive competence)
,
.
, ,
. 6,
,
(
, )

.
,
, , . ,
Disney,
, ,
. ,
Windows,
Microsoft .
,
, . 1 4
,
,
( )
. ,
,
,
. 15
, Robert Bosch GmbH ,
,
-

560

III.

.
,
- .
Bosch 50% ,

16
. Glasbau Hahn

-
. , ,
, $100 000 ,
,
.

, Glasbau Hahn
17
.


(scope of operations) .
,
, / . ,

,
,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
.

,
, .
.
Disney
, , ,
( ).

100 .
,
. , ,
Grupo Luksics, ,
, , ,
, , ,

11.

561

, . ,
Ballantyne, $12
, .
65%,
18
30%.

.
, Samsung,
. Intel,
, IBM-
. Texas Instruments
,
.
,
. Siemens
, , a Philips

. 19 ,

, ;
( Disney),
, .



.
, Disney
,
. Disney
,
49%
, .
,
,
.
,
. 2 0


. Disney ,
, .

Disney , ,
, . , -

562

III.

, ,

ABC ESPN.

. , Sharp Corporation, -
, 33 ,
29 .
. Boeing,
,
( ). Mercedes-Benz
DaimlerChrysler ;
, 9 10 -
.21
,
.

(synergy), ,
,

. , ,
. Disney

.
,
.

Disney; ,
.
. ,
, ,
,
.

11.

563


.
, :
.
:
, ,
.

.

, (
),
. ,
,
, .

, .

Disney.
,
. ,
,
. 14 15
.
.
. ,
. 11.2, .


(mission statement),
, .


.
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
.22 ,
Hershey Foods ,
1
; Carpenter Technology -

564

III.

, ,
,
.
:
,

11.

565

. ,
.
SWOT-

SWOT-. SWOT strengths, weak
nesses, opportunities, threats (
, , , . . .).
SWOT-
(environmental scan), ,
,
, - ,
23
, .
, ,
,
(
SWOT), ( SWOT),
.
, , , ,
,
. (
, 3,
, 12.) , Boeing
,
. 90-
,
,

,
Cathay Pacific
. ,
Boeing, ,

. Boeing

. ,
Boeing.

, .
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, .
, Disney, -

566

III.

Universal Studious, Six Flags ;



;
; .
2002 2003 . ,
. ,
BMW,
,

,
. Federal Express
,
DHL Worldwide TNT,

.
SWOT- ,
,
, , ( S W
SWOT).
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
, .
Disney
.
BMW , ;
BMW ,
.
.
,
, .

,
,

. ,
, ,
, .
BMW
,
.

. ,

11.

567

,
,
, . .

.
, . 11.3,
( )
.
, Caterpillar (
- - )
(
, )
. , (
) .
. 11.3.

, SWOT-, .
,

568

III.

, ,
. , BMW

,
BMW .
, ,
,

.

, SWOT-

.
,
. ,
. ( ,
, ,
.) ,
, Disney
, ,
. . , ,
, .* ,
, ,
. Disney,
, ,
,
.

. 11.3, ,
SWOT- ,

. ,
,
.
, Grand Metropolitan,
, Guinness,
, Diageo PLC
,
2002 . $17 . * : The best laid plans of mice and
men often go awry, :
. . .

11.

569

, .


.
,
( ,
),
,
,
.24


(control framework)
,
.
.

, 12 . ,
,
,
, .
,
, .

,
. . 11.2, ,
,

.25
14.

570

III.



, (
)
. . 11.4
: , -
26
.
. 11.4.


( )
.
: Sony, Matsushita Pio
neer Electronic Corporation. Sony
,
. -

11.

571

Sony, Matsushita,
, Pioneer Electronic Corporation
- .
,
.
,
,
. ,
:
,
.
.
(single-business strategy)
, ,
.
,

. ,
,
. , , ,
, DVD-,
;
, .
, Singapore Airlines, McDonald's Dell,

.
. (related diversi
fication), ,
(
) ,
.


. ,

.
Disney .

, ,
, .
,
, ,
Disney,
, .
Accor SA, ,

572

III.

.
, -
, ;
( Sofitel),
( Motel 6).
,

.
,
27
Asterix the Gaul ( ).

. ,
,

28
. , Disney
, ,
, ,
. ,


Disney. , ,
,
, Disney Studios.
(
) ,
Disney ,
,
ABC Disney Channel. ,
,
:
Disney Disney Channel,
,
.
,
. , Limited
Brands ,

. ,
Limited,
Express Lerner .
Disney Strategic Sourcing.

. ,
. ,
, Disney Store -,

11.

573

, web- Disney
,
,
. ,
$300 .29
,
,
,
. , Pirelli SpA
, 100 ,
.
, Pirelli
, -
. , 70- ., Casio Computer Company

. ,
.

.

.
,

. ,
, .
.
,
,
.
.
(unrelated diversifica
tion).
. ,
Casino Guichard-Perrachon ,
, , , ,
.30 General Electric (GE)
, (NBC),
,
, ,
, .
,

.
60- .
. , ITT, Gulf and Western,

574

III.

LTVn Textron, .
,
.
. -,
,
. ,
,
. -,
,

. , - ,
,
. -, ,
,

. -, ,
,
, . ,
,
,
.

-
.
, ,
,
. , GE
, ,
,
. , -
,

, .
.
, , GE Textron,
,
. , DaimlerChrysler
- .
,
, ,
, , ,
. DaimlerChrysler
,
, ,
. 31

11.

575

-
,
- ( )
, ,
.
, .
,
,
, , , (strategic
business unit, SBU). , ,

. , Disney :
; (
, ,
); ( ABC, Disney Channel
ESPN). ,
,
. , Textron
, ,
,
.
,
-
,
. -,
, ,
.
-
. :
,
. 32
. (differentiation strategy)
.
(
)
,
.

.
,
. , Rolex
.
;

576

III.

Rolex. , .
,
, , Coca-Cola (
), Nikon (), Calvin Klein ( ) Waterford
Wedgewood ( ).

( ) .
,
. , Marks and Spencer,
,
. ,
Land's End ( ,
) .
, .

10% ,
, : ;

,
. , (Marks and Spencer
Land's End),
, . ,
,
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,

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577

.


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,


.

, .

,
. ,
, Telefonica SA.

, Telefonica
, ,
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1924 .
1945 .,
41% .

. 1986 .,
, .

11.

583

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,

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1998 .

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.


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, .

584

111.

, Telefonica,

,
.
Telefonica de Espana
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Chile,
. 1995 .
Telefonica del Peru,
. ,
, Telefonica de Espana 35%
. , Telefonica

.
, Telefonica
. 1998 . Telefonica de Espana,
Telefonica SA,
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.
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,
. Telefonica
:
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22 000
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Telefonica,
.
.

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, .

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.
, Telefonica
,
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, .

11.

585


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. ,
Telefonica Terra Networks SA,
,
. Telefonica
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,

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,
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, .
Telefonica .
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,
,
.
,
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Telefonica .
Telefonica
. : 1999 .
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- - .
:
, 1998 .,
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. , 2000 .

,
. Telefonica
. ,
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; 50%
10 .

1. SWOT- Telefonica de Espana no
1986 . ,
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2. ,
Telefonica?
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-

586

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. ,
.
, ?

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.
Telefonica
,
?
: Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003; Telefonica Aims to Beco
me World's Fifth Largest Telecommunications Group, Financial Times, December 21,
2002, p. 3; Telefonica Posts 43% Jump in Earnings, Wall Street Journal, November
19, 1999, p. A18; Spain's Telefonica Jolts Latin America with Tough Tactics, Wall
Street Journal, November 18, 1999, p. Al.

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11.

587

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588

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590

III,

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Starbucks ( )
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,
.
.
Starbucks 1971 . .

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Starbucks, (Howard
Schultz). ,

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. ,
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,
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20 .
Starbucks 0

12.

591

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.
Starbucks,
.

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1996 .,
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Starbucks , .
Starbucks
1997 ., Seattle
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.

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592

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594

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12.

597

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#2 Antarctica;
Companhia de Bebidas das Americas, AmBev.

70%,
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, 2002 .
,

.
,
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Grupo Modelo,
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CEO,
-, ,



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,

.
: Thirsty, Forbes, October 1, 2001,
pp. 74-75; AmBev and CabCorp: Alliance
Completed for Central American and Carribean
Beer Markets, Business Wire, October 24, 2002,
pp. 7 0 - 7 2 ; Brazil's Breweries: The More
Mergers the Merrier? BusinessWeek, March 27,
2000, pp. 98-99.

12.

599


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, ,
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mark's Bang & Olufsen , ,
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portunity cost):
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12.

601

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,
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(ownership advantages)
,
,
.
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602

III.

International Nickel,
, .
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12.

603

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;
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604

III.

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,
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!

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12.

605


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606

III.

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Chevrolet Ford
. ,
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,

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Toyota ,

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Honda Nissan.

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.

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,

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(William . Ford Jr.) ,

607


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.
,
.

,

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. 5%-
2003 .,

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(
, 10%).
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,
,
,
,
$10 000.

Toyota ,
- .
Toyota
,
!
: The Americanization of Toyota,
BusinessWeek, April 15, 2002, pp. 52-54; Autos:
A New Industry, BusinessWeek, July 15, 2002,
pp. 687-0; Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in
Its 45-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Seventh
Year in a Row, PRNewswire, January 3, 2003.

,

: ,
; ,
; ,
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608

III.

.

.


,
,
. ,
. 12.2. 1,

. 2001 .
$6,2 , 20%
. 2001 .
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12.

609

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.
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, -

610

III.

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,

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.
,

.

,
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Space -Lok, Inc. ( * (-): ,
, , . .
.

12.

611


Chivers Hartley
Jusco, . Chivers
, : , .
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Chivers .
Chivers 15% ;
, , , Chivers.
Chivers , Jusco.
Jusco,
Chivers .
Jusco Chivers,
. Jusco
, Chivers,
.
Chivers
, .
,
. , ChiVers
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,

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. Chivers
, Jusco, Cambridgeshire.

. Chivers
.
Chivers , Jusco
2900 Cambridgeshire
300 .
, Cambridgeshire
Blue Flag. , Chivers
, .
: Japanese Jam Deal Set to Boost Preserves Group, Financial Times, November 3, 1997, p. 8.

,
)
,
.
Toto Ltd. ,
, 90- .
. Toto
15% , .

612

III.


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Standard.^

(. 12.2),
,
.
. (indirect exporting)
, , ,
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) Intel ( . 12.2.

12.

613

), ,
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(Association of Guatemela Coffee Producers),
. ,
.

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.

, . 20
,
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.
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.
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,
. , Baskin-Robbins
, $30

614

111.

,
Jamoca Almond Fudge
( 30 )
21
.
.
,
.
(intracorporate transfer)
, , ,
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British Petroleum
,

;
.

.
40% -
.
,
.

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,
. ( 17,
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Crown Victoria Ford.
Ford, , ,
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, ; Ford,
;
Ford ,
Ford .22 ,
,
, .
. , Dow-Jones
Company
Wall Street Journal. ,
,
, ,
Wall Street Journal. ,
Dow-Jones ,

12.

615


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, , ,
,
, .

.

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), , . ,
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616

111.

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,
.
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. 1989 . CITES,

(, 165

),
. CITES .

,
.
,
.
20 000 1981 . 105 000
1999 .; 49 000 70 000.

,
.

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12.

617

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CITES
. 1979 .
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: Ivory Sales Delayed Two Weeks,


Boston Globe, April 18, 2000, p. A12; Treasured
Beast That Divides a Continent, Financial Times,
April 15/16, 2000, p. 9.

618

III.

, ,
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.
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.


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.
,
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,
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620

111,



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.
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,

12.

621

,
. ,
.
,
,
,
.
,
, sogo sosha,
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.
,

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( keiretsu),
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sogo sosha
,
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. . 12.3
sogo sosha.
. ,
,
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(manufacturers' agents)
, ,
. (manu
facturers' export agents)
,
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import brokers)

, , . -
(freight forwarders)
- ,
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.
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.

622

111,
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sogo sosha

12,

623



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. 12.3.

.
,
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624

III.

,

.

. Nintendo Company.
.
(
) ,
.
, Nintendo
. ,
Nintendo, ,

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; , ,
, Nintendo.
,
.24
, ,
Cantab Pharmaceuticals PLC,
, . Cantab , , -

, ,
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,

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,
GlaxoSmithKline Pfizer.25


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,
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; 4) .
.
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Pepsi-Cola .

12,

625

PepsiCo Heineken
,
. Heineken
,
.
PepsiCo
Pepsi-Cola ;
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PepsiCo ( Lay's)
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.
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,
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;
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.
,

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.

626

III.

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Walt Disney Company.
.

.

12.

627



, ,
,
. ,

, .
,
,
, .
, Nintendo
, ,
, .
.
. ,
PepsiCo
Heineken, PepsiCo
, a Heineken
, Coca-Cola. ,

.
. ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
(Oleg Cassini) Jovan,
Glaxo SmithKline,
Cassini .
/ ,
Diane Von Furstenberg Cosmetics.
Jovan Von Furstenberg
Cassini.
Cassini .
, Cassini
Jovan Cassini
. Cassini
Jovan $789 .
, Cassini
.26 Laura Ashley
, 20
L'Oreal
, Laura Ashley.
, , L'Oreal -

628

111,

Laura Ashley,
L'Oreal , ,

27
Laura Ashley.

. ,

. ,
,
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
.

,
.

, . ,
,
.


, ,

. (franchising)
,
,
.

.
( franchisee)
(
franchisor) .
,
, ,
, ,
( )
.



. -, -

12.

629

,
,
.
McDonald's ,
,
, . -,
, ,
,
. McDonald's
, ,
,
McDonald's
. -,

,
. ,
McDonald's
.

.
, McDonald's,
.
,
,
. -,

, , . -
, , ,
-
.
, . ,
McDonald's, ,
, , , . ,
,
,

. ,
.

.
, McDonald's, Dunkin' Donuts, Baskin-Robbins, Pizza Hut
KFC, .
Benetton ,
120 . ,

630

III.

, Bridgestone Corporation,
Bridgestone Firestone;
.

,
. ,

. ,


.
,
. , McDonald's
(. 11).
McDonald's, ,
.
McDonald's ,
McDonald's
, .

.
McDonald's .
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
. , McDonald's
,
, . ,

. , McDonald's
,
McDonald's.



,
,
.
,
.

12.

631


(contract manufacturing)
, ,
.
,
. , Nike

;
Nike , -
. Mega Toys ( By (Charlie Woo)
$30 , -)
,
Mega Toys
.
,
,
. , Nike ,
(
Doonesbury)
,
Nike. 28

(management contract) ,
,

.
, .

,
.
,
- . ,
Hilton Hotels
,
Hilton, .
, Air France, British Airways KLM,

, .

,
( ,
),
.

632

HI.

(turnkey contract) ,
,
,
.
; ,
, .

,

.

, ,
,
.
.
,
Bechtel, Halliburton, Hyundai Group, Fletcher Challenge
Ltd Friedrich Krupp GmbH.

,
(, ),
. -

;

.

(-- --, build-operate-transfer), , , ,
.

.
,
. ,
.
,
( 7),
Elecrticity Supply Board International
Compagnie Generale des Faux
20 .
$600 .
20-
.

12.

633


(, ,
)
,
.


.

, , .
,
,


( , ,
Baskin-Robbins ).


.
,

(
IBM)
,

. ,
,
, ,
.
,

. 29

, ,
, .


(
, . .).
,

, ,
.

634

ill

,
.


.

. 3,

,

. ,

. , ,
,
, ,
, ,
. : 1)
( greenfield); 2)
( , brownfield) 3) .


( greenfield ( )
:
, ).
, ,
, /
, ,
. Fuji Film,
,
, Mercedes-Benz
Nissan .
. -
, ,
,
, .
,
,
.
. ,
.
,

, ,

12.

635

. , GM

( )
,
, ,
. ,
,

. ,



30
.
,
. -,
. -, ,
, .

; ,
.

. ,

.
Disney
.
Disney
, Disney
.
,
, 20
, .
,
$150 (
) Disney. , Disney
,
,
. 31

,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

636

111.

. ,
, , ,
.

, -
. ,
,
.
.

, . ,
Procter & Gamble
, Loreto Pobre , Grupo Carso
SA. Procter & Gamble
Loreto,
,
32
. American Eagle Outfitters
Thriftys.
150
. 33

. ,
Saudi Arabian Oil Co.
,
Petron Corporation Ssangyong
Oil Refining Company. 1974 ., ,
Koninklijke Netherland
,
.
,
TNTLtd., ,
,
TNT.34

. -
(, .) . ,

,

, -
. ,

. ,
Matsushita $6,6
. , -

12.

637

,
.

.
(joint ventures) ,
,
.

,
,

.
,
,
, 13.


.

, ,
, , .
,
, ,
.


.
.

, ,
.

,
.
.
, ,
.

, ,
, , .

638

III.


.
, -,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,

, , ,
, ,
.

.
,
, ,
.
.
,
.

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.

,
.

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,
, .
.

.
. , ,
, -
. ,
,
. ,
.

1. .
2. ,

.

12.

639

3. ?
?
4. .
5. .
6. ? ?
.
7. ?
?
8. ?
.
9.
.
10. ? ?
.


1. , ,
, ? .
2. , ,
,
?
3.
,
?
4.
?
5.
?
6.
?
7. .
?
8. , ,
sogo sosha, ?
.
9.

?
10.
?
?

640

III.


(:
.)
Heineken
,
.
1.

Heineken.
2. ,
Hei
neken. Heineken

.
3. ,
Heineken ,
.
Heineken

Heineken
; , ,
,
.

,
Heineken , ,
- , .
1.
,
,
Heineken.
2.
,
.
.
3. 10 ,
.
.
, ,
: ,
Heineken ,

12.

641

Heineken.
, .
4. , ,
. , ,
,
.
.

1. , Heineken

.

?
2. ,
?

Heineken

Heineken NV
Anheuser-Busch SABMiller. Hei
neken , .
Heineken 2002 ., 10,3 ( 2003 .
$1,13), 14% (
). Heineken ;
,
170 .
Heineken 1864 . (Gerald
Heineken) .
.
, , ,
. 1914 . Heineken
. ,
, ,
.
, (Leo van Munching).
, ,
Van Munching & Company,
Heineken .
Heineken,
.
1933 . , -

642

111.

Heineken Van Mun


ching & Company.
-
. 1948 . ,
,
.
Heineken.
50 .
;
, . ,
Kirin, Heineken
. 1968 . Heineken
, Amstel. 80- .,
, Heineken
. ,
,
Anheuser-Busch .

, Heineken
, , , .
,
Komaromi Sorgyar, Zlaty Bazant Brewery.
, ,
.

, Heineken
-. ,
,
. .
, .
, Heineken
. .
Miller, Lowenbrau ,
, ,
. , Miller
, Lowenbrau,
.
, , Lowenbrau

. ,
Lowenbrau,
, Heineken
, ,
.

12.

643

Heineken
, : Van Mun
ching & Company, Heineken USA
.
Heineken USA Heineken
,
, . Heineken
, ,
.
Heineken
,
. 2002 . Heineken
Al Ahram Bewerage Co. $280 .

,
Heineken .
2003 . .
1,3 ,
. - ,
,
. Al Ahram
Fayrouz. Heineken,
,
: Heineken
Fayrouz
,
.

1. ,
, Heineken.
2. Heineken
.
3. , Hei
neken .
4. ,
Heineken
Anheuser-Busch.
: Heineken Has Ambitious Plans for Islamic World, New York Times,
January 4, 2003, p. 4; Heineken 2002 Annual Report; Replacing Inventory with Infor
mation, Forbes, March 24, 1997, pp. 54-58; Heineken Finds Strong Local Brew,
Financial Times, February 7, 1996, p. 16; Heineken's Battle to Stay Top Bottle, Bu
sinessWeek, August 1, 1994, pp. 60-62; Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003
(Austin: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), p. 250.

644

III,

Guanxi woofies*:

,
.
, , ,
,
.
1.
?
2.
?
3.
?
?

* guanxi ( )
.
Woofies ,
, wholesale financial institutions ,
(, $100 000) . .

, ,
.
:
f
;
4- ;
4 ;
4- ;
4- .



Kellogg. ,
Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Rice Krispies Frosted Flakes, Kellogg
20- .,
50- .
, , , , ,
.
,
.

646

III.


,

.

, .
,
.
,

, .
,
,
. ,

. ,

Kellogg.
Kellogg General Mills,
, Cheerios Golden Grahams.
.
General Mills ,
.
General Mills , Kellogg,
50% ,
,
.
General Mills
(Bruce
Atwater) , General
Mills
- , .
- , :
Nestle,
. Nestle , .
Nestle ,
, .
, Nestle ,
. -
,
General Mills.

Nestle', , Nestle,
, General
Mills. Nestle, General Mills
Nestle
,
, , .

.
$80 ,
Cereal Partners Worldwide (CPW). CPW
(). General Mills -

13.

647

Nestle,
,
. Nestle,
,
,
.
/ :
$1
2000 .
CPW .

Disneyland Paris

. CPW

,
(
12%, 25%).
, CPW
.
75 , , ,
, Nestle General Mills.]


,
,
, , ,
, .
, ,

.
,
, . ,
, .

,
,
.
,
,
. ,
Nestle General Mills
.


,
, , -

648

III.

,
,
.
. (strategic alliance)

.
,
. , Kodak Fuji,
,
, Canon, Minolta Nikon.

, Advanced Photo System ( ).
,
2
.
(joint venture)
,
,
. , ,
- ,
. ,
,
,
. CPW
.

.
12, :
, , .
,
(
), .
,
.
,
.

. , ,
.
. -,
-
;
,
. -,

. -,

13.

649

. ,
,
,
3
-.
,
,
.
, .



. ,
,
, -
,
. ,
.
,
, (,
).
, ,

.
,
. ,
{Canon, Minolta
Nikon) {Fuji Kodak)
Advanced Photo System
.
:
Kodak Advantix,
Minolta Vectis, Nikon
Nuvis.4
, , ,
. , CPW,
,
.

,
, . , 1998 .
United Airlines British Airways
,
. ,
United Airlines , ,
Delta American Airlines

650

III.

(
).
United Airlines
British Airways.
,
, British Airways.
.


.
Pan Am . United Airlines
Pan Am,
.
British Airways
United Airlines,
, , .
British Airways,
, 1993 .
US Air. American Airlines British Airways
.
US Air,
. US Air
British Airways
.


, , ,
5
. . 13.1,

: ,
, ,
6
.

, ,
,
.
.


.7
,
,

13.

651

. 13.1.

.

.
, Warner Brothers, Time Warner,
,
.
,
. , Warner Brothers
Lusomundo, .
20
. , Warner Brothers Village
Roadshow ( ,
) 23
. 8
Cigna,
, Banco Excel Economico,
.
Cigna .
Cigna
,
, . Banco Excel,
,
,
. $19 ,
Excel Signa Seguradora.9
,
,
.
,

652

III.

.10 , ,
, ,
,
(. 13.1).

,
. ,

,
,
.
, Coca-Cola
,
Heaven and Earth,
.11
CultureQuest,
.


,

.
, ,
. , Boeing

13.1.

13.

653


Boeing 777
. -
,
,
, ,
. Boeing
,
,
777. Boeing
, Fuji, Mitsubishi Kawasaki, ,
20% 777. Boeing,
,
,
, Japan Airlines
Nippon Airways.


Kodak, Fuji .
, Kodak
, Fuji,
, .
,

Kodak. Kodak ,
, Fuji,
,
Kodak ,
.
, Fuji
, Kodak
, ,

654

III.

,
, .
, ,
.
Otis Elevator.
United Technologies, Otis
. ,
1984 . , , Otis

. Otis
,
.
, Otis
. ,
(. 13.2).
Otis $70 ,
25%.
13.2. Otis Elevator

13.

655

$260 .
Otis ,
.
Otis
.
. , Otis
. ,
158
. ,
, .
, Otis ,
,
. ,
. Otis $2
5000 .
, Otis .
,
.
. ,
Otis ;
.
Otis 118 000 . Otis
88% . , ,

.
: The Pioneers, Wall Street Journal, September 26, 1996, pp. R1, R14; Overseas, Otis and
Its Parent Get In on the Ground Floor, Wall Street Journal, N?n\ 2^, 1995, p. A6.

, Fuji,
Kodak. Kodak, ,
Sony, Betamax
VHS, Fuji.
, ,
Kodak, . ,
Kodak ,
,

.

,
. ,
, Otis Elevator,
.

656

III,


,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
12
.

.

, Toyota GM. General Motors
. (
),
.
Toyota
, NUMMI (New
United Motor Manufacturing, Inc.). ,
, Toyota.
, .
Toyota ,
; GM
.13
Toyota ,
. ( ).
GM , NUMMI,

, Saturn, .
().
GM .

, ,
,
.

, . ,
,
,
,

.
,
, ,

13,

657

,
,
, .
PepsiCo,
, Thomas J. Lipton Co,
Unilever.
RTD (ready-to-drink,
). Lipton, 50%
$400 ,

, Lipton. Co PepsiCo
,
15
. Siemens
Motorola ,
64 256 .
Motorola
,
$1,5 . Siemens
Motorola
,
, 40%
DRAM.16 -
.


. 13.2, ,
, .
,
, ,
.

;
,
- - ().

.

(comprehensive alliance) ,

,
, , , , -

658

III.

, , Sea Launch,
, ,
Kvaerner Group, -
Boeing. ,
, $6,6 .
,
.
.
,
.
.
-4, , -18,
10 .
,
. -

,
. Kvaerner, ,
,
, . Boeing

.
, , ,
, $200
Sea Launch. ; 18 ,
, Huges Electronics, Loral Space & Communications
Ltd. PanAmSat Corp.
, Sea Launch ,
.
: Old Soviet Missile Factory Takes New Aim, Wall Street Journal, October 23, 2000, p. C15.

.
,
, -.


.

. ,
-,
,
(
).

13.

659
. 13.2.

,

. , General
Mills
, , Nestle,
.

( General Mills
Nestle')
,
Kellogg.

,

.
. , ,

660

III.

-,
, -

.
, , - .
. (production alliance)
,

.
,
. , ,
NUMMI, Toyota GM,
GM ,
GM.
,
$500 ,
Chrysler BMW
1,4 .
,

.
,

, 400 000 ,
,
.

Mercosur. 17
BMW PSA Peugeot
Citroen ,
.
BMW, ,
, PSA ,
- . 18
. (marketing alliance)
,

.
, .
, , -,
,
.

,
. ,

13.

661

. ,
Mattel , Bandai,
. Bandai
Mattel, Barbie, Hot Wheels Fisher
Price. Mattel, ,
Bandai, Power Rangers Digimon ,
Mattel, Bandai
19
.
,
. ,
.
. (financial alliance)
,
, .
.
.
,
, ( )
- ,
.
Boeing
: Boeing
, ,
. ,
Boeing ,
,
.
20th Century Fox Paramount
Pictures ,
.
- . ,
,
, ,
,
. - (research and develop
ment alliance)
.
-
2000 . Intel, Micron Technology, Samsung, Hyundai, NEC Sie
mens,
(DRAM) . 2 0 Bayer AG
,
( , Millenium Pharma
ceuticals Morphosys),
. 21

662

111.


- General
Motors.

, GM
Toyota ,

Chevrolet Cavalier
Toyota
.
,
-
GM
Toyota, ,
.
,
, GM
,

.

,

, (
).
,
Toyota

,
. ,
,

.


. , Toyota

GM,
8090% .
GM
-. ,
G/W,
,


. ,
GM
Toyota
.
GM ,
,


.
,
, GM
Toyota,
,
.
: Is Cavalier Japanese for Edsel?
BusinessWeek, June 24,1996, p. 39; Shaking Up
an Old Giant, Forbes, May 20, 1996, pp. 68-80.

, ,
,
;
. ,

,
.
, ;

.

13.

663

, . , ,
,
. ,
,
. , Kodak, Fuji

. ,
Kodak, Fuji, ,
,
.

.
,
.
(R&D-consortium) ,

, .
,
. 2 2

. ,
, Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, Mitsubishi, Matsu
shita
.
,

.
,
- ESPRIT, RACE, BRITE, EURAM, JOULE SCIENCE.
, ,

.



,
11.
,
. 2 3
,
,
.

664

III,


,
(). ,
,
:
24
, .

: 1) ; 2)
; 3)
; 4) .
.
',
.
, , .
- .
, General Electric Corporation ( ,
)
Siemens -
.
, .
General Electric Corporation
,
,
. Siemens, ,
,
. 25 , CPW
,
General Mills Nestle'.
. ,

,
.
, .

, ,
.
,
,
, .
General Mills Nestle', :
, Nestle
, General Mills
Nestle . PepsiCo
Lipton
, .

13.

665

, Pep
siCo Lipton ,
, .

. , / ^ (
Matsushita)
. JVC

. JVC
,
, JVC
. Thomson SA,
,

, JVC. JVC

Thomson,
JVC 5 ,
800 000 ,
. JVC, Thomson
,
General Electric. Thomson
5 . ,
JVC
N
Thomson.26
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,

.
? ?
?
?

.
, . 27
, Corning, Inc. Asahi
Video Products Company,
Asahi Glass,
. Corning, -

666

111.

,
:
4- Asahi Glass
Corning ;
4- Corning
Asahi Glass
,
.
4- -

;
4 Asahi Glass
Corning, Coming
;
4 Corning
Asahi Glass.
Coming
,
, PPG, Dow Chemical,
Samsung, Siemens, Ciba-Geigy, IBM , , Asahi Glass.
.
-
. , ,
, (,

)
(,
).

, ,
,
,
.
.28

,
.
, ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
.

13.

667


, ,
. ,
,
-. , ,
,
, ,
- .
, ,
.

.
,
, .
, , Coming Genetech, , . Corning
. ,

Genentech, ,
.
Genentech , Corning
, Genentech.
, . 29

. ,
,
. ,
, .

, ,

,
. ( ) ,
. ,
.
- . -
(public-private venture) ,
.
.
-, ,
, ,
. ,

( Weyerhaeuser),
. -

668

III.

. ,
,

. ,
,
. ,

,
. , -'
Ranger Oil Ltd. Gulf Canada,

30
.
-, -
,
.
,

.
-
.

, .
.

.
-
,
. ,
,
. , ,
, -
.

. ,
(
),
.
-, , -

. ,
- , ,
. ,
,
.
,

13.

669

,
, .
.

,
.

.
. ,
Shanghai Bell, Alcatel
(Ministry of Post and Telecommunications),

,
, Siemens Lucent Technologies.
,
.
, , :
?
.
. Unilever
( )
White Cat, Uni
lever (),
,
. Daimler-Benz,

- Nanfang South China Motor
Corporation.
,
. , Nanfang
, ,
Daimler-Benz
,
.31 , 2002 ., New Balance
, ,
New Balance ,
,
. 32

,
. 33
(. . 13.3),
,
.

670

III.
. 13.3.


(shared management agreement)
.
- ,

.
.

,
. ,

. -

13.

671

,
, ,
Coca-Cola Group Danone
Coca-Cola Minute Maid
.
Danone ( 15 30%
),
Minute Maid.
:
. Danone
, a Coca-Cola
34
.
(assi
gned arrangement)
. , GM,
67% Raba,
, ,
35
.
Boeing ,
Fuji, Mitsubishi Kawasaki
777.
,

, , ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, .
(delegated agree
ment) ,
.
,
-.
,
,
. , ,
,

. , Beijin Jeep,
American Motors Beijin Automotive Works,
, . ,

,
. ,
. ,

672

III,

Beijing Jeep ,
.

,
,
, . . 13.4
,
:
, , ,
, .

-
.
,
.
,
Siemens, . 13.4.

13,

673

, General Electric Corporation,


.

-,
,
.

-
,
.
,
, , .

. ,

,

:
;
;
.
. AT&T
Olivetti, ,
,
,
. ,
, CultureQuest .



.
, ( )
, -

674

III,

.
. ,
,

36
.
, Unisys
Hitachi,
. Unisys
, Hitachi
,
. Unisys
Hitachi: ,
.
Ford Mazda,
Ford Escort.
, Mazda
Ford
.
: Ford -
, .

,
, .
, ,
. , General Mills Nestle
,
, 50/50. ,
,
.
,

.
,

;
;
() . , Rubbermaid


, .
, Rubbermaid,
DSM Group NV,

, Rubbermaid.37

13.

675

, ,

. ,
,
. ,


. ,
Nestle General Mills,
Nestle 10
.

-.
Fujitsu
International Computers, Ltd {ICL).
Fujitsu 80% ICL. 150
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2000 ., Sara Lee Courtaulds Textiles PLC,
.
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: web- Slimline (www.slimline.lk), Mast Industries
(www.mast.com), Sara Lee Courtaulds (www.saralee.com); Sri Lanka Keeps Victo
ria's Secret: Toiling in Comfort, Wall Street Journal, July 14, 1999; Thomas L. Fried
man, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books, 2000), pp. 177-178;
Dian Gomes, Introduction, A Place in the Sun (Pannala, Sri Lanka [privately prin
ted], 2001), p. xiii.

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: More U.S. Firms Expected to Fly Solo
in China, USA Today, April 10, 2000, p. 1B; Jim
Rohwer, China's Coming Telecom Battle, Fortune,
November 27, 2000, pp. 209-214.

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.
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nity .


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III.

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) $300 .
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.
(strategic business units),
,
.

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.
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, Poland Springs, Alcon Labs Nestle-Rowntree ( 14.1).
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719

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723

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, , , 80- ..
: About Us, web- Blockbuster, www.blockbuster.com, May 3, 2003; Case
Studies: Blockbuster Entertainment, web- XcelleNet, May 4, 2002.

III,
1 4 . 2 .


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III,


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;
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-
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Fortune, November 10, 2002, pp. 114-118; Quick
Studies, BusinessWeek, November 18, 2002,
pp. 48-49.

,
. ,
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30 .

, .

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III,

, ,
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. ,
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,
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;-.,.-,

III.


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.

.

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.

.

,

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, .
.
.

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.
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.
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733

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.


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?

734

III.


4-5 . ,
, Unipro Corpora
tion,
.
. , ,
.
Unipro
, .

,
. Unipro :
General Chemical ( ; 90%
);
Total Software ( ;
);
Pleasure Park ( );
Fundamental Foods ( ,
, ).
,
Unipro, . ( )
,
.
,
.
.
.

1.
, ?
2. , ,
, ?
3.
Unipro"}


Daimler Chrysler, ?
1998 . Daimler-Benz Chrysler,
, . -

14.

735

.
Daimler (Jurgen Schrempp)
, Chrysler, (Robert Eaton),
.

, , Daimler-Benz 58%
. , Daimler-Benz

. DaimlerChrysler
.

. Daimler
Chrysler
. Chrysler, ,

. Daimler
Chrysler ,
Chrysler, ,
, MercedesBenz . ,
: Daimler
Mercedes-Benz , ,
; Chrysler
-,
Jeep
. ,
DaimlerChrysler

. , , Daimler-Benz Chrysler
.
2000 . ,
, .
,
,
DaimlerChrysler
. 2001 . DaimlerChrysler
26 000 Chrysler,
20% . ,
, ,
? , .

, Daimler Chrysler.
Chrysler
, (
, -

736

HI,

, ,
). Daimler-Benz
.
, ,

, .
,
,
.
, Chrysler
, . ,

, ,
. Chrysler
(, Grand Cherokee)
. ,
-,
, Toyota Honda. Chrysler
(
Cruiser),
- . , Chrysler
,
$2000 .
,
(
, ,
).
.
, Daimler
Chrysler
Mercedes
.
Chrysler Dodge.
,
DaimlerChrysler.
Daimler Chrysler

. Chrysler -
Holiday Inns. Daimler
.
Chrysler,
$5
,
- .
$500

14.

737

Waldorf-Astoria St. Regis,


.
(
) . ,
, ,
Daimler Chrysler.
Chrysler
, . ,
Chrysler
, Daimler.
,
DaimlerChrysler,
, ,
Daimler Chrysler,


(
).
DaimlerChrysler
,
,
. ,
Daimler Chrysler ,
Nissan,
. DaimlerChrysler

, Mitsubishi Hyundai.
, .
DaimlerChrysler ?
Daimler
. - ,
, Chrysler,

Chrysler . ,

DaimlerChrysler
. - ,
.

; ,
.

1.
DaimlerChrysler.

738

111.

2.
DaimlerChrysler?
3.
DaimlerChrysler.
4. , ,
DaimlerChrysler?
5. ,
DaimlerChrysler.
: Germans Bring Cool Back to Chrysler, Houston Chronicle, January
6, 2002, p. 2D; Chrysler's New Bosses Give Refresher Course on Thrift and Style,
Wall Street Journal, January 4, 2002, p. Al; Chrysler's Resque Team, BusinessWeeek,
January 15, 2001, pp. 485-0; Purging Chrysler, Time, December 4, 2000, pp. 58-60;
DaimlerChrysler Hit by More Lawsuits, Labor Unrest, USA Today, November 30,
2000, p. 3B; For Two Car Gianys, a Megamerger Isn't the Road to Riches, Wall
Street Journal, October 27, 2000, pp. Al, A8; The Merger That Can't Get in Gear,
BusinessWeeek, July 31, 2000, pp. 46-47; Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz, Taken for
a Ride, BusinessWeeek, June 5, 2000, pp. 84-92.

,
, ,
.
, , .
,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,
, , -.
III . . .,
. XVI . (Singa
) ,
.
1613 . ,
, 200
.
, 1819 ,
(Thomas Stamford Raffles), -

14,

739

East India Company, .


, ,
, .

, , , ,
, .

, ,
.
, XIX .

- , .
, ()
, . ()
, ,
. , ,
, , .
dhow ( )
() .

.
.
, 1965 .,
. 1968
1997 .
9% . ,
.

. ,
, .
, ,
.

, ,
.
30%
.
,
, ,
, . ,
Shell, Thompson, Compaq Computer, Motorola Becton Dickinson,
.
.
, ,
.

740

III.

, 1 ,
$8 .
. (
),
, .
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
.
,
(
).

.
,
.

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,
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,
.
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, ,
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).
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.
. ,
.
,
. ,
, .

,
, Porsche .
:
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;
4-
;
4-
;
4-
;
4-
.

Porsche
Porsche
. ,
(Wendelin Wiedeking)
. ,

742

III.

,
. . -
.
. ,
.
Porsche
$97,5 .
, , Porsche
,
. ,
,
;
.
,
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,
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sche - , ,

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: , , .

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. ,
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,
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,
Porsche. Porsche .
, ,
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,
.

:
. ,
Porsche.
-
. ,
Cayenne, 2003 .
Porsche 25 000 .
, , - :
"Cayenne",
Porsche , .
"Porsche" "Porsche". "Cayenne"
"Porsche".

15.

743

, ,
:
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, .

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.

744

III.

.
,
, , , ,
- .



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),
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.
, , . ,
, ,
, .

(personality)
, .4
,
. ,
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,
.
,
. ,

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, ,
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.
: .
,
, .

,
.
.
, . 15.1,
(Big Five).6

15,

745

. 1 5 . 1 . :

(agreeableness)
.
, ,
.
, ,
. (conscien
tiousness)
. , -

746

III.

, ,
, , .
, ,
(emotional stability), , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
(extroversion),
, ,
(
). , (openness)
.
,
,
.
.

. ,

, .
. ,
, , ,
,


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,
.
,
,
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,
). , ,

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).7 ,


,
.

.
.
, , -

15.

747

,
.
, , ,
.
(locus of control)
, ,
8
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, , ,

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(self-efficacy) -
, .

.10
,
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. ,
,
.
.

,

, ,

. , -

748

111.

,
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,
11
.
(authoritarianism)
.

12
( -).
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,
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,
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, ,
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, , ,
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,
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,
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.
,

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.

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,
. .
,
, :

15.

749

,
.13
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)
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.
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,
.
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sfaction) , ,
.
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)
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,
. , ,
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) .

.
, ,
, , -

750

III.

,
, ,15
8300
106 .
, ,
, ,
.16
15.1

15.

751

. 15.1.
,
, ,
17
.
,
,
(,
18
1975 .).
. ,
,
(organizational commitment).

, .
, ,
, , ,


19
.
,

. 2 0
,
.
,
,
,


. , ,
,

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. 2 1 ,
. , ,
. ,

.

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,
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.

752

III,


,
. (perception) ,

. , ,
, , ,
.
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, ,
. ,
,
.

,
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
, .
,
, .

.
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.
,

.22

. , 3,
,
.
,
. ,
-
( , ,
23
). -

,
, .

, ,
. , -

15,

90% .
,
.
. ,

, .


,
, .



. ,
,
.
,

,

.

.
:
Beijin Youth Daily
,

, ;
.

, , 79%

, 91%
, 20% ,
, .
,
, ,
;
Sichuan Workers' News
,


,
,
;
,
,
. ,

. , ,
, ,
.
(Qian Ning),
(Qian Qichen), -

753

.

, ,
,
.
;
,

() .
, , ,
,
.


,

. 1995 1996 .
-
,

, ,
. 1996 .,
,


, ,

.

,
,


,
(
)
.


, -
,
. ,

,
.

.
: Kathy Chen, To China's Press, the U.S.
Is Crowded with Liars Who Prefer Pets to Kids, Wall
Street Journal, February 15,1997, p. A15.
Wall Street Journal, 1997
Dow Jones and Co., Inc. .

754

N1.
24

- .
,
, .
, ,
.
,
, ,
25
. ,

.


.
26
. -.
, .

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.
.
,
, .
,
. ,
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.
,
.
,
, 20.
, -
- .
,
10 ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, , , ,
. 27
,
,
(
20) . 28

15.

755



, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
, .


, .
, . ,
. ,
.
, , ( , ,
). ,
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.
, , ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
,

.

756

III,


. ,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
. IBM, Siemens Toshiba,
.
. ,
100 , IBM,
. ( ).
, ,
, .
, , -
, ,
.
,
, .
, , .
IBM , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
. IBM
, , ,
, .
, .
,
, IBM ( ,
, ).

. - ,
-
. ,

. ,
.
, , ,
.
: Siemens Climbs Back, BusinessWeek, June 5, 2000, pp. 79-82; Computer Chip Project
Brings Rivals Together, but the Cultures Clash, Wall Street Journal, May 3, 1994, pp. A1, A8; Hoover's
Handbook of American Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 774-775; Hoover's
Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 544-545, 614-615.

15,

757

. , ,
.


. ,
, ,
,
. ,
,

. , (reinforcement)
,

, ,
.
,
.
, ,

, 4,
,
.29 ,
,
,
,
.
( ,
, )

.
,


.

. ,

.
,
, .

,
.
, ,

758

III.


.
, ,
Mazda
30
Mazda .
, , ,
, .
,
.

.

. ,

. , ,
,
. , ,
,
. ,

, .
, ,
,

.
. ,
, ,
;
.
,

. ,
.
,
, . ,

, .31
, , ,
,
,
.

. ,
. ,
, ,

15,

759

,
.
,
. ,
, ,

, ,
.

. , ,
(Abraham Maslow),
: ,
, ,
.32
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
, . ,

.33 ,
, ,

.34
,
(David
McClelland), . , ,
( ,
)
. , ,
.35
, ,
, , , , . ,
,
, ,
(
), (
). ,
,


.36
(Frederick Herzberg)
, .37
, -

760

III,

,
.
. ,
, , ,
, ,
.38 ,
, ,
.

. ,
. ,
,

.

,
.39
,
, ,
. ,
: , ,
, .
, ,
,
.

.
. ,
,
, .
- ,
.
,
, . ,

, .
,
.

. ,
, Sony. ,
, ,
,

15,

761

. ,
,
Sony.

,
. , ,
(),

. ,
( ), ,
-. ,
,
. .
,
. ,
,
, . ,

. ,
,
,
.
,
.



. (leadership)
,
,

.40
. ,
. 15.2,
.

. ,

.

, .

762

111.


,
,
15.2

15.

763

.
.
, -
,
,
41
.
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, :
; ,
; ,
42
.
,
. ,
43
. . 15.2
,
. ,
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,
. ,
; ,
. ,
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,
.
,
,
, .
, ,

, . ,
, - ,
.
, ,
.

, . ,
,
. ,
( ),
,
. , Sony , -

764

III,
. 1 5 . 2 .


, , ,
.

.
, .
:
, ,
. ,
,

. , ,
,
.
,
,
.44

15.

765

,
. ,
, , ,

. ,
,
(, ,
), (. . ,
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.
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.

,
.

,
. ,

, . ,
,
.
, ,
.45
. , ,
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
.46
, ,
,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
. ,

. ,
,

766

III.

,
,
, ,
,
, .
.
,
. ,

,
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
,

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.

.
.

, , ,
, .47 ,

, . ,
.
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
.

,
.

48
, .


,

. (decision making) -

15.

767

,
, .

. 15.3,
.
.
,
,

. 49

,
. ,
Shell ,
. ,
,

. Shell ,
,
.

;
.
,
,
. Shell ,

. ,
, ,
,
. , ,

768

III.
. 15.3.

. ,
Shell
,
. ,
,
.

,

.

, Shell
.
,
, .
,
, ,
, . ,

. .
,
, ,
. ,
. -

15,

769

, Shell
,
. , .
,
.
,

,
. ,
, ,
,
.


,
50
. ,
.
1: . -
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,
, ,
.

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).
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.
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, ,

. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,

, .

770

111.


,
.
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. ringi (ringi
system) ,
;
.

,
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, .
,
, ,
. ,
ringisho
.
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.
, ,
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. , ,
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ringisho , ,
,
.

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, ringi ,
. 51
,
.
, ,

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,
.

, . ,

.
.

15.

771

,
,

;

52
.
3: .
.
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.
,
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, .

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.

. 53
4: .
.
,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
,
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,
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,
.
,
, ,
. . ,
,
. 54

772

III.

,
,

,
.
(
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. ,
(, ),
55
.
5: . ,
,

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.
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,
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.
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,
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,
.
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.

,
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.
;
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, ,
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15.



. ,

. ,
Dunes Hotel Casino -
.
.
,
.56


,
, ,
. ,

, ,
, ,
.

, ,
, .

. ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
, -

774

III.

,
.
, , ,
.
1. ;
,
.
2.
.
,
, ,
. .
3. .
,
,
.
4.
, , ,
,
.

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, . Sony
,
. ,
,
, /
,

.
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.

, , ,
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.

15.

775

,
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.

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.
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, , ,
, .
, ,
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.
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,
. ,
,
.

.
, , .
, ,

776

III.

-
Citigroup, , :
, ,
,
. (Terry Lockhart), -
Citigroup
,
.
,

.


. -
,
.
, ,
,

. :
-
- .
,


,
.
,

(Elisabeth Marx).
.

,
. ,
,


. :

.

.

,
,
,


Citigroup. ?
Citigroup

. ,


...

,

,
.
Citigroup ,
.
,
,


.
-

.

,
.

.
36% ,


,
23% .
64%
.

Citigroup,

.
: Bridging the Culture Gap, Financial
Times (London), January 28, 2002, p. 8; Elisabeth
Marx, Breaking Through Culture Schok: What You
Need to Succeed in International Business (Nicolas
Brealey Intercultural, London, June 2001); Elisabeth
Marx, Viewpoint Elisabeth Marx, Financial Times
(London), January 8, 2003, p. 19.

15,

777

. ringi ,

.
,
.
.
,
.
. ,
,

, . (
20 .)


.
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.
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.
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.
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.
.
.
.

, ,


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,
.

, ,

778

III,

.
.

.

.

, , ,
, .
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1. ,
.
2. .
3.
.
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.
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.
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.


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3. ,
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15,

779

4. ?
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.
.
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,
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.
,
:
4 ,
;
4 , ;
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,
. ,
, (
, ,
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.
,
, . ,

780

III,

,
, , .
15 .
15 ,
, , (
) .

1.
?
2.
?


Firestone
Bridgestone Corporation (
) , , -.
. 1988 .,

, Bridgestone
Firestone,
. Bridgestone
Firestone (John Nevin)
. ,
, . ,
. ,
- Firestone.
,
.
Bridgestone, -
.
, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, 1989 .
, -
. 1993 . ,
(Masatoshi Ono),
,

15.

781

Bridgestone.
,
, ,
Bridgestone .
90-
Firestone.
, ,
Ford Motor
Company. 90- Bridgestone/Firestone
,
Goodyear Michelin.
.
Firestone,
,
.
Wilderness,
Ford Explorer,
. Firestone Ford

.
,
.
,
Firestone, ,
,
.
. ,
,
. -
. ,
.
, ( ,
, ).

.
.
. -
. 2000 .
( ,
) ,
.
, , .
Bridgestone
, Firestone. ,

111.
(, , ,
- ),
Firestone 0 o h n Lampe).
, , -,

.

.
Firestone
, , ,
.
,
Ford
.
,
,

.

1. ,
Firestone, ?
2. Firestone
. -
, ?
3. , , Firestone
,
?
: Ono Leaves No Tracks in Nashville, USA Today, October 11, 2000,
p. 3B; New Firestone CEO Faces Huge Challenges, USA Today, October 11, 2000,
p. 3B; Bridgestone Consolidates 16 Tire Units into Four to Provide Better
Oversight, Wall Street Journal, October 19, 2000, p. A6; Hoover's Handbook of World
Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 116-117.



.

. , , -
. -

15,

783


, , ,
, ,
, . .
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.
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.
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, , (
) .
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.
.
, ,
.
, .
,
.
(comida) (),
, .
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.
,
, .
- ,
.
, (, , patron jefe).

.

784

III.

, ,
, .
.
,
, .

;
(padrino) .
, ,
,
; .
, ,

. ,
,
. , ,
.
,
, .
.
, .
,
.
.
{camarillas) (palancas)
.
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
, .
,
.
.
-
, ,
.
, : ,
.
, ,
,
.

Ben & Jerry's


, , 1997 .
(Perry Odak),
(Angelo Pezzani), (Bruce
Bowman) (Riv Hight)


, .
,

:
Ben & Jerry's ,
, .


.

: 7000
7-Eleven,

(Ken
Yamada),
,
Ben &Jerry's
.



1998 . ,

, ,

.



,

. ,
7-Eleven

,

. , ,
,
, Ben &
Jerry's,

,

.


1994 . Ben &
Jerry's
,

,
$4,5 .
,

,

. ,

.
,

;
,

. ,

Ben &Jerry's

, :

Haagen-Dazs.
,


.

, -

786

III.

7-Eleven,

(Masashiko
Iida),
,
.

Ben
&Jerry's

Ben
&Jerry's

(
Ben &Jerry's). 7-Eleven,
,
Haagen-Dazs , ,

, .
Ben & Jerry's
$300 .
Haagen-Dazs ,
, ,
.
, ,
Haagen-Dazs, ,
, ,
, , 7-Eleven,
.
, Ben &Jerry's, .

,

Ben &

Jerry's

.

Domino's
,
Pizza

.
,
, , Ben &Jerry's ,
,
,
.
.
(Jerry Greenfield),

Ben &
Jerry's,

1996 . Ben & Jerry's 1997 .

,

.

II!
(
), ,


.
1997 .


. ,
-
.

, 7-Eleven ,
-
: Ben &
Jerry's ,

?
, ,
.
,
, -
, ,

- ,


.
,

Ben
& Jerry's Homemade
.



,

.
7-Eleven

,
.

787
Domino's, ,
Domino's
.

,

Ben & Jerry's ,



.

,
,
,

7-Eleven.
,

Ben &
Jerry's
7-Eleven.
, ,
:
Ben &Jerry's,
,
,

. ,

,
, ,
23,3%,
.


2000 .
21%.

,
,


.

788

III.


7-Eleven
Ben &
Jerry's
,
.


. ,

,
-
,
. ,

,
,
Ben &Jerry's

,
.




,


7-Eleven.


Ben &Jerry's
7000
7-Eleven,
.

, Ben &
Jerry's
,
.
Ben & Jerry's
:
Ben & Jerry's ,
Haagen-Dazt

?

,
?
Ben &Jerry's 7-Eleven

.
,
Ben &Jerry's

,
. 7-Eleven
,

120 ,
473 (1
),
Ben &Jerry's.

,

,

.
,


.
,

,
$2
.
,
,

.
, 7-Eleven

,


.

Ben &Jerry's -

III


.

,

,
7-Eleven,

.

,
Ben & Jerry's ,


.
,
Ben &
Jerry's ,

, 7-Eleven.

,
,
.
1998 .
1997 .


.
1998 .,

1997 .

.



.
,

Ben & Jerry's
.

789
,

Ben &
Jerry's

.

Ben &Jerry's
,

. ,





.
;
,

,

Domino's Pizza .
,
.
Ben & Jerry's
-,

,


.
,
.


Ben &
Jerry's Domino's,




.

7-Eleven -

790

III.



,
7-Eleven. 7-Eleven
,
Ben &Jerry's

.
7-Eleven,


,
,

Ben & Jerry's.

,
7-Eleven,
, Ben &
Jerry's 10%

7-Eleven. ,
Ben &Jerry's

. ,


.
7-Eleven
Ben &Jerry's
,

.


.

, , ,
,
.
,

1997 ., ,
.

,
Ben &Jerry's
.
,
125 ,
Ben & Jerry's -

,
;
,
7-Eleven
.
160
Ben &Jerry's
,

,
Haagen-Dazs,

.

, ,


.

.
.
, Ben
& Jerry's
,
,

1998 .
.

1.


.
Ben &
Jerry's,

?
2.

III

3.

4.

Ben & Jerry's



7-Eleven,


Ben &Jerry's


.

Ben &Jerry's,

-
,
.
?
.

: Adapted from Ben &


Jerry's Japan, Richard Ivey School of
Business, University of Western Ontario,
Case (A) 2000-02-02.
Richard Ivey School
of Business.
Nissan
1980- .
BusinessWeek, For
tune Forbes,


.




, ,


(
keiretsu). ,


,

Toyota, Nissan Honda.

791
1990- .

.
(
), 1980- .,

,

.

Nissan. ,
1980- Nissan ,
1990- .
.

1980- . ,

,
.


,
.
( 11
,
.)

.

1990- .
.
1997-1998 .

XX .
Nissan,
,
1991 .
1992 1993 .

Nissan, 1994 .


.

, -

792

'

111,

Nissan

.
,


. ,
Nissan
,
,
,


. ,
,
- ,
. 1994
1995 . Nissan
. 1997 .
, 1998 .
. 1998
1999 .

.
Nissan

,
,

:
. 1999 .
Renault SA $5,4
37%
Nissan,

Renault

. Renault

, (Carlos Ghosn),
,
Nissan.

,

Nissan. 1999 . ,
,
,
,
Nissan $10
. ,

Nissan 21 000 .
16 000

Nissan.

,

,

,




, 2000
.

,
,


Nissan,

.



, - ,

,

Nissan.


,
:
, -
-

III

,

1
.

,
Nissan,
2,4 ( 2001 .
117 ),

2001 . ,
Nissan,

. , , Nissan
,
.
,
,
,

,
.


. ,
Nissan
,

,
. ,

Nissan:

.
,
,

Honda, Toyota, Chrysler Ford,


$1000 ,
Nissan.
Nissan

, Nissan
TBWA Worldwide

793

;
,
$1,1 .
,

,
. ,

Nissan 10%

Renault. , ,

Re
nault Nissan

20%. ,

,

keiretsu.
keiretsu,
keiretsu
,

.


,

.
Nissan


keiretsu,
Nissan
.
keiretsu
. ,

keiretsu

,
. ,
keiretsu, -

794

111,

Nissan,

, Nissan
.
60%
.

,
.
,
,

.
,
2
keiretsu.

,

Nissan 1394 ,
Nissan
keiretsu,
. ,
,
,
600.

,
Nissan

,

.
, ,
,
20% ,
Nissan,
.
, ,

,
Nissan. ,

. ,
-

(Keizo Obushi)
,

, Nissan

.
,
,
,
,
Nissan. ,


,
,
. , , ,
,

:

,
...
,
;

Nissan.
.3
,
,



.

- ,


,
-
-

.

-

III



.

,
(
,
) ,


.


,
.

, Nissan
,
,

.
Nissan
,
.
,
,
, ,
,
90- .
,
,

,



, .

1. Nissan


Renault
?
-

795


?
Nissan

keiretsu?


Nissan?
2. , Nissan

21 000


. ,
,
?

?

,

?
3.
,
Nissan -


?
,
? -

?
4. ,

,

,
-

? , ,

?
5. -
,

796

III.




Nissan,

.

?

:
, ,
?
6. ,
. 2002 .
Nissan
$6,1 ;
, 2002 .
11%,

.
,
( )

.
?
: Nissan Set to Announce
Records $6,1 Billion Profit, Financial Ti
mes, April 23,2003, p. 18; Look! Up in the
Sky! It's Nissan's Chief Executive, Wall
Street Journal, December, 27, 2001, p. Bl;
Feared 'Cost Killer' Who Became a Cor
porate Hero, Financial Times, December
17, 2001, p. II; Renault's Nissan Deal Be
gin to Come up Trumps, Financial Times,
July 18,2001, p. 20; Nissan Sizes Up TBWA

for $1 Bil Global Ad Prize, Advertising


Age, December 6, 1999, p. Iff; Remaking
Nissan, BusinessWeek, November 15,
1999, p. 70ff; The Circle is Broken, Fi
nancial Times, November 9, 1999, p. 18;
'Le Cost-Killer' Makes His Move,
Financial Times, November 9, 1999, p. 15;
Nissan's Ambitious Restructuring Plan
Delivers a Blow to Japan's Longstanding
System Corporated Families, Wall Street
Journal, October 20, 1999, p. A20;
Nissan's Cost Cutter Shows How He Got
His Nickname, Financial Times, October
19, 1999, p. 20; Nissan Outlines
Restructuring to Get into the Black, Wall
Street Journal, October 19, 1999, p. A18;
Nissan's Ghosn Faces Obstacles in
Carrying out 'Revival Plan', Wall Street
Journal, October 18,1999, p. A 37; 'Killer'
to Make Unkindest Cut, Financial Times,
October 18, 1999, p. 14; Can Japan Keep
11 Carmakers? Financial Times, July 22,
1998, p. 13; Nissan Finds the Road Is
Rough Despite Cost Cutting, Wall Street
Journal, April 4,1994, p. B4; The World's
Top Automakers Change Lanes, Fortune,
October 4,1993, p. 73ff.
III
Nissan

1. Remaking Nissan, BusinessWeek,


November 15, 1999, p. 71.
2. The Circle Is Broken, Financial
Times, November 9, 1999, p. 18.
3. 'Le Cost-Killer' Makes His Move,
Financial Times, November 9,1999, p. 15.

... .
, :
+ -
;
4- ,
;
4-
;
4- ,
;
4-
.

,
, Wal-Mart
.
1990- . . Wal-Mart
. 1999 .
Wal-Mart ,
Asda, 230 .
Wal-Mart, :
.

16,

799

Wal-Mart Asda,

. Wal-Mart
, ,
, .
Asda
,
. Wal-Mart
,
.

, Wal-Mart, ,
, Tesco, Safeway Sainsbury,
. , , :
2001 . Asda $745 $13,5 ,
8,4%,
Wal-Mart, 10,5%.
Wal-Mart
. 1997 . Wertkauf, 21
; Spar Handels AG, 74
.

.
, Wal-Mart,
.
, ,
, .
,
, Wal-Mart
,
.
Wal-Mart ,
.
, ,
, , .
,

Wal-Mart, . ,
.

.
, ,
.
Wal-Mart , ,
, .
, , Wal-Mart
,
.
,

. . , Wal-Mart

50 .

800

IV.

, Wal-Mart
, .
,
. 2002 .
Wal-Mart 38%,
.
, . (
) Wal-Mart
, ,
.1
Wal-Mart
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
.

,
, ,
, .2

.
,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
. , ,
, ;
,
.3
, . ,

16.

801

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.4

,
, :

. ,
.
,
.



.

, . 16.1.
-
.
,
, .
-

,
.5 11, -

. 1 6 . 1 .

802

IV.

: ,
.

, ,
,
.
, , ,
, Rolex,
BMW, Montblanc. ,
,

. , Rolex,
,
( $15 000) ,
Timex $19,95.
-,
.

, ,

. , ,

, : ,
( ),
. Texas Instruments, Hyundai,
Bic
. Timex
.
.


.
,
. ,
Ste. Suisse Microelectronique et d'Horlogerie SA (SMH),
Swatch,
,
. - ,

.

. Timex, Rolex SMH
( ) ,
,
-. Timex ,

16.

803

, ,
- : . :

.
:
. web-, www.prettygarlic.com,
, -: ,
, , . web-
, ,
. , ,
.
- Pizhou, 5,5 ,

. ;
15 000 . ,
, .
: The Web @ Work, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2000, p. B4; www.prettygarlic.com.


, Wal-Mart Target,
Saks Fifth Avenue Hatred's. Rolex
, ,
,
, ,
,
. , SMH
Swatch ,
30-50- Town and Country Archi
tectural Digest, Field and
Stream Popular Electronics.
, ,
, ,
.
,
, . ,
,
. , ,
-, , ,
,
Timex, Rolex.

-

804

IV.

, .
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
, Nike Coca-Cola,
,
.
, ,
. , , Caterpillar,

,
, .
-

6
, . ,

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) , .
-

product (), pricing (), promotion () place (
).
. 16.2.
-
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
: ,
- .

, , ,
-,
.
1. , . .
, ?

16.

805

. 16.2. -

2. , . . -
?
3. , . .
,
- ? 7
.
, , ,
, .
,
, , -
. , Land's End
1990- . ,
,
. Land's
End ,
,
, ,
.
Land's End , ,
. , -

806

IV.

-
, . . ,
.

, ,
,
8
.
, ,
. ,
, -
.
,
- ,
,
. ,
.
,
,
, .
,
.
-,

. ,
, Coca-Cola.
, ,
. , -
.
, - ,
. , 11,

, . ,
, .
,
, , , -.
1980- .,
, (
McKinsey & Company), ,
,
, ,
-.9 ,
,
-
, .

16.

807

, . ,
10
.
.
,
11
, .
,

.
,
. ,
: , .
:
,
.
12
, .
,
,
. Coca-Cola,
,
. ,

, ,
Iron Brew.

. , , ,
, .
,
. ,

.

. Whirlpool, ,
,
,
. , World Washer
,
, ,
. World Washer,
. ,
, ,
. 13

, ,
, .

808

IV,

- ,
.
, ,
.
,
. :
? ,
, , ,
. , ,
, .

.
( -) ,
-
. (. 11)
-,
.
:
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, , ,
;
2)
, -, -


-
(product). ,
(
), , ,

16,

809
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, , . ,

,
15
. ,
Toyota , ,
,
,
, ,
,
.
?

,
, ,
( ) (
). , Toyota, ,
.
,
Toyota .
, - -

810

IV.

. , ,
Toyota ,
.
, . ,
. ,
, Lexus Sports Coupe,
Toyota Soarer.
, ,
. , 1980- . Unilever
, - 85
15 Cornetto.
, Unilever -
,
- ,
16
.

.
:
? ,

, , ,
, . ,
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,
.
.
, , , .
: , .
, , ,
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. 17 - Big Boy
. 1 8


, . , ,
,
, , ,
, , .
,
. , Grupo Modelo SA, Co
rona, , ,
,
.

16.

811
19

, . ,
.
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,
, 2 0 (1 = 91,44 . . .).
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.


.
, ,
. ( -
-). ,
, .
, Procter & Gamble
, ,
. 2 1 ,
,
, , ,
. ,
. Gerber, ,
.
,
,
. Gerber
, . 22 Frito-Lay,
Pepsi,
, , ,
, ,
. 2 3
,
. ,
Gerber, Frito-Lay
.
.
, ,
.
, :
5000
, .

812

IV.

. ,
web- . ,
, ,
.
. ,
.
: , ?
, 50%
. web-
, , TRADOS.
TRADOS Kelly Services , 200 000
. , ,
, ,
, , . 10
Kelly Services, $255 000 . TRADOS
, .
70%.
,
. , web .
, , web-
. , ,
. , , .
,
.
,
- ,
. , , , 20 . Amazon,
Yahoo!, AOL . 55%
web- - .
, , , .
,
. ,
.
: Babel.net, BusinessWeek, December 17,2000, pp. 78-80; The Next Web, BusinessWeek,
March 4, 2002, pp. 99-101; Surfing in Tongues, BusinessWeek, December 11, 2000, pp. 84-86.

. ,

.24
. ,
,
.
,
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16,

813

, ,
.
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.



.
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. ,
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.
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.
, ,
,
.

() ,
.
, .
. ,
Avon ,

26
. Mars, Inc.
, , Marathon
Raider ,
27
Snickers Twix. , , -

814

IV.

,
. , Grupo Modelo SA
Corona Coronita, Corona
28
.
Coca-Cola Diet Coke,
. Coca-Cola Light.
\


- (pricing).

29
.
. ,
. , Toys R Us
, , ,
, .
,
, .
Toys R Us ,
, .
, Wal-Mart
.
,
, ,
. ,
. -

. ,
, . , , -

. , ,
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, , -
.

. ,

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).
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815

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, ,
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, . -
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, .
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, ,
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.
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.
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.

: 30
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, ,
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.
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816

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,
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.
,
, .

,
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,
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.
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16,

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,
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,

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.
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.
, ,
, ,
. ( .)
, ,
,
, .

. ,
.
Coca-Cola, , 1990- .,
.

16.

819

27%
,
Coca-Cola .31
Merck,
. Merck
,
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.32
, ,
, , - ,
, , . ,
,
.
,
$130 .33

, -
.

. ,
, , , ,

( ),
, . ,
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, 1300 .

, -
. , Charles of the Ritz
.

. , ,
.
.
,
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, ,

.
,
, ,
, .34

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IV,


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.
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.

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.

,
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,
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,
.
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,
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16.

21

, , .
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.
,
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.
, .
,
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, ,
, .

.
, .
, ,
.
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,
.
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.
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,
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10
37
. ,
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.

.
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.
. ,
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, , 20 ;
, , , -

822

IV.


:
,

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,
. , ,
65


.
, ,
.
,
;

.
,
, .
,
.

. -
Coca-Cola .



, 27 .
( $8000), .
Coca-Cola ,
.

,
, .
Coca-Cola
Perrier,
.


Al Ahram Beverages Co.
. ,
Coca-Cola
,
-
, !
: Advertising Breezes Along the Nile
River with Signs for Sails, Wall Street Journal, July
18, 1997, pp. A1.A11.
38

. , ,
,
,
39
.
.
.
,

40
. , Coca-Cola,
Bic, Levi's McDonald's,
.
,
. , 1990- . Coca-Cola
, Coca-Cola.
.41

, . Unilever
Dove.
, .

16.

823

, , ,
, : "Dove"
42
. Nestle
Kit Kat , "Kit Kat", ,
, ,
.
. IBM, ,

.
, IBM
, .
,
$22 $30 ( $150 ).
, IBM , .
,
, .
Levi Strauss,
43
Levi's 501 .
$500 000, Levi Strauss
$3 , , ,
$2,5 . 4 4

, .
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, . .
. 45


.
- ,

. 4 6

. ,
,
.
,
. Colgate-Palmolive, ,
,
.
,

824

IV,

. Colgate-Palmolive
.47

.
( ,
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1999, p. Bl. Wall Street Journal. 1999 Dow Jones and
Company, Inc. .

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Managing a High-Performance Knowledge-Sharing
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Journal (March 2000), pp. 345-368; A Case Study
of Model Changeovers in the Toyota Production
System, Organization Science (January-February
1999), pp. 52-60; Toyota's Fast Rebound After Fire
at Supplier Shows Why It Is Tough, Wall Street
Journal, May 8,1997, pp. A1, A6; Toyota Factories
in Japan Grind to a Halt, Wall Street Journal,
February 4, 1997, p. A14.

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Journal, July 28, 1994, pp. A1, A6; Levi's Law,
Far Eastern Economic Review, April 14, 1994,
p. 60; Tirn Smith, The Power of Business for
Human Rights, Business & Society Review (Winter
1994), pp. 36-38.

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29,1997, p. 7; More Firms Rely on "One-Stop" Shopping, Wall Street Journal, April 29, 1997, pp. B1, B4;
Sharpening the Claws, Forbes, July 26, 1999, pp. 102-105.

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Instruments Registration and Identification Systems), -

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, Harvard Business Review
. 35

,
. 13 The Eldora Company (EDC);
.
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880

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General Motors :
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Ford GM
DaimlerChrysler . web,
, : ,
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Renault Nissan, Oracle (
) Commerce One (). 2001 .
PSA Peugeot Citroen. , Ford, GM

, .
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. 2002 .
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, . Covisint
,
:
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,
.
2004 .
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,
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881

1.
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: Three Carmakers Create Link, USA Today, February 28, 2000, p. 8B;
Big Three Car Makers Plan Net Exchange, Wall Street Journal, February 28, 2000,
pp. A3, A16; Shawn Tully, The B2B Tool That Really Is Changing the World, For
tune, March 20, 2000, pp. 1321-45.


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882

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KLM Royal Dutch Airlines ...
. ,

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United, Delta, British Airways, Lufthansa, Air France, Japan Air Lines, Quantas Sin
gapore Airlines.

18.

885

KLM .
,
, ,
.
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24% ,
44%.
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887

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889

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,
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.
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. 18.1.

390

IV,
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(Specially Designated Nationals).

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.
: Casey Ochs, Export Letters of Credit,
Northwest Worldview, vol. 3, no. 2 (August 1996).
Copyright 1996 Northwest Corporation.
.

.
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,
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894

IV.

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VISA MasterCard.
, , ,
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, , ( 2
4%) , ,

18.

895

. 18.2.

.
1-3% .
, ,
.
. ,
. (countert
rade) ,
- . ,
, () .
(barter),
. , 1990- .
State Trading Corporation
. ,
100 000 , ,
, .
.

896

IV.

,
,
.
. ,

. ,
. Boeing, ,
,
, , , .

(buy-back), ,
. ,
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Chinatex, ,
7
. Internationale Vine of Latvia
PKL of Switzerland
.
,
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.8
(offset purcha
ses),
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Fiat,
.9
,
, .

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. ,
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.
(switching arran
gement)
, . . .

18.

897

,
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), ,
,
10
.

sogo sosha ( , 2),
.
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, ,
keiretsu
.11

:
. , , Marc Rich & Co.,
$3 .
1990- . ,
, .
70 000
(. 18.1). ,
.

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. ,
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, .12
, 1520% ,
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,
.
,
.
.
, ,
. , 2002 .
(.
2, ). DaimlerChrysler,
,
.14
. 18.1.
, , ,

898

IV.
1 8 . 1 . , Marc Rich

. , ,
.
, .
, .


.
,
.

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.

18.

899

,
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.

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(Eximbank).
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. 2002 . $13 .
: 2002 .
15
$1,8 .
( ) ( 10 )
,
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.


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,
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: ,
.

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, Saks Fifth Avenue,
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5 ,
10 . Saks ,
, . . 10 , -
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900

IV.
18.1

18.

901

902

IV.



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607
1,3 .
: 3000
,
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2009 .,
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.
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, ,
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.
Saks Fifth Avenue ,
. , :
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18.

903

18.2.

. Saks Fifth Avenue , . . ,


10 , .
,
.
. -, Saks
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.
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904

IV.

. , , ,
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. 8,
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, ,
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.
Saks
.
( Saks ,
), .
,
. 3,0 5,5%
.

,
,
.16
. Saks
, ,
10 ,
(offsetting asset) . ,
,

18.

905

8% (4% ).
, Credit Suisse,
4 807 692 , Saks , ,
(4 807 692 1,04).
, Saks
. ,

. , Saks ,
- ,
.
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, ,
Rolex .
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.
Saks
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Rolex ,
.
,
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,
.

. 18.2. ,
. ,
. ,
Goldman Sachs
, , (. . ),
() .
, ,
. ,
, Indo-Rama Synthetics. 1997 ., ,
,
$175 ,
. Indo-Rama
10% , ,
, 2650
. ,
80%.
, Astra International (
7), , , -

906

IV.

10% , .
,
,
17
1997-1998 .

18.2


, ,
, ,
.
,
. (translation exposure)
, -
,
.
, . (-

, .)
19,
.
, GM $15 Barclays Bank,
, General
Motors Import & Distribution Company Ltd., .
, 1 = $1,50.
, ,
10 . 1 = $1,45,

18.

907

- 10 .
GM ,
$14 500 000
(10 $1,45). , GM
$500 000 ($15 000 000 - $14 500 000).

, ,
, ,
. ,
. , AFLAC Inc.
.
, $4,8 ,
, .
$2,5 .

, $1,3 .
AFLA ,
18
.
Procter & Gamble Owens-Coming}9
,
, . ,
. ,
,
, , .
, , General Motors.
: ,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
, AFLA
( 75% ),
.

(
).
.

,
, ,
.
. , 2002 .
. -

908

IV.

: ,
, , ,
, ,
.

, ,
. , ,
, Toyota Nissan, ,

, . , Sony,
, ,
, ,
21
.
,
. ( 18.3
,
2003 .)

. , ,
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.
, 8.
, ,
, .
,
- .
,

.
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, ,
, .

18.

909

18.3.
1998 . 2003 .

910

IV,



,
( ).
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, ,
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,
.
:
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2) ;
3) .


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, ,
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.

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.
( ),
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, - .

,
.
,
,
(centralised cash management). ,
(-), ,
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.
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18.

911

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.
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, . . ,
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,
, .

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,
.)

.

. , Samsung, ,
,
, .



.
.

0,3% .

- .
Samsung : ,
. . 18.3,

912

IV.


. , Colefax and
Fowler
. 96,

15 . , ,
. 86
. - Colefax and Fowler
, ,
.
, ,
, .
Colefax and Fowler ,
. :
Colefax and Fowler.
, ,
. Colefax and Fowler
EDM, , ,
, Newsweek National Geographic. EDM
,
. EDM, , ,
. ,
, , EDM,
Colefax and Fowler .
,
. , Colefax and Fowler
45 000 .
.
: Small Cheques, Big Problems, Financial Times, June 21, 1994, p. 12.

$21 (1 + 3 + 6 +
+ 4 + 5 + 2). (
, .)
0,5% , Samsung $105 000
(0,5% $21 ) ,
.
,
(bilateral netting),
.
.
, 1 ,

18.

913

,
, $3 , ,
.
$2 , .
,
$2 ($6 - $4 = $2 ),
$3 ($5 - $2 = $3 ). , Samsung
$35 000 (0,5% $7 ).
, Samsung
(multilateral netting),
-. . 18.3,
, $7 ,
. $8 ,
$9 , $1 .
$5 , $6 ,
$1 . ,
,
, $1 ,
.
$1 , Samsung
$5000 (0,5% $1 ).
, ,
: 25, 20,
20, 5, .
, , ,
, , ,
, .
, , ,
.

914

IV.

18.3
( )

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,
,
.
(leads and lags strategy), ,
, , , ,
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,
,
, ,
.
, ,

. , ,

, .
Avon
1997 . Avon ,
, ;

, . Avon
,
, ,
.
- , , . Avon
.22

18.

915

, .
,
,
,
. ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, Tate & Lyle,
.
, ,

. ,
, $6 .23



.
, , , .
,
, .
,

, .

( :
) ,
, .
,
,
, , .
,

.
, ,
. ,
, , .
. ,
10%, -

916

IV,

, ,
, 10%.
, .
,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
, . ,
,
,
.
-, ,
.
. , ,
.
,
() . , 1990- . Adam Opel AG,
General Motors,
, .
- Opel,

. ,
,
.
, Hewlett-Packard (HP)

. HP $10
,
, .
HP ,
.

.
: ?
,
, :
.
,
,
.24

18,

917

, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
. , ,

5%,
.
. 5%-
,
.

5%. ,

,
,
.

,
, .
,

, .

. , PepsiCo

. ,
, PepsiCo
,
. ,
,
, .


. ,
,
,
. ,
,
. ,

, (-

918

IV.

,
.).

(hurdle rate) ,
.
.
,
.


(payback period) , ,
,
. , Placer Dome Inc.
,
$500 ,
Outokumpu OY. ,
,
.
:
.
, .
,
, ,
, , .

,
25
.
, .
,
.


,
,
. ,
.
.
,
, .26


(, -

18.

919

,
),
.
: 2002 .
$128,1 ,
$50,1 .27 ,

.
,
, ,

.
.

.
, .
,
, . 18.4.
. 18.4.


. -
,
, .

920

IV,

. ,

, .
, .
-, ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
,

. . 2002 .

$29,4 ,

15,4 .28 (,
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. ( ,
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,

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( ) .

,
.

.
.


, .
, -

18.

921

.
,
, .

,

, , .
,
Goldman Sachs, , Merrill Lynch Nomura.
, ,
,
.

. , KLM -
, , .
Sony -, ,
, , , , , , , ,
, .
,
,
, .

, ,
.
,
. , , Baltek Corporation -,

$30 .
, Baltek .
, ,
( ).29

,
.
,
-
.
, ,
8.

,
, ,
.30 ,
,

922

IV.

, . ,

. . ,
1990- . The Walt Disney Company
$400 , :
, 13 .
3%;
13,5%. , 7-8%.
, , .31

, Disney
, .32
,
-,
. , ,

. , ,
,
, ,
. .
, Cadbury Schweppes:
- , ,
.33
,
.
, ,

. ,
,
. , ,
. -
. , -

18.

923

,
.
.

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.
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.

.
.
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, .

.

.
,
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.
.
,
.

.
,
, ,
,

,
.

924

IV.

,
.

.
. ,
-,
.

1.
?
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
?
5. ?
6. ?
.
:
7. ?
?
8. ?
9.
?
10. ?


1. ,
, ?
2. ?
3. ?
?
4.
?
5. ,

,
.
, ?
?
6. , Colefax
& Fowler, -

18.

925

(. ). Colefax
& Fowler ? ,
-,
?


Belgian Lace Products (BLP),
. BLP ,

, , .
.
,

BLP. , ,
. ,
,
, , .
-
BLP ( , ):

: 15 000
: 12 500
: 17 500
: 11 250
: 7500
: 25 000
: 3 000 000
: $5000

: 50 000
: 15 000
: 750 10 000

: 75 000
: 12 500
: 5000, 1000 $9000

: 5 000 000
: 17 500
: 3 000 000 $8000

: $40 000
: 11 250

926

IV.

: $10 000 300 000


1,33 = 1
1 = $1,00
1 =120
, .
1. BLP. (
BLP , ,
2002 .) ?
,
? ?
2. ,
1% .
BLP
. , BLP
400 . ?
3.
, BLP?


,
BLP ?

, , -
, .
,
.
:
, - , , Markel
Corp., , , ,
40% ,
. ,
,
,
.

.
. ,
.
,
$1,2 , .

18.

927

Market,
, ,
,
1980- .,
: Was ist das "AR500"?

, ,
W.H. Kuster GmbH,
, Fico Triad SA . , ,
Simco Japan Inc. .
40- ,
. , 40% $26
- , .
, ( ),
, , , ,
.
,
, -
, ,
, , ,
.
:
, ;
,
; ,
, ;
, .
, ,
. , 52 ,
. , .
,
.
,
, , 70%
,
.
, Markel ,
,
, .
,
, Markel
, PNC Financial Services Group. Markel
, , 50 000 , -

928

IV.

,
.
, ,
. ,
, , 50% , ,
, , .
. , , Market
PNC 50 000 , .
$1,05 , $52 500. , Market
, $1,08,
$1500. ,
. . .
. 1998 . Market Kustern
, $1,18
,
1999 . , . , , .
, 26 2000 . 82
. , ,
, , .
Market , 2000 2001 . $625 000.
.
2001 . Market 10%.
63 , ,
. (,
, .) ,
- ,
, .
Market .
,
, . 2001 . $250 000
, ,
25% . 6%
,
.
,
.
Market ,
90 95 .
$1,08, ,

. Market .
, $1,05-1,07,
- $1,60, Market
$400 000 $500 000.

18.

929

,
, . .
, ,
,
. ,
.
, , .

1. Market,
.
?
2. Market .
?
3. Market ,
? .
4. Market ,
. ,
. Market
,
. ?
: Michael M. Phillips, Ship Those Boxes; Check the Euro! Watt Street
Journal, February 7, 2003, p. CI. .

: ?
,
,
.
,
.
, .
, ,
.
XIX .
1929 . , ,
.
1960- . 1979 .
.
, ,

930

IV,

, ,
.
, . 1980- .
. ,

.
1990- .
: ,
. 1994 .
Real Plan,
.
, .
. .
,
1990- . -
1997 1998 . (,
) .
1999 ., ,
.
R$l,21 R$2,20 , , ,
R$l,66 .
1990- .
. . .
,
,
. , 1990- ., ,
20%.
7%.
1999 . . ,
,
,
.

,
, .
.
, .
,
, ,
,
.
. -

. (, )
. ,

18.

931

.
(probleminhos) . ,
, .
, : ,
, . ,

. , .
, , ,
.

. ,

, .

, ,
-
.

-
20:00,
. ,
, .
,

.
, .

... Enron .
, :
,
;

;
,
;
, ,
;
,
;
;
.

1990- .
.
,
. ,

19.

933


().
. 2001 .
$26,1 . 2003 . ,
- 30%,
, Arthur Andersen,
, 4,3 .
- .
Arthur Andersen Enron,
. Enron 1985 .
, Houston Natural Gas InterNorth.
Enron ,

. 1980- .
Enron ,
.
1990- . Enron
.
2001 . Enron, ,
$618
$1,2
, .


.
Enron .
: ,
Enron
, Arthur Andersen
. Arthur Andersen
, a Enron .
.
, Enron, ,

, .
Arthur Andersen . ,
. Enron
Arthur Andersen, ,
,
. Arthur Andersen ,
.
.
Arthur Andersen ,
.
: ,
, ,
Enron.
, Enron . 20022003 .
-
. , Global
Crossing, Adelphia Communications, WorldCom, Tyco.
. -

934

IV.

Elan,
Comroad Royal Ahold NV,
1
.
,
,
2
.
.
, -
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.
( ) .
, ,
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,
.

, . ,
, ,
, .

,
.
-
,

.
,

, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
. -

19.

935

,

.


,
,
, , ,
,
. , , -
, .

. 19.1,
, ,
.3 ,
, .

. , ,
,
, (. 19.1. ,

936

IV,

) (FASB) .

, (
).
(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles,
GAAP),
,
.

.
, ,
4
.
,
5
(, FASB), . ,


, : Plan Comptable
General'. 1673 .
,
.

.
.
.
,
, .
,
.

, . , ,

. Arthur Andersen
: Enron,
, ,
.

.
.
,
.

1920- .,
1932 . .

.

19.

937


,
. ,
,
1898 1946 .
.

.
,

6
. ,
.

.
.
,
.
,
,
(Securities and Exchange Comission SEC).
, ,
Enron. ,
. , ,
,

. - , ,
. -
.
, ,
,
. 7 ,
,

. -
.
:
.
.
.
,
, . ,

. ,

, -

938

IV.

, .

,
.


, , .
,
. , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
.
,
. ,
. -

. -.
,
.
,
, .
, ,
.

. , ,
.
,
.
- .
: LIFO (last in, first out,
) FIFO (first in, first out,
). LIFO, ,
,
-
( , , ), FIFO.
FIFO
, LIFO. , ,
, . ,
.

19.

939

LIFO , , , ,
.
FIFO?
.
.

.

. .
:
, .

. ,

, .
, , .
(
),
( ).

,
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.
-
. ,
, . -

, , ,
.

, ,
. ,

.
,
, .
.
,
,
. , , ,
,
,
.

. ,

940

IV,

.
, , ,

.


,
.
, ,
. 1990- ., , Deutsche Bank
, $14 .9

.
,
,
. -
.
, , .

, ,
.
.
. :
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(),
, ;
:
,
,


;
-
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,
, ;
: , ,
, .

().
5 ,
10 .

-

19.
.
5-20 . .
. 19.1.


,
, . -
, , .
, -
.

, , ,

. ,
, ,
.
:
,
.

. - , ,

, . ,

. - ,
, ,
.10
Philips NV. , Philips
.
- , Philips
,
.' 1
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.
: - ,
, ,
.12 1999 ., , -

942

IV.

19.

943

944

IV.

DAX30 (
-) Volkswagen.

. : Volkswagen
.
, Volkswagen 2000 . ,
GAAP,
(),
.13
, ,
- , 1997-1998 .,
, .
,

;
,
, - .

,
,
.


.

, ,
.
,

. Coca-Cola, ,
,
, GAAP.14
,
:
. ,
:

.
,
, .
,
, . ,
, , ,
.13

19.

945



. -
,
, .


.
1973 .
{International Accounting Standards Committee, IAS ). IASC
, , , , ,
, , , . 2001 . IASC
,

(International Accounting Standards Board, IASB). IASB,
120 91 ,
,
. 16
IASB

- , ,
. IASB .

. , ,
IASB, ,
.

.
.
. ,

,
. ,
,
.

. , -
.
, LIFO, FIFO,
. ,
,
,
. -

946

IV.

,
() .
.
.
,
17
.
. :
18
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
:
.

, , .
. ,
DaimlerChrysler, Veba, Schering, Hoechst, Deutsche Bank Bayer,

,
, IASC / .


,
,
,
:
1) , ;
2)
.

- 1971 .
,
,
, . -
, , . 1971 .


.


18 ,
-

19.

947

.
,
, .
,

,
. 52 ,
1981 .,
(two-transaction approach).20
, Microsoft Corporation ,
Windows XP, Office XP Microsoft Excel
30 000 90 .
- 1 $1,60, . .
$48 000 (30 000 1,60), Microsoft, 52,
:

$48 000

$48 000

, 90 , Microsoft 30 000,
$1,50. Microsoft
$48 000, , $45 000.
:


$45 000
3000

$48 000


, .
,
. ,
, . . ,
.
Microsoft .
, , ,
(. 18).

,
. ,
. , 1990- .
Dell Computer 10% ,

948

IV,

$38
Dell. ,
, Dell ,
. Dell
21
.

,
, ,

.
,
.
,
, (translation)
, 18.

.

,
.

.
, ,
: (
), ( ),
- ?
,
,
, 52
.

- ,
(. . 19.2). ,
( 10%),
.
,

. ,
,
, . ,
Ford, 9,4% Kia Motors.
10 50%
, . ,

19.

949

19.2

Ford , 33%
Mazda. ,

, .
, ,
,
,
.

.
.
,
50% ,
Ford Volvo.
. ,
,
,
.
,
,
GAAP.

, .
, Adam Opel AG,
General Motors, , Opel
,
. Hewlett-Packard

.
, .


:
1) ,
. -

IV.
,
. ,
,
;
2) ,
. ,

.
.
,
.
,

. ,
, .
, Federal-Mogul,
, ,
,
.
,
.

,
.

. 52 ,

,
, .
. , ,
. . 19.3
.
,

100 = $1.
.
.

( . 19.4 31 2004 .). ,
(
), .


. ,
(. . 19.4).

19,

951

19.3

2004 .

,
.
,

.
19.4

2004 .

* - +
.

952

IV.

,
. ,
, . ,
.
,
,
22
, , 52.
, ,

, .



.
( ),
.
,
, :
.
,
.
,
.
( ) ,
. ,

.


: .


. ,
,
. ,
40% .

( )
. , ,
, ,
.

19.

953

:
1) ;
2) .
.
, ,
. , Samsung
,
.
,
,
.
. -,
,
. ,
- -.

,

: ,
.
.

,

. ,
,
.
-, ,
-.

, - ,
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, ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
.
.
- -
, ,
.

954

IV.

.
,
.
.
,
. ,
Ford, ,
, .
, Ford
,
, .

Toyota: , .
Toyota ,

, .
,
. ,
,
:
, , ,
. ,
.

,

. ,
, . 19.5,
.
.
, (
), -
-, ,
. ,
. ,
: ,
. ,
,
.
( )
.
( )
( ),
. , ,
, -

19.

955

19.5

.
,
,
23
, .

.
, , ,
.
, ,
,
,
.

, .
: , ,
.

,
. , -

956

IV,


24
.
, ,
.
, ,
: ,

.
,
,
. ,
, -
. , 1999 .
,
IBM, , 1991 .,
,
, 8 12%.
$260 , -
, IBM , . 25 ,
,
IBM, . ,
IBM , , , .
.

,
,
,
.
, 100%
. , ,
, , ,
,
, -
. ,
,
. , ,
. -
, ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, , .
.

.

19.




. ,
,
,
. ?
,

.


,
,
, , .
,
, ,
,
,
.

,

957

, ,
,
,
.
,


. (
,

,
,

.)
,


,
. ,


.


, , .
,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
. ,
,
, , 32 000
.
, .

24 .
: , , . ,
. 500 ,
$500 , 2200
, $200 .26 -

958

IV.


, . ,
, ,
, .


, ,
-,
.
, :
,
.


, , .
: 2002 .
$683 $289 .
, ,

(foreign sales corporations, FSC). ,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
. 27 2000 . ,
, ,

.
2000 .
.
, .
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
, .
,
. ,

.

19,

959

. ,
.

,
. ,

, .

,
.

,
,
.

,
. ,

,

.

. Caterpillar, ,
6.
. Caterpillar
,
. ,
: ,
,
.
, ,
.
(controlled foreign corporation, CFC)
, ,
10% , 50% .

,
, , ,
. ,
Volvo , Ford,
, a Mazda, Ford
33% , ,
.

960

IV.

,
: () (
F). ,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,

, .
,
, F
, , . ,
,
, -
.
,
, .
,


.


,
, (
).
, .

.
.


.
, ,

.
,
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,

, -

19,

961

.
, .


. ,
, , ,

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
.

, ,
, .
, 55 .
,
,
.
, ,

. , :
,
.28


, ,
-
,
(.
). ,

. 1990 . 50 ,
$492
.
, Novartis, Roche, Goodyear, Coca-Cola .;
.
.

, ,
29
.

962

IV.



,
,
(earnings stripping).
,
,

. ,

,
.
, ,


. , ;

.
, 1989 .
.


50%
.

.
,

,
.
,

,
.
1994 .
:
,

,
. ,
.


.

,

. ,

:

, .
: Foreign Firms Fume, Seek Loopholes
as U.S. Attempts to Collect More Taxes, Wall Street
Journal, June 14, 1994, p. A10.


, , 28%
.

, ,
, . 1980-
1990- .
, -
26,5% ,
. ,
Merck & . Nestle, :
,
. ,
, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co.,
(advance pricing agreement), -

19.

963

,
.

,
.
,
.
, ,

,
.

, ,
, .
,
, . ,

.
,
,

.
.

:


.
52 .

.
,
.

, .
,

.
, ,
. -

964

IV,


,
.

, .

.
-
.

, . ,

. , ,
, ( ),
.

1.
?
2. ?
3.
?
4.
?
5. ?
6. ,
?
7. ?
8. ,
, ?
?
9.
?


1.
, ?
2.
?
3.
?

19.

965

4.
?
5. ,
, .
? ?
, ,
?
6. ?
?
7. ,
, ,
?


.
, -
. ,
,
. ,
, , , -
,
. ,
.
web-.
, .
(, .
,
.)
1.
?
?
2. - ? ,
?
3. ?
?
4. ?
5. ?
6. -
?
- ,
?

966

IV.



1979 1981 .
() ,
. ,
. , ,
,
,
.

,
, .

Chevron, Exxon, Mobil Texaco,
. ( Exxon Mobil,
a Chevron Texaco.) 1970- .
,
.
1979 ., , ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
, . ,
.
, .
,
. ( ,
.
.)
. 1979-1981 .
Exxon $4,5 ,
Texaco, ,
$1,8 .
,
, .
, ,
, .
$4,5 $1,8
Exxon Texaco (
). ,
.

19.

967

, . Exxon Texaco
, .
, ,
,
.
, -
. ,
, -
. Exxon Texaco ,

, ,
,
.
Texaco.
. , $1,8
, ,

,
.
, 1997 .

. , Texaco $700 .

1. Texaco
? ? Texaco?
Texaco? ?
2.
Texaco,
?
3. ,
.
Exxon Texaco
, ?
4. ,

. ()...

" ", ""
.
? ?
: Courts Block Challenge of Big Tax refund for Texaco, The New York
Times, April 22, 1997, p. CI; Texaco "\Vins Billion-Dollar Tax Battle, Houston Chro
nicle, April 22, 1997, p. 1.

968

IV,

:

,
.
()
, .
1. ,
- ?
?
?
2.
?
?
3. 10
, ,
?

Loyola :
, .
, :

;
,
;
,
;
,

;

;
,
;
.

970

IV.

, !
,

. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
.
Toyota
, .
.
,
, . Toyota :
, . Toyota
, : ,
.
,
. , Toyota

.
Toyota ,
100 000 2700 300
. ,
, , .
,
.
, ,
.
14 .
, , , .
, , ,
. ,
, Toyota
. ,
.
-
. . -
, .

. ,

. ,
,
. ,
Toyota.

Toyota $13 000. ,
.
Toyota ,
, .

20. .,.

971

24 ( ).
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
Toyota.

, .
Toyota -.1

,
(),
,
.
,
,
. Toyota
: ,
.



, (human resource management,
HRM), , ,
,
.
, () , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
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, , :
.
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, -
, -.3

972

IV.

,
: ,
. (-)
, .

, .
,
.
,
, ,

.

. ,
,
.

,
. , Toyota, ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, Toyota,

.
,
, . , ,
,
. ,
.
Toyota ,
,
.
,
,

. ,

,
. , ,
, ,
,
.

20, ...

973

, ,
,
.

, .
. 20.1.
, .

. , ,


. ,

,
.

.

, ,
.

, , , ,
.

.
,
,
.
, , , ,
. ,
,
.

974

IV.
. 20.1.



. ,
.
,
, .



,
, .
, -.
,
, (
) ( ).
.
,
.

20. ...

975


,
.
. , ,
, ,
.
, 14.
1. .

.
,
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.
, ,

.

,

. ,
,
.
2. ().
,
,
. ,
-
.

.
. (
, ,
) ,
. ,
. . ,
,
-.4


.
,
.
3. .

976

IV,

( 14 ,
, ,
).
, ,
,

,
.
, :
.
, ,
, ;
( , , ,
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:
,
;
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,
,
;
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,
.


,
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. , ,
; ,
,
.

. , , , ,
.
.

20. ,..

977

, ,
-.
14,
- .
, -
,
.

,
.



( ).
: ,
.
(parent country nationals PCNs)
.
.

, -,
.

, , ,
,
. , Mercedes
.
,
.

. , ,
, ,
. , ,
(
) ,
. ,

. ,
/ ,
.
,
, .

/ .

978

IV.

(host country nationals HCNs)


, .

, .
, Intel, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, IBM Nortel
Networks, ,
.
, ,
, ,
- .5
.
-, ,
. -, ,
, ,
, . ,
.
, .
, Mercedes
, ,
, .
,
(thrird country nationals TCNs),
, .
,
/ .
,
, , .
, - ,
.
,
. , Nestle Philips NV,
, ,
, .
,
,
.

.
,

. ,


.
,

20. .,.

979

. . , ,
. ,
.

, .6

. ,
.
(),
.
. ,

.
.
,
.
,
. ,

: . -

:
, .


,
,
. . 20.2,
:
.
,
. , ,
, ,
,
. .
, ,
,
.
,
, .
,
, ,
, .

980

IV.
. 20.2. ,

,
, .
,
,

, , .

,
,
, .
.

. :
, , ,

. ,
, ,
. , Kal
,

.
.
Whirlpool, ,
,
, a Quaker Oats

. , , -

20, ...

981

. , Verizon
725 ,
7
.

.
, ,
, , .

,
. ,

. , ,
; . ,
.
.

, . ,
Upjohn Pharmacia ( ,
) 1990- . ,
- . ,
,
. ,
.
- , .
,
, ,
. 8
:
.
, 150 - Imperial Chemical Industries PLC,
,
. .
Nomura Securities,
.
, ,
,
, -, .
.
, .
, , ,
,
. ,
,

982

IV.

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Up the Social Contract, Wall Street Journal,
January 7, 2001, pp. A1, A19.


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May-June 1999, pp. 162-178; Paying Workers to Meet Goals Spreads, but Gauging Performance Proves
Tough, Wall Street Journal, September 10, 1996, pp. B1. B8.

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Too Hard and for What?", Wall Street Journal, July 14,1994, pp. B5-B6.
Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
.

:
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IV,

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.
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.


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.
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.
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,

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jing Carvel

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Carvel
?
?


? .
4. Carvel
.
?
: Carvel
Ice Cream Developing the Beijing
Market ( 1999-07-17)

.

Target Micronics :

1994 . ,
Target Micronics China,


. ,

.
- Target

Micronics China
.
,
,

.

1018

IV.

.

, .

. ?
Target Micronics
Target Micronics


.
1968 .,


. Target Micronics
,
. 1994 .

, $2,8 ,
32%

40
.
, 1978 ., Target
Micronics ,
, ,
,
.
, ,

-
.

1983 .,



. 1988 .

,
Zhejiang-Micronics. 1991 .
20 000
,

.

1993 . Target Micronics



,


.
Target Micronics
5 $20
.

.
1992 . 1994 . Target
Micronics 300%.

,

. , Target
Micronics

.

.

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,


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.

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:

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IV

. 1993 .
,
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.


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1993 . .


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.


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1994 . ,

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,

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,

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. ,
. 1993 .
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.

. ,
South China Morning Post 30
1994 . 55
,
189
. .
, 21
Target
Micronics
1994 . - .

.

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, ,
. :
40

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,
.

1993 .,


16 .

1020

IV.

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.

. Target Micronics
,
. ,

,
.

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1994 .
10%.


,
15%. ,
,

.


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. , ,
,

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,
.
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,
,

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.


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.

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,

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.

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, .

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-, .
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.

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. .
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IV.

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.

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2. .
, .
-

?
,
,
?
3.
. ,
Target
Micronics.
?
4.

.
?
: Target
Micronics in China: Disarray in Finance
( 2000-07-27)

.

1
1. NBC Proud As Peacock of Olympics Deal, High-Tech Focus, Houston
Chronicle, June 7, 2003, p. 13B; NBC Plans 24-Hour Coverage of Summer
Olympics in 2004, Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2003, p. BIO; Sydney
Already Feeling the Heat, USA Today, February 15, 2000, pp. 1, 2C; How
the Olympics Were Bought, Time, January 25, 1999; GM to Spend up to $1
Billion on Olympics Through 2008 in Pact with USOC, NBC, Wall Street
Journal, July 29, 1997, p. B5; Greek Leaders See Winning Olympic Bid as an
Endorsement of Market Reforms, Wall Street Journal, September 8, 1997;
NBC Wraps Up the Olympics Through 2008, Wall Street Journal, December
13,1995, p. Bl; Japan's Nagano, Site of 1998 Games, Faces Problems of Olympic
Proportions, Wall Street Journal, March 15, 1994, p. A14; Olympics Strategy
Has Its Rewards, USA Today, February 21, 1994, pp. IB, 2B; Going for the
Gold, Merchandisers and Retailers Promote the Olympics Two Years in
Advance, Wall Street Journal, December 7, 1993, pp. Bl, B16; Let the Bidding
Begin for the TV Rights to '96 Olympics, and Watch It Heat Up, Wall Street
Journal, August 7,1992, p. Bl; The Olympics: Brought to You by... USA Today,
July 21, 1992, pp. IB, 2B; NBC's Olympic Gamble, Newsweek, January 13,
1992, p. 44.
2. Survey of Current Business (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce),
August 2002, p. 156, and December 2002, p. 112.
3. Family Garment Business in Hong Kong Uses Internet to Gain Access to
Global Customer Pool, Wall Street Journal, November 24,1999, p. BUB.
4. Ship Those Boxes; Check the Euro! Wall Street Journal, February 7, 2003,
p. CI.
5. John H. Dunning, Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy
(Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1993), p. 106ff.
6. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books,
2000), p. 9.
7. Ibid., p. 31.
8. Rights Group Says Nike Isn't Fulfilling Promises to Reform Sweatshops, Wall
Street Journal, May 16, 2001, p. B9.
9. Time to Regroup, BusinessWeek, August 6, 2001, p. 26ff; The Polite Face of
Anti-Globalisation, Financial Times, April 6, 2001, p. 8; William Finnegan,
After Seattle, The New Yorker, April 17, 2000, p. 40ff.

1024

10. U.S. Agencies Shift Work Overseas, Wall Streetjoumal, June 24, 2002, p. B5.
11. The Internet Economy: The World's Next Growth Engine, BusinessWeek,
October 4, 1999, pp. 72-77.
12. E-purchasing Saves Businesses Billions, USA Today, February 7, 2000, pp. IB,
2B.
2

1. Entrepreneurs Find Belarus Is Tough Going, Wall Street Journal, June 1,


1998, p. A4; Ad Agencies Are Stumbling in East Europe, Wall Street Journal,
May 10, 1996, p. Bl; Ukraine's Bureaucrats Stymie U.S. Firms, Wall Street
Journal, November 4, 1996, p. A14.
2. This chapter reports population, GDP, and per capita GDP data for the world's
countries. Most of the data are taken from the World Bank's World Development
Report 2003 or from the World Bank's Web site.
3. Mexico, 3 Neighbors Sign Free Trade Pacts, Houston Chronicle, May 12, 2000,
p. 2C.
4. Back from the Brink, Korea Inc. Wants a Little Respect, Wall Street Journal,
June 13, 2002, p. Al; The Glory of Hyundai Sits Firmly in Past, Financial
Times, January 29, 2002, p. 22.
5. For Chinese Worker, Job Search Ends in a Boss's Murder, Wall Street Journal,
June 21, 2002, p. Al.
3

1. Wild about Harry: Publisher Sets Big Release of Potter Book, Wall Street
Journal, February 11, 2003; Rowling Says She's Polishing Fifth "Potter" Wall
Street Journal, September 20, 2002, p. Bl; Harry Potter Rides Again in Bootleg
Chinese Book, Bryan-College Station Eagle, July 6, 2002, p. Bl; Harry Potter
Film Charms Chinese, Financial Times, February 9/10, 2002, p. 3; Harry
Potter, Meet Ha-li Bo-te, Wall Street Journal, September 21, 2000, p. Bl.
2. Portugal's Overburdened Justice System in the Dock, Financial Times,
February 12, 1999, p. 3; India's Laws a Mixed Blessing for Investors, Wall
Street Journal, July 11, 1997, p. A10.
3. Court Ruling on Islamic Banking Poses a Challenge for Pakistan Interests,
Financial Times, January 4, 2000, p. 2; Court Orders Islamabad to Ban
Interest, Financial Times, December 24/25, 1999, p. 4; Pakistani Court Rules
That Interest Is Illegal, Houston Chronicle, December 24, 1999, p. 2C.
4. Mining Executives Woo Rebels with Billion-Dollar Mineral Deals, Houston
Chronicle, April 17, 1997, p. A20; As Zaire's War Wages, Foreign Businesses
Scramble for Inroads, Wall Street Journal, April 14, 1997, p. Al.
5. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on
Foreign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 70.
6. U.S. Appetite for Mexican Food Grows, Cooking Up Hotter Sales for
Exporters, Wall Street Journal, February 5, 1992, p. A6.

1Q25

7. U.S. Plans to Indict McDonnell Douglas for Alleged Violation of Export


Laws, Wall Street Journal, October 11, 1999, p. A4.
8. George Graham, Pilkington Bows to U.S. Pressure on Process Licensing,
Financial Times, May 27, 1994, p. 1; George Graham, Washington's New AntiTrust Vigor, Financial Times, May 27, 1994, p. 6.
9. Thomas M. Burton, Baxter Agreed to Cut-Rate Shipments of Supplies to
Syria, U.S. Probe Finds, Wall Street Journal, December 22, 1992, p. A3; How
Baxter Got Off the Arab Blacklist and How It Got Nailed, Wall Street Journal,
March 23,1993, p. Al.
10. Keeping the Lid on Helms-Burton, Financial Times, July 31, 1997, p. 4; Stet
Avoids Helms-Burton Sanctions, Financial Times, July 24, 1997, p. 1;
Property Issue Harks Back to Old Cuba, Houston Chronicle, October 3, 1996,
n 1
p. 1L,.

11. The Bold Struggle for China's Belly, New York Times, online, March 6, 2003.
12. With Boom Gone Bust, Spain's Social Agenda Still Haunts Economy, Wall
Street Journal, June 13, 1994, p. Al.
13. Richard Schaffer, Beverley Earle, and Filiberto Agusti, International Business
Law and Its Environment (St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing, 1990), p. 196.
14. Ibid., pp. 196-197.
15. Commercial Law Plan in Francophone Africa, Financial Times, May 13,1999,
p. 9.
16. Schaffer, Earle, and Agusti, pp. 429-430.
17. Business Software Alliance, 2003 Global Software Piracy Report; Video Pirates
Rush Out "Phantom Menace", Wall Street Journal, May 28, 1999, p. Bl.
18. Masaaki Kotabe, A Comparative Study of U.S. and Japanese Patent Systems,
Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First Quarter 1992),
p. 150.
19. The case was settled with the two firms agreeing to cross-license each other's
technology. See Sankaran, Sri Krishna, Patent Flooding in the United States
and Japan, IDEA: The Journal of Law and Technology, vol. 40 (2000) p. 393ff.;
Patent Suit Shows Small U.S. Firms' Fears, Wall Street Journal, June 5, 1996,
p. A10.
20. Trademark Piracy at Home and Abroad, Wall Street Journal, May 7, 1991,
p. A20.
21. Fujitsu Backed in Patent Dispute, Financial Times, September 11, 1997, p. 8.
22. Violence in Nigeria's Oil Delta Worsens, Wall Street Journal, April 1, 2003,
p. A13; Chevron Is Latest to Shut Nigerian Operations, Wall Street Journal,
March 24, 2003, p. A15; ChevronTexaco Evacuates from Violence-torn
Nigeria, Houston Chronicle, March 24, 2003, p. 17A.
23. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, 2002 Annual Report, p. 7.
24. Schaffer, Earle, and Agusti, pp. 410-421.

1026

4
1. How Hollywood Makes the World Take Notice, Wall Street Journal,
November 15, 2002, p. W7; Studios Bank on Burgeoning Overseas Box
Office, USA Today, December 13, 2000, p. 6D; and The Casting Accent Is on
Foreign Appeal, USA Today, December 13, 2000, p. 6D.
2. Edging Towards the Information Age, BusinessWeek, January 31, 2000, p. 90.
3. The Overseas Chinese: A Driving Force, The Economist, July 18, 1992,
pp. 21-24.
4. Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed.
(Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, 1997), pp. 15-16.
5. Vern Terpstra and Kenneth David, The Cultural Environment of International
Business (Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, 1985), p. 20.
6. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., Language Effects in Cross-Cultural Management
Research: An Empirical Study and a Word of Caution, Proceedings of the
Academy of Management (1987), p. 103.
7. John C. Condon and Fathi Yousef, An Introduction to Intercultural Commu
nication (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975), p. 174; Jon P. Alston, The American
Samurai: Blending American and Japanese Business Practices (New York: Walter
de Gruyter, 1986), p. 325.
8. Adler, p. 16.
9. Going Global, Wall Street Journal, October 16, 1992, p. R20.
10. Spanish Firms Discover Latin American Business As New World of Profit,
Wall Street Journal, May 23, 1996, p. Al.
11. Trenholme J. Griffin and W. Russell Daggatt, The Global Negotiator (New York:
Harper Business, 1990), p. 40; Mother of all Tongues, Financial Times, April 4/
April 5, 1998, p. 25.
12. Some Firms Resume Manufacturing in U.S. After Foreign Fiascoes, Wail
Street Journal, October 14, 1986, pp. 1, 27.
13. Terpstra and David, op. cit, p. 37.
14. Alston, op. cit., p. 331.
15. Henry W. Lane and Joseph J. Distefano, International Management Behavior
(Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing, 1992), p. 214.
16. Ibid., p. 3.
17. Gary P. Ferraro, The Cultural Dimension of International Business (Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990), p. 82.
18. Ferraro, op. cit., p. 76.
19. For Japanese, Silent Negotiation Is Golden, Houston Chronicle, December 14,
1992, p. 2B.
20. Alston, op. cit, pp. 305-306.
21. Gavin Kennedy, Doing Business Abroad (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), p. 92.
22. Hall and Hall, Hidden Differences, p. 109.
23. Marlene L Rossman, The International Businesswoman (New York: Praeger
Publishers, 1986), p. 40.

1Q27

24. Jon P. Alston, Wa, Guanxi, and Inhwa: Managerial Principles in Japan, China,
and Korea, Business Horizons, March-April 1989, pp. 26-31.
25. The Reincarnation of Caste, The Economist, June 8, 1991, pp. 21-23.
26. Nike Tries to Quell Two of Its Disputes, Houston Chronicle, June 25, 1997,
p. 5C.
27. Ferraro, op. cit., p. 99.
28. Kennedy, op. cit., pp. 97-98.
29. Miyazawa, Making Waves, Seeks To Cut the Clout of Tokyo University's
Alumni, Wall Street Journal, March 5, 1992, p. A12.
30. The Reincarnation of Caste, The Economist.
31. Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1976).
32. Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences
(Yarmouth, Me.: Intercultural Press, 1990), pp. 72-73.
33. Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed Hall, Hidden Differences (Garden City, N.Y.:
Doubleday, 1987), pp. 9-10.
34. Bruce Kogut and Harbir Singh, The Effect of National Culture on the Choice
of Entry Mode, Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1988), pp. 4 1 1 432.
35. Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work
Related Values (Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage, 1980).
36. We have taken the liberty of changing some of the labels Hofstede applied to
each of the dimensions. The terms we have chosen are more descriptive, simpler,
and more self-evident in their meaning.
37. Ferraro, op. cit., p. 157.
38. Adler, pp. 45-46; Andre Laurent, The Cultural Diversity of Western
Conceptions of Management, International Studies of Management and
Organization, vol. XIII, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Summer 1983), pp. 75-96.
39. Ferraro, p. 162.
40. Crash Near London Points to Korean Air Poor Safety Record, Financial
Times, December 24,1999, p. 2; Pilot Error Is Cited in Korea Air Crash; FAA Is
Criticized on Foreign Oversight, Wall Street Journal, November 3, 1999, p. A6;
Korean Air Confronts Dismal Safety Record Rooted in Its Culture, Wall
Street Journal, July 7, 1999, p. Al; Korean Air to Hire More Foreign Pilots,
Wall Street Journal, April 15, 1999, p. A14.
41. B. Bass and L. Eldridge, Accelerated Managers' Objectives in Twelve
Countries, Industrial Relations, vol. 12 (1973), pp. 158-171.
42. Susan C. Schneider, National versus Corporate Culture: Implications for
Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management, vol. 27, no. 2
(Summer 1988), pp. 231-246.
43. Kathleen K. Reardon, It's the Thought that Counts, Harvard Business
Review, September-October 1984, pp. 136-141.
44. Stephen Kobrin, International Expertise in American Business (New York:
Institute of International Education, 1984), p. 38.

1028

45. Firms Grapple with Language, Wait Streetjoumai, November 7,1989, pp. Bl,
BIO.
5

1. Pete Engardio, Aaron Bernstein, and Manjeet Kripalani, Is Your Job Next?
BusinessWeek, February 3, 2003, pp. 50-60; Roger Parloff, Can We Talk?
Fortune, September 2, 2002, pp. 102-110; Tradition Perpetuating Poverty,
Houston Chronicle, June 23,2002, p. 28A; U.S. Child-Labor Law Sparks a Trade
Debate over Brazilian Oranges, Wall Street Journal, September 9,1998, pp. Al,
A9.
2. Supermarket Giant Ahold Ousts CEO in Big Accounting Scandal, Wall Street
Journal, February 25, 2003, pp. Al, AID.
3. See Norman Barry, Business Ethics (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University
Press, 1999).
4. Rebecca Mead, Dressing for Lula, The New Yorker, March 17, 2003, p. 82ff.
5. No Way Out, Fortune, January 20, 2003, p. 102ff.
6. For Steel-Wool Maker, Chinese Lessons, New York Times, May 28, 1996,
p. C5.
7. AIDS Gaffes in Africa Come Back to Haunt Drug Industry at Home, Wall
Streetjoumai, April 23, 2001, p. Al; Drug Companies Face Assault on Prices,
Wall Street Journal, May 11, 2000, pp. Bl, B4.
8. Jeremy Kahn, Presto Chango! Sales Are Huge, Fortune, March 20, 2000,
pp. 90-96; More Firms Falsify Revenue To Boost Stocks, USA Today, March
29, 2000, p. IB.
9. How U.S. Concerns Compete in Countries Where Bribes Flourish, Wall
Streetjoumai, September 29, 1995, pp. Al, A14; Patricia Digh, Shades of Gray
in the Global Marketplace, HRMagazine, April 1997, pp. 90-98.
10. Corporate Canada Wary of Using Bribery, Financial Post, May 15, 2002,
p. FP5.
11. Bribery Drives Up the Cost of Living in Kenya, Financial Times, January 19-20,
2002, p. 4.
12. Cancer of Corruption Spreads Throughout the Country, Financial Times,
November 1, 2002, p. 6; Chinese Corruption Has Sliced Up to 16% off GDP
over Decade, Study Estimates, Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2001, p. A10.
13. Thomas Donaldson and Lee E. Preston, The Stakeholder Theory of the
Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications, Academy of Management
Review, vol. 20, no. 1 (1995), pp. 65-91. See also Jeffrey S. Harrison and
R. Edward Freeman, Stakeholders, Social Responsibility, and Performance:
Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Perspectives, Academy of Management
Journal, vol. 42, no. 5 (1999), pp. 479-495.
14. Aseem Prakash, Greening the Firm (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2000); Forest L. Reinhardt, Down to Earth (Boston: Harvard Business School
Press, 2000).

1029

15. Oil Companies Strive To Turn a New Leaf To Save Rain Forest, Wall Street
Journal, July 17, 1997, pp. Al, AS.
16. How Home Depot and Activists Joined to Cut Logging Abuse, Wall Street
Journal, September 26, 2000, p. Al.
17. Petra Christmann and Glen Taylor, Globalization and the Environment:
Strategies for International Voluntary Environmental Initiatives, Academy
of Management Executive, vol. 16, no. 3 (2002), pp. 121-130.
18. Christine Y. Chen and Greg Lindsay, Will Amazon(.com) Save the Amazon?
Fortune, March 20, 2000, pp. 224-226.
19. Human Rights in Focus as U.S. Interest in African Oil Surges, Financial
Times, October 29, 2002, p. 8.
20. Global Poverty, BusinessWeek, October 14, 2002, pp. 108-118.
21. Milk Powder Makers Accused over Africa, Financial Times, January 18-19,
2003, p. 4.
22. Inside America's Most Reviled Company, BusinessWeek, November 29, 1999,
pp. 176-192.
23. Gifts of Gab, BusinessWeek, February 5, 2001, p. F38.
24. Lynn Sharp Paine, Managing for Organizational Integrity, Harvard Business
Review, March-April 1994, pp. 106-115.
25. Africa Recovery, allAfrica.com, April 22, 2003 (online); www.merck.com,
press release 090502 (online).
26. A New Way of Giving, Time, July 24, 2000, pp. 48-51.
27. David M. Messick and Max H. Bazerman, Ethical Leadership and the
Psychology of Decision Making, Sloan Management Review (Winter 1996),
pp. 9-22.
28. Unfuzzing Ethics for Managers, Fortune, November 23, 1987, pp. 229-234.
29. See Janet P. Near and Marcia P. Miceli, Whistle-Blowing: Myth and Reality,
Journal of Management, vol. 22, no. 3 (1996), pp. 507-526 for a recent review of
the literature on whistle-blowing.
30. Executive Challenges Xerox's Books, Is Fired, Watt Street Journal, February
6, 2001, p. CI.
31. A Louder Blast from Japan's Whistle-Blowers, BusinessWeek, September 2,
2002 (online).
32. Mark Magnier, Speaking Out Has High Cost, Los Angeles Times, at
www.soeken.lawsonline.net (online).
33. Scandals Put Whistle-Blowers in Heroic Light, Nikkei Weekly, September 9,
2002 (online).
34. Swiss Launch Bribery Probe in Kazakh Case, Wall Street Journal, May 6,
2003, p. A22; U.S. Bribery Probe Looks at Mobil, Wall Street Journal, April
23, 2003, p. A2; Former Mobil Executive Pleads Not Guilty to Kazak Oil
Kickback, Wall Street Journal, April 8, 2003, p. A12.
35. Making a Federal Case Out of Overseas Abuses, BusinessWeek, November 25,
2002, p. 78.

1030

36. Corporate Canada Wary of Using Bribery, Financial Post, May 15, 2002,
p. FP5.
37. Do-It-Yourself Labor Standards, BusinessWeek, November 19, 2001, pp. 74-76.
38. Ibid., p. 108.
6
1. Caterpillar Inc., 1990 Annual Report, p. 15.
2. Caterpillar Inc., 2002 Annual Report; Caterpillar, UAW Face Renewed
Hurdles, Wail Street Journal, February 24, 1998, p. A2; Ronald Henkoff, This
Cat Is Acting Like a Tiger Fortune, December 19, 1988, p. 69ff; Cat vs. Labor:
Hardhats, Anyone? BusinessWeek, August 26, 1991, p. 48; Union and
Company Waging "Holy War", Bryan-College Station Eagle, August 7, 1994,
p..Cl; Hoover's Handbook of American Business 2000 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's
Business Press, 2000), pp. 332-333.
3. Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution
1763-1776 (New York: Facsimile Library, 1939), pp. 16-20.
4. David Ricardo, The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (Homewood,
III.: Irwin, 1963). (Ricardo's book was first published in 1817.)
5. Michael Moritz, The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer (New
York: William Morrow, 1984).
6. Apple Computer 10-K filing, December 22, 1999.
7. P. Krugman, Intraindustry Specialization and the Gains from Trade, Journal
of Political Economy, vol. 89 (October 1981), pp. 959-973.
8. K. Lancaster, IntraTndustry Trade under Perfect Monopolistic Competition,
Journal of International Economics, vol. 10 (May 1980), pp. 151-175.
9. Andrew R. Dick, Learning by Doing and Dumping in the Semiconductor
Industry, Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 34, no. 1 (April 1991), p. 134.
10. Fred Warshofsky, The Chip War (New York: Scribner's, 1989), pp. 131-132.
11. Survey of Current Business, July 2002, p. lOff.
12. A. Quijana, A Guide to BEA Statistics on Foreign Direct Investment in the
United States, Survey of Current Business, February 1990, pp. 29-37.
13. Grant T. Hammond, Countertrade, Offsets and Barter in International Political
Economy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990), p. 3.
14. Siberian City Sees Its Future in Software, Financial Times, February 23, 2000,
p. 2.
15. Asian Investment Floods into Mexican Border Region, Wall Street Journal,
September 6, 1996, p. A10.
16. Rigoberto Tiglao, Growth Zones, Far Eastern Economic Review, February 10,
1994, p. 40ff.
17. Acer Is Still Searching for the Password to the U.S., BusinessWeek, May 18,
1992, p. 129.
18. Asian Investment Floods into Mexican Border Region, Wall Street Journal,
September 6, 1996, p. A10.

1Q31

19. Peter Mikelbank, I've Got the Cheval Right Here, Sports Illustrated,
November 11,1991, pp. 9-1-0.
20. Samsung Attracts Six Korean Suppliers, Financial Times, April 24, 1996, p. 9.
21. Fuji, Challenging Kodak, to Make Film in U.S., Wall Street Journal, May 8,
1997, p. A3.
22. Alabama Wins Battle for US Hyundai Plant, Financial Times, April 3,2002, p. 19.
23. San Antonio Applauds Toyota Win, Houston Chronicle, February 6, 2003,
p. IB; Toyota: Texas Bid Was a Late Bloomer, Bryan-College Station Eagle,
February 6, 2003, p. A7.
7

1. Foreign Exchange Gains Lift Astra, Financial Times, March 31, 2003, p. 19;
Toyota Set for Investment in Indonesia, Financial Times, February 21, 2003,
p. 20; Astra Gets Ready to Move to Higher Gear, Financial Times, November
25, 2002, p. 17; Indonesia Sells Stake in Astra Car Maker, Wall Street Journal,
March 27, 2000, p. A24; Indonesia Removes Top Astra Officials, Wall Street
Journal, February 9, 2000, p. A22; Astra Abandons Opposition to Sell-off,
Financial Times, February 8, 2000, p. 23; The Woman Steering Indonesia's
Astra Sets a Modernizing Course, Wall Street Journal, October 28, 1999, p. Al.
2. Del Mar, A History of Money in Ancient Countries (New York: Burt Franklin,
1968; originally published in 1885), p. 71.
3. South Korea Reaches Accord with IMF over Terms of Bailout, Wall Street
Journal, December 1,1997, p. A15; Group Offers Indonesia Loans of Up to $40
Billion, Houston Chronicle, November 1, 1997, p. 1.
4. Freeserve Shares Drop to New Low, Financial Times, November 14, 2000,
p. 18.
5. Survey of Current Business, April 2003, p. 40.
6. Basic Truths, The Economist, August 24, 1991, p. 68.
8

1. Euro Becomes Legal Tender for Millions, Bryan-College Station Eagle,


January 1,2002, p. A6; Western Europe Ready for the Euro, Washington Post,
December 31, 2001, p. Al; A Few Glitches as Euro Debut Nears, Washington
Post, December 30, 2001, p. Al.
2. To simplify the exposition, we assumed the foreign-exchange supply curve is
upward sloping like most supply curves. Unfortunately, foreign-exchange
supply curves may bend backwards, a complication that can be left for graduate
students in economics and finance to deal with.
3. Dominick Salvatore, International Economics, 7th ed. (New York: John Wiley &
Sons, 2001), p. 494.
9

1. U.S. Steel Tariffs Ruled Illegal in WTO Report, Wall Street Journal, March
27, 2003, p. A2; More Foreign Steel to Be Tariff-Exempt, Wall Street Journal,

1032

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

March 24, 2003, . ; US Steel Users Seek to End Import Tariffs? Financial
Times, February 5, 2003, p. 2; Joseph Francois and Laura M. Baughman, The
Unintended Consequences of U.S. Steel Import Tariffs: A Quantification of the
Impact During 2002, February 4, 2003, Washington, D.C. (mimeo); So Far,
Steel Tariffs Do Little of What President Envisioned, Wall Streetjournal, Sep
tember 13, 2002, p. Al; Tariffs Said to Hurt Small Steel Users, Cleveland Plain
Dealer, July 24, 2002, p. Cl; U.S. Companies Cry Foul at Procedure for Gran
ting Exemptions to Steel Tariffs, Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2002,
p. A3; Imposing Steel Tariffs, Bush Buys Some Time for Troubled Industry,
Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2002, p. Al; EU Warns of Swift Appeal to WTO,
Financial Times, March 6, 2002, p. 6.
U.S. International Trade Commission, Shipbuilding Trade Reform Act of 1992:
Likely Economic Effects of Enactment, USITC Publication 2495 Qune 1992),
Washington, D.C. The U.S. shipbuilding industry is so uncompetitive in world
markets that from 1960 to 1994 the industry exported no commercial ocean
going vessels.
The Trough, The Economist, June 27, 1992, p. 22.
Edward J. Lincoln, Japan's Unequal Trade (Washington, D.C: The Brookings
Institution, 1990), p. 112.
Paul R. Krugman and Maurice Obstfeld, International Economics: Theory and
Policy (Harper Collins: New York, 1999).
U.S. Picks Areas of Technology It Wants to Back, Wall Streetjournal, April
26, 1994, p. A4.
Torpedo Shipping Protectionism, Wall Street Journal, November 26, 1991,
p. A14.
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on
Foreign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 366.
Ibid., p. 285.
Ibid., p. 96.
Ibid., p. 52.
Ibid., p. 418.
Ibid., p. 176.
Ibid., p. 48.
Ibid., p. 244f; Japan Glass Market Proves Hard to Crack, Wall Street Journal,
August 7, 1991, p. A4.
Los Angeles Proposal Gives Preference to Local Bids, Wall Street Journal,
February 7, 1992, p. A7.
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on
Foreign Trade Barriers 2002, pp. 96 and 355.
Ibid., p. 52.
Ibid., p. 127.
Ibid., pp. 96 and 355.

1Q33

21. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo
reign Trade Barriers 1997, pp. 159, 237, 275, and 351.
22. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo
reign Trade Barriers 2002, pp. 283 and 414.
23. International Monetary Fund, Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restric
tions Annual Report 1997 (Washington, D.C.: IMF, 1997).
24. Exchange Controls Add to Venezuela's Gloom, Financial Times, February 7,
2003, p. 4.
25. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo
reign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 349.
26. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo
reign Trade Barriers 1997, pp. 17, 24, 161, and 230.
27. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo
reign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 285.
28. Committee on Ways and Means, Operation of the Foreign Trade Zones Program
of the United States and Its Implications for the U.S. Economy and U.S. Inter
national Trade, October 1989, Serial 101-56, pp. 281 and 326.
29. Export-Import Bank of the United States, 2001 Annual Report (Washington,
D.C.: Eximbank, 2002); 1997 Annual Report (Washington, D.C.: Eximbank,
1998).
30. Hynix Faces 30-35% EU Import Duties, Financial Times, March 21, 2003,
p. 19.
31. U.S., Japan Failing in Talks to Expand Construction Trade, Wall Street Jour
nal, May 24, 1991, p. A8.
10

1. Toyota Plans to Build Truck Plant Near Tijuana, Houston Chronicle, January 6,
2002, p. 2D; Mexican Truckers Not Rushing North, Houston Chronicle, De
cember 29, 2001, p. 1; The World's New Tiger on the Export Scene Isn't Asian;
It's Mexico, Wall Street Journal, May 9,2000, p. Al; A New Market for Mexico's
Work Force, Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2000, p. A15; Mexico, EU Sign Free
Trade Agreement, Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2000, p. A15; How a Need for
Speed Turned Guadalajara into a High-Tech Hub, Wall Street Journal, March 2,
2000, p. Al; Mexico's Next Big Export: Your Teeth, Wall Street Journal, March
14, 2000, p. B6; First Came Assembly; Now, Services Soar, Wall Street Journal,
February 28, 2000, p. Al; European Carmakers Converge on Mexican Gateway
to the US, Financial Times, January 5, 2000, p. 5.
2. Doha Talks in Crisis as Farm Reform Deadline Set to be Missed, Financial
Times, March 31, 2003, p. 1; Sides Line Up to Contest Farm Reform, Financial
Times, February 14, 2003, p. 7; WTO Tries to Break Deadlock on Medicines
Access, Financial Times, January 28, 2003, p. 6.
3. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, The Outcome of the
Uruguay Round: An Initial Assessment (Supporting Papers to the Trade and
Development Report, 1994). New York: United Nations, 1994, p. 143.

1034

4. WTO Rules in Favor of Brazil, Financial Times, February 18, 2003, p. 4;


WTO Allows Brazilian Sanctions on Canada, Wall Street Journal, December 24,
2002, p. A8.
5. Consumer Policy in the Single Market (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publi
cations of the European Communities, 1991), pp. 7-8.
6. Daewoo, Samsung, and Goldstar: Made in Europe? Business Week, August 24,
1992, p. 43.
7. Latin Auto Sales Drive Investment, Houston Chronicle, May 15, 1997, p. 1.
8. Doubts Cloud South-East Asia's Free Trade Dreams, Financial Times, De
cember 30, 2002, p. 3.
9. With Aggressive Trade Pacts, China Quietly Builds Clout in Region, Wall
Street Journal, March 19, 2003, p. A12.
10. Africa's Trade Flows Clogged Up at Dockside, Financial Times, January 8,
2002, p. 6.
11. Whirlpool Corporation, 1993 Annual Report, p. 15.
11

1. Euro Disney Alters Royalty Payments Plan, Financial Times, March 31,2003,
p. 23; Euro Disney Shares Jump 8.5%, Financial Times, January 23, 2003, p. 1;
Disney Hopes New Theme Park in Hong Kong Opens Up China, Wall Street
Journal, January 15, 2003, p. B4B; Empire of the Mouse Expands in Europe,
Financial Times, March 17, 2002, p. 9; The Walt Disney Company 2002 Annual
Report; Mickey Stumbles at the Border, Forbes, June 12, 2000, p. 58; Euro
Disney's Sales Climb 17%, Wall Street Journal, January 22,1998, p. A15; Fans
Like Euro Disney but Its Parent's Goofs Weigh the Park Down, Wall Street
Journal, March 10,1994, p. Al; Euro Disney Rescue Package Wins Approval,
Wall Street Journal, March 15, 1994, p. A3; How Disney Snared a Princely
Sum, BusinessWeek, June 20, 1994, pp. 61-62; Euro Disney Oui ou Non?
Travel & Leisure, August 1992, pp. 80-115; Transformer of a Mickey Mouse
Outfit, Financial Times, May 28, 2003, p. 10.
2. See Charles W. L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, Strategic Management: An Ana
lytical Approach, 6th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004), for an overview of
strategy and strategic management. See also Bjorn Lovas and Sumantra Ghoshal, Strategy as Guided Evolution, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21,
no. 9 (2000), pp. 875-896.
3. Howard Thomas, Timothy Pollock, and Philip Gorman, Global Strategic Ana
lyses: Frameworks and Approaches, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13,
no. 1(1999), p. 70 ff.
4. Kasra Ferdows, Making the Most of Foreign Factories, Harvard Business Re
view, March-April 1997, pp. 73-88.
5. Mercedes Bends Rules, USA Today, July 16, 1997, pp. Bl, B2.
6. Nissan's Slow U-turn, BusinessWeek, May 12, 1997, pp. 54-55.
7. Russia Bans U.S. Chicken Shipments, Inspiring Fears of Tough Trade Battle,
Wall Street Journal, February 23, 1996, p. A2.

1Q35

8. Anil . Gupta and Vijay Govindarajan, Knowledge Flows within Multina


tional Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 4 (2000),
pp. 473-496.
9. Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal, Transnational Management,
2nd ed. (Chicago, III.: Richard D. Irwin, 1995), pp. 237-242. See also Tatiana
Kostova, Transnational Transfer of Strategic Organizational Practices:
A Contextual Perspective, Academy of Management Review, vol. 24, no. 2
(1999), pp. 308-324.
10. At Nokia, a Comeback And Then Some, BusinessWeek, December 2, 1996,
p. 106.
11. Conglomerate Plays to Its Strength, Financial Times, November 23,1999, p. 11.
12. Bartlett and Ghoshal label this strategy the multinational strategy. We have
altered their terminology to avoid confusion with other uses of the term mul
tinational.
13. See Hill and Jones, Strategic Management.
14. See T. S. Frost, J. M. Birkinshaw, and P. Ensign, Centers of Excellence in
Multinational Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23, no. 11
(November 2002), pp. 997-1018.
15. Bruce Kogut, Designing Global Strategies: Comparative and Competitive
Value-Added Chains, Sloan Management Review (Summer 1985), pp. 15-28.
16. Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business
Press, 2003), pp. 494-495.
17. Think Small, BusinessWeek, November 4, 1991, p. 58.
18. Producer of Feature-Film Projectors Reels in Fat Profit as Cinemas Expand,
Wall Street Journal, October 22,1996, p. B5; Chile's Luksics: Battle-Tested and
on the Prowl, Wall Street Journal, December 1, 1995, p. A10.
19. Stephen Kreider Yoder, Intel, Backing Its Bets with Big Chips, Wins, Wall
Street Journal, September 24, 1992, p. Bl; Michiyo Nakamoto, Looking for
Smaller Worlds to Conquer, Financial Times, September 2, 1992.
20. Olav Sorenson, Letting the Market Work for You: An Evolutionary Perspective
on Product Strategy, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21 (2000), pp. 577-592.
21. European Auto Makers Show Signs of Bouncing Back, Wall Street Journal,
September 15, 1994, p. B4.
22. John A. Pearce II and Fred David, Corporate Mission Statements: The Bottom
Line, The Academy of Management Executive (May 1987), pp. 109-115.
23. See Gupta and Govindarajan, Knowledge Flows within Multinational Corpo
rations, pp. 473-496.
24. Grand Met, Guinness to Form Liquor Colossus, Wall Street Journal, May 13,
1997, pp. Bl, B8.
25. D. E. W. Marginson, Management Control Systems and Their Effects on
Strategy Formation at Middle-Management Levels: Evidence from a U.K.
Organization, Strategic Management Journal (November 2002), pp. 10191032.

1036

26. Hill and Jones, Strategic Management.


27. Accor SA, Europe's Biggest Hotel Firm, Takes on a New Look under a New
CEO, Wall Street Journal, January 30, 1998, p. B6A.
28. For example, see J. Michael Geringer, Stephen Tallman, and David M. Olsen,
Product and International Diversification Among Japanese Multinational
Firms, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 1 (2000), pp. 51-80.
29. The Walt Disney Company 1999, Annual Report.
30. Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin: Hoover's Business Press,
2003), pp. 166-167.
31. DaimlerChrysler's Focus May Be Narrowing, Wall Street Journal, October 18,
1999, pp. A37, A39.
32. C. Campbell-Hunt, What Have We Learned about Generic Competitive Stra
tegy? A Meta-Analysis, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 2 (2000),
pp. 127-154.
12

1. The Java Joint That's Swallowing France, BusinessWeek, September 11,2002,


pp. 96-98; Despite the Jitters, Most Coffeehouses Survive Starbucks, Wall
Street Journal, September 24, 2002, pp. Al, All; Planet Starbucks, Busi
nessWeek, September 9, 2002, pp. 100-110; Now, Starbucks Uses Its Bean,
BusinessWeek, February 14, 2000, pp. 92-93; Vijay Vishwanath and David
Harding, The Starbucks Effect, Harvard Business Review, March-April 2000,
pp. 17-18.
2. Anoop Madhok, Cost, Value, and Foreign Market Entry Mode: The Transa
ction and the Firm, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 18 (1997), p. 37.
3. See George S. Yip and George A. Coundouriotis, Diagnosing Global Strategy
Potential: The World Chocolate Confectionery Industry, Planning Review,
January-February 1991, pp. 4-14, for an example of how this can be done.
4. William H. Davidson, The Role of Global Scanning in Business Planning,
Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1991), pp. 4-16.
5. Ford Plans $800m Brazil Plant, Financial Times, October 3, 1997, p. 6; GM
Plans to Develop Car in Brazil, Financial Times, June 3, 1997, p. 5.
6. M. Krishna Erramilli, The Experience Factor in Foreign Market Entry
Behavior of Service Firms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22,
no. 3 (Third Quarter 1991), pp. 479-501.
7. A Beautiful Face Is Not Enough, Forbes, May 13, 1991, pp. 105-106.
8. Susan Schneider and Arnoud De Mayer, Interpreting and Responding to
Strategic Issues: The Impact of National Culture, Strategic Management Jour
nal, vol. 12 (1991), pp. 307-320.
9. John H. Dunning, Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the MNE:
A Search for an Eclectic Approach, in Bertil Ohlin et al, eds., The International
Allocation of Economic Activity (London: Macmillan, 1977); Alan M. Rugman,
A New Theory of the Multinational Enterprise: Internationalization versus

10.

11.
12.
13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.
19.
20.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

1Q37

Internalization, Columbia Journal of World Business, vol. 12, no. 4 (1980),


pp. 23-29.
Jean J. Boddewyn, Political Aspects of MNE Theory, Journal of International
Business Studies, vol. 19, no. 1 (1988), pp. 341-363; Thomas L. Brewer, Effects
of Government Policies on Foreign Direct Investment as a Strategic Choice of
Firms: An Expansion of Internalization Theory, The International Trade Jour
nal, vol. 7, no. 1 (Fall 1992), pp. 111-129.
Egypt Suddenly Is a Magnet for Investors, Wall Street Journal, April 10,1997,
p.A6.
Istanbul's Location Again Makes It Crucial to the Entire Region, Wall Street
Journal, March 27, 1997, p. Al.
Westerners Profit as Japan Opens Its Drug Market, Wall Street Journal, De
cember 2, 2002, pp. Al, A20; Kenichi Ohmae, The Global Logic of Strategic
Alliances, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1989, p. 151.
John M. Stopford and Louis T. Wells, Managing the Multinational Enterprise:
Organization of the Firm and Ownership of the Subsidiaries (New York: Basic
Books, 1972).
M. Krishna Erramilli, The Experience Factor in Foreign Market Entry Be
havior of Service Firms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22,
no. 3 (Third Quarter 1991), pp. 479-502.
Bruce Kogut, Designing Global Strategies: Profiting from Operational
Flexibility, Sloan Management Review (Fall 1985), pp. 27-38; Edward W.
Desmond, Byting Japan, Time, October 5, 1992, pp. 68-69.
W. Chan Kim and Peter Hwang, Global Strategy and Multinationals' Entry
Mode Choice, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First
Quarter 1992), pp. 29-54; see also Sumantra Ghoshal, Global Strategy: An
Organizing Framework, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 8 (1987), pp. 425440.
Latin Links, Wall Street Journal, September 24, 1992, p. R6.
Top Toilet Makers from U.S. and Japan Vie for Chinese Market, Wall Street
Journal, December 19, 1996, p. Al.
Geir Gripsud, The Determinants of Export Decisions and Attitudes to a Dis
tant Market: Norwegian Fishery Exports to Japan, Journal of International
Business Studies, vol. 21, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1990), pp. 469-494.
Baskin-Robbins to Open Plant in Moscow, Bryan-College Station Eagle,
August 14, 1995, p. Al.
Alex Taylor III, Do You Know Where Your Car Was Made? Fortune, June
17, 1991, pp. 52-56.
Desmond, Byting Japan.
Nintendo to Ease Restrictions on U.S. Game Designers, Wall Street Journal,
October 22, 1991, pp. Bl, B4.
Cantab Bounces Back with a Fierce Immune Response, Wall Street Journal,
March 31, 1997, p. B4.

1038

26. OLeg Cassini, Inc., Sues Firm over Licensing, Wall Streetjoumal, March 28,
1984, p. 5.
27. L. Ashley sues L'Oreal for J18m, Financial Times, October 15, 2002, p. 23.
28. Unsafe Conditions at Nike Factory in Vietnam Revealed in '96 Audit,
Houston Chronicle, November 10,1997, p. 18A.
29. J. H. Dunning, American Investment in British Manufacturing Industry (London:
George Allen and Unwin, 1958).
30. Brace Kogut and Harbir Singh, The Effect of National Culture on the Choice
of Entry Mode, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19 (Fall 1988),
pp. 411-432.
31. Disney's Rough Ride in France, Fortune, March 23, 1992, p. 14.
32. Carso Unit Provides Entry to Mexican Tissue Market, Wall Street Journal,
July 22, 1997, p. A13.
33. American Eagle Works at Keeping Its Performance Aloft, Wall Streetjoumal,
November 28, 2000, p. B2.
34. KPN Grows to Challenge Delivery Giants, Wall Street Journal, December 17,
1996, p. A14.
13

1. Breakfast Cereals: The International Market, Euromonitor International, June 9,


2000; General Mills Reports Record Earnings of 78 Cents Per Share for Fiscal
1997 Third Quarter, PR Newswire, March 12, 1997; Cereal Partners Venture
Shakes Up Kellogg's, Eurofood, July 1995, p. 24; Christopher Knowlton, Europe
Cooks Up a Cereal Brawl, Fortune, June 3, 1992, pp. 175-179; Cafe au Lait, a
Croissant-and Trix, BusinessWeek, August 24, 1992, pp. 50-52.
2. For Kodak's Advantix, Double Exposure as Company Relaunches Camera
System, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 1997, p. Bl; Camera System Is Devel
oped but Not Delivered, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 1996, p. Bl; Kodak
Joins Fuji, Others for Project, USA Today, March 26, 1992, p. Bl.
3. Peter J. Kilting, How to Make a Global Joint Venture Work, Harvard Busi
ness Review May-June 1982, pp. 120-127.
4. Camera System Is Developed but Not Delivered.
5. See Balaji Koka and John Prescott, Strategic Alliances as Social Capital:
A Multidimensional View, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22 (2002),
pp. 795-816.
6. David Lei and John W. Slocum Jr., Global Strategic Alliances: Payoffs and
Pitfalls, Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1991), pp. 44-62.
7. Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Free Press, 1980), p. 275.
8. Time Warner to Attack Spain's Cinema Market, Financial Times, April 8,
1997, p. 19.
9. Cigna Enters Retail Alliance in Brazil, Financial Times, March 21,1997, p. 18.
10. Farok J. Contractor, Ownership Pattern of U.S. Joint Ventures Abroad and
the Liberalization of Foreign Government Regulations in the 1980s: Evidence

1Q39

from the Benchmark Surveys, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 21,
no. 1 (First Quarter 1990), pp. 55-73.
11. Chinese Government Struggles to Rejuvenate National Brands, Wall Street
Journal, June 24, 1996, p. Bl.
12. Bruce Kogut, Joint Ventures: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, Stra
tegic Management Journal, vol. 9 (1988), pp. 319-332; Andrew C. Inkpen and
Paul W. Beamish, Knowledge, Bargaining Power, and the Instability of Inter
national Joint Ventures, A cademy of Management Review, vol. 22, no. 1 (1997),
pp. 177-202.
13. Jeremy Main, Making a Global Alliance Work, Fortune, December 17, 1990,
pp. 121-126.
14. See Duane Ireland, Michael Hitt, and Deepa Vaidyanath, Alliance Manage
ment as a Source of Competitive Advantage, Journal of Management, vol. 28,
no. 3 (2002), pp. 413-446.
15. PepsiCo Planning Tea-Drink Venture with Unilever Unit, Wall Street Jour
nal, December 4, 1991, p. B8.
16. Siemens, Motorola Plan U.S. Chip Plant, Wall Street Journal, October 26,
1995, p. A18.
17. Chrysler and BMW Team Up to Build Small-Engine Plant in South America,
Wall Street Journal, October 2, 1996, p. A4.
18. BMW, PSA in Engine Link, Financial Times, July 24, 2002, p. 21.
19. Mattel Forms an Alliance with Bandai of Japan, Wall Street Journal, July 22,
1999, p. A20.
20. Big Chip Makers Join to Develop New DRAM Technology, Wall Street Jour
nal, January 18, 2000, p. A21.
21. Bayer Forms Research Partnership for Antibodies with Morphosys, Wall Street
Journal, December 23, 1999, p. A14.
22. Mariko Sakakibara, Formation of R&D Consortia: Industry and Company
Effects, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23 (2002), pp. 1033-1050.
23. See Yadong Luo, Contract, Cooperation, and Performance in International
Joint Ventures, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23 (2002), pp. 903-919; see
also Jeffrey Dyer, Prashant Kale, and Harbir Singh, How to Make Strategic
Alliances Work, MIT Sloan Management Review (Summer 2001), pp. 37-46.
24. J. Michael Geringer, Strategic Determinants of Partner Selection Criteria in
International Joint Ventures, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22,
no. 1 (First Quarter 1991), pp. 41-62; Kathryn R. Harrigan, Strategies for Joint
Venture Success (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington, 1985); Keith D. Brouthers,
Lance Eliot Brouthers, and Timothy J. Wilkinson, Strategic Alliances: Choose
Your Partners, Long Range Planning, vol. 28, no. 3 (1995), pp. 18-25.
25. Main, Making a Global Alliance Work.
26. Ibid.; Joseph E. Pattison, Global Joint Ventures, Overseas Business (Winter
1990), pp. 24-29.
;

1040

27. Stephen J. Kohn, The Benefits and Pitfalls of Joint Ventures, The Bankers
Magazine (May/June 1990), pp. 12-18.
28. See Eric Tsang, Acquiring Knowledge by Foreign Partners from International
Joint Ventures in a Transition Economy, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23
(2002), pp. 835-854.
29. Pattison, Global Joint Ventures, pp. 24-29.
30. Ivory Coast Oil Exploration Pact Signed, Houston Chronicle, December 28,
1997, p. 4E.
31. Daimler-Benz May Pull Out of Venture to Build Cars with Chinese Com
pany, Wall Street Journal, May 23, 1997, p. A8; Going It Alone, The Eco
nomist, April 19, 1997, pp. 54-55; Ford Hopes Small Investment in China Will
Pay Off Big, Wall Street Journal, November 9, 1995, p. B3.
32. A Sneaker Maker Says China Partner Became Its Rival, Wall Street Journal,
December 19, 2002, pp. Al, A8.
33. See Ireland, Hitt, and Vaidyanath, Alliance Management as a Source of Com
petitive Advantage, pp. 413-446.
34. Coke in Venture with France's Danone to Distribute Orange Juice Overseas,
Wall Street Journal, September 25, 1996, p. B8.
35. Nicholas Denton, GM Puts Further DMIOOm into Its Hungary Venture,
Financial Times, November 6, 1991, p. 7.
36. Karen J. Hladik and Lawrence H. Linden, Is an International Joint Venture in
R&D for You? Research Technology Management (July-August 1989), pp.
11-13.
37. Rubbermaid Ends Venture in Europe, Signalling Desire to Call Its Own
Shots, Wall Street Journal, June 1, 1994, p. A4.
38. Main, Making a Global Alliance Work.
39. Murdoch Firm Sues Disney, Alleges Violation of Part for Pay TV in Britain,
Wall Street Journal, May 17, 1989, p. 86.
40. Bruised in Brazil: Ford Slips as Market Booms, Wall Street Journal, December 13,
1996, p. A10.
41. Thomas L Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books,
2000), p. 178.
42. Dian Gomes, Introduction, A Place in the Sun (Pannala, Sri Lanka [privately
printed], 2001), p. xiii.
14
1. Unilever Refashions Itself into Two Units, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2000,
p. All; Unilever to Sell Specialty-Chemical Unit to ICI of the U.K. for about $8
Billion, Wall Street Journal, May 7, 1997, pp. A3, A12; Unilever Sells Off Four
Chemical Units, USA Today, May 8, 1997, p. 3B; Hoover's Handbook of World
Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 622-623.
2. J. M. Stopford and L. T. Wells, Managing the Multinational Enterprise (New
York: Basic Books, 1972).

1Q41

3. Alfred Chandler, Jr., Strategy and Structure (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press,
1962).
4. Gareth Jones, Organizational Theory, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 2001). See also Monique Forte, James J. Hoffman, Bruce T. Lamont, and
Erich N. Brockmann, Organizational Form and Environment: An Analysis of
Between-Form and Within-Form Responses to Environmental Change, Stra
tegic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 7 (2000), pp. 753-773.
5. John P. Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger, Choosing Strategies for Change,
Harvard Business Review, March-April 1979, pp. 106-119.
6. Chandler, Strategy and Structure.
7. Anant K. Sundaram and J. Stewart Black, The Environment and Internal Orga
nization of Multinational Enterprises, Academy of Management Review, vol. 17,
no. 4 (1992), pp. 729-757.
8. Aetna to Merge Global, U.S. Divisions, Wall Street Journal, January 10,1999,
pp. A3, A20.
9. Anil K. Gupta and Vijay Govindarajan, Knowledge Flows within Multina
tional Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 4 (2000),
pp. 473-496.
10. Kendall Roth, David M. Schweiger, and Allen J. Morrison, Global Strategy
Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Admi
nistrative Mechanisms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 3
(1991), pp. 369-402.
11. Dinosaur Rescue, BusinessWeek, October 20, 1997, pp. 52-53. See also
J. Michael Geringer, Stephen Tallman, and David M. Olsen, Product and
International Diversification among Japanese Multinational Firms, Strategic
Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 1 (2000), pp. 51-80.
12. See Tarun Khana and Krishna Palepu, The Right Way to Restructure Cong
lomerates in Emerging Markets, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1999,
pp. 125-134.
13. Christopher A. Bartlett, Organizing for Worldwide Effectiveness: The
Transnational Solution, California Management Review (Fall 1988), pp. 54-74.
14. Eastman Kodak Company Web site (details posted October 23, 2000).
15. Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghospal, Matrix Management: Not a
Structure, a Frame of Mind, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1990,
pp. 138-145.
16. Lawton R. Burns and Douglas R. Wholey, Adoption and Abandonment of
Matrix Management Programs: Effects of Organizational Characteristics and
Interorganizational Networks, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 1
(1993), pp. 105-138.
17. . . Prahalad and Jan P. Oosterveld, Transforming Internal Governance:
The Challenge for Multinationals, Sloan Management Review (Spring 1999),
pp. 31-41.

1042

18. See Steen Thomsen and Torben Pedersen, Ownership Structure and
Economic Performance in the Largest European Companies, Strategic
Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 6 (2000), pp. 689-705, for a recent discussion
of these issues.
19. S. Watson O'Donnell, Managing Foreign Subsidiaries: Agents of Headquar
ters, or an Interdependent Network? Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21,
no. 5 (2000), pp. 525-548.
20. Jon I. Martinez and J. Carlos Jarillo, The Evolution of Research on Coor
dination Mechanisms in Multinational Corporations, Journal of International
Business Studies, vol. 20 (1989), pp. 489-514.
21. Sumantra Ghoshal and Christopher A. Bartlett, The Multinational Corpo
ration as an Interorganizational Network, Academy of Management Review,
vol. 15, no. 4 (1990), pp. 603-625.
22. David Asch, Strategic Control: A Problem Looking for a Solution, Long Ran
ge Planning (February 1992), pp. 120-132.
23. John K. Shank and Joseph Fisher, Target Costing as a Strategic Tool, Sloan
Management Review (Fall 1999), pp. 73-82.
24. Lane Daley, James Jiambalvo, Gary Sundem, and Yasumasa Kondon, Attitudes
Toward Financial Control Systems in the United States and Japan, Journal of
International Business Studies (Fall 1985), pp. 91-110.
25. Hans Mjoen and Stephen Tallman, Control and Performance in International
Joint Ventures, Organization Science (May-June 1997), pp. 257-268.
26. Michael Goold, Strategic Control in the Decentralized Firm, Sloan Mana
gement Review (Winter 1991), pp. 69-81.
27. Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, The Balanced ScoreboardMeasures
That Drive Performance, Harvard Business Review (January-February 1992),
pp. 71-79.
28. See Mark Gimein, CEOs Who Manage too Much, Fortune, September 4, 2000,
pp. 234-242.
29. Why to Kill New Product Ideas, Fortune, December 14,1992, pp. 91-94; Mark
Keil and Ramiro Montealegre, Cutting Your Losses: Extricating Your Orga
nization When a Big Project Goes Awry, Sloan Management Review (Spring
2000), pp. 55-68.
15

1. Alex Taylor III, Porsche's Risky Recipe, Fortune, February 17, 2003, pp. 9094; Hoover's Handbook of world Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business
Press, 2003), pp. 434-435; Porsche Acts to Cut Costs as Sales Fall and Euro
Rises, Financial Times, June 19, 2003, p. 20.
2. For a review of behavioral processes in organizations, see Gregory Moorhead
and Ricky W. Griffin, Organizational Behavior, 7th ed. (Boston: Houghton Miff
lin, 2004).
3. Ibid.

1Q43

4. Lawrence Pervin, Personality, in Mark Rosenzweig and Lyman Porter, eds.,


Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 36 (Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, 1985),
pp. 83-114.
5. Jennifer George, The Role of Personality in Organizational Life: Issues and
Evidence, Journal of Management, vol. 18 (1992), pp. 185-213.
6. L. R. Goldberg, An Alternative "Description of Personality": The Big Five Factor
Structure, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 59 (1990), pp. 12161229; M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, The Big Five Personality Dimensions and
Job Performance, Personnel Psychology, vol. 44 (1991), pp. 1-26.
7. Jesus F. Salgado, The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance
in the European Community Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, no. 1 (1997),
pp. 30-43.
8. J. B. Rotter, Generalized Expectancies for Internal vs. External Control of
Reinforcement, Psychological Monographs, vol. 80 (1966), pp. 1-28; Bert De
Brabander and Christopher Boone, Sex Differences in Perceived Locus of
Control, Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 130 (1990), pp. 271-276.
9. Colleen Ward and Antony Kennedy, Locus of Control, Mood Disturbance,
and Social Difficulties During Cross-Cultural Transitions, International Jour
nal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 16 (1992), pp. 175-194.
10. Marilyn E. Gist and Terence R. Mitchell, Self-Efficacy: A Theoretical Analysis
of Its Determinants and Malleability, Academy of Management Review (April
1992), pp. 183-211.
11. J. Michael Geringer and Colette A. Frayne, Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expe
ctancy and Performance of International Joint Venture General Managers,
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, vol. 10, no. 4 (1993), pp. 322-333.
12. T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswick, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford, The
Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950).
13. Michael Harris Bond and Peter B. Smith, Cross-Cultural Social and Orga
nizational Psychology, in Janet Spence, ed., Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 47
(Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, 1996), pp. 205-235.
14. Patricia Smith, L. M. Kendall, and Charles Hulin, The Measurement of Satis
faction in Work and Behavior (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1969).
15. Meg G. Birdseye and John S. Hill, Individual, Organizational/Work and Enviro
nmental Influences on Expatriate Turnover Tendencies: An Empirical Study,
Journal of International Business Studies (Fourth Quarter 1995), pp. 787-813.
16. James R. Lincoln, Employee Work Attitudes and Management Practice in the
U.S. and Japan: Evidence from a Large Comparative Study, California Mana
gement Review (Fall 1989), pp. 89-106.
17. Daniel J. McCarthy and Sheila M. Puffer, Perestroika at the Plant Level
Manager's Job Attitudes and Views of Decision-Making in the Former USSR,
The Columbia Journal of World Business (Spring 1992), pp. 86-99.
18. Thang Van Nguyen and Nancy Napier, Work Attitudes in Vietnam, Academy
of Management Executive, vol. 14, no. 4 (2000), pp. 142-143.

1044

19. Abdul Rahim A. Al-Meer, Organizational Commitment: A Comparison of Wes


terners, Asians, and Saudis, International Studies of Management and Organi
zation, vol. 19, no. 2 (1989), pp. 74-84.
20. Janet Near, Organizational Commitment among Japanese and U.S. Workers,
Organization Studies, vol. 10, no. 3 (1989), pp. 281-300.
21. Hal B. Gregersen and J. Stewart Black, Antecedents to Commitment to a Pa
rent Company and a Foreign Operation, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 35,
no. 1 (1992), pp. 65-90.
22. See also Joyce S. Osland and Allan Bird, Beyond Sophisticated Stereo
typing: Cultural Sensemaking in Context, Academy of Management Executive,
vol. 14, no. 1 (2000), pp. 65-74.
23. Kent D. Miller, Industry and Country Effects on Managers' Perceptions of
Environmental Uncertainties, Journal of International Business Studies (Fourth
Quarter 1993), pp. 693-714.
24. Satoko Watanabe and Ryozo Yamaguchi, Intercultural Perceptions at the
Workplace: The Case of the British Subsidiaries of Japanese Firms, Human
Relations, vol. 48, no. 5 (1995), pp. 581-607.
25. Bodo B. Schlegelmilch and Diana Robertson, The Influence of Country and
Industry on Ethical Perceptions of Senior Executives in the U.S. and Europe,
Journal of International Business Studies (Fourth Quarter 1995), pp. 859-881.
26. For a recent overview of the stress literature, see Frank Landy, James Campbell
Quick, and Stanislav Kasl, Work, Stress, and Weil-Being, International Jour
nal of Stress Management, vol. 1, no. 1 (1994), pp. 33-73.
27. Executive Stress: A Ten-Country Comparison, Chicago Tribune, March 31,1988.
28. Bruce D. Kirkcaldy and Cary L. Cooper, Stress Differences Among German
and U.K. Managers, Human Relations, vol. 46, no. 5 (1993), pp. 669-680.
29. Geert Hofstede, Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American
Theories Apply Abroad? Organizational Dynamics (Summer 1980), pp. 42-63.
30. Joseph J. Fucini and Suzy Fucini, Working for the Japanese: Inside Mazda's Ame
rican Auto Plant (New York: Free Press, 1990).
31. Charles Weaver and Michael Landeck, Cross-National Differences in Job
Values: A Segmented Comparative Analysis of United States and West German
Workers (Laredo State University, 1991), mimeo.
32. Abraham Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review
Ouly 1943), pp. 370-396.
33. Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (Cin
cinnati: South-Western, 1997), pp. 130-138.
34. P. Howell, J. Strauss, and P. F. Sorenson, Research Note: Cultural and Situa
tional Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Management in Liberia, Journal
of Management Studies (May 1975), pp. 225-227.
35. David McClelland, The Achieving Society (Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand,
1961).
36. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior.

1Q45

37. Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Snyderman, The Motivation
to Work (New York: Wiley, 1959).
38. G. H. Mines, Achievement, Motivation, Occupations and Labor Turnover in
New Zealand, JoMma/ of Applied Psychology, vol. 58, no. 3 (1973), pp. 313-317.
39. Victor Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964).
40. Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Pren
tice Hall, 1989).
41. David A. Ralston, David J. Gustafson, Fanny M. Cheung, and Robert H. Terpstra, Differences in Managerial Values: A Study of U.S., Hong Kong, and
PRC Managers, Journal of International Business Studies (Second Quarter
1993), pp. 249-275.
42. See Joseph A. Petrick, Robert F. Scherer, James D. Brodzinski, John F. Quinn,
and M. Fall Ainina, Global Leadership Skills and Reputational Capital: Intan
gible Resources for Sustainable Competitive Advantage, Academy of Mana
gement Executive, vol. 13, no. 1 (1999), pp. 58-69.
43. Robert H. Doktor, Asian and American CEOs: A Comparative Study, Orga
nizational Dynamics, vol. 18, no. 3 (1990), pp. 46-56.
44. Jon P. Alston, The American Samurai (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1986),
pp. 103-113.
45. The Spanish-American Business Wars, Worldwide P & I Planning (MayJune 1971), pp. 30-40.
46. Arvin Parkhe, Interfirm Diversity, Organizational Learning, and Longevity in
Global Strategic Alliances, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22,
no. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1991), pp. 592-593; Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed
Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences (Yarmouth, Me.: Intercultural Press,
1990), pp. 55-62.
47. For example, see Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries, Leadership Style and Orga
nizational Practices in Russia, Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000),
pp. 67-81.
48. Tom Morris and Cynthia M. Pavett, Management Style and Productivity in
Two Cultures, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First
Quarter 1992), pp. 169-179.
49. Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press,
1976).
50. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior.
51. Alston, The American Samurai, pp. 181-186.
52. Hall and Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences, pp. 33-84.
53. Lawrence Wolken, Doing Business in China, Texas A&MBusiness Forum
(Fall 1987), pp. 39-42.
54. J. Stewart Black and Lyman W. Porter, Managerial Behaviors and Job Perfor
mance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong,
Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 1 (First Quarter 1991),
pp. 99-113.

1046

55. Parkhe, Inter firm Diversity, pp. 579-601.


56. See Chantell E. Nicholls, Henry W. Lane, and Maurido Brehm Brechu, Taking
Self-Managed Teams to Mexico, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13,
no. 3 (2000), pp. 15-25.
16
1. Wal-Mart's Foray Into Japan Spurs a Retail Upheaval, Wall Street Journal,
September, 19, 2003, pp. Al, A6; Mixed Fortunes in Britain and Germany,
Financial Times, January 8, 2003, p. 11; As Annual Sales Near $270bn, Can
Wal-Mart Conquer Markets Outside the US? Financial Times, January 8, 2003,
p. 11; Retailers Set Sights on Japan, Financial Times, December 13, 2002,
p. 22; Wal-Mart Plans Major Expansion in Germany, Wall Street Journal, July 20,
2000, p. A21; Wal-Mart Takes Slow Road in Germany, USA Today, May 9,
2000, p. 3B; Britain's Ailing Sainsbury Faces Stark Choice, Wall Street
Journal, October 25, 1999, p. A44; As Wal-Mart Invades Europe, Rivals Rush
to Match Its Formula, Wall Street Journal, October 6, 1999, p. Al; Wal-Mart
Net Rises 16% on Results Outside U.S., Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2003,
p.A2.
2. From AMA Board Approves New Marketing Definition, Marketing News,
March 31, 1985, p. 1.
3. France Retreats from "Knocking" Adverts, Financial Times, August 14,1995, p. 3.
4. New Zealand Bans Reebok, Other Ads It Deems Politically Incorrect for TV,
Wall Street Journal, July 25, 1995, p. A12.
5. David Lei, Strategies for Global Competition, Long Range Planning, vol. 22,
no. 1 (1989), pp. 102-109. See also Yoram Wind and Susan Douglas,
International Portfolio Analysis and Strategy: The Challenge of the 1980s,
Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1981), pp. 69-82.
6. Nicholas Papadopoulos and Louise A. Heslop (Eds.), Product-Country Images
Impact and Role in International Marketing (New York: International Business
Press, 1993).
7. For an overview see David McCutcheon, Amitabh Raturi, and Jack Meredith,
The Customization-Responsiveness Squeeze, Sloan Management Review
(Winter 1994), pp. 89-100.
8. U.S. Catalog Firms Go After Europeans, Wall Street Journal, January 6, 1998,
p.A15.
9. Kenichi Ohmae, The Triad World View, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 7,
no. 4 (Spring 1987), pp. 8-19.
10. Theodore Levitt, The Globalization of Markets, Harvard Business Review,
May-June 1983, pp. 92-102.
11. Aysegul Ozsomer, Muzzafer Bodur, and S. Tamer Cavusgil, Marketing
Standardisation by Multinationals in an Emerging Market, European Journal
of Marketing, vol. 25, no. 12 (1991), pp. 50-63.
12. John A. Quelch and Edward J. Hoff, Customizing Global Marketing, Harvard
Business Review, May-June 1986, pp. 59-68.

1047

13. The Right Way to Go Global: An Interview with Whirlpool CEO David
Whitwam, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1994, pp. 134-145;
A Little Washing Machine That Won't Shred a Sari, BusinessWeek, June 3,1991,
p. 100.
14. Quelch and Hoff, Customizing Global Marketing.
15. Judie Lannon, Developing Brand Strategies Across Borders, Marketing and
Research Today (August 1991), pp. 160-167.
16. Guy de Jonquires, Just One Cornetto, Financial Times, October 28, 1991.
17. U.S. Superstores Find Japanese Are a Hard Sell, Wall Street Journal, February
14, 2000, p. Bl.
18. Big Boy's Adventures in Thailand, Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2000, p. Bl.
19. Mexico's Corona Brew Wins Back Cachet Lost During the Late '80s, Wall
Street Journal, January 19, 1993, p. B6.
20. U.S. Firms Are Letting Saudi Market Slip, Wall Street Journal, January 20,
1994, p. AID.
21. Eastern Europe Poses Obstacles for Ads, Wall Street Journal, July 30, 1992,
p. B6.
22. It's Goo, Goo, Goo, Goo Vibrations at the Gerber Lab, Wall Street Journal,
December 4, 1996, p. Al.
23. Pepsi Mounts Effort to Make Potato Chips International Snack, Wall Street
Journal, November 30, 1995, p. BIO.
24. Adapting a U.S. Car to Japanese Tastes, Wall Street Journal, June 26, 1995,
p. Bl.
25. Asia Proves Unexpectedly Tough Terrain for HBO, Cinemax Channels, Wall
Street Journal, August 23, 2000, p. Bl.
26. U.S. Companies in China Find Patience, Persistence and Salesmanship Pay
Off, Wall Street Journal, April 3, 1992, p. Bl.
27. In Pursuit of the Elusive Euroconsumer, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 1992,
p. Bl.
28. Mexico's Corona Brew Wins Back Cachet.
29. Clive Sims, Adam Phillips, and Trevor Richards, Developing a Global Pricing
Strategy, Marketing and Research Today (March 1992), pp. 3-14.
30. William Pride and . Ferrell, Marketing, 9th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
1995).
31. Coca-Cola Faces a Price War, Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1994, p. Al; Cola
Price War Breaks Out in Japan, Financial Times, July 14, 1994, p. 1.
32. Merck Cuts Price of AIDS Drug, Financial Times, March 20, 1997, p. 8.
33. Copyrights Can't Stop Gray Markets, Houston Chronicle, March 10, 1998,
p. 1.
34. Luxury Prices for U.S. Goods No Longer Pass Muster in Japan, Wall Street
Journal, Februarys, 1996, p. Bl.
35. World Marketing: Going Global or Acting Local? Five Expert Viewpoints,
Journal of Consumer Marketing (Spring 1986), pp. 5-26.

1048

36. Martin S. Roth and Jean B. Romeo, Matching Product Category and Country
Image Perceptions: A Framework for Managing Country-of-Origin Effects,
Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1992),
pp. 477-498; John R. Darling and Van R. Wood, A Longitudinal Study
Comparing Perceptions of U.S. and Japanese Consumer Products in a Third/
Neutral Country: Finland 1975 to 1985, Journal of International Business
Studies, vol. 21, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1990), pp. 427-450.
37. In Rural India, Video Vans Sell Toothpaste and Shampoo, Wall Street Journal,
January 10, 1996, p. Bl.
38. U.S. Cigarette Firms Are Battling Taiwan's Bid to Stiffen Ad Curbs Like
Other Asian Nations, Wall Street Journal, May 5, 1992, p. C25.
39. General Accounting Office, Advertising and Promoting U.S. Cigarettes in Sele
cted Asian Countries, Report GAO/ GGD-93-38 (December 1992), p. 38f.
40. Barbara Mueller, Multinational Advertising: Factors Influencing the Stan
dardised vs. Specialised Approach, International Marketing Review, vol. 8, no. 1
(1991), pp. 7-18.
41. Coke Global Image Ads, Wall Street Journal, April 29, 1997, p. B15.
42. Global Ad Campaigns, After Many Missteps, Finally Pay Dividends, Wall
Street Journal, August 27, 1992, p. Al.
43. IBM Strives for a Single Image in Its European Ad Campaign, Wall Street
Journal, April 16, 1991, p. B12.
44. A Universal Message, Financial Times, May 27, 1993.
45. Barbara Mueller, An Analysis of Information Content in Standardized vs.
Specialized Multinational Advertisements, Journal of International Business
Studies, vol. 22, no. 1 (First Quarter 1991), pp. 23-40.
46. For a review of the issues involved, see Sudhir H. Kale and John W. Barnes,
Understanding the Domain of Cross-National Buyer-Seller Interactions,
Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First Quarter 1992),
pp. 101-132.
47. Colgate-Palmolive Is Really Cleaning Up in Poland, BusinessWeek, March 15,
1993, pp. 54-56.
48. AIG Reshapes China's Insurance Industry, Wall Street Journal, February 9,
1996, p. A8.
49. Amway Grows Abroad, Sending "Ambassadors" to Spread the Word, Wall
Street Journal, May 14, 1997, p. Al.
50. General Accounting Office, Advertising and Promoting U.S. Cigarettes in
Selected Asian Countries, op. cit, p. 37ff.
51. Ashley Blaker, For Global Assistance, Dyal a Marketer, San Antonio Business
Journal, August 7, 1989, p. 8.
52. SMH Leads a Revival of Swiss Watchmaking Industry, Wall Street Journal,
January 20, 1992, p. B4.
53. Bicycle Brigade Takes Unilever to the People, Financial Times, August 17,
2000, p. 8.

1Q49

54. Jean Downey, Touchdown! Business Tokyo (March 1992), p. 34.


55. Doublemint in China: Distribution Isn't Double the Fun, Wall Street Journal,
December 5, 1995, p. Bl.
56. Cosmetic Makers Offer World's Women an -American Look with Local
Twists, Wall Street Journal, May 8, 1995, p. Bl.
57. Coca-Cola to Open Plant in Moscow, Wall Street Journal, January 17, 1992,
p. A3.
58. Cracking the Chinese Market, Wall Street Journal, January 9, 2003, p. Bl.
17

1. Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business


Press, 2003), pp. 126-127; Cross-Belt Sortation Maximizes Distribution Cen
ter Efficiency, Modern Materials Handling (January 1998), pp. 59-60; Be
netton Ad Models Are Dressed to Kill Sales, Wall Street Journal, March 20,
2000, p. A34; The Families That Own Europe, Time, March 24, 2003, p. 46.
2. See Anil Lhurana, Managing Complex Production Processes, Sloan Mana
gement Review (Winter 1999), pp. 85-98.
3. Robert H. Hayes and Gary P. Pisano, Beyond World-Class: The New Manu
facturing Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1994, pp. 7787.
4. Michael McGrath and Richard Hoole, Manufacturing's New Economies of
Scale, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1992, pp. 94-103.
5. Roly's Products Deck the Halls in U.S., Asia, Wall Street Journal, December 27,
1996, p. A3B.
6. Masaaki Kotabe and Janet Y. Murray, Linking Product and Process Innova
tions and Modes of International Sourcing in Global Competition: A Case of
Foreign Manufacturing Firms, Journal of International Business Studies (Third
Quarter, 1990), pp. 383-408.
7. James Brian Quinn and Frederick G. Hilmer, Strategic Outsourcing, Sloan
Management Review (Summer 1994), pp. 43-55; James Brian Quinn, Outso
urcing Innovation: The New Engine of Growth, Sloan Management Review
(Summer 2000), pp. 13-28.
8. Stephen J. Kobrin, An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Global Integ
ration, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 12 (1991), pp. 17-431.
9. Peter Siddall, Keith Willey, and Jorge Tavares, Building a Transnational
Organization for British Petroleum, Long Range Planning, vol. 25, no. 1 (1992),
pp. 18-26.
10. James Welch and P. Ranganath Nayak, Strategic Sourcing: A Progressive App
roach to Make-or Buy Decision, Academy of Management Executive, February
1992, pp. 23-31.
11. See Paul S. Adler, Barbara Goldoftas, and David I. Levine, Flexibility versus
Efficiency, Organization Science, vol. 10, no. 1 (1999), pp. 43-52.

1050

12. Jeffrey . Liker and Yen-Chun Wu, Japanese Automakers, U.S. Suppliers and
Supply Chain Superiority, Sloan Management Review (Fall 2000), pp. 81-93.
13. An Efficiency Guru Refits Honda to Fight Auto Giants, Wall Street Journal,
September 15, 1999, pp. Bl, B4.
14. U.S. Companies Move to Limit Currency Risk, Wall Street Journal, August 3,
1993, p. A10.
15. Lorraine Eden, Kaye G. Husbands, and Maureen Appel Molot, Shocks and
Responses: Canadian Auto Parts Suppliers Adjust to Free Trade and Lean Pro
duction, mimeo, 1997.
16. Andrew D. Bartmess, The Plant Location Puzzle, Harvard Business Review,
March-April 1994, pp. 20-22.
17. Dwight Silverman, Compaq Plans to Build $15 Million Brazil Plant, Houston
Chronicle, March 23, 1994, p. IB.
18. Nissan to Say "We're Back' with New Mississippi Plant, Houston Chronicle,
November 9, 2000, p. 3C.
19. Patriya Tansuhaj and George Jackson, Foreign Trade Zones: A Comparative
Analysis of Users and Non-Users, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 10, no. 1,
1989, pp. 15-30.
20. The Supplier Moves Next Door, Financial Times, July 24, 1997, p. IV.
21. David Arnold, Seven Rules of International Distribution, Harvard Business
Review, November-December 2000, pp. 131-137.
22. Stanley E. Fawcett, Linda L. Stanley, and Sheldon R. Smith, Developing a
Logistics Capability to Improve the Performance of International Operations,
Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 18, no. 2 (1997), p. 102.
23. Walter Zinn and Robert E. Grosse, Barriers to Globalization: Is Global Distri
bution Possible? The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 1
(1990), pp. 13-18.