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Ricky W.

Griffin
Texas A&M University
Michael W. Pustay
Texas A&M University

INTERNATIONAL
BUSINESS
A Managerial Perspective

Fourth Edition

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

.
M.

4-


,

IMISP

-
--

2006

65.8
339
85

85

., .
. 4- . / . . . . . .
.: , 2006. 1088 : . ( ).
ISBN 5-469-00274-8
. .
, .
, .

;
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, .
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,
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65.8
339

Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Sadie River, New Jersey 07458.


.
.

ISBN 5-469-00274-8

, 2006

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.
.
, ,

.
.


I.
1.

42

2.

72

3. ,

120

4.

161

5.

215

.
6.

268

7.

323

8.

376

9.

420

10.

473

III.
11.
i

538

12.

589

13.

645

14.

687

15.

741

IV.
16.

798

17.

840

18.

884

19.

932

20.

969

27

32

34

36

I.
1.

42

?
?






,

45
47
49
49
51
53
56
57
57
59

64
65
65
67

67
68
68
68

2.

72

,


-

75
75
79
80
80
82
85
85
88
89
91
93
93
97
98
100
101
101
101
102
105
107
107
110
111
111

114
114
119

3. ,

120

122
122
123
128

10

'.




007
-
4.

'

129
133
135
137
139
144
145
150
150
151
152
152
153
153
160
161
164
166
170
175
178
181
186
186
188
190
190
195
198
201
203
203
203
205
205
206
206

\\

207
208


AFLAC
-

208
208
214

5. .... 215

217

-


,






221
221
224

,

^
,









,

235
236
237

252

253

254
254

226
227
227
229
230
235

237
239
242
245
246
247
249
249
251

12
I

257

257

262

II.
6.

268
,

271
273

273

275

277

279

281

285

285

286

290

294

299
299

........

300

301

301

302

304

305

306
306

'.

309
310
311

311

313

313

314

13


..
-

315
315
321

7.

323




-
-
1971


2002

327
327
330
331
338
341
350
354
362
364

366
366
368
369

369

372

372

8.



-







376

378
381
385
389
393
404
405
407
409
410
411
411
411

14






-
9.

,










I

412
413
413
414
414
419
420
423
424
431
438
438
443
452
453
454
456
457
457


-301
-


460
461
462
462
463
464

464
464
465
465
472

10.

459
460

473
476





Whirlpool .
-
,
II

Nike Inc.:

15

477
481
486
486
489
491
492
496
501
505
505
507
511
515
515
516
516
517
517
517
523
524
524
528
534

III.
11.

538

542
548
559
559
560
561
562
563

16


SWOT-

563
565
568
568
569
570
570
575
577
578
578
579
580
581
582
582
588

12.

589

592
592
599
600
608
612
615
619
623
624
627

628
628
630

630
631
631
631

YJ_

633
634
635
637

637
637
638

639

.....

640
640
641


Heineken

641
641

13.

645

647

650
650
652
656
656
657
657
659



..







663
664
666
669
672
672
673
674
...675
675

676
676
677

677

678
679

18


Slimline:
-

14.

679
679
686
687

690

692
693
696
698
701
701
704

705
705
707
708

709
711
713
717

718
718
724
728

731
731
732

733

734
734


Daimler Chrysler, ?
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734
734
740

15.

741
744
744

19

,





, ,

749
752
754
755
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761
766
767
769
772
773
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777
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778
778




:
Firestone
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Ben
&
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Nissan

779
780
780
780
784
785
785
791

IV.
16.

-
-

798
801
801
804
804
808

20

809
810
811
813
813

814
815
816
820
820
823
825
825
826
827
828

832
832
833

833

834


Pilbbury

,.

-
17.

835
835
839
840
842
843
845
845
846
853
860
863
863
864

gj.

865

866

868

871

873
873
875

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875

875
879



:
:
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879
879
881
882
883

18. .

884


...,





,

886
886
886
888
898
899
899
906
907
910
910
911
914

915
915
917
918



....

918
918
921

22

923

923

924

924

925

926

926

931

19.

932
935
935

938

941

944
945
946

946

948

952
952
956
958

958

959

959

960

960

961

961

963
963

964

964

965

"

966
966

20.

23

969

971
973
974
975
976
977

979
980
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984





, ,
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987
987
988
989
990
990
991
996
997
998
998
999
1000
1001
1003
1004
1005
1005
1006
1006
1006
1008
1008
1010
1011

24

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Beijing Carvel

Target Micronics :

Target Micronics


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Journal of Management, Southern Economic Journal, Land Economics
Transportation Journal.
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AG. Kommanditgesellschaft auf

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PLC (public limited com
pany). Swire Pacific Ltd.
GlaxoSmithCline PLC.

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Benetton Group SpA Fiat SpA.
SA
(societe anonyme);
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SA Hachette SA.

); invisible trade (
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Review, vol. 38 (1985), pp. 230-235; John H.
Dunning, Multinational Enterprises and the Global
Economy (Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1993), p. 3; Simcha Ronen,
Comparative and Multinational Management (New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986).

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Volvo Corporation.
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: Green Gables Books a Crowd, Boston Globe, August 10,1997, p. A1; Calvin Trillin, Anne
of Red Hair, The New Yorker, August 5, 1996, pp. 56-61.

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ruary 12, 2003, p. 17; India's IT Sector Spiced up by Weak Global Trading Condi
tions, Financial Times, January 22, 2003, p. 18; America's Pain, India's Gain, The
Economist, January 11, 2003, p. 57; New Chapter in Success Story, Financial Times,
February 5, 2003, p. VI; Soaring Indian tech Salaries reflect the country's brain
drain, Wall Street Journal, August 21, 2000, p. A13; Software Boosts India's For
tunes, Financial Times, July 3, 2000, p. 1; India Wired, BusinessWeek, March 6,
2000, pp. 82ff; Investment in India's Software Sector Doubles, Financial Times, Feb
ruary 7, 2000, p. 3; India Software Capital Praised for Its Growth, Financial Ti
mes, January 20, 2000, p. 7; New Corporate Gurus Tap India's Brainpower to Gal
vanize Economy, Wall Street Journal, September 27,1999, p. Al; Silicon Subcontinent,
Financial Times, March 15, 1999, p. 14.


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: Food Crisis for 34m Africans, Financial


Times, August 5, 1994, p. 3; World Bank Attacked
for Backing Nyerere, Financial Times, July 27,1994,
p. 12; World Bank Laments Its Tansania Role,
Financial Times, July 27, 1994, p. 3; Empty
Promises, The Economist, May 7,1994, pp. 11-12;
The Kindness of Strangers, The Economist, May 7,
1994, pp. 19-22; Developed Nations Want Poor
Countries to Succeed on Trade, but Not too Much,
Wall Street Journal, September 20, 1993, p. A10.

110

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(Survey of Current Business),
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,
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112

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Crestone Energy Corporation,
.
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- ,
( 10-14 ) .
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(Country Commercial Guide)
,
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; ,
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(Commodity Trade Statistics);
,
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, ( ).
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113

(Balance of Payments Statistics),


(International Financial Statistics),
(Direction of Trade Statistics)
, ().
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.
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. , , ,
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269 $922 .

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, .
,
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- -

2.

115

,
. ,
, $141 ,
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,
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.
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,
. 2002 . (Eduardo
Duhalde) ,
40%. ( 2003 .
.)
,
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. , 79%
70%
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) , .
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.
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.
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, ,
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$12,5 . , -

116

I.

,
, .

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?
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2. ?
3. :
? ( ),
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), .
4.
?
: Hard Times, Same Old Politics, The Economist, March 22, 2003,
p. 33f; Defaulter of Last Resort, The Economist, March 8, 2003, p. 38; Supreme
Cort of Argentina Kills Peso Decree, Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2003, p. Al;
Argentina to Blame for Its Sorry State, Houston Chronicle, February 14, 2002,
p. IB; With Peso Floating Free, Focus Turns to Inflation, Houston Chronicle,
January 8, 2002, p. 1; Argentina's Woes Need Long Answer, Houston Chronicle,
January 8, p. 1; Imports to Argentina Stopped on a Dime, Rending Supply Chain,
Houston Chronicle, January 24, 2002, p. 1.

: , , ...
, , ,
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,

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( Soziale Marktwirtschaft
). ,
,
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2.

117

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, .

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, , ,
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1972 . (Works Constitution Act, . Betriebsverfassungsgesetz).
,
,
.
, Soziale Marktwirtschaft,
.

,
.

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.

.
1972 .

.
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118

I.

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20% .
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,
.
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.
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, (
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, 70% .
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, ,
, , . . (J. . Rowling).
, .
, , -

3. ,

121

, 192
. Bloomsbur Publishing,
, ,
.

.
,

, . ,
Today I Will Raise the Flag ( )
, , , ,
.
,
. , ,
: !
.


. (Wang Ruiqin),
People's Literature Publishing House,
,
, . People's Literature Publishing
House 10 ,
10% .
, ,
$10, .
,
.
.
,
;
, Ha-li Bo-te.
,

. , ,
,
. , ,
(People's Literature
Publishing House), .
, 600 ..
,
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), .
- ?

, Harry Potter and the Leopard-Walk-up-toDragon ( , ).
: .
. , -
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122

I.

. , 2003 .
. Harry Potter and the Order of
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124

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.
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. , 2000 . Yahoo! Inc. ,
web- ,
. ,
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,
, .
web- , Yahoo!
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.

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.
, .
: Court Setback for French Buyers at Web Auctions, Financial Times, May 4, 2000, p. 3;
U.S. in Tentative Pact Protecting Europeans' Privacy, Wall Street Journal, February 24, 2000, p. B6;
Cyversquatters' Squeezed as Internet Arbitration Takes Off, Financial Times, February 23, 2000,
p. 18; Land of Laptops and Lederhosen, Financial Times, February 17, 2000, p. 14; Cross-Border
Regulations Create Hurdle for Cyberhoppers, Financial Times, February 16, 2000, p. 7; Border
Crossings, Wall Street Journal, November 22, 1999, p. R41; In Europe, Surfing a Web of Red Tape,
Wall Street Journal, October 29, 1999, p. B1; Judge Fines Yahoo! for Neo-Nazi Auction, Houston
Chronicle, May 23, 2000, p. A4.

3. ,

125

. 3 . 1 . 100 000

, ,
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, ,
,
,
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). ,
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-

126

I.

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, ,

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128

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, , ,
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130

I.

? ,

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,
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,

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. ,
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50 000 ; Toyota Honda,
,
. 2002 .
($3,2 ), ($3,0 ).
: Japan's Used Cars Find New Lives on Russian Roads, New York Times, February 12,
2003, p. C1; Russians Want Foreign Wheels, Wall Street Journal, December 24, 2002, p. A8; Why
the Japanese Don't Keep Their Cars for Long, BusinessWeeek, June 4, 1998 (online).

,

.

. , ,
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, ,
.
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, ,
. ,
1990 ., .
80- -

3. , 131

.

1961 ., ,
. 90-
- , , , -
,
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.
,
, . McDonnell
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National Aero - Technology Import and Export Com
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, ,
.7 ,
McDonnell Douglas
.

, ; 3.1.

132

I.

. , ,
,
,
.
Pilkington PLC, ,
.

,
. ,
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, - ,
8
.

.
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,
,
. 1954 .,
(League of Arab States),
, .
Baxter International ,

, ,
,
. Baxter
$6,6 . 9
- (Helms-Burton Act) , ,
,
.
,
,
, 1959 .
.
,
. -


.
,
, .
Sherritt Corporation,
,
Freeport McMoRan , (New Orleans)
.

3. ,

133

, -
,
, .
, ,
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, .
, 85% .
, ,
, , .10
,

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134

I.

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,

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).
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: .
(Margaret Thatcher),
- 1979 1990 .,
. 80- .
, British Airways, British Telecom, British
Airport Authority British Petroleum. (Brian Mulroney),
- ,
- 1984 1993 .

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.
.

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.
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,
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.


( ) , ,
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3. ,

135

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.

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;
.
,
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, ,
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. Toyota
, , $1,5 ,
,
.
.

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.
General Electric
,
.

, .

. ,
Carrefour
,
.11 ,
,
-

136

I.

.
, ,

.
.
. 2000 . BMW
Rover, Ford Motor Company,
,
.
, BMW
,

Rover ,
.

,
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
.
. , 90- .
,
. ,
Colgate-Palmolive, S.C.Johnson & Son, Kubota Volkswagen
, ,
.
, 90- 24,5%.12
.
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,

3. ,

137

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.
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,
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.
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(forum shop
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. (principle of comity) ,

,
.
.
1. ;
,
.
2.
.

138

I.

3. , ,

13
.

.

.
.
(arbitration) ,

, . ,
,
,
. , IBM Fujitsu
Fujitsu
, IBM.

. , IBM Fujitsu
(American Arbitration Asso
ciation):
. 14

( , -').


,
,
-
. 1 5
,
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1976 . (Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act) ,

. ,

IBM IBM
, IBM

.

.
2000 -

3. ,

139

IBM, ,
IBM .
, ,
,
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.
, ,
. .

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, , ALCOA
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,
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140

,

,

.
, ,
,
,
.

McKinsey and Company

.

Venture 2000

.

4000.
,
, 67
,
,
McKinsey .

,
,

,
. McKinsey

I.

, 20
30%
.

. Hin
dustan Lever,
,

,
. ,
( Tafa
Mahindra & Mahindra),
,
. ,


,
. General
Electric, , $80

. 1600

GE,

.
: GE Takes Advantage of India's Talanted Research Pool, Wall Street Journal, March
26,2003, p. A10; Bombay Dotcoms Arise, Financia Times, Mat 25,2000, p. 27; India Wired, Busi
nessWeek, March 6, 2000, p. 82ff.


(technology transfer) .

. ,

, , General Electric
General Motors, .
,

,
. ,
,
-
.

3. ,

141

General Motors
Buick ,
GM -
,

.
(
)
,
. ,
, , , . .,
.

.
,
. ,
,
,
. ,

.

. ,
.
: (Convention for
the Protection of Industrial Property Rights),
;
(Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and
Artistic Works); (Universal Copyright
Convention);
(Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, TRIPS)
,
GATT.
.
. ,
.
,
,
.
(Business Software
Alliance), 2002 .
$13 . . 3.2,
42% ,

. , ,

142

I,

. 3 . 2 .
-

, -
, $3 .
, ,
-. , Star Wars: Episode I
The Phantom Menace ( : -1 )
,

, -
.17
-
. ,
, ,
(first to
invent).18
. ,

, ,
.
, (first to file),

3. ,

143


.
: ,

, .

. ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
,
.

,
. ,
,
,
.

, .
CyberOptics, (Minneapolis),
LaserAlign ( ,

).
, - ,
.
CyberOptics Yamaha,
CyberOptics - ,
Yamaha .
,
,
. CyberOptics ,
Yamaha 26 ,
LaserAlign, , .
, CyberOptics , Yamaha
CyberOptics ,
Yamaha, CyberOptics.
Yamaha
. 19

" . ,
,
.
,

144

I.

,
-
. , /. . Penney,

, -
, <</ . Penney Collections .
,
/. . Penney , ,
- ,
.20

.

, .
. ,
, 1989 .
Texas Instruments (TI)
; ,
77 .
, Fujitsu,
Texas Instruments , Fujitsu
, ,
, TI. ,
, Fujitsu,
Texas Instruments

21
TI .


,
,
. ,
,
.
;
;
, ,
.
.
,
,

.

3, ,

145



.
.
,
(political risk assessment)
,
.
,
.
:
+ ,
;
+ , /
-
,
, , . .;
4- ,
.
. 3.1,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
;
, .

, , .
(macropolitical risk) ,
;
, -, , 90- .,
. (micropolitical risk) , -

146

I.

.
, 70- .,
, .

. Disneyland Paris McDonald's
,

.
,
, . , 2003 .
TotalFina Elf SA, Royal Dutch/Shell Chevron Texaco
-
. 22
, ,
. 3.1

3. ,

147

, ,
, .
.
-f : ?

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-f :

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,
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.
,
.

.
. ,

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. -

148

I.

,
.
,
.
,
. 3.2
,
Euromoney.
,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
. ,
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,
.
,
, ,
. ,


, .
,
.
Disney
land Paris McDonald's, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

3. ,

149

3.2. 2002 .
: ,
Euromoney: Euromoney, September 2002, p. 21 Iff.

150

I.


. , , ,

; ;

.

,
. , ,
,
-
, .

,
,
. , (Overseas Private
Investment Corporation, OPIC)
, ,
.
, 2002 ., OPIC
Decision Technologies International
$1 ,
. 2 3
OPIC , ,

. (Multilateral
Investment Guarantee Agency, MIGA), ,
.
, Lloyd's of London,
.24

.
,
,
, .
, , ,
.
, , -
.
,
,

3. ,

151

. , ,
,
.

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.
. ,
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,

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.

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,

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.

1. ,
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2. ?
3. ?
4. .

I.

5.
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6.
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7.
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8. ?
.
9. OPIC
?


1.

, ?
2.
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3.
? . (

(Bureau of Export Administration),
web- .)
4. 3.2
2002 .
?


, ,

, .
4-5
.
:
; ;
; ;
; ;
; ; ;
.

3. ,

153

,
.
;
.
,
, ,
. . ,


. ,
, ,
.
,

.

, ,
.

1.
,
?
2.
?
3.
,
? .
4.
,
( , )? ,
.


007
2000 .
, 007, The World Is Not Enough
( ).
,
. ,
,
. ,
, -

154

I,

: ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , 40%
,
(. 3.3). ,
.
, ; , - .
: ,
,
.

(Azerbaijan International Operating Company, AIOC),
,
, Exxon Mobil, Unocal, Pennzoil Lukoil. AIOC
$8 $10
4 .
,
. 850
.

3 . 3 .

3. ,

155

;
550 . ,
, ,
.
, 1994
1996 ., . 2000 .

, .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,

, , , .
(,
,
,
, .)

,
, ,
.
,
( ),
.
-.
, 1236
( , $2,9 ),
, ,
, Exxon Valdez
.
.
, Ragin' Cajun Margaritaville,
, ,
:
$650. ( )
,
.
1993 .
. ,
,
, .
, , -
.

156

I.

,
( ),
. Unocal,
,
. ,
, 70- .
. 20012002 ., ,
-.

.
,
.

. ,
( , ),
.

.
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
. 1997 . Chinese National Petroleum Company
60%- Aktobemunaigazs,
, , 1
220 .


1880 .

,
, , , ,

. , ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. -

3. ,

157

38% , 1949 .
5%. , (
) ,
.
,
, .
1997 .
1200 .
,

, .
, -
. ,
15 20 ;
,
160 , .

1. ,
. ,
. -
, ;
, . 1 10(10
) -
.
2. , ,
$100
, .
, 8% ,
.
.
.
,

.
,
, .
?
?
3. 2001 . .
?
4. Kim ()

-

158

I.
. ,
,
,
. ,
, , ,
,
?

: Baku-Ceyhan Pipeline No Longer Just 'Legend', Houston Chronicle,


September 22, 2002, p. 9D; Tengiz Gamble Starting to Pay Off, Houston Chronicle,
October 23, 2001, p. 1; Moscow Strikes the First Blow in Caspian Oil Pipeline
Battle, Financial Times, March 26, 2001, p. 6; Turks to Buy Azerbaijani Gas in Boost
to U.S.-Backed Plan, Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2001, p. A21; Baku Pipeline
Run into Hitch, Financial Times, June 12, 2000, p. 5; Oil Firms Eye Caspian Area,
Houston Chronicle, November 28, 1997, p. 1; Unocal to Route Turkmenistan
Pipeline through Afganistan, Houston Chronicle, November 11, 1997, p. 4C; Older
Oil City Enjoys New Boom, Houston Chronicle, October 7, 1997, p. 1; Texaco,
Mobil Expect Deals with Kazakhstan, Wall Street Journal, October 3, 1997, p. A6;
China's Rebellious Province, The Economist, August 23, 1997, p. 29; Superpowers
Circle Caspian, Financial Times, August 8, 1997, p. 4; Resourceful Competitors,
Wall Street Journal, July 28, 1997, p. A18; Oil Companies Rush into the Caucasus to
Tap the Caspian, Wall Street Journal, April 25, 1997, p. Al; The Combustible
Caspian, The Economist, January 11, 1997, p. 45.

: ,

. ,
. ,
.

-.
. ,
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
.
; , ,
: ?
. -

3. ,

159

, . (
the Diet; . . . .)


, , ,
.
, -
-
.
(MITI).
,
,
, .

, -.
, ,
;
.
.
,
. , 1986 .

(Gaigokuho-Jimu-Bengoshi).
1994 .,
(Foreign Attorney Law).
,
, .
, ,
,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
47
.
;

, .
, ,
, ,
, , .

, ,
.
, -

160

I.

.
. ,
,
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, - .


.
. (shinyo)

. ,

.
, ,
, ,
.

,
.
, ,
. ,
,
( ). ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
-
The Diet , , ; ,
.
, . ,

, .

, " Alone" (" "),


.
:
4- ;
+
;
4-
;
4- ,
, ;
4-
;
4-
;
4-
.


, ,
. , Signs (), Road
to Perdition ( ), Spider-man (-), Jurassic Park
( ) Chicago (), -

162

I,

, Crouching Tiger, Hiden Dragon (


, ), Chocolat ()
.
. ,
, 20- .;
,
, .
,
, ,
.
End of Days ( )
$66 (
$100 ).
$142 . Stuart Little 2
( 2) $64 , $94
. , The Crying Game
( ) ,

.
,
. , 2
, , .
,
,
. , $163 ,
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (
) .
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
; ,
.

. ,
, .
, , (
) .

, ,
.
, .
, ,
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone ( ),
Harry Potter and
the Sorcerer's Stone ( ).
, ,
.
,
.
, .

4.

163


, ,
,
. ,
, (
Time to Kill, ),
. , Home Alone ( ),
.
, -
, .
, ,
- ,
. ,
, ,
. I Am Sam ( ),
,
. ;
, ,

, The Bourne Identity ( ).
,
. , (Vanilla
Sky ), (Lethal Weapon 4
4) (Air Force One )
.

. Schindler's List (
) ,
. ,
Universal Studios, .
, , ,
,
, .
.
11 2001 .
, ,
.1

164

I.

,
,
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4.

165

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4.

167

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.

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.
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.

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(social stratification).

, , .


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168



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1850 .

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), , ,

169


.


.


.
, ,
,
,
,
,
.

90- .
,
.
Fujitsu, ,

,

.

.


.
: Fujitsu to Institute Merit-based Pay
For All Employees, Wall Street Journal, March 26,
1998, p. B5; Richard G. Newman, K. Anthony Rhee,
Self-Styled Barriers Inhibit Transferring Manage
ment Methods, Business Horizons, May-June
1989, pp. 17-21.

,

, .
.
* .
salaryman
, , . ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
, . . .

170

I,

(social mobility)
.
.
, ,
. ( )

, , ,
.
,
,
.
.
-
,

.
,
.
(,
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, ,
,
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,
. , 3000
10 000 .5

. -
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, , 153 ,
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184

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AFLAC $10 ,
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$300 000 .

, AFLAC
.
, $2,2 ,

4.

209

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25% .
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. 3,6 , $30 .
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:
, .
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,
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, .

210

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AFLAC 85%
. ,
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),
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.
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.
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;
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rine & Fire Nippon Life.
AFLAC
,
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AFLAC Dai-ichi
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Dai-ichi Mutual AFLAC
.
Dai-ichi Mutual 350 000
AFLAC. 2001 .
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quack () ga-ga,
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4.

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, AFLAC,
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?
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,
.

.
AFLAC, ?
AFLAC?
4. AFLAC ,
75%
.
? -
?
: AFLAC Duck Loses Some Quacking on Way to Japan, USA Today,
2003 (online); AFLAC Incorporated Annual Report for 2002; Charles D. Lake II,
Developing New Opportunities in a Weak Japanese Economy: AFLAC Adapts to
Change, Japan Economic Currents, no. 20 (May 2002), p. 4ff.; Bullish on AFLAC's
Duck, BusinessWeek online, April 30, 2002 (Web site); Duck and Coverage,
Fortune, August 13,2001 (Web site); Duck Ads Have 'em Flocking to AFLAC, USA
Today, September 18, 2000 (Web site).

212

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.

( ), ,
,
.

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Mills Johnson & Johnson, ,
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(codes of ethics)
,
.
,
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,
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,
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.

, .
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.
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Vivendi, ,
,
.
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Vivendi, .

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$21 . , Vivendi ,
,
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5.

229

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Vivendi
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(Guillaume Hannezo), ,
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: ,
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2002 . ,
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.
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, ,
. ,
,
-
.
: Janet Guyon, Getting Messier by the Minute, Fortune, May 28, 2002, pp. 62-66; Janet
Guyon, Reviving Vivendi, Fortune, July 8, 2002, pp. 104-110; How Messier Kept Cash Crisis at Viven
di Hidden for Months, Wall Street Journal, October 31, 2002, pp. A1, A15; The Dark Horse in the Vivendi
Race, BusinessWeek, February 10, 2003, pp. 98-99.




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230

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232

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1997 .
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.

5.

233

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,

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,
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, ,
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: Philip M. Nickols, Dealing with an Eruption of Coruption, Financial Times, May 30, 2000,
Managing Risk supplement, p. 15. .

234

I.

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,
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235



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tional stakeholders), ,
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236

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238

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239

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,
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240

I.

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241

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,
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,
, . , -
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.

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,
, ,
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242

I.

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,
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.

5.

British Petroleum
Exxon
Mobil.
, .
British Petroleum
(John Browne)
,

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Petroleum
18%.



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Petroleum :

.
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, .


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,
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, .

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.
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:
,
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243

, ,

.

,
,
.

2001 .,
$15,6 ,
,
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, ,
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160 .
, , ,
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National Wildlife Refuge),
.
,

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Texaco. , ,


,
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, ,

, ,

.
, - .
,
.
: Cait Murphy, Beyond Persuasion,
Fortune, September 5, 2002, pp. 105-110; Darcy
Frey, How Green is BP? New York Times Maga
zine, December 8, 2002, pp. 98-103; Can Oil Gi
ants and Green Energy Mix? BusinessWeek, Sep
tember 25, 2002, pp. 90-93.

244

I.

. (ethical compliance)
( )
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, , ,

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24
.
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lanthropic giving)

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, .

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5.

245

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246

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247



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reign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA) 1977 .
, , ,
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Mobile Oil
.
,
$78

248

I.

;
34
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3 007.) , FCPA
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,
.
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Unocal
,
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IBM, Citigroup
. 35

(Anti-Bribery Convention of the Organization for Eco
nomic Cooperation and Development)
2000 .; 33 .

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tion, ILO), ,
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250

,


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.
, ,

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, ,
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,
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,

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Day, , ,
.)


. ,
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.
,
, ,


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.
: Warninng to 'Conflict Diamonds' Trad
ers, Financial Times, April 29, 2003, p. 6; Talrs
End in Agreement to Track Diamond Shipments,
Houston Chronicle, November 30,2001, p. 36A; Di
amond Town in the Rough, Wall Street Journal, July
5, 2001, p. B1; Jon Lee Anderson, Oil and Blood,
The New Yorker, August 14, 2000, p. 45ff.

(
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5.

251

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252

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253

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254

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web-?

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.

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130- ,
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, .
Prestige (Jacques Chirac)

.
1999 . Erika,
15 000 400 .

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, , , , -

5.

255

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.
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- ,
,
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, , Prestige
.
,
, 2003 ., .
,
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(Civil Liability Convention),
(International Maritime Organization).
,
$80 .
Intertanko, ,
95% , , , -

256

I,

. , ,

(International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund),
. ,
, $180 .
Prestige
.
.

25% , ,
. - , ,
,
.

1. Prestige.
2.
Prestige.
3. , ,

?
4. ,
,
?
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Disaster, Financial Times, November 20,2002, p. 6. .


,
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.


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,
,
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son & Hedges, Parliament Vir
ginia Slims. ( Philip
Morris Altria
Group, ,

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Philip Morris.) British American
Tobacco (BAT),
, ,
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, ,
Brown & Williamson).
,
1999 ., R.J. Rey
nolds, Camel,
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,

.

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70- 80- .



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-

258
.
. ,

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.


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(
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259
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260

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American Tobacco ?

: Philip Morris Buys in


Greece, Financial Times, May 7, 2003,
p. 21; Is Big Tobacco Headed for Another
Round of Trouble?, Financial Times, May
7, 2003, p. 13; Tobacco Sector Accused of
'Invisible' Anti-WHO, Financial Times,
August 3, 2000, p. 3; U.S. Embassies Stop
Assiating Tobacco Firms, Wall Street
Journal, May 14, 1998, p. Bl; Getting
Acquainted, Business Eastern Europe,
April 22, 1996, p. 17; Sten Sesser, Opium

262
War Redux, The New Yorker, September
13, 1993, pp. 78-79; Smoking Level
Lowest in 50 Years, USA Today,
November 17,1994, p. Dl; Cigarettes May
Find New Foe in Trade Rep, Wall Street
Journal, August 1, 1994, p. Bl; Tobacco
Companies Race for Advantage in Eastern

I.
Europe While Critics Fume, Wall Street
Journal, December 28, 1992, pp. Bl, B4;
U.S. Cigarette Firms are Battling Tai
wan's Bid to Stiffen Ad Curbs Like Other
Asian Nations, Wall Street Journal, May 5,
1992, p. C25; Opiate of the Masses,
Forbes, April 11, pp. 74-75.



(Peter Hessler)

? .
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. :
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263
,
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The New
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.
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, .

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Caterpillar, Inc.
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. , , 30%
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. 114 , ,
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.
,
, , Caterpillar
,
. 80- . Caterpillar,
Komatsu Ltd.,
, ,
. 80- Komatsu
, 40%
Caterpillar,
Caterpillar 11%. ,
Caterpillar ,
. 1985 1995 .
(
80 ).
Komatsu, Caterpillar
. Cat, 40
44% 1998 . 144
. . 2003 .
115 120 .
Komatsu 30-33%
1995 .
Cat.

Komatsu.2

Caterpillar
,
, .
,
,
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,
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, Caterpillar -

6.

271

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, ,
.


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,
. Cater
pillar, $5,2 ,
, ,
.

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.
, ,

272

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6.

273


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Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations),
, , ,
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.
,

. , 90- .

6.

275

- , 40 ,
10%
.
,
, , .
:

.


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( ), 1776 .,

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.

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tage). , ,

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6.

277

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, (theory of comparative advan
tage). , ,

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.

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6.

279

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280

II.

, , . 6.1 6.2,
.
; .

, -
, , ,
.
. 6.3 .
, .
1. -
. 6.2.
2. 12 ().
3. 1000 ().
4. 125 .
6.3
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,
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) , 2
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, ,
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,
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6.

281


, .
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
,
.

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(Eli Hecksher) (Bertil Ohlin)
(theory of relative factor endow
ments); (HecksherOhlin theory). :
1.
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.
2. , ,
, .
, ,
,
.


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,

282


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, ).

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$1 (. 6.3).
(
1947 .) , 1947 .
$2,551 182,3

6.


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,
,

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.

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.
;
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,
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283

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,
,

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.
,
, ,
.
,
,

,


.
,
.
,
,

,


,

, ,
.
:
(Peter Rodriguez)
.
Leonard Bierman et al., The Legal Environment of
Business, 3 rd ed. (Dubuque, la.: Eddie Bower Pub
lishing, 2000). .

- ( $13 993 - )
$ 1 . , ,
$1
$3,093 170,0 - ( $18 194
- ). , ,
.
$4201 ($18194 - $13993) , .
,
: 30%
. -

II.

. 6.3. 1947 .:

. ,
.
(Leontief paradox).
50
, .
. , ,
, 1947 .,
.
1951 ., ,
6% . ,
, ,
, - ,
.
,
, .

: .
,
, (
), ( ) ().

. , ,
.

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,
Boeing.

6.

285

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), ,
.
,
. (
, ,
, ) (
,
)
Boeing, .

,



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). ,
, :
1)
; 2)

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); 3)
.
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) , ,
, .

, ;
- .

,
, .
(interindustry trade) ,
, ,
(,
).
.
(intraindustry trade) ,
, .
, Toyota , ,
, BMW . -

286

II.

40% ;
.
1961 . (Steffan Linder)
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
. ,

BMW , ,
, ,
. Toyota
, ,
.
,
. (country si
milarity theory), ,

; ,

.
, ,
, .

.



.
(,
, ). 60- .
(Raymond Vernon)
,
,
,
,
. ,
: ,
.
. 6.4.

6.

287

. 6.4.

288

II.

,
, (
)
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
. ,
, -
-
( , , , , ).
, -
,
. ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
Apple Computer.
, 1976 . (1
), (Steve
Jobs). ,
( 50 ,
), ,
.5
Apple
, ,
. ,
( Hewlett-Packard,
Intel National Semiconductor). ,
-,
Apple. ,
Xerox. ,
Apple,
1976 . $7,8 1978 . $5,7
2002 .
, ,

, . ,
,

.
,

6.

289

,
. Apple
Apple II, , -
- 1977 .

130 000 .
, Apple II
,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
(
, ).

.

. ,
(
Hyundai Samsung),

. , Tatung, Mitac International,
First International Information Systems (
),
,
. Apple

,
. ,
,
, . ,
,

. 6 , ,
Apple
. ,
,
.
,
,
. -

290

II.

, ,
,
.
. ,

, .

, .

. ,
, ,

,
.

.


80- . (Paul Krugman) 7 (Kelvin
Lancaster) 8
.

. ,
,
.
,
. ,

,
. , Caterpillar Komatsu, Unilever Procter &
Gamble, Toyota Ford, -
,
.
,
,
.
, -
- ,

, .
. ,
( ,
,
),
. , -

6.

291

Waterford Wedgewood
Company Louis Vuitton
. Coca-Cola
PepsiCo
.
- - .
- - ,
(research & development, R&D),
. , Airbus
$12 -
380. ,
, ,
- -
, . -

. , ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,
.
? Airbus
,
, ,
- .
-,
,
.
,
,
.

,
.

,
.
. ,
, Monsanto Eli Lilly,

, ,

. ,

292

II.

:
, .
,
, .

(Aalsmeer Flower Auction).
7000 , , 1300 , ,
, .
19 .
.
2000 . 1,45 .
.
, ,
, .

,
,
.

, .
,

. ,
,
.
web- (www.FlowerAccess.com).
,
( , ) .
: Dutch Flower Auction Blooms, Financial Times, October 11, 2001, p. 26;
www.FlowerAccess.com.

,
.
.


.
,
,
.
,
,
. -

6.

293


,
, .
,
. , Amazon.com
web- .

,
.
Amazon.com

. ,
web-
. ,
- ,
.
, .

,

.
,
.
,
. ,

25-30%
.9 ,

( 64 ),

. ,

, .

, .
, ,
.
, ,
,
( Samsung)
,
.10
(, Intel Advanced Micro Devices)
, ,

294

II.

,
( Pentium 4 Athlon),
.

(theory of national competitive advan
tage),
(Michael Porter), .
,
,
: ;
; ; ,
. . 6.5,
.
.

, .
^,
. ,
,
.
. 6 . 5 . ,

6,

295


, -
, .
.
, ,

. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,

,
, ,
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, DVD-
,
,
.
.

, , eBay Amazon.com,
,
.
.
-
,
, ,
.

,
.

, ,
, , ,
.
, Apple
70- .
.
-
, Apple
.
, -

296

II.



.
, .

.
,
,
, ,
. , ,

. , ,
(, , ,
),
.

. , ,

,
, .
,
,
.
.
,
.
, ,

. , DaimlerBenz, Porsche BMW,


, , ,
. ,

. -
: Nokia

, .
:
,
, ,
. ( )
, ,
-

6.

297

. ,
,
. ;
. Porsche, Daimler-Benz BMW
,
,

. , ,
Volkswagen Opel,
,
.
, ,

.
,
, ,
, , .
,
: Sony, Caterpillar,
.
, ,
,
,
. . 6.6
.

298

II.

Nokia , .

: 1865 .
Nokia ,
, .
Nokia (Frederik Idestam).

. ( )
,
. ,
.
60- . XX .
. 1967 .
Nokia , Finnish Rubber Works Finnish Cable Works.
1981 . , :

,
Nokia 5 1 % Finnish Telecommunications Company.
Nokia ,

. , 1982 . Nokia
. Nokia
.
, (
, )
.
Nokia.
, . ,
,
.
, ,
Nokia .
, , Nokia
. , .

.
WAP (wireless application protocol ,
). WAP, ,
, .
: Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003),
pp. 386-387; It Takes a Cell Phone, Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, pp. B1, B4.

6.

299



,
.
,
.

1,
:
(). ,
:
, ,
.
(portfolio investments)
, ,
;

.
,

,
.

-, , ,
.
, 2001 . , ,
$95 ,
$2,1 . (
, ,
), -

300

II.

, $396 ,
$3,2 . 11
(foreign direct investment, FDI)
.
10%
, ,
.12
,
, ,
,
. ,
24- ,
(Peter Minuet)
.13 .

30
. . 6.7, 1967 . (
) , ,
$100 . 2001 . $6,8 .
( 90- .) -

6 . 7 .
-, $

6.

301

. ,
. ,
.
.


. (.
. 6.4, ), 2002 . $1,3 (
).
, $283,3 , 21%
. , . 6.4, , 87%
.
,
, 2002 . $1,5 (. . 6.4, ).
,
($255,4 ) ($152,5 ).
, . 6.4, , 63%
, .
, . 6.4,
, ,
, ,
. ,
( 8).

,
, .

.

(. . 6.8),
.
,
:
.
.


? -
, , ,
:
. ,
, ,

302

II,

.
,
, .


(
) (
).
. , 2001 .
$4,5 ,
$6
.

. ,
.


. ,

6.

303

. 6.8. , 1982-2002

, ,
.
,
(ownership advantage theory), ,
, ,

. ,
, ,
.
, .
Caterpillar,
, , ,
,
, .
Caterpillar, Komatsu,
, .

304

II.


,
,
. ,

,
,
,
.
, McDonald's ,

McDonald's , Boeing

.

. (transaction
costs) ; , ,
,
, .
, :


,
. (internalization theory),
( , ,
,
) , ,
,
,
. ,
Toyota
.


. , Toyota
.
, ,




. , McDonald's

McDonald's.
,

6.

305


.


FDI. ,

, ,
. ,
?
,
(John Dunning). (eclectic theory)
,
:
,

. ,

,
.
FDI
.
1. ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
. . Caterpillar
,
.
2.
.

. , Caterpillar
, ,
,
,
.
3. .
,

.
: ,
, ,

306

II.

;
;
.
Caterpillar.

,

,
, ,
,

.
: ,
(. . 6.5).
-- ^

^ -

6.5
,




, ,
, .
.
,

6.

307

.
-
,


. , Novolabs,
,
, .
Novolabs
, ,
,
.14 GumSung Plastics,
, $8

. , .
.15
CultureQuest,
,
, .
.
,
. , Heineken

, .
, ,

, ,
.
, ,
. , Citrovita,
,
,

. Citrovita

.

,
, .
.
,
. , -

.
, -

308

II.

,
. , Ayala Corporation
.

,
,
(. 6.1). :
8000
600 .
$24
.16
6 . 1 .

.
.
,

. ,


. 90- . Acer Inc.,
, $100
, ,

Acer Inc. .17

6.

309



,
. , ,
,
, .
.

. ,

( ,

). KFC
,
; ,
.
IKEA
.
.
.

,
. ,
,
. ,
, Time Sports Illustrated, Toyota

. ,
.
Delta Products,
, ,

, .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
, Delta
, ,
( ). 18
.

. , ,
,
-

310

II.

.
. , Pari Mutuel Urbain
(PMU) 7000 ,
. ,
, ,
,
$6 .

, ,
25%,
19
.
.

. ,
,

,
.
,
,
. ,

.
, ,
, -
.

,
(just-in-time, JIT). JIT
, ,
, .
, Samsung

- ,
. 20


.
,
, ,
, .
.
,
. ,

6.

311

90- Fuji Photo Film Company $200


,
, (
).
, .
Fuji
3,7% , ,
, Kodak Fuji,

21
( 9).
, .
(, )
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
(,
), .

,

,
. ,
Hyundai $118,5 ,
, ( 2005 .)
2000 .22
2003 ., Toyota

. -
, Toyota
$133 ;
, ,
, .23


: 2001 .
$7,7 .

312

II.

.
, .
,

.
.
,
,
. (
,
) . ,
,

( , , ).

,
.
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,

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,
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; 3) -
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,
.

.
, , ,
.
,

6.

313

,

, ,

.
.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.

1. ? ,
.
2.
.
3. ?
4. ,
, ?
5. ?
6.
.
7. ,
.
8.
.
9.
?
10. .
11.
?


, (
), ,

:
.
? (:
,
? ?) ,
. 6.2 . 6.1?

314

II.

2. ,
(), (Ross
Perot) , ,
(
, ,
).
,
.
3. , ,
?
4. Hyundai
.
) , ,
Hyundai
?
)
?
) Hyundai
?
I



, IBM, Apple, Hewlett-Packard Dell.
,
, Sony, JVC, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Toshiba.

(Ford General Motors),
(Toyota Honda).
4-5

. ,


.

( ),
, ,
. ,

.
.
,

6.

315

. ,
, ,

. ,
, .

,
. ,
.
1.
? ?
2. , ,
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3. ?
4. , , ,
,
,
, .
.
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(William Echickson)

, ,
(Peter Ingelbrecht) .

--, 35-
(Laurent Coppieters) Rent-a-Holiday .
, ,
, .
Microsoft Corp. (Greg Slyngstad) (Steve
Murch) .
14 , Microsoft Corp. -
. : Microsoft
, - . 1997 .,
,
VacationSpot.com, ,
, .

316

II.


, ,
. Rent-a-Holiday
,
, .
,
.
, Yahoo!.
,
, .
:
Rent-a-Holiday VacationSpot.com , . Rent-a-Holiday
,
. ,
,
,
.
?
. ,
, -
, .
:
, ,
.
.
, .
, .
$400 000
. , 1997 .,
$850 000 -.
,
.
Microsoft
, (Jay Hoag),
Technology Crossover Ventures ,
, Real Networks CNET. ,
. , $5 Technology Crossover
Ventures $4 .
,
,
.
IBM Procter & Gamble -

6.

317

, 55
, .
, , -,
.
Rent-a-Holiday
.
10%, (, web-)
. International Data Corp., 320 000
- . , , ,
.

. ,
.
VacationSpot.com 45 , ,
. ,
:
.
,
.

,
( 9000 ). , ,
,
,
. Rent-a-Holiday

web-.

. , ,
.
, ,
VacationSpot.com
.
,
online.

,
.
,
.
,
-. ,
Rent-a-Holiday - Lycos Inc.
VacationSpot.com Yahoo!, Microsoft

318

II.

Expedia, Preview Travel, Travelocity, .


, , .
web- VacationSpot.com
Rent-aHoliday.

, .
. ,
VacationSpot.com
; ,
.
:
, .

, , .
-
, .
Rent-a-Holiday.
,
.

VacationSpot.com; ,
.
,
- , .
, 20%,
, VacationSpot.com
Rent-a-Holiday. VacationSpot.com
Rent-aHoliday,
. , Rent-a-Holiday
, VacationSpot.com,
,
.
.
, .
20% .
. VacationSpot.com
,
.
,
. Rent-a-Holiday
, ,
-. VacationSpot.com
. -

6.

319

, .
,
,
( ). ,

.
:
,
, , .

1. ,
, ,
.

?
- ?
2. - ,
?
?
3.
, ,
? ,
, ?
: Home Field Disadvantage, BusinessWeek E. Biz, December 13, 1999,
p. EB72ff. .



.
.
,
, ;
,
,
, .

320

II.

.
, ,
,
.
1997 . .
(Special Ad
ministrative Region, SAR),
,
(Basic Law). , 2047 .
, ,
. ,
. ,
:
,
,
, .
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. -
,
,
.
-.
2000 . 619
- , 570,
236. 80- 90- . (,
-) .
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
. ,
, .
, ,
,
,
.

6.

321

(hongs -~
)
. , Jardine Matheson
and Company, (William Jardine),
.
, , .
, , ,
,
, .
,
.

, .
, .
,
.
90- .,
,
, .
-

.
. 80%
"
, : ,
, ; ,
; , ;
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, .
,
( guanxi),
.

, .
.

.
-
.
: -

322

II.

, .
,
; 88: .
. ,
,
.


Astra 90%.
:
-4-

;
+ ;
4-
,
- ;
:f ;
+
;
4-
.

Astra?
i

Astra International
- ,
Astra International 125 000 .

324

II,

Astra
, 400 000 .
Astra
, , ,
, (,
). Astra
80- 90- .,
()
4%
. ,
,
,
Astra
.
90-.
- ,
32- ( 1966 1998 .).
,

,
. 1996 .
,
,
.
,
, .
, Astra
$800
,
Astra .
1997 . Astra
. ,
()
74%. (
8.) , Asfra ,
,
. -
Asfra ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, .
, , 39%
Astra
(Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency, IBRA). ,
,
, (
Astra) .
90% . ,
$18
,
.
: -

7.

325

, 30%
.

Astra (Rini Soewandi).
( 40 , 1998 .
Astra), -
. ,
,
, .

20%. -
Astra;
70 .
, -
, Astra Microtronics Technology
( $90 ).

. ,
Astra
,
.

. ,
.
,
.
. -
,
. Astra
,
. , -
, (
,
Astra).
,
, .
,
, , ,
. - , Astra

.

. ,
- Astra
- IBRA,
$81 . IBRA
Astra . -
, ,

, .
, , IBRA
- ,
. , - , Astra

326

II.

. , , , 2002 .
$400 ,
1
2001 .
Astra : ,
( Astra International),
, .
Astra ,
. , ,
,
.
Astra ,
,
. ,
,
,
Astra
. , Astra,
: ( ,
),
,
,
.
,
.
.
(international monetary system)
,
. ,

.
, ,
(,
),
.
,
,
.
(balance of payments accounting system)
,

- - .
, ,
,
,
, ,

7.

327



,
, -. ,
, ,
2
VII . . .
XVI-XVH .

.


,
. (gold standard)

, , *
,
. 1821 .
, . XIX .
,
, , -, ,
.

. (exchange rate)
, .
(fixed exchange rate)
.
,
(pegged)
. ,
4,247;
(par value) ,
.
, $20,67.
,
4,247 = 1 = $20,67.

: 1 = $4,867, $20,67/4,247.
,

328

II.

,
.
. , Jardin Matheson
100 000 Twinning & Company,
. Jardin Matheson
Twinning & Company ,
,
, , .
, - Jardin
Matheson 100 000
,
. , Jardin Matheson
, Twinning
Jardin Matheson
. , ,
Jardin Matheson

.
1821 . 1918 .
,
, .
,
.

, .
, ,
(sterling-based gold standard).
.
(.
7.1), , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , .
,
. ( CultureQuest,
, ,
.)

. ,
, XIX .
.

, Barclays Bank, Thomas Cook Lloyd's of London,
,
XIX .

7.

329

7.1. 1913 .

330

II.



.
(, )
(-, )
. , ,
,
.
(1920 .) (1922 .)
,
,
. , , ,
,
, .
, .
( )
.
1931 . .
,
,

.

, (
),

.
.
,
( ; ,
, , , , )

. ,
()

, .
, ,
. (
20%,
,
.) ,
,
,
. ,

7.

331


(beggar-thy-neighbor), (. . 7.1),
.
:

1939 . .
-

, ,

, . 7.1. :
1929-1933 .

332

II.

, . ,

,
(, )
. ,
, ,
,
. 1944 . 44
- ( -),
. -
,
. ,
,

:
.
. (International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD)
(World Bank). ,
1945 .,
.
50- .
:
.

, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

(World Bank Group . . 7.2). ,
$126 ,
184 -.
,
- .

(17%); (8%), (5%),
(4%), (4%) : , ,
, , . ,

, .

. ,
,

7.

333

. 7.2.

. 1998 2002 .
, , $15 .
,
,
. $200 ,
2002 .
.
,
(,
).
-.

, . ,
,
. ,
(hard loan policy).
,
, .
50- .
,
,
. 1960 .

334

II.

, MAP (International Development Association, IDA).


(soft loans)
, ,
. MAP ,
( 0,75%). ,
( , 35-40 ),
10 .

.
$25 , 2002 .
, .

, ,
, .
1998 2002 . , MAP,
$7 .

. , (International
Finance Corporation, IFC), 1956 .,
.
,
,
. , 2002 .
Lafarge Surma Cement Ltd. $10
$35 ,
( $60 ), 1,2
. ,

. 2002 . , ,
$5,8 .
,
, (Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency, MIGA), 1988 . ,

- (
3).
,
.
, 2002 .
$18 Societe Wationale de Telecommunications du
Senegal. Ikatel SA,
. 2002 .

$1,3 .

7.

335

,
,
, .
,
,
.
(
, )
.
Forests and Frogs
Epipedobates Dendrobates. , poisondart frogs ( ),
, .
(campesinos),
$50 , . Forests and
Frogs ,
. Forests and Frogs,
7500 : ,
, , ,
, . Forests and Frogs
,
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). ,

(
$2 ).
: Poisonous Customers Hop to the Aid of Peru's Forests, Financial Times, May 3-4, p. 22;
Micro-Loans Help Entrepreneurs, Houston Chronicle, August 12, 2000, p. 1; www.cires.org.


, (African Development Bank),
(Asian Development Bank)
(Inter-American Development Bank).
.
, ,
, (European Bank for Reconstruction and Deve
lopment, EBRD).

.

. ,

-

336

II.

.
25% .
. -
,
, ,
-
,
. ,

, -
, (International
Monetary Fund, IMF).
. . 1

:
1) ;
2)
;
3) ,
,
;
4) ;
5)
;
6)
.
,
. 2003 . 184
.
, ,
(quota), .

. ,
.
.
1.
, .
17% .
6% ;
(5%), (5%) (3%).
2.
(
).

7.

337

3.
.
25%
.
,

( IMF
conditionality). ,
$21

,
,
,
chaebol (
), .

$10
,
,
. 3 , ,

,
Astra International
. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
. , 1998 .
,
.
, ,
, .
.

. , -
.

. ,
$35 .

.
, -
. ?

338

II.

(convertible currency), . . ,

.

. XIX .,

. , ,
.

, -
.

1 % . ,
,
,
1 %
.
, -
.

. - ,

. , -

(adjustable peg),
,
.
.
$2,80. (
, $35.
, ,

.) ,
$2,772 $2,828 (1% $2,80). ,
$2,76
,

.
,
$2,772 $2,828.
-

,

7.

339

. ,
,
.
, 1960- .
,
. , ,
,
, .


.
, .

,

- .
, , ,
. ,
,
.
.
: ,
,
.
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
. -
,

. , ,
- , .
,
.
,

.
1967 .
,
, 14,3%

340

II.

( , $2,80 $2,40).
1969 .,
.
- .
, 70-
.

,
- .
, , - ,
.
,
, ,
. -

.
,
, 50- 60- . ,
, .
,
,
- . (Triffin
paradox) ,
(Robert Triffin),
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
.

,
,
, .
1967 .
,
(special drawing rights, SDR).

,
. SDR
,
, SDR .

7.

341

18,4 SDR, 1,2% .


SDR
( , ,
) ,
. 2003 . SDR $1,39.

,
,
. 70- . -
- .
1971 . ,
.
,
,
. 15 1971 .
,
$35 . - .
, .

,
.
.
. (Smithsonian Conference),
1971 .,
(. . 7.1)
,
.
( $38 ), -
, ,
, . ,
2,25%
1%, - .
1971 .

,
. , ,
, ,
(,
). 2,25%
1972 .
. 1973 .
. 1973 .
10%. 1973 . ,
, -

342

II.

. (
. 7.2.)
( )
. 1973 .

.
,

.

(managed float)
, , (dirty float),

.
.
7.2

7, '



,
.
,
(1821-1914) -
(1945-1971),

,
. ,

,


,

. ,

,

,

. ,


,

.


, XIX .,
- .

-

343

.




. ,

.
,
( ),
,


.

,

.



.
1967 . , 1969 .
1971 .
.
,

.
,

;
,


, .


, 1976 .
(Jamaica Agreement)
,
.
.
,
- .

344

II.

,
(),
. 1979 .

(European Monetary System, EMS).

(exchange rate mechanism, ERM).


2,25% ,
.
1999 . . (
10.)
7.2
.
. ,
,
,
, -
. , , , ,
. ,

. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
. CultureQuest,
, ,
, .
. ,
,
. 1976 .
,
, . ,
,
,

.
(. . 7.1)
1985 . Plaza -. ,
(Plaza Accord),
,
,
. 1987 . 46% -

7.

345

7.2. 2002 .
: IMF, International Financial Statistics, April 2003, pp. 2-3.

346

II.

41% . ,
,
1990 . ,
, . (Louvre
Accord)
. 1990 . ,
.
. . 7.3
, - .
. 7.3. , 1960-2002 .


.
, ,
-
;
.
. -

7.

347


. 6,
Caterpillar Komatsu,
Caterpillar
80- ., ( )
Komatsu 80- 90-.
, 1995 .,
Komatsu Caterpillar.
. ,
1973 ., .
- 1973 .
, ,
. -
, (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC),
, $3
1973 . $12 1974 .
- .
, 6,1% 1973 . 11,1% 1974 .
1974 . - $60
. -
,
,
.
, .


.
.
,
.
,


. .
: ,
,

(
). ,
.
, -.


, .

348

II,

,
. ,
. ,
$90 , $67 .
1978-1979 .,
. $13
1978 . $30 1980 .,
, .
,
, ,
.
, 1982 .
.
,
,
, .
. 40 ,

. -
, -,
1980-.
.
1985 . (Baker Plan),
.
,
- ,
- ,
, ,
. ,

, ,
,
. -
. -,
-
. 1989 . (Brady Plan),
,
. ,
,
,
.
90- .
. -
,
, ,

7.

349

( ,
2).
. 80- .
.
1997 ., ,
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
. 2

, 20%. ,

.
, ,
. ,
. 7.4, ,
( (contagion)
).

;
.
$100 ,
. 8,
, ,
. , 2
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

, .
.

350

II.
. 7.4.




.
,

.
, ,
,
. ,
,

.
,

. :
1)
;

7.

351

2)
,
,
, . ,

,

. ,

, ;
3)
,
(
1997 . ). ,
,
;
4) ,

.

:
1) ,
(, );
2)
, ,
;
3)
. -
, ,
.
,
. , (, ,
),
. ,
.

. ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
, .

II.

,
,
()
.
,
56 58
, 20 000
.

,

.
,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, -

,
, ,


.
,


,
.
,

,
, .


,
.
,

(
),

.

,
,
.

,
,

.

.

,
,
,
.



,
,

.

,
( ,
)
.
,

.
, ,

? ,
,

,
,

.

7,

, ,

,
,
. ,

,
. ,
,

,
.
?


, .
Micron Technology,

. Micron

, Sam
sung, LG Hyundai.
Micron, ,

,

.


94% .
(
,
Micron)

.
, Micron
,

,

Micron .
, Micron
.
,
,

.

,
,

-
, .

353

.
,
.


,

,
.


$100 .
?
,
, .
,
,
, .

? ,

,
,
.


1. ,

,
.

?
2.
,
Micron'!
3.
,
,
,



. ?
.
: Who Needs the IMF? Wall Street
Journal, February 3, 1998, p. A22; Suharto Fami
ly Benefits in Peril from Spirit of Reform, Financial
Times, January 16, 1998, p. 16; Fingerprints of
Korea's Cash Woes Cover Globe, Wall Street Jour
nal, December 15, 1997, p. A16; Micron Techno
logy Opposes U.S. Role in Korean Bailout, Wall
Street Journal, December 2, 1997, p. B6.

354

II.


, ;
4) .
;
.
, -,
, . -,
,
.
.

.
, ,
; , ,
.
,
.

().

,
.
.
, , ,

.
.
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ().
. 7.3
.
, Mercedes-Benz
(merchandise export),
Dom Perignon, ,
(merchandise import). (
trade in visibles
.)
() ,
(balance on merchandise trade). ,
, , -

7.

355

7.3

, (merchandise
trade deficit); , ,
,
(merchandise trade surplus).
, ,
,
, , , , ,
.
(service export),
, , (service
import). (
trade in invisibles .) ,

,
,
, .

(balance on services trade).
,
, . ,
,
(export of the services of capital) .
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
(import of the services of capital)
. ,
, ,
. ,
,

.

356

II.

, ,
(unilateral transfers),
.

. , ,
,
; ,

,
.
.
(current account balance)
,
, .

, ,

.
.
(capital account),
( ),
. ( . 7.4)
:
.
,
, . ,

7.4

7.

357

.
, ,

10% .
,
, .
: .
(short-term portfolio investments)
.
:
; , ,

;
; (
), .
(long-term portfolio investments) , ,
,
,
, . ,
IBM
,
, -,
. ,

(California Public Employers Retirement System Pension Fund)
British Airlines,
. Ford Motor
Volvo,
.

. ?
,
, . ,
, ,
.
- ,
. (
,
,
.)

.
1.
.
2000 . Lycos,

358

II,
4

web-, - Terra Networks SA $8,5 .


, ,
.
,
.
2.
. 90- Kmart
Kmart Zeller (
Hudson's Bay) $168 , .
, IBM
, IBM
, IBM
, , IBM
.

.
1.
. Ford Jaguar Motor Company
1,5 .
,
Delta Air Lines
.
2.
. 100 000
GM ,
. ,
Japan Air Lines ,
.
.
. 7.5
.
. ,
(official reserves account),
, .
,
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) (SDR);
4) .

,

7.

359

7.5

. ,
. ,
,
, . SDR
( - ,
) .
.
.
,
.
:
+ +
+ = 0.
-
.
(errors and omissions account) ,
:
+ +
+ + = 0.
. ,
2002 .
$28,5 . , -

360

II.

.
, - ,
,


,
.

,
( ,
, ).
, ,
(flight
capital) ,
,
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
( )
(
). 2002 .,
- ,
, ,
, $22 .5
.

,
,
.
, .
,
,
.
.
. ,

, ,
.
,
.
,
2002 .

7.


?
? ? ?
,
,
.


,

.
, $251
$515 ,
49%.
,
,
;

.
,
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
1995 .
,
, 3%
, ,
,
, ,
1990 . $143 .

, ,
- -,
,


. 1990 1996 .
84%
,
. ,

,
/
.

, ,
,
.

361

,
,

. 2001 .

.

,
$450 .
2000 .;
,
.

,
,

. ,

,

, .

,
. ,
,
30 ,
6,5%;
$16,3
(6,5% $251 )

. ,

.
(
,
)
,
.
: EI Salvador Switching to U.S.
Dollar, Houston Chronicle, December 30, 2000,
p. 1; Survey of Current Business, July 2000,
p. 51; Dollar's Share of World Reserves Grows,
Wall Street Journal, September 10, 1997, p. A2;
Russia Counts Cost of Change as US Set to Issue
New $100 Bill, Financial Times, January 16,1996,
p. 20; Where is the Buck? Dollars Make the World
Go Around, Fed Says, Houston Chronicle,
October 13, 1995, p. 2C.

362

II,

2002
.
. 7.6, 2002 . $682,6 .
. 7.5,
.
; 2002 . $78,4 .
56% .
,
1965 .
* . (
GM,
Ford Chrysler
$59,8 .) , . 7.5, ,
46% 2002 .
. 7.6, ,
2002 . $1166,9 . . 7.5, ,
;
$203,9 , 17% .
, . 7.5, , $546,6 ,
47% 2002 .
.
$289,3 2002 .,
($87,8 ).
$240,5 ,
($80,3 ). , 2002 .
, $48,8
(. . 7.6).
7.6 - ,
;
, .
,

. , ,

.
(. . 7.6).
2002 . $244,6
$256,5 ;
() $11,9 .
( )
$56,0 . *Auto Pact ( )

(Canada United States Automotive Agreement), 1965 . . .

7.

363


2002 ., $503,4 .

(. . 7.6). (
) $123,5 ,
( ) $30,1 .

$484,8 . ,
$113,0 . 2002 .
$478,6 ,
,
.
2002 .
$3,7 . ,
, , ,

II.
. 7.5. , 2002 .


.
.
2002 . $28,5 . , 2002 .
:

(-503,4 )

_

+
+
(+478,6 )



,

.

.

7.

365

. 7.6,
, 2002 .

? ,
, .
, ? ,
( )
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
, .
,
,
.
: -

366

II,

, , .

. (official settle
ments balance) ;
,
,
.
,
, .
.
, , ,

.
,

, .

.
.
;

.


.
,
( )
.

, . 6
7.7
, .


,
.
-
, .
,
.

7.

367

. 7.7.

, XIX .,

, ,
.
,
.
- , 1944 .,
.
,
,
,
.
, ,

$35 ,
- .

368

II.

, 1971 .
- .

.
; ( )
.

,
, ,
1973-1974 .,
80- . 1997-1998 .
,
, .

,
- - ,
.
.
, ,
.
,
;
, .
, ,
.
,
, , SDR,
. ,
,
.

.
.
. ,
,
.
.
,
.
.

1. ?
2.
?

7.

369

3. - .
4. ?
5.
?
6. - 1971 .
7.
.
8. ,
, .
9. ,
?
10.
.


1.
XIX .
, 1945 .?
2. - .
?
3.
?
4. ,
?
5.

?
6.
?


,
.
. 7.3 7.5,
,
.
1

, Wal-Mart
Sony Corporation $1 . -

370

II.

, $1 .
,
( ) .
:
?
: ,
.
,
,
. WalMart Sony $1 ,
,
, .
Wal-Mart Sony ,
,
,
.
,
.
, Wal-Mart Sony $ 1 ,
Sony ?
Sony
$1 . Sony :
1) Sony ,
,
;
2) , $1 ,
Sony ,

( ) .
. ,
Wal-Mart
Sony
:

,
.
,

7.

371

(
,
).
.
2

,
-, $1000
, .
:

$1

$1

,
$1000 .
, .
,

. ( ,
.) ,
$1000,
.
,
.

,
, .
, ,
, . ,
,
.
,
.
3

Mitsubishi 51% $846


.
:

$846

$846

372

II.

,
,
:

. $846

,
. ,

:
$846 , $846 .
, 1 2,

. ,
. ,
, -
( 1).
,
.
:
?
1. ,
2004 . , $1400
( ) .
2.
$1400 United Airlines (
) - .
3. Ford Motor Company () $2,5 .Jaguar Motor Co (
).
4. $500
, .


: ?

:
4-
;
4-
(
);

7.

373

4-
.

:
1) .
( );
,
(
);
2) .
(
),
( ). ,
, ,
( ).
, ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
,
,

,
, ,
-
. . ,
,
.
,
,

.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,

374

II.

,
, .
,
. ,

.

(Milton Friedman),
. ,
,
Toyota Camry Sony,
, . ,
,
( , ), , ,
, ,
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?
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?

7,

375

, ,
:
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);
4 ;
4 ,
;
+ Merrill Lynch;
4 Boeing Aircraft, ;
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,
. ,
, ,
, .
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3. ,
, ?
?

,
$25 $30 .
:
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;
4- ;
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;
4- ;
4- .


2002 . ,
. 12
, . ( .)
12 ,
(), , , . ,

,
. (,

8.

377


.
.)

, , . ,
2002 . , ,
,
.
.

,
,
, .
,
$25 $30 ,
.

, . ( ,
.) ,
Volkswagen $675 SEAT
, Volkswagen
80-. , 80- .
.
, , ,
, Volkswagen
.

.
, -
, . ,
,
.
.
,
.
,
. ,

,
, .
.
,
-
(European Central Bank, ECB), -
, . ,
.
, 2003 .
, ,
.
,
, ,
.1

378

II.

,
,
. Marks and Spencer,
,
, ,
.
, Marks and Spencer
Maytag Corporation, ,
( Marks and
Spencer) ( Maytag Corporation).
,
. ,

.
, ,
,
.


(foreign exchange) ,
, .
, (
)
, .

. . 8.1
.
,
, .
,
. , . 8.1
,
.
.
. 8.2 .
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
(

. 8.2.). , ,

8.

379

. 8 . 1 . ,

:
.2
8.3 .
, , (
,
). , , .
, (5) . 8.2. ,

380

II,

(D) ( $0,009 ),
(200 ).
7, ,
.
8.3
; ,
.
, ,
.
, . , . 8.4
6 2003 ., Wall Street
Journal. .
(direct exchange rate), (direct quote),
, . ,
,
, 6 2003 . $0,008321/1.
(indirect exchange rate), (indirect quote),
, .
,
, 6 2003 ., 120,18/$1.
.
( ) , ,
,
. ,
.

8.

381


, ,
. ,
: $1,89.
0,529 .
,
.

,
.
,
,

,
,
.

. . 8.3
,
-,
(
).
,

(
,

).
, .
,

, , ,
- .
,
,
, ,

,
.
. ,
$1,73,
$1,74.
, .
, .
.
:
$1,73,
$1,74. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.


,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
. Toyota,
,
,
, ,

382

II.
. 8.4.

8.

383
. 8.4

: Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2003, p. B8. Wall Street Journal.


2003, Dow Jones & Company, Inc. .

.
$1,2 . -
(. 8.1). ;
-, .
66% .
. 8.5, 90%
.
- .
- ,
(transaction currency) .

384

II.

8.1. .
, ,
.
, , , , ,
, , , , , -, -

8.

385

. 8.5. , .
( ).
, 200%


( /. P. Morgan Chase,
Barclays Deutsche Bank),
-, ,
.
.
,
, , . ,
J. P. Morgan Chase 10
1,649 . ./$1 1,648 .
./$1. $3679,78. (
: J. P. Morgan Chase
10 000 000 1,649, $6 064 281,38,
10 000 000 1,648, $6 067 961,16,
$3679,78.)
, , ,
.
,

386

II,

. , ,
.
()
,
. , ,
, $1 (
), .

.
,
,
. , ,
, , ,

. -,
online
.
,
,
. ,
,
. , ,

. , $100 000
20 000 - Avril Lavigne U2,
,
General Motors, $20 ,
. ,
,
,
.

:
4- ,
,
,
,
.
() ,
,

;
,
( -

8.

387

,
$1,2 . ,
online,
.
,
.

. , , Deutsche Bank, Citigroup UBC,
. Deutsche Bank, 90% (
, ) . ,
. Barclays
Charles Schwab Corp.
,
,
.
, ,
,
.
online.
,
.
FXall.com ,
: Bank of America, Goldman Sachs, Credit Suiss First Boston, J.P. Mor
gan Chase, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, UBS Warburg HSBC. (Paul Kimbeli),
FXall.com, ,
. - , , ,

web-
.
: Foreign Exchange Banks Charge into Online Battle, Financial Times, August 15, 2000, p. 19;
Banks Move toward Online Currency Trading, Financial Times, June 7, 2000, p. 20; Deutsche Bank,
Chase Manhattan Join Move toward Online Currency Dealing, Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2000, p. A43D.

).

,
, .
,
,
;
+ ,

.
,
.

388

II.


. 7,
, - ,


. ,
, . , ,
,
,
.


, , ,
. ,
, 100 000
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
,


.
.

. ,
,
(convertible currency) (hard currency).
, ,
, . ,
- ,
, -
,

8.

389

(inconvertible currency) (soft currency).


.
-
,
.
. ,
- ,
.
.

? ,
.
,
. - (spot market) ,
, ,
, . (
, .
,
.) ( ) 40%
.
(forward market) ,
,
. , ,
, 30, 90 180 .
, Wall Street Journal ,
, 6 2003 ., - $1,6099,
30 $1,6068,
180 - $ 1 , 5 9 1 1 .

,
30-
90-
180-

. - (swap transaction) ,

, . ,
-
,
10 30 , 10 -,

390

II,

,
10 ( ,
) 30- , ,
.
,
- ,
.
,

. , ,
.
(),
-,
. .
, DaimlerChrysler 10,7
42 . ,
DaimlerChrysler,

42 .
,
.

, .
(currency futures). ,
, ,
. ,
, (,
12,5 125 000 )
(,
). , ,
,

. ,
,
. ,
, .

98 . 1%
, .
(currency option)
( )
.
(call option) ,
. (put option) ,
.

8.

391

. ,
(
100 000 ),
( 50 000 ). . 8.1
, 6
2003 . - , ,


.
5% , .
,
,
() , .
, Toys R Us
Sony PlayStation 2 140 90
.
90 , Toys R Us
140
90 . , ,
,
90 . Toys R Us

. (
18.)

-. ( )
-, ,
(forward discount). -,
, (forward
premium). , . 8.4, Wall Street Journal 6 2003 . $1,6099.
$1,6004,
.
:

392

II,
8.1

8.

393

; Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2003, p. B5. Wall


Street Journal. 2003 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. .

, ,
.
- ( ),
.
. ,

. ,
,
.
,
, .
,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
. , -


.


. (arbitrage) ,
- -

394

II.

.
,
: .
.
:
, ,
( ),
, (
).
,
( ,
. .).
Gaieties Lafayette
( , 6).

(theory of purchasing power parity, P P P ) .
,
.
,

( , ),
, .
. ,
US $0,80 = Can $1.
, Levi's US $24
$30 .
,

, Levi's
(, , ).
, ,
, .
,
,
(),
. ,
;
, .
,
US $0,60 = Can $1.
.
, US $18 $30 Levi's,
$6.

8.

395

:
,
Levi's Levi's . , ,
,
. -,
Levi's ,
. -,
Levi's ,
. ,
, ,
Levi's, , ,
.
,
.
?
, ( )
( ) , $6.
-- ( , ) -- (
); ( ) - ( -);
( ) ( )
,

.

,
.
,
,
,
-- . ,

( ),
,
, ,
.
,
.

.
, , .
2001 . $35 990 (

2001 .). 2001 . $35 815.
,

396

II,

.
.

$27 430, , ,

. - ,
(,
. .),
,
.


. ,

.
The economist
, Big Mac
McDonald's (. ).
, , Big
Mac ,
.
.
,
.
, $1,2
, . ,
,
,
.
.
(
- )
($1,2 )
($17 ).
,
,
. ;
:
; .
(two-point arbitrage),
(geographic arbitrage),

. , 1 $2 - $1,80
. ,
. /. P. Morgan Chase $1,80

8.

397

, 1 .
- $2.
( ) , ,
/. P. Morgan Chase $2 $1,80.
,
.
,
. ,
-,
- .
,
. ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
. , 1 $2 , , $1 120 ,
1 200 .
,
.
,
(three-point arbitrage).
. . 8.6
:
1: 1 $2.
2: $2 240.
3: 240 $1,2.
1 ,
1,2; 0,2.

, (
, ) - . -
(cross rate) ,
(
).
, -,
, .

398


.

. Big
Mac, The Eco
nomist ,
:


Big Mac.
: 12%.
, 1986 .

,

. ,


,

. ,
,


.
, ,
Big Mac McDonald's,
118

.
Big Mac
,
,
.


.

Big Mac .
,

II.

.
Big Mac
$2,71.
($1,20);
($4,52). ,
,
.

(
Big Mac) .
Big
Mac
( 3,65
).
8,28 , ,
56%
. Big Mac

.
,
$1 .
, $1,10,
10%. ,

.


.
3 1 %
;



.


30-50%.
, .
,

.

8,

, ,
,
. ,
: Big
Mac ,

; ,
,
, ,
(,
).

;
,
.
, 90-,

,
, ,
,
.

1999 .
,
Big Mac ,

.
*
(Li Lian Ong),
. ,
Big Mac

.


. , ,
,
.

,
.

,

399



.
,
.
,
,

,
( Big Mac),

. ,




.
,
Big Mac
.
Big Mac ,

. ,
,

,


.
,
Big Mac,
. ,
,
.
.

.
* The Big Mac Index: Applications of purchasing
Power Parity. Palgrave Macmillan,
2003.
: McCurrencies, The Economist, April 26,
2003, p. 68.

400

II,

, :
.
2
, -, , - .
3
.
4
.
: McDonald's; The Economist.

8.

401

. 8.6.


1/200, - , :


.

, , ,
- .
,
.
,
,
-. ,
, , , ,
.

.
,
. (covered-interest arbitrage)

402

II.

, ,
()
.
, .
, ,


,
.
,
( ).

. , 90-
12% ( )
8% - ( ).
-
, . ,

. , -
, , 90-
. - . , -
,
90 .
-

,
. , -
$1 , ;
- $1,60; 90- $1,59.
:
1) - 8%;
2) ,
12%, 90
.
, -
- 90 8%
( 2% 90 ), 90-
:
$1 000 000 1,02 = $1 020 000.
-
90 . ,
$1 000 000 625 000 - $1,60/1. , 12%
( 3% 90 ),

8,

403

625 000 xl,03 = 643 750.


,
, 643 750 90-
90- $1,59/1,
90- :
643 750 $1,59/1 - $1 023 562,50.
, - ,
,
($23 562,50 $20 000).
,

.

- .
,
, ?
- - ,
. -
. -
, - . 90-
,
. , , ,
-.
.
,
, ,
,
90-
. ,
, , ,
,
,
90 . ( ,

- .)
, ,
,


.
:
? 1930 .

404

II.

(Irving
Fisher) ,
.
,
,
" (international Fisher
effect). ,

. , ,
,
.

,
.
.
,
,
, .
, ,
.

.
. ,
, ,
( ),
( ),
( ).
.

8.

405


;

, ,
.
- , ,
,

. ,
,

. ,
,
,
.

,
. -
, ,
, .
(. . 8.2).
.

,
. (correspondent
relationship) ,
, , () . ,

,
. - ,
,
,
.
, .


.
. ,
,
, ,
.
,

. -

406

II.
8.2


,
.
.
, , ,
(subsidiary bank); ,
, (branch
bank).
() .
, (affiliated bank), ,

.
.

.
,
.

. -

8,

407

.
, Hallmark
Hello Kitty $10 ,
:
4- ;
4-
;
-4- ;
+
.
( , )
,
.
.
. ,
.
,
, Nomura, Salomon
Smith Barney, Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch.

,
.

,
.


. (
) 50- .,

, ,

.
, ,
.
(eurodollars) , .
(
) ,
, ,
. ,
(
), ,
. (eurocurrency) -

408

II.

, ,
. , ,
$9 ; 45%
3
.

.
, (
).
LIBOR (LIBOR, London Interbank
Offer Rate). LIBOR ,
.

,
().
, . , (
),
. (,
, )

, . -
, ,
. -,
,
.
70- . ,
,
(Federal Reserve Board),

,
. ,
, .


. ,
(international banking facility, IBF),
,

.
,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
, -

8.

409

.


.


,

.
:
. (foreign bonds) ,
,
. , Nestle Corporation, ,
, ,
. (eurobonds)
, ,
. , American Airlines
$500 , ,
, ,
.
(. . 8.7).

. ,
, ,
, -

. 8.7. 2001 ., $

410

II,


( , ,
) .
.
(global bonds)
, .
. ,
, $1,5
, .
, 0,225 . 0,225
, ,
, ,
$1,5 , ,
$3 375 000.
, , Matsushita Electric, Citigroup
Household Finance, .
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
, .

, ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
. , Walt Disney Company
51% Disneyland Paris .

. , British Airways
, - ,

8.

411

. . (country fund) ,
.

. ,
( Merrill Lynch, Daiwa Securities
Deutsche Bank),
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
. CultureQuest,
, ,
, ,
.


, .
,
, , , ,
() . ,
,
.

, .
,
,
, .
, - ,
,
,
, ,
,
.


.
1

412

II.

, ,
.
, .
,
( , , -),
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, .

.
-
. ,

.

.
, , ,
.
. , ,

.
. ,

- .


. ,
,
.

, .

( , ) , ,
.

1. ?
2.
?
3.
?

8,

413

4. ?
5. ,
, .
6. ,
.
7. .
8. ?
9. .
1


1. ,
.
?
2.
?

(, ),
?
3. ,
?
.
4. , - 90-
$1,65; 10%,
6%. , ,
- , 90-
,
, .
5.

?
6. ,
?
1


, . 8.4,
.
1. -
? ( :
? , ,
?)

2. -
? ( , ,
?)
3. -
.
4. 180-
.
5. ,
? .
6. ,
.
7.
.
8. ,
, .
9.
?



1997 . -
Goldman Sachs & .
( )
. Goldman Sachs ,
,
, ,
. Goldman Sachs ,

, . ,
, ,
,
80%. -

1995 .
, .

, .
,
,
.
, $38,7
.

8.

415

, Goldman Sachs .
, ,
.
,
. , ,
,
,
. ,
$10 ,
. 20 1997 . ,
20%,

.
. ( , )
,
.
,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
.
,
,
. , ,
,
,
. ,
, .
, ,

. -

, Siam Cement.

, . ,
Goodyear, , . -,
, ,
- ,
. -,
: ,
. ,
20%.
, ,
. ( )

416

II.

, .

, ,
,
. 20%,
,
.
, ,
,
. 1997 .
21%,
14%, 13%. , .
, ,

,
.

. ,
,
, ,
. 1997 .
60%, 45%,
40%, 30%
.
. , ,
( Coca-Cola, Gilette Whirlpool),
, ,

.
,
,
, , .

$100 . ,
- .
, , ,
,
. ,
, :
?

1.
?

8.

417

2.
,
?
3. ,
1997 ., ,
?
4. , .
,
?
5. , ,
(,
)?
: Goodyear's Thai Subsidiary Sees Bad Year, Wall Street Journal,
September 5, 1997, p. A9; The Real Lesson from Asia, Financial Times, September 2,
1997, p. 15; Asia's Endangered Tigers, Financial Times, August 30/August 31,1997, p. 6;
Thais Count Cost of Baht Defence, Financial Times, August 29,1997, p. 5; The IMF:
Immine from (Frequent) Failure, Wall Street Journal, August 25, 1997, p. A18; Thais
Face Slow Economic Climb, USA Today, August 12,1997, p. 4B; Southeast Asia Seems
Still on Track to Grow Despite Currency Slide, Wall Street Journal, August 5, 1997,
p. Al; Economic Troubles in Thailand Stroke Betting against the Baht, Wall Street
Journal, February 10, 1997, p. A14.

,

. ,

: .

. ,
,
,
.
,
. ,
*Kiasu () ,
. ,
,
. . .

418

II.

, ,
. .
-:
,
.

.
;
.

, .
,
.

,
, .


,
.
,
: web-, , .
,
,
- .
-. ,
, .
-:
, ,
. .
,
. ,
,

, ,
.
,
.

, . ,
, .

,

8.

419

.
,
:


. 90- .
:
, , , (credit card, cash, car,
condominium, country club).
Mercedes-Benz, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
. : kiasu -
. , 80 000
, .
,

- .
kiasu
.
? ,

, ,
.
-
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
, .

*, :
, , ,
, ,

.

.
:

;

;

;
,
;
;

.


. 1998 . 32
. 2001 . ,
, : - -

9.

421

,
,
, .
,

40%;
, .
.
,
, ,
. ,

, ,
,
, .
(, Ford General Motors),
, {Whirlpool General
Electric).
. ,
,
.
, 800
, 840 .
,
, 1 .
, 2001 .
20- .
2010 .
97,5 . , 2002 .
8 30%
. 201
1974 .,
, ,
.
, 5,4
; , ,
.
, .
,

.

.
,
,
,
.
1000 .
.

, (),

422

II.


.
, , . ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, , , , ,
,
.

. ,

. , 2003 . International Steel Group
Bethlehem Steel; U.S. Steel
National Steel Corporation. ,

. Parkview
Metal Products, .
,
$200 000.
, 2002 . ,
, 900 000 .
- ,
.
, 200 000 -
,
.1


, .
, ,
, ,

.
:

.

,
. ,

.
,

,
. ,
,
.

9.

423



,

.
:
1)

?
2)
,
, ,

?

,
.
(free trade) ,
-
. (fair trade),
(managed trade),
.
,


. , ,

,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.

, , -

424

II.

, ,
, .
,
Sony, Volkswagen Caterpillar,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, U. S. Steel
Nucor, .

,
, , .
,
,
.
,

, 6:

. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,

.
,
; ,
.
,
.
.

. ,
, ,

.
,
, ;

. ,
,
. -

9,

425


,
.
.
,

. ,
,
,
.
120 000
,
, , , .
, ,
, ,
, 97% ,
2
.
,
,
,
, .
, ,

. , ,
, ,
.
1954 .
, ,
.
,
, 40
.
,
,
, ,
.3
. ,
, (infant industry
argument) 1791 . ,

,
.
,
, ,
, . -

426

II.


, . ,


. ,
, .

. ,
,

( , , ).

. , 1970 .
,
22%.

.
.4
, ,
,

. ,

,
, . ,



. , ,
, .
,
.
.
, ,
,
.

,

. ,
,
, .

, -

9.

427

(
). ,
Barley -Davidson. 80-
,
.
,

. ,
,
,
30- .
. ,

, ,
,
.
,
6: .
,

, . ,
,

. ,
,
, ,
.
80-
,
(strategic trade theory).
,
.
(
) ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

428

II,


,
.
,
, ( ) .
, Framatome
Mitsubishi
,
,
. . 9.1
. Mitsubishi , a Framatome
(. ), Mitsubishi
$10 , Framatome .
Framatome , a Mitsubishi
(. ), Framatome
$10 , Mitsubishi .
, (.
).
, $ 1 ,
, .
,
,
.
,
, ,

. 9 . 1 . :
, $

9.

429


. Framatome
$2
, , . 9.2.
Framatome $2
,
(. ). Framatome
Mitsubishi,
Framatome , ,
. Mitsubishi
, Framatome $1
. Mitsubishi
, Framatome $12
. , Framatome
. Mitsubishi , Framatome
,
Mitsubishi .

. 9.2. : ,
Framatome $2 , $


$2 ?
1. Framatome
.
2. Mitsubishi
.

430

II.

3. Framatome
$12 ,
$2 .
,
,

$10 ($12 $2 ,
).

,
. ( ,
, ; .
.
, .)
,
,
,
. ,

, -
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,
,
. $2-
Framatome $3
Mitsubishi, : Mitsu
bishi
. ,
.

9.

431


, ,
.
,
.

,
.
.
,
.
. ,
,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
. ,
, .
,
1990 .
.
2,
( , )
.
(export promotion strategy)
,
- , (
, ). (
, , )
(import substitution strategy).


. ()

, , .
, 2,
.
.
.
,

432



,
Airbus
-.
Airbus,

Boeing Boeing 747
.

1969 . Boeing 747

.
Boeing 747 495
,
-
.


,
,
.
Boeing

Airbus
.


.

,

Boeing,
Airbus.

II.

Airbus
,

747 Boeing.
Airbus
650 ; ,
380, Boeing 747.
Airbus,
-
17%
Boeing 747.
- -
380
$12-16 .

Airbus
$3,5
,
( Airbus
, ,
).
Boeing, Airbus
,
,

.
, Boeing,
Airbus
. Airbus ,
20
1500 ,
380 .
Boeing,

,

. ,
(MITI)
,
.
( 2001 . MITI ,
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.)
50- 60- . MITI

,

9.

380
.
Boeing
, ,
380 ,
Airbus
.
,
380,

Boeing, 747.


.
,
,
Airbus,
,

.
, 1999 .
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG

$750 ,
340
Airbus.
,
Boeing,
,
,
.
, Boeing


,
.

,

433

Boeing
.
1992 .
,
.

,

Boeing .

Airbus

.


(
).
Airbus
380,
, ,
,

,

.
: Airbus Wins First Orderfor Super Jum
bo from Emirates, Financial Times, May 2, 2000,
p. 1; US Critical of UK Aid to Airbus Super Jumbo
Project, Financial Times, March 14, 2000, p.1; UK
Backing for Airbus 'Superjumbo', Financial Times,
March 14, 2000, p. 9; Loan Sparks US Charge of
Illegal Subsidy, Financial Times, March 14, 2000,
p. 9; U.S. Questions Need for Loans by Britain to
British Aerospace, Wall Street Journal, March 14,
2000, p. A27; U.S. Delay on Airbus Challenge Con
cerns Boeing, Wall Street Journal, January 24,
2000, p. A3.

( ),
,
(
). 70- 80- . MITI
(
,
).
,
. CultureQuest, -

434

II.

,
.
,
,
,
(industrial policy).
,
,
.

,

MITI.


. ,
,

. :

( ,
, )
,
.
,
.
. 80- MITI

(high-definition television, HDTV),

.
, HDTV

,
, ,
, MITI .

HDTV
.

, ,
,
,
. ,

9,

435


.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,

,
5
. , ,

,
.

,
, -
- . ,
, ,
,
. 6

.

,
, , ,
,
, . ,

,
, .
,
, , -, , -,
. ,
, ,

436

II.

,
.
, ,
,
,
? (public choice analysis)
,
,

: , ,
,
,
, ,
. ,
1920 .
.
,
$630 .
, ,
, ,
$10,5 , $40 . ,
,
(. 9.1).
,
, ,
,
$40. , , ,
,
,
, ,
, , .
,

,
. 7 ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
, ,
.

9.

437

9.1.

? .
,
' (Tip O'Neill):
.
,
.
, ,
, .
,
, .

, , .
, Nissan Toyota
, 80- .

. Nissan Toyota
,
( , ,
), ,
. :
Toyota Nissan ,
.

438

II.


,

.

: .
XVI .,
. ,
, /
. ,
,
, ,
.


~- ,
. ,
( , export tariff)
( , transit tariff).
, ( ,
, import tariff). :
1) , (ad valorem tariff).

. , . 9.1 (
),
2,1%
;
2) (specific tariff).

. . 9.1,

;
3) (compound tariff)
.
6,4%
9,9 .
, ,

. ,

. , Target

$400 . -

9.

439

9.1

-, Target
2,1% $400, $8,40
, ,
Target .

,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
5,5%,

, 3,5%.
,
,

. ,
-
,
. -

440

II.


, : ?
(Judith
Barzilay), .
, Marvel Homo
Sapiens. , ,
: , ,
, -,
.
. , -
, , .
, 1961 .
,
. ,
Marvel, ,
, , , .
Toy Biz, Inc.
, Marvel, 90
, -,
X. ,
12%.
Toy Biz
.
, , ,
Marvel , ,
, , ,
, . ?

, , ,
.
.
1.
. . 9.3,

, -.
,

.
. ,
, -

9.

441

, 6,8%;
Toy Biz .
. 2003 .
, , .
X ,
(, Homo Sapiens),
, .
, X ,
. , - , ,
, ,
- .
, , -, ,
. ,
, .
Toy Biz ,
. ,
Marvel , . -.
; . ? (Chuck Austen),
Marvel X,
. , ,
,
.
: -
, ,
.
: Is Wolverine Human? A Judge Answers No: Fans Howl in Protest, Wall Street Journal,
January 20, 2003, p. A1; United States Court of International Trade, Slip Op. 03-2 (January 3, 2003), Court
No. 96-10-02291; United States Court of International Trade, Slip Op. 00-159 (November 28, 2000),
Court No. 96-10-02291.


. ,

,
( , ).
, ,
.
2.
. ,

,
.

442

II,
. 9.3.
, 1999 .

,
. , ,
$2000 .
,
. ,
. ,

, . . 9.4
D Dr

. , ,
$2000.
GM, Ford Chrysler,
, -
, GM,

9.

,
.

:
$1900 33%
. ,

22%.

.
,
,
,

. 10-15

:
, .

, .

, .
,

443

, ,
,
,
.
:
, ,
,
. ?

,

,
.
,
.
,


.
: Car Importers Take Apart Customs
Regulations, Financial Times, June 29/30, 1996,
p. 2.

Ford Chrysler , .
,
,
.
, , , .
Toyota Mazda,
,
, ,
.


. ,
,
,
(nontariff barriers, NTB).
: ,
.

444

II.
. 9.4. , -,

.
. ,

(, ).
,
( ,
), .

.
(
,
10) .
(tariff rate quota, TRQ)
;
, ,
,
. . 9.5, 100 000
, TL;
, . ,
, .
, ,
350%.
, :

9.

445

. 9.5.


. ( )
, ,
.
, , ,

.

,
. ,
.
, , 2 .

17% , . (
, , 8 .)

( ),
, . , 2003 .
21 ,
7 .
?
,
, ,
,
.
, -

446

II.

Archers Daniels Midland (


, ). ,
,
.

,
, ,
( , $1,9 ) ,
. ,
, Ghirardelli Chocolate Company -
( ) Corsicana (
, ),
,
,
.
,
, $2
: , ,

.

. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.
.
,
. (voluntary export
restraint, VER)

.

,
. , 1982 .
,

, (

). ,
1996 .
.

9.

44/

, ,
14,7 . ,
,
.

,
.

.

. ,
(/ )
,

. , 1990 .,
, .
.

.
, ,
, .

. 10, ,
,
.

. ,
,
, .

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
.
.

,

, .

448

II.

, .
,

.
, ,
8
12 18 .
,

9
.
, 7%,

10
.
.

. ,
( ,

11
).
, ,
. 12 , ,
,

. 1 3 18
; ,
, 18.

. . 14
,
.

-
. ,
Guardian Industries (
)
,
25% ,
. Guardian ,

. , ,

,
, ,
. 15
keiretsu ( ,
,

9.

449

) ,
.
, AIG, ,
1946 .,

. ,
,
keiretsu. , ,
,
, , ,
.

.
,
,
.

, , . ,
-
16
.
, , ,
,
, .
,
,
.


- .
,

, .

: .

450

II.


,
.
, ,

. ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, , ,

, 12%
. ( , ,
, ,
, , ,
, 12%.) ,
. 17
.

,
. , ,
600
. 18

70% .
, , TF1
Canal Plus, 40%
, , , 60%
, ,
, .
. 40% ,
1700 , AM FM,

.19 ,
. 20
, ,

, .
.
,
.
,
; ;

9.

451



;
,
. ,
,
(National Health Insurance Bureau),

.
(Central Board
of Film Certification) ,

. ,
,
(State Standards Committee).
.
,
. ,

,

.21
;

, Barley -Davidson BMW.22
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
,
,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
, .

.
1991 . .
,
,
.
,
, , .

452

II.


.
.
.

,
.
, ,
, , ,
.23
2003 .
. ,
.

, .24
.
,
,
, , ,
.

. ,
33%;
49%.
30%, 40%.25
,
, ,
.
, .

,
. , ,
; ,
.

. ,
,
. . 9.6
.


,
-

9.

453

.
,
, ,
. ,


.



. ,
,
, ;
.
,
, , .26
,

.27

,
,

, , ,
.
: ,

454

II.

,
, ,
. .

. , 2000 .
Toyota $133 ,

.

.

,
. , ,
.
,
,
- ,
.
,
, , ,
.

(foreign trade zone, FTZ) ,

.
, (
Caterpillar,
. , ), ,
(, ,
).28
. ,

(. 9.2).
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
maquiladora (
)
. Maqui
ladora , ;
Maquiladora
. -

9.

455

9 . 2 .

,
.
, Maquiladora,
.
, ,

. ,
Maquiladora,
. ,
Maquiladora, ,
.
, Maquiladora,
( ),

.
(NAFTA) ,
Maquiladora,
, . , -

456

, ( ), (
, - )
,
.

,
( ,
), ,
,
,
(
).
. , Boeing Airbus
Air Canada 200
. ,
, Air Canada
, ,
, , .

,
.
,
,

, ,
. - , (Export-Import
Bank, Eximbank),

; 2001 . 2300
$12,5 . , Boeing,
- ,
. ,
De Francisci Machine Corporation
$7,9 , -


. ,
,
.29 ,
, (Overseas Private
Investment Corporation, OPIC),
( 3).
-

9.

457

OPIC .
, , ,
, ,
.


,

, , .
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
(International Trade Adminstration, ITA).
, ,
, .


(International Trade Commission, ITC),
.
,
,

, .
,
(Canadian International Trade Tribunal),
,
: ,
, .


,
.
(countervailing duty, CVD)
, - ,
, .
,
, -
.
-

458

II,

, ,
.

.

, ,
,
. ,

:
,

;
,
.
,
,
,
. ,
,
,
.


, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
- ,

.
25% .
,
,

(
). ,
Hynix Semiconductor,
,
, .
30
35% Hynix, . 30

9.

459


, ,

,
. . , ,
,
.
.

;
. ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
. ,
,
,
-.

.
,
, ,
.

,
.

,
( Toyota
Nissan), . ,

Sienna Toyota,

Sienna? ,
Toyota ,
,
?
?

.

460

II.

-301
,
, 301 1974 .,
-301. -301,
( )

.
,
, .
,
(
) ,
.
-301 ,
, . ,
90- ,

,
.
(Carla Hills)
,
,
. 31
-301 1994 .
,
( )
,
. -301
.
,
.
, -301
, ,
. ,
-301,
. ,
, ,

.


,
. , ,
?

9.

461

,
, :

,
;
,
;
.
,
, , .
.
,
,
.
,
(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles,
GAAP). ,
,
. ,
,
,
,
, .
,
; .
,
, ,
,
.

.
, , ,
, .
, ,

.

,
: ( ),
, ?


. -

462

II.


,
.
.

. ,
, 1974 .,
201,
,
,
(ITC)
, ,
ITC. ,
, 2002 .
,

.

,
, ,
. ,
.
,

.

, ,
,
,
. ,

, .

.
,
.
,
.

.

9.

463

,
, ,
, ,
- ,
.


, ,
.
,

. ,
.


.


.
,
,
.

. -301


.

1. ? ?
2.
,
?
3. .
4. -

?
5.
?
6. .
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. .

464

II.


1.
.
2.

(
).

?
3. ,
, .
, .
4. 1992 .
.
? (:
?
?)
?
5. ,
?



, ,

. ,

, -
. ,

.
, ,
, .
,
,
(National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers).

.

(Market Access Sectoral and Trade Barriers Database);

9.

465

web- . web-
,
. ,
, .
web- , 9,
web-, .



Lands' End
200 000 . ,

,
2000 .
.
,
, . Lands' End
,
.

, .
Lands' End :
.
1000
, ,
.
, -
.
?
,
, .
,

,
,
.
( ). ,
,
.
, , . ,
,
. ,

466

II,

-
, . -
.
,
.

, .
(David Lee),
Ltd., , 90-
.
,
.
, , GAP, Limited Calvin
Klein, ,
; ,
.
,
,

, , .
( ,
), 1,2
, ,
.
, ,
,
? 1957 .

. 60-
.
-
X, - Y, , , .
, (,
, )
.
,
.

.
,
. (Marjorie Yang)
1978 ., ( )
Esquel Group.
Esquel .

9.

467

( ),
Esquel $500 , $50 .
Esquel, 43 000 ,
48 5 .
Esquel , Polo Ralph Lauren,
Tommy Hilfiger, Brooks Brothers, Hugo Boss, Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Abercrombie &
Fitch Lands' End.
.
1978 . , (
) .

.
12 .

,
. Esquel ,
. , ;
.
,
- ,
. ,
,
, .
?
?
Esquel
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
. Esquel 2000
, .
.
,
,
. ( )
.
,
, . ,
,
, . ,
,
.

468

II.

.
(Richard Sutton)
, - Lollytogs,
, Target, Sears Mervyn's,
Bugle Boy. Lollytogs, ,
$100 , 95% ,
.
. -
15 , .
. 10
,
. ,
, ,

Kmart.. Loolytogs
, . ,

, - .
,
.

. -
, ,
,
.
.

? , ,
.

.
,
.
. William E. Connor & Associates Ltd. 27
, 31 .
- , 250 800 ,
, ,
, (),
-,
. - ,
.

(,

), .

9.

469


.

, ,
, .

. ,
,
,
. , ,
. 350 ,

.
, ,
,
. (Jimmy
Lai), , .
, , ,
. ,
(
, ).
.
.

1.
? ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. .
? .
: Andrew Tanzer, The Great Quota Hustle, Forbes, March 6, 2000,
pp. 119-125. .


.
,

, , -

470

II,

,
.

,
.
,
zaibatsu ( . . .).
, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo
Yasuda,
,
.

30- . ,
, .
-
, ,
7 1941 .
;
.
zaibatsu
, ,
, ,
zaibatsu
. ,
, zaibatsu,
.
,
keiretsu ( . . .).
Keiretsu ,
, .
zaibatsu, , keiretsu
,
. , ,
keiretsu, , ,
. ;
,
. Keiretsu .
keiretsu, ,
; keiretsu
. keiretsu ,
, ,
.
keiretsu
. 1990 . -

9.

471


keiretsu. keiretsu
,
.

; 1954 1972 .
10%.
,
. ,
1962 ., 300%.
,
,
, ,
. 1971 .
.
,
1970- .,
.
308 ,
. 1985 .
(
) ,
( 7).
,
.
,
. ,
;

.

,
.
, ,
80-
.

, .
1991 .
.
.
,
,
,
, . 2000 .

472

II.

-
. ,

,
.


,
.
-

-;
- ( )
.
. ,
,
.

:
GATT ;

;
,
;
,
.


? : .
, 1917 1982 .,
, :
, ;

;
; ,
, .
,
, -

474

II,

,
( , , ).

,
, ,
,
(GATT)
().
, ,
.

( 2000 .);
, ,
. Volkswagen, , $1
, (
Volkswagen Beetle Jetta).
, 2003 . , ,
,
, , ( 4%)
2005 . Volkswagen,
- .
Renault Peugeot,
,
.

(North Ame
rican Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA). 1994 .
,

, .
NAFTA
,
,
. ,
NAFTA
;
$100 .
, ,
.

( ,
),
. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
.
.
,
, -,

-

10.

475

. , , Flex
tronics International, Solectron SCI Systems, $2
,
Cisco, Ericsson Compaq. ,
,
, ,

.
, .
UPS Federal Express ,
,
. ,
, (
), (
).
.
, Servicios Textiles de Baja California ,
, 20 ,
, .
,
, .
Seagate Technology, . ,

. , America West, GAP U-Haul,

. ,
maquiladora, $1 ,
50 000 .
,

.
, ( , )

.1

9
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,

. ,
.

,
. , -

476

II,



.
,
(
Mercosur NAFTA),
-.
, ,
: 12
, .



,
,
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
.
, 1930 .

53% (
-). ,
, ,
, -

10.

477

.
,
.
, ,
, , 1947 .
( ),
(International Trade Ogranization, ITO).
. ,
-
. ITO
(General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT),
. 1947 1994 .
, GATT ( GATT
, ),
. GATT
,

. 1995 .
,
GATT.

GATT ,

.
().
,
.
,
, GATT,
. GATT
,
, (. . 10.1).
, GATT,
. , ,
, 40% 1948 ., 3% 2003 .
. 10.1, , GATT,
.

,
GATT
.
(most favored nation, MFN), ,
, , -

478

II.
10.1
GATT

. (
.)
GATT,
.
,
. 1 0 . 1 . GATT

10.

479

20%,
GATT
20%. , GATT
,
, GATT.

.
1.
, GATT
,
.
(genera
lized system of preferences).
. ,


,
.

-

480

II.

,
.
2.
,
, NAFTA.
GATT
. ,

. GATT

. , GATT ,

.
,
,
.
GATT ,

, . ,
, ,
1955 . GATT,
.

. ,
GATT

.
( ) GATT
1986 . 1994 . ,
GATT , 1995 .
,
4,3 3%.

,
.
GATT
. ,
GATT
(. 9).

.
,

GATT.

10.

GATT
,
-

,
(MFN status).
GATT
, GATT.
,

, ,

.
,
,

.
:

- ,

.

481

(normal trade relations,


NTR)
.
.
,


:
,
,
.
.

MFN
.
,


,


,
. NTR
MFN.


, (World Trade Organization, WTO),
1995 . 2003 . , (), 146
30 -.
,
.
:
1)
, ,
( . 10.2
);
2)
.
,
. , 1994 .
(Information

482

II.
. 1 0 . 2 . ,

Technology Agreement).
, ,
. ,
, 1997 . 2001 .
-
. -
2005 ., ,
,
.

,
,
; 2
3)
.
GATT
, ; GATT
. GATT
. -, GATT -

10.

483

, :
,
, ,
, . -,

GATT.
. ,
.

,
.
.

, . Cairns
Group, ,
, , , ,
,

-. 1974 .

(Multifibre Agreement),
, 65%
, $250 .
9.
,
.
(General Agreement on Trade
in Services, GATS).
, .
,
. ,

.
(national treatment),

, . ,
, , ,
, 10%
.
,
.
,

. 2000 . -

484

II,

,
.

(Agreement on Trade Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, TRIPS).
,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,

.
/


, ,
,
.
,
,
. -


.
, (Trade-Re
lated Investment Measures Agreement, TRIMS).
:
, $7,7 ,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
. TRIMS,
,
,
. TRIMS
,
:

10.

485

, :

;
:
;
:

3
.

.
. GATT
.
,
, , ,
: ?
, ,
. , ,
, (
, ,
), .
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
. , , ,

. , 2003 .
$248 .
, ,
Bombardier,
.
Bombardier
Embraer
$1,7 . 4

, , ,
, .

. , (,
,
),
.
, -

486

II,

. ,
,

. ,
,
.



,
.
,
.
, .

.

.


. ,
,
. ,

, ,
, .
: , , ,

10.

487

.
.
. ,
,
( , ).
NAFTA;

, .

.

, .
,
(trade deflection).
, ,
, (
) , ,

. , ,
,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, , - .

(rules of origin).
, ,
,
, . ,
, NAFTA,
, ,
.
. ,
(customs union), ,


, .
, ,
. ,
,
, .

488

II.


(Zollverein), 1834 .
. , 1870 .,
,

. Mercosur (
, , ,
).
.
. ,

,
.
,
( , )
.
.
, ,
. ,

,
, .
,

.
,
.
.
.
,
,
,
( - ,
, )
.

, () .
.
,
.
, ,
13 ,
( ).
. 10.3
.

10.

489
. 10.3.



. ,

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,

,
.

. ,
,
.
,
, ,
-

490

II.


, .

, ,
.

, ,
, ,
-
, .
, General Mills, Toyota
Samsung, ,
.

, .
,
, Unilever, Renault Siemens.
,
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
NAFTA, ,
, Ford, GM Chrysler,
,
.

.
, ,
,
.

10.

. . :

491

'

'

'



().
337 :
() $7,9 ,
(. . 10.2 10.1). 2004 .
10 (. . 10.3).
452 ,
$8,2 .
10.2
, 2001 .

, ,
GATT,

.
, , ,
(, ) 1957 . -

492

II.
10.1.

,
, (European Economic Community, EEC),
.

,
15. 70- . ,
, .
80- , ,
12 . 1993 . 12
;
. 1995 .
, . , , ,
, , , , ,
2004 .
.
,
.

.
, , ,
.
(

10,

493
10.3
, 1 2004 .

), (
).
,
, , :
4- (-
, );
4- ( );
4- ( , , );
4 ( ).

,
, ,
.
. (Council of the Eu
ropean Union), , 15
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
( ) .
, ,

494

II.

; ; , ,
; ; ,
; .

.

. .
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
, (62 87
).
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
. (European Commission)
20 , . ,
, ;
.
, ,
.
, . ,

$100 . :
;

, ;
,
;

,
(Common Agricultural Policy, CAP)
;
,
24 000 ( ). . (
11 ,
!)

10.
. (European Parliament)
626 ,
, .

,
. , 99 ,
, 87 ,
40%
(. . 10.2).
.

.
. ,
,
, (
).

20 1999 .
, ,
,
, ,
. ( )
,
(
, ). ,
,
.
. (European Court of Justice) 15
, .
,
.

, ,
,
.
.
450- ,
.
,
. ,
Cassis de Dijon ( )
, .
. ,
, ,
: , , -

496

II.

.
(
. 10.4, ).
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.


,
. (
,
.)
.

.

.

: ,
.

, ,
. ,
35 , .
,
, , ,
,
,
.
,
.
,
, ,

. , ,

10.

497

. 10.4.
( 189 )

498

II.


,
.
, ,
50%


.

, , ,
. ,
,

, ,

,
.
,
,

,
.



.

,
,
,
, ,

. ,
, ,
.
1. ,
,
,
.


,


,

.


.

,
,

. ,


,
,

.

. ,
,
,
,
,

.
(

)
,

,


.

2.

: James N. Gardner, Lobbying, Euro


pean-Style, Europe, November 1991 (Number
311), pp. 29-30; European Bureaucrats Are Writ
ing the Rules Americans Will Live By, Wall Street
Journal, May 17, 1989, p. A1; Lobbying Brussels
in Anticipation of 1992, Wall Street Journal, March 6,
1989, p. A12.

, ,
(~) (
). .
, -

10,

499

;
.

(harmonization) . ,
, , ,
,
, .
,
, ,
. , ,

. ,
$260 (
1988 .)
.5 , ,
, ,
.

, ,
, . 1979 .
,
Cassis de Dijon. .
Rewe Zentral AG ( ,
) Cassis de Dijon,
, . Cassis
de Dijon :
. Rewe Zentral ,

, .
.
,
(mutual recognition): , ,
,
, ,
. Cassis de Dijon
,
.
, ,
, Cassis de Dijon
. ,
,

. ,
Cassis de Dijon,
: -

500

II,


.

, .
1985 .

(White Paper of Completing the Internal Market).

, ,
. , ,
1986 . (Single European Act),
1 1987 . ,
(,
) 31 1992 .
,
,
279 . ,
, 1992 . ,
, 1992 .
,
35 ! (

), 35-
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
,
, .
.

, ( 15
),
, .

;
. ,
Samsung ,
, ,
. , .
Samsung
, -

10,

501

,
. Samsung ,
,
, ,
6
.
,
,
.
$84 1985 . ( )
$700 2002 . 1985 . 500
.


, .
.
,
, .
.
,

. , ,

- ,

. ,
1991 .
,
.
, .
(Treaty on European
Union) (Maasrticht
Treaty). 12 , 1 1993 .
.
,
:
1)
;
2) ,
,
;
3) , ,

.

502

II.

,
, .

, ,
;
( )
, , .
,
(cohesion fund),
, 90%
.
, , , (
, ,
).
,
(economic and monetary union).
, ,
, , ,

. ,
,
, 2001 . .
1 1999 .
11
.
.
( 1999 2001 .)

. 2002 .
,

.

. (
8, .)

, .
0,4
2% ,
,
. . , 8,
,
. ,
( )
,

10.

503

. ,
$25 $30
.
, , .

.
(European Central Bank)
,
. ,
3%
,
- .
, 2003 . 3%
, ( 0,25%).
,
- ,

. , ,
,
. 2003 .
, .
,
, ,
- .
,
.
(Treaty of Amsterdam), 1997 .,
.
:
4- ,
, , ;
-4-
;
4- ,
-
, .
(Treaty of Nice), 2003 .,
,
.
.
.

,
, .

504

II.

, ,

. , ,
.
27,
.
, . ,
, ,
.
.
. ,

, .

, .
.
, British Airways, Lufthansa KLM,

Alitalia, Iberia, TAP Olympic Airlines,
.
,

. ,
,
. ,
,
( ) . (
, ) .
(
, )
.


. , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
25 . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
. ,
2002 ., -

10.

, , , , .
, ,

. , .
,

-

505

, :
1) ,
. 71 74%,
, ;
2)
.
3)
, 62% .
: Office for Official Publications of the
European Communities, Who is Who in the European Union? What Difference Will the Treaty of Nice
Make? Luxembourg, 2001.

, , ,
.




.
. ,
;
(European Free Trade
Association). , ,
.
,
(European Economic Area),
, , 18
. ,
(), . , ,
, 1995 . .


(North American Free Tra
de Agreement, NAFTA) -

506

II.

. , 1994 .
,
,
1988 .
: 2002 .
$417 . ,
,
( ) .
,
.
NAFTA
. 15
, ,
NAFTA.

. NAFTA


NAFTA, . ,

, NAFTA
,
( ,
, ,
).
,
,
.


, , NAFTA,
,
.
(screwdriver plant) ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. ,

,
. ,
,

,
, -

10.

507

.

. ,
NAFTA :
, ,
65,2% , ,
.
NAFTA ,
,
;
.
, NAFTA
, ,
NAFTA.
,
; ,
CultureQuest,
.
NAFTA
,
. , NAFTA
.
, .

(fast-track authority),
. ,
,
, ,
.


;
. , ,
,
. ,

.
. 1983 .


. (Caribbean Basin
Initiative, CBI) :

(, , . 10.4 -

508

II,

! .

10.4

10.

509

10.2). ,
,
,
, ,
, . ,

, ,
CBI ( ,
, , ,
).

()
.
Mercosur. 1991 . , ,
Mercosur
. ,
( ) ,
85% Mercosur.
Mercosur 1995 .
, Mercosur
,
, Mercosur.
269
$922 .
Mercosur
. Mercosur
,
1989 .
, .
Mercosur
. 2001 . 17%
Mercosur, $88 ,
.
Mercosur
.
, $18

. 7 , FDI -
,
(. 2).
. (Andean Pact)
, 1969 .
: , , , .
,
.

510

II.

1973 ., 1976 .
.
20
;
5% .
: ,
,

. ,
,
.
Mercosur 1991 .

.
,

,
, , .
: 2001 . 11%

. . -

10,

511



.
-
,

. ,
, , .
, (
)
.
-
- .
,
, -
.
- (ASEAN).
( -
) .
- .
,

. ,
.

.
.
, 70- .
, ,
,
.
1 1983 . -
(Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Trade
Relations Agreement, ANZCERTA, CER).

. CER

, , ,
, . ,
(
, ),
, CER
.

512

II,

- . (Association af South-East Asia Nations, ASEAN)


1967 .
(. 10.3).
, , , ,
, . , ASEAN
90- . , ASEAN,
: 2001 .
$18 000, $410.
10.3. ASEAN

ASEAN,
ASEAN (ASEAN Free Trade Area,
AFTA); AFTA 1 1993 .
AFTA 2003 .
5% ,
2010 . , ,
, 40%
8
, AFTA.
Mercosur , ASEAN
: 1)
ASEAN,

; 2)
ASEAN
, NAFTA.
ASEAN
23% .
ASEAN , -

10.

513

ASEAN.
ASEAN , 2003 .
ASEAN ,
9
2004 .
,
,
, AFTA. ,
AFTA
San Migel, 90%
, Delta , 40%
. San Migel
ASEAN
, AFTA.
- . -
(Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC)
21 (. 10.4).
1989 .
- . ,
1994 . , ,
,

2010 . 2020 .
10.4. -
()

--.

514

II.

, 1996 .


- . 2001 .
$2,7 , 45% .
.
. . 10.4 10.5,
:
(South African Development
Community, SADC), -
(Monetary and Economic Community of Central Africa, CEMAC)
(Economic Community of
West African States, ECOWAS).
, 70- 80- .,
.
,

, . 10
10%
.

10.5.

10.

515

,
,
.
GATT. , 1947 .,

. 47 ,
, GATT, -

, .
GATT, ,
GATT
. 1995 . GATT .

.
,
.

,
.
,
.

.
.
,
377 $7,9 .
, 1987 .,
,
.
;
,
.
, ,
. ,
NAFTA, 1994 .
NAFTA
.


.
Mercosur .

516

II.


,
.
, ASEAN
,
.
.

1. (MFN)!
2. MFN
?
3. GATT.
4. ?
5.
?
6. ?
7. ,
.
8. NAFTA.
9. (CBI)?
10.
?


1. ,
, :
?
2.
?
?
3.
?
4.
, ?
5.
Mercosur?
6.
?
7. MFN ,
?

10.

517


NAFTA
; NAFTA

,
,
. ,
, NAFTA
.
4-5
. , ,
, NAFTA.
, ,
, NAFTA, ,
NAFTA.
, ,
/
, ,

/ .
12 .
, ,
NAFTA.
,
. .
NAFTA.
, NAFTA
.

1. NAFTA
, ? .
2.
NAFTA?
3. NAFTA
NAFTA?

Whirlpool


, . -

518

II. :

,
, , ,
, . (
,
. , ,
, ,
.

.)
,
.
,
( ), 15
. ,
,
, , ,

.

.

, , ,
.
,

.
,
, Whirlpool,
. :
,
Whirlpool
: -,
, ,
(consumer value gap) ,
, ; -,

. :
,
;
. ,
, Whirlpool ,
,
, ,
, .
,
,

10,

519

,
11
.
Whirlpool

, .

Philips Industries,
. Whirlpool
Philips.
Whirlpool

:
1) Whirlpool
: Bauknecht,
; Whirlpool,
,
; Ignis, , ,

.
Whirlpool
,
;
2) ,
,
Whirlpool 13

;
3)
, Whirlpool
,
;
4)
,
.
,
,
.

;
5) Whirlpool
,
,
. , Whirlpool Europe
,

520

II.

,
;
Marion, Whirlpool,
. ,
Whirlpool
(
) .
,

.
,
, Whirlpool $2 ;
$1 .
,
, Whirlpool ,
. , 2002 .
Polar SA,
.
, 2004 .
. , Whir
lpool , .
,
, Bosch Siemens Hausgerate
.
(
62%, 34%
, 20 ). ,
$350
,
, .
Electrolux, Whirlpool
, DaimlerBenz AEG Hausge
rate. Electrolux,
20 25% ,
6%. , Electrolux ,
, ,
25 12 000 .
, Whirlpool
.
, 2002 .
$81 $2,2 . ,
Whirlpool, 2004 ., ,
.

10.

521

1 . , ?
?
2. Whirlpool
(Bauknecht, Whirlpool Ignis),
,
?
3. Whirlpool ,
Whirlpool ?
4. Electrolux Bosch Siemens Hausgerate
Whirlpool
?
5. , , -
?

: Whirlpool Corporation, 2002 Annual Report; Whirlpool Expected


Easy Going in Europe, and It Got a Big Shock, Watt Street Jourhal, April 10, 1998,
p. Al; Whirlpool Net Doubled in 4 th Quarter; Gains in Europe, Revamping Are
Cited, Wall Street Jourhal, February 4, 1998, p. A6; Despite Setbacks, Whirlpool
Pursues Overseas Markets, Wall Street Jourhal, December 9,1997, p. B4; Rough and
Tumble Industry, Financial Times, July 2, 1997, p. 13; Whirlpool to Build Washing
Machines with European, Fuel-Efficient Design, Wall Street Jourhal, August 19,1994;
Rahul Jabob, The Big Rise, Fortune, May 30, 1994, pp. 74-90; If You Can't Stand
the Heat, Upgrade the Kitchen, BusinessWeek, April 25, 1994; A Chance to Clean
Up in European White Goods, Financial Times, December 13, 1993, p. 23; Maytag,
1993 Annual Report.

,
, . ,

, . ,
,
,
. .


- .

522

II.

(NAFTA)

. , ,
, ,
- ,
, ( )
. ,

.
,

. ,
, , ,
.

,
.

.
;
,
. 60- .
, -,
maquiladora. ,
( 3600),
,
.
, John Deere, Zenith, Mattel, Sony, Samsung Siemens.
maquiladora ,
;

.
maquiladora ;
20 30 ,
. ,
, ,
.
maquiladora
, , , .

.
,
, . ,

, -

. ,
, , , . ,
( ,
), .
1994 ., NAFTA ,

. ,
.

,
(
caciques, ).
1994 . ,
(Ejercito Zapatista de Liberation National, EZLN),
, ---- . , ,
,

.

.
.
,
( ), .
,

. , ,
40%,
,
, .
-
Cinco de Mayo, , ,
,
.
, ,
.




Kodak Fuji.
,

.
Kodak
,
,


Fuji,

.

Kodak 70%
; Fuji
11%, 19%
,
Polaroid, Konica,
Agfa-Gavaert,
.

-: Fuji
67%, Kodak 11%,

.


: Kodak
36%
,
Fuji 33%,
- 31%.
Fuji


(
, 40%)

,

Kodak

. 80- .
, 90-
. .
,

,
3,7%.

Kodak,

, ,

Kodak:
$750 .
Kodak,

,

Fuji
,

,

,

,

Kodak
Fuji.


,

,
70% .

II

Fuji,
Kodak

.

,

,

.
,

,
. Fuji


,

,
Fuji. Kodak, Agfa
,
,


,
;
.
Kodak
,
Fuji
.



Kodak

Fuji,
,
.
, ,

.
Fuji

525
, ,


.
Fuji
3,7%
.
,
Fuji
,
Kodak
.
Fuji
,
,
,
.
Fuji Kodak
, ,

.

,
,
,


. Fuji

Agfa,
1990 . 5%
,

. ,
Fuji , Kodak

,

. ,
Kodak

3%,
Kodak
.
Fuji ,

526
Kodak
,
70%
.

Kodak ,
15%
,



. ,
Kodak,
Fuji
, 65%

. ,
Kodak,
Fuji

,
Kodak .
, 1996 . Fuji
Wal-Mart
,


Wal-Mart Sam's Club.

Kodak

Fuji
().

20 000 ,

(
)
,


. Kodak,

Fuji,
Fuji .

II.
,
Kodak ,
,
,
.



Kodak ,
.
,

,
Fuji
Kodak
.
,


Kodak

.

,

,
,
Fuji, Kodak. (


Fuji
.) ,
,


Kodak.
Kodak (,

),
.

Kodak
. ,
,
-

^ II
,
,

]

.


, . ,


,
, ,

. ,




,
Kodak ,

.

1.

2.

Fuji,
,





.
,
Fuji
,


?
-, Kodak
,


,

527

3.

4.


.
? -
?

Fuji, ,
Fuji
Kodak , Kodak
Fuji
.
,
Kodak ,
?
Kod
ak
,

?

: Big Yellow's Digital


Dilemma, BusinessWeek, March 24, 2003,
p. 80; Kodak Faces Fuji Challenge in
China, Financial Times, February 27,2001,
p. 17; Focused Kodak Roars into the Lead
in China, International Gerald Tribune,
June 8, 2000, p. 13; Fuji: Beyond Film,
BusinessWeek, November 22, 1999, p. 132;
Kodak and U.S. Government Team Up for
New Drive on Japan's Film Market, Wall
Street Journal, February 4, 1998, A4; Fuji
Photo Film Co., Ltd., Annual Report 1997;
WTO Weighs Up Fuji-Kodak Dispute,
Financial Times, Aril 18, 1997, p. 9;
Exposed: Kodak's Path to the WTO,
Financial Times, June 16, 1996, p. 5; Fuji
Invests $100 Million in U.S. Plant, Wall
Street Journal, February 21, 1996, A3;
Kodak Says Fuji Response a Diversionary
Tactic, Business Wire, July 31, 1995, p. 1;
Kodak Boosts Pressure on Washington to
Force Tokyo to Open Photo Market, Wall
Street Journal, June 1, 1995, p. A4; Kodak
Exposes Fuji's Market Grip, Financial
Times, June 1,1995, p. 7.

528

II.

Nike Inc.:


, Nike
,

,
,

.
, ,

,

.

, Nike

.
90- ,

, ,
,
,
.


,

Nike,
,
.
,
,
(
)
(Campaign for Labor
Rights), Global Exchange,
-,
--

Nike ,

,

,
.

,


- ,
,
Nike.
,
,
(
)

( ,
-). ,
,
Nike


. Nike

;
,
,


, ,
- ,
. ,
Nike,

,
.

Nike
Nike
.


Nike, 1990 ., -

II


Nike,
:

,
.

.
Nike
1992 .
,

, .
,
,
,
,

,
,
.

,
Nike


.
,
Nike

.
Nike
,
,
.


MESH (Manufac
turing-Environment-Safety-Health
-
-).
MESH
,

,

529

,




.
,
, Nike
,

,
.

Nike


.

;

.


,



.

(

,
).
,
,



.
,
,

.

-

530
PticewaterhouseCoopers, a


Nike
SHAPE (Safety, Health, Attitude of
Management, People Investment and
Environment -
- -
- ).
Nike

,
.


Nike

,


.


,
:

,

,
.


(
Nike,

).

II.
( 1996 . ,

,
,
Nike
10 ).
,
Nike


,
,



Nike,
- .
Nike
,
Nike

,


.
,

Nike. ,
, Nike

,


Nike.


Nike,

.

Nike


,

, Nike

-

II
,
(Andrew
Young) 15 Nike

.

,

;
,

;
.
,
,
,

,
.
,
Nike 1997 .,
,
,



. :
Nike
,
...
Nike
,
,

.
Nike


,
,


. , Nike

531
Nike
.



.
, Nike
,
;
.
(Garry Trudeau)
Doonesbury,
Nike
.
, ,
,
,
,




.
Nike,
,
,
,

.

.
,
,

. Nike
,



,

.
Nike
,
, -

532
,

,
,

. Nike
,


-


.




,
,
,
,

.
Nike,


1%.

Nike
.
,
Nike,
Nike.


(

Nike
)
,

.
Nike -

, -

II. .
,
. '
1998 .
Nike
,

Nike.
.


.
-
-,

, Nike



.



web-.
,


,

web-,


.
,
,


, ,
Nike,

Nike -
,
.

,
,

II
Nike,
.
Nike



Nike, ,
,


,

.
,
Nike

,

,




,
Nike.
,
Nike

,

,

.
,

,

.



Nike,
.

: Nike

533


?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.




Nike,

?

Nike

?

Nike
?
?


,
?
Nike
, ,

,
.



Nike?

Nike
?

,

Nike?

:
: Richard Ivey School of
Business, University of Western Ontario,
Case number 9A99C034, Nike Inc.:
Developing an Effective Public Relations
Strategy.

534

II.




.

.
- ,
,


:

, .


,
,
:
,

, ,

.
, ,

,

.


,

.
30
,

.

,


.
,

-



.

.
2002 .

34 ;

.
,
, ,

.

. ,

- ,

.
,



,

.



. ,
Falun Gong (
. . .),

,




. ,

,

, -

II
.
,
,

,

China Telecom.

,
,

,
.
1999 .

,

-,
-.
,


-.



,
,
online.



,
.

,
,
,
.
,
,


.

,

535


.

,
, -


.
,

-

.
,


,

.
,
,

,
.

,
,



.
,


,

Linux ,
Microsoft.


Red Flag Linux,

,
Windows
2000 Windows XP. -

536

II.

-
,
,

Linux
.
,



.


. ,
Intel
-
,

.
,

-.

1.

2.

3.

,

.
,
.
1 10 (10
).
,
-
.
,


.

?
?

,

?

4.

5.


, ,


?
,
,



?

: China Looks to Linux as a


Way Not to Get Locked into Windows,
Wall Street Journal, April 24, 2000, p. All;
China Creates Office to Regulate News on
Internet Sites, Wall Street Journal, April 24,
2000, p. A21; State Control Gains Upper
Hand among China Websites, Financial
Times, April 18, 2000, p. 7; BeijingSet to
Step Up Curbs on Internet, Financial
Times, March 22, 2000, p. 6; China
Reverses Harsh Internet Rules, Easing
Threat to Trade, Wall Street Journal,
March 13, 2000, p. A21; China Restricts
News Further over Internet, Wall Street
Journal, February 22, 2000, p. A26;
Microsoft Is Test Case for Chinese Rules,
Wall Street Journal, February 17, 2000, p.
A13; Internet Firms Seek to Sway
Lawmakers to See Benefits in Wider China
Trade, Wall Street Journal, February 15,
2000, p. A6; China Cracks Down on
Internet Chat, Houston Chronicle, January
27, 2000, p. 15A; Government Shadow
over China's Web' Grows, Wall Street
Journal, January 26,2000, p. A17; Internet
Phone Service Catches on with Millions in
China, Wall Street Journal, December 21,
1999, p. A14; E-Business Is Tapping
China's Online Wonderlust, Wall Street
Journal, October 27, 1999, p. A13; Intel
Becomes Cautious on China, Deferring
Decision on Net Center, Wall Street
Journal, October 26,2000, p. A21.

Disney no
.
:
;
,
;
;
;

.

- ,
Coca-Cola McDonald's.
, , , ,
,
Coca-Cola ,
McDonald's. Walt Disney Company
.
, 2002 . 86% Disney,
$25,4 ,

11.

539

5% .
Coca-Cola McDonald's,
.
,
Disney
. , , 1955 . (
) .
, , (
) 1971 . .
, Disney
. ,
; , .
, ,
1998 ., , ,
2001 .
,

.
1984 .
;
. ,
, ,
Disney .

( Disney
).
Oriental Land Company,
. Disney
,
.
:
100- ,

, .
.
Disney
.
,

: ( ), (
).
, . ,
,
,
.
, 2 ,
350 .
, Disney
.
1988 .
Disney
.

540

III.

Disney 49%,
5 1 % .

Disney
. Disney

,
. .
, ,
. ,

Disney. , ,
,
,
. 12 1992 .
.
, :
.
, ,
,
. Disney

,
.
.
Disney

. ,
12% , .
, ,
,
.
. , Disney

. ,

, . , ,
,
.
, 1994 ., .
(
) .
, Disney,
, , . 2001 .
,
.
; , 2002 .
, ,
.
Disney ,
. ,
, 43%

11.

541

$3,6 , $314 .
, , $2,9
,
57% .
Disney
. Disney Chan
nel 15 ;
Time Warner's Cartoon,
54 . ,
Disney , 22
.
$159 .
, Disney
. ,
, Walt Disney International. ,

. Disney ,
( )
Disney (,
, , ) 80%
,
$2 .1

,

,
, ,
.
, ,
.

,
,
,
.
Disney
, , ,
, ,

.

, Disney
Channel . , ,
, Disney
,
. ,
,
. -

542

III,


,
. ,
Time Warner's Cartoon Network,
,
. , -
Disney ,
( , ) .

, ,
.


,
Disney, ,
. ,

,
,
.
.
, ,
, - ,
,
.
,
- . ,
Disney 5
, ,
,
.

,
.

.
,
, .

. 11.

543


,
3
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. . 11.1

, . . (
CultureQuest, ,
.)

,
,
. ,
,
. , ,

,
.
,
, .
.
,
, . ,

,
,
.
, ,
Nike, ,
,
. 4

, ,
. ,

Mercedes-Benz -

544

III,
11.1


11.

545

,
(
5
). , ,
, ,
(.
6),
(
). Nissan
,
,
.
. ,
,
Nissan .
Nissan ,

.


. 6
. 3 4,
, ,
.
, :
, ,
,
( ) . . ,

.
,
, .
,
,

546

III.
. ,
Tyson Foods
, .

,
.
Tyson
,
, , .
Tyson
7
$250 . ,


, .
, ( ).
,
,
. 8

.9 ,
McDonald's,
,
.
McDonald's ,
McDonald's ,
.

.
McDonald's
, Wal-Mart,
.

, .

,
. ,
BMW, -
, BMW.
- -
BMW
, ,
. ,

.
: -

11.

547

? ,
,
,

, .
,
, ,
.
BMW ,
BMW ,
.
BMW,
.
,
,
. ,

, .

, ,

, .

,
, - -
.
, /

.

,
. ,

, , - .

.

.


. ,
,
,
. ,
,

548

111,


,
.
Nokia, -
, .

. Nokia,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
.
Nokia, , -
,
.
(Jorma Olilla) .
. Nokia,
,

, .
Nokia
. ,
Nokia
, - ,
,
, .10
General Electric
.
12 ,
.
,
.
,
,
GE.11
I



( ,
) , ,
.

11.

549


(home replication strategy),
. ,
,
,
, . ,
-,
. ,
, Mercedes-Benz,
,
,
. MercedesBenz
, ,

.
, , ,
, , ,
150 ,
.

- Pret A
Manger.
(multidomestic strategy)
,
. 1 2
,
- . ,
,

.
:
;
, ;

550

III.

. .
, (,
,
). , :
, , , , ,
Earl Grey. ,
90 . , , .
PretA Manger (- , ) -
, . , PretA Manger
.
-
, .
- PretA Manger ,
. 1986 . , (Sinclair Beecham) (Julian Metcalf),
, . ,
- PretA Manger,
, , .
,
. PretA Manger
, ;
.
, , 33
. Pret A Manger ,
: ,
, . "-"
. , ,
, .
,
. Pret A Manger .
,
,
. Pret A Manger
. ,
Pret A Manger ,
. ,


. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
. , -

11.

551

. Pret A
Manger ; ;
( 38% 25 ).
,
.
, (Andrew Rolf).
,
$1500.
Pret A Manger
. :
-, .
: - ,
. - Pret A Manger 130,
-
.
,
40.
Pret A Manger - ,
.
- Pref A Manger (
),
, . ,
- , , ,
, . , Pret A Manger
, .
-, , ,
, - .
, - , .
, 2001 . McDonald's 33% Pret A Manger. ,
, , web-
: McDonald's ,
. , . ,
: ,
.
: Ian Parker, An English Sandwich in New York, The Guardian, August 9, 2002, p. 3B;
Thinking Outside the Burger Box, BusinessWeek, September 16, 2002, pp. 66-67; Scott Kirsner, Rec
ipe for Reinvention, Fast Company, April 2002, pp. 38-42.

, ,


.
(global strategy)
, . ,

552

III,

( ),

,
.
.
,
,
.
, , ,
.

,
,
,
.
,
,
, -
.

:
. ,
. ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
,
. , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, (trans
national strategy). , ,

( )
(
). ,
,
.

11.

553

,

.
, ,
,
(, - -
, ), -
.
, ,
.
.
, Microsoft
,

. ,
, :
, ,
,
.

.
IKEA
,
.
11.1
: (local respon
siveness) (global integration).

:
; ,
; ,
, .
,
,
( ,
, ,
).

. ,
,
,
, ,
.

, -

554

III.

1943 . (Ingvar Kamprad)



().
1950- IKEA,
,
,

. IKEA

,

.
-.
IKEA ,
,
, 150
70 000
. 2001 . IKEA,
, 255
.

,
,
. , IKEA

$200.
IKEA,

,

. ,
Industrial Design A-Z (
), ,


:
.


.
IKEA
,
;

.
,

. (Bill Agee),
,
- IKEA
, :


,
.
,
.

,
(

). -
(Josephine Rydberg-Dumont),
IKEA,
:

.
.
.

,
IKEA

. ,

.

-
. IKEA
,

.
(Christian Mathieu),
IKEA,
:
,
, 1,5 .
, -

1 1 .

IKEA ,

. :

( , - ). (
)
.
. :
. ,
!
, !
: IKEA:
Unboring (IKEA: ). - - ,
: ,

.
IKEA
:

, .

IKEA
,
, 110
34 . ,
IKEA
.
,

,
.
(Kent Nordin),
IKEA, : ,
.

, ,

.

.

,
.
IKEA

.

555




;
IKEA.

IKEA
,
IKEA,
.

25%.
IKEA
,

.

, ,

.

, (Ruth Eaton),
"Ideal Cities: Utopianism and the (Un)Built
Environment" (" :
() ").

. ...
,
.
, .


, ,

.
IKEA ,


.
: Russia, With Love: The Multi
nationals' Song, BusinessWeek, September 16,
2002, pp. 44-46; Eryn Brown, Putting Eames
within Reach, Fortune, October 30, 2002, pp. 98100; A Prefab Utopia, New York Times Magazine,
December 1, 2002, pp. 92-96.

556

III.

. 1 1 . 1 .

, ,
. 11.1. , Toys R Us
.
,
,
. ,
,
, , (
) , ,
,
,
. ,
,
.

,
.
,

11.

557

.
, , ( Kraft, Unilever
Cadbury Schweppes),
. , ,
,
, . ,
,
.
,

.
,
, . .

. Sony
Matsushita,
. ,
,
(, CD-,
DVD-)
. , ,
,
,
,
.

, .

Ford Motor Company. , Ford

.
,
. ,
, Ford
. , Ford,
,
.
,
,
.
.

,
.
.

558

III.

General Motors
,
. 80- .
-
,
,

. 1984 . General Motors
Toyota
, NUMMI.
, GM
,
,
,
Toyota ( ,
, kaizen (
),

-).
GM

Saturn.
( 90-) ,
NUMMI,

GM, Adam
Opel AG,
.
,
,


,
GM:

GM.
GM ,
, Saturn
NUMMI,
,
,
,
.
: GM is Building Plants in Developing
Nations to Woo New Markets, Wall Street Journal,
August 4, 1997, p. A1; Hoover's Handbook of
American Business 2003 (Austin: Hoover's
Business Press, 2003).

( -,
)
. -

.

,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
, .
,
-, -

11.

559

.
,
.



,
,
.
, ,
13
.

--
(distinctive competence)
,
.
, ,
. 6,
,
(
, )

.
,
, , . ,
Disney,
, ,
. ,
Windows,
Microsoft .
,
, . 1 4
,
,
( )
. ,
,
,
. 15
, Robert Bosch GmbH ,
,
-

560

III.

.
,
- .
Bosch 50% ,

16
. Glasbau Hahn

-
. , ,
, $100 000 ,
,
.

, Glasbau Hahn
17
.


(scope of operations) .
,
, / . ,

,
,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
.

,
, .
.
Disney
, , ,
( ).

100 .
,
. , ,
Grupo Luksics, ,
, , ,
, , ,

11.

561

, . ,
Ballantyne, $12
, .
65%,
18
30%.

.
, Samsung,
. Intel,
, IBM-
. Texas Instruments
,
.
,
. Siemens
, , a Philips

. 19 ,

, ;
( Disney),
, .



.
, Disney
,
. Disney
,
49%
, .
,
,
.
,
. 2 0


. Disney ,
, .

Disney , ,
, . , -

562

III.

, ,

ABC ESPN.

. , Sharp Corporation, -
, 33 ,
29 .
. Boeing,
,
( ). Mercedes-Benz
DaimlerChrysler ;
, 9 10 -
.21
,
.

(synergy), ,
,

. , ,
. Disney

.
,
.

Disney; ,
.
. ,
, ,
,
.

11.

563


.
, :
.
:
, ,
.

.

, (
),
. ,
,
, .

, .

Disney.
,
. ,
,
. 14 15
.
.
. ,
. 11.2, .


(mission statement),
, .


.
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
.22 ,
Hershey Foods ,
1
; Carpenter Technology -

564

III.

, ,
,
.
:
,

11.

565

. ,
.
SWOT-

SWOT-. SWOT strengths, weak
nesses, opportunities, threats (
, , , . . .).
SWOT-
(environmental scan), ,
,
, - ,
23
, .
, ,
,
(
SWOT), ( SWOT),
.
, , , ,
,
. (
, 3,
, 12.) , Boeing
,
. 90-
,
,

,
Cathay Pacific
. ,
Boeing, ,

. Boeing

. ,
Boeing.

, .
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, .
, Disney, -

566

III.

Universal Studious, Six Flags ;



;
; .
2002 2003 . ,
. ,
BMW,
,

,
. Federal Express
,
DHL Worldwide TNT,

.
SWOT- ,
,
, , ( S W
SWOT).
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
, .
Disney
.
BMW , ;
BMW ,
.
.
,
, .

,
,

. ,
, ,
, .
BMW
,
.

. ,

11.

567

,
,
, . .

.
, . 11.3,
( )
.
, Caterpillar (
- - )
(
, )
. , (
) .
. 11.3.

, SWOT-, .
,

568

III.

, ,
. , BMW

,
BMW .
, ,
,

.

, SWOT-

.
,
. ,
. ( ,
, ,
.) ,
, Disney
, ,
. . , ,
, .* ,
, ,
. Disney,
, ,
,
.

. 11.3, ,
SWOT- ,

. ,
,
.
, Grand Metropolitan,
, Guinness,
, Diageo PLC
,
2002 . $17 . * : The best laid plans of mice and
men often go awry, :
. . .

11.

569

, .


.
,
( ,
),
,
,
.24


(control framework)
,
.
.

, 12 . ,
,
,
, .
,
, .

,
. . 11.2, ,
,

.25
14.

570

III.



, (
)
. . 11.4
: , -
26
.
. 11.4.


( )
.
: Sony, Matsushita Pio
neer Electronic Corporation. Sony
,
. -

11.

571

Sony, Matsushita,
, Pioneer Electronic Corporation
- .
,
.
,
,
. ,
:
,
.
.
(single-business strategy)
, ,
.
,

. ,
,
. , , ,
, DVD-,
;
, .
, Singapore Airlines, McDonald's Dell,

.
. (related diversi
fication), ,
(
) ,
.


. ,

.
Disney .

, ,
, .
,
, ,
Disney,
, .
Accor SA, ,

572

III.

.
, -
, ;
( Sofitel),
( Motel 6).
,

.
,
27
Asterix the Gaul ( ).

. ,
,

28
. , Disney
, ,
, ,
. ,


Disney. , ,
,
, Disney Studios.
(
) ,
Disney ,
,
ABC Disney Channel. ,
,
:
Disney Disney Channel,
,
.
,
. , Limited
Brands ,

. ,
Limited,
Express Lerner .
Disney Strategic Sourcing.

. ,
. ,
, Disney Store -,

11.

573

, web- Disney
,
,
. ,
$300 .29
,
,
,
. , Pirelli SpA
, 100 ,
.
, Pirelli
, -
. , 70- ., Casio Computer Company

. ,
.

.

.
,

. ,
, .
.
,
,
.
.
(unrelated diversifica
tion).
. ,
Casino Guichard-Perrachon ,
, , , ,
.30 General Electric (GE)
, (NBC),
,
, ,
, .
,

.
60- .
. , ITT, Gulf and Western,

574

III.

LTVn Textron, .
,
.
. -,
,
. ,
,
. -,
,

. , - ,
,
. -, ,
,

. -, ,
,
, . ,
,
,
.

-
.
, ,
,
. , GE
, ,
,
. , -
,

, .
.
, , GE Textron,
,
. , DaimlerChrysler
- .
,
, ,
, , ,
. DaimlerChrysler
,
, ,
. 31

11.

575

-
,
- ( )
, ,
.
, .
,
,
, , , (strategic
business unit, SBU). , ,

. , Disney :
; (
, ,
); ( ABC, Disney Channel
ESPN). ,
,
. , Textron
, ,
,
.
,
-
,
. -,
, ,
.
-
. :
,
. 32
. (differentiation strategy)
.
(
)
,
.

.
,
. , Rolex
.
;

576

III.

Rolex. , .
,
, , Coca-Cola (
), Nikon (), Calvin Klein ( ) Waterford
Wedgewood ( ).

( ) .
,
. , Marks and Spencer,
,
. ,
Land's End ( ,
) .
, .

10% ,
, : ;

,
. , (Marks and Spencer
Land's End),
, . ,
,
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,

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577

.


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,


.

, .

,
. ,
, Telefonica SA.

, Telefonica
, ,
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1924 .
1945 .,
41% .

. 1986 .,
, .

11.

583

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,

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1998 .

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.


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, .

584

111.

, Telefonica,

,
.
Telefonica de Espana
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Chile,
. 1995 .
Telefonica del Peru,
. ,
, Telefonica de Espana 35%
. , Telefonica

.
, Telefonica
. 1998 . Telefonica de Espana,
Telefonica SA,
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.
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,
. Telefonica
:
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22 000
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Telefonica,
.
.

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, .

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.
, Telefonica
,
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, .

11.

585


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. ,
Telefonica Terra Networks SA,
,
. Telefonica
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,

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,
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, .
Telefonica .
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,
,
.
,
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Telefonica .
Telefonica
. : 1999 .
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- - .
:
, 1998 .,
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. , 2000 .

,
. Telefonica
. ,
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; 50%
10 .

1. SWOT- Telefonica de Espana no
1986 . ,
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2. ,
Telefonica?
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-

586

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. ,
.
, ?

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.
Telefonica
,
?
: Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003; Telefonica Aims to Beco
me World's Fifth Largest Telecommunications Group, Financial Times, December 21,
2002, p. 3; Telefonica Posts 43% Jump in Earnings, Wall Street Journal, November
19, 1999, p. A18; Spain's Telefonica Jolts Latin America with Tough Tactics, Wall
Street Journal, November 18, 1999, p. Al.

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11.

587

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588

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590

III,

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Starbucks ( )
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,
.
.
Starbucks 1971 . .

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Starbucks, (Howard
Schultz). ,

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. ,
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,
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20 .
Starbucks 0

12.

591

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.
Starbucks,
.

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1996 .,
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Starbucks , .
Starbucks
1997 ., Seattle
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.

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592

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594

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12.

597

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#2 Antarctica;
Companhia de Bebidas das Americas, AmBev.

70%,
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, 2002 .
,

.
,
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Grupo Modelo,
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CEO,
-, ,



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,

.
: Thirsty, Forbes, October 1, 2001,
pp. 74-75; AmBev and CabCorp: Alliance
Completed for Central American and Carribean
Beer Markets, Business Wire, October 24, 2002,
pp. 7 0 - 7 2 ; Brazil's Breweries: The More
Mergers the Merrier? BusinessWeek, March 27,
2000, pp. 98-99.

12.

599


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, ,
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mark's Bang & Olufsen , ,
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portunity cost):
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12.

601

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,
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(ownership advantages)
,
,
.
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602

III.

International Nickel,
, .
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12.

603

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;
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604

III.

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,
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!

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12.

605


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606

III.

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Chevrolet Ford
. ,
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,

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Toyota ,

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Honda Nissan.

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.

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,

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(William . Ford Jr.) ,

607


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.
,
.

,

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. 5%-
2003 .,

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(
, 10%).
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,
,
,
,
$10 000.

Toyota ,
- .
Toyota
,
!
: The Americanization of Toyota,
BusinessWeek, April 15, 2002, pp. 52-54; Autos:
A New Industry, BusinessWeek, July 15, 2002,
pp. 687-0; Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in
Its 45-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Seventh
Year in a Row, PRNewswire, January 3, 2003.

,

: ,
; ,
; ,
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608

III.

.

.


,
,
. ,
. 12.2. 1,

. 2001 .
$6,2 , 20%
. 2001 .
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12.

609

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.
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, -

610

III.

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,

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.
,

.

,
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Space -Lok, Inc. ( * (-): ,
, , . .
.

12.

611


Chivers Hartley
Jusco, . Chivers
, : , .
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Chivers .
Chivers 15% ;
, , , Chivers.
Chivers , Jusco.
Jusco,
Chivers .
Jusco Chivers,
. Jusco
, Chivers,
.
Chivers
, .
,
. , ChiVers
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,

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. Chivers
, Jusco, Cambridgeshire.

. Chivers
.
Chivers , Jusco
2900 Cambridgeshire
300 .
, Cambridgeshire
Blue Flag. , Chivers
, .
: Japanese Jam Deal Set to Boost Preserves Group, Financial Times, November 3, 1997, p. 8.

,
)
,
.
Toto Ltd. ,
, 90- .
. Toto
15% , .

612

III.


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Standard.^

(. 12.2),
,
.
. (indirect exporting)
, , ,
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) Intel ( . 12.2.

12.

613

), ,
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(Association of Guatemela Coffee Producers),
. ,
.

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.

, . 20
,
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.
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.
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,
. , Baskin-Robbins
, $30

614

111.

,
Jamoca Almond Fudge
( 30 )
21
.
.
,
.
(intracorporate transfer)
, , ,
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British Petroleum
,

;
.

.
40% -
.
,
.

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,
. ( 17,
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Crown Victoria Ford.
Ford, , ,
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, ; Ford,
;
Ford ,
Ford .22 ,
,
, .
. , Dow-Jones
Company
Wall Street Journal. ,
,
, ,
Wall Street Journal. ,
Dow-Jones ,

12.

615


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, , ,
,
, .

.

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), , . ,
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616

111.

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,
.
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. 1989 . CITES,

(, 165

),
. CITES .

,
.
,
.
20 000 1981 . 105 000
1999 .; 49 000 70 000.

,
.

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12.

617

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CITES
. 1979 .
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: Ivory Sales Delayed Two Weeks,


Boston Globe, April 18, 2000, p. A12; Treasured
Beast That Divides a Continent, Financial Times,
April 15/16, 2000, p. 9.

618

III.

, ,
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.
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.


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.
,
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,
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620

111,



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.
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,

12.

621

,
. ,
.
,
,
,
.
,
, sogo sosha,
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.
,

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( keiretsu),
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sogo sosha
,
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. . 12.3
sogo sosha.
. ,
,
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(manufacturers' agents)
, ,
. (manu
facturers' export agents)
,
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import brokers)

, , . -
(freight forwarders)
- ,
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.
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.

622

111,
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sogo sosha

12,

623



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. 12.3.

.
,
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624

III.

,

.

. Nintendo Company.
.
(
) ,
.
, Nintendo
. ,
Nintendo, ,

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; , ,
, Nintendo.
,
.24
, ,
Cantab Pharmaceuticals PLC,
, . Cantab , , -

, ,
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,

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,
GlaxoSmithKline Pfizer.25


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,
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; 4) .
.
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Pepsi-Cola .

12,

625

PepsiCo Heineken
,
. Heineken
,
.
PepsiCo
Pepsi-Cola ;
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PepsiCo ( Lay's)
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.
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,
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;
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.
,

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.

626

III.

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Walt Disney Company.
.

.

12.

627



, ,
,
. ,

, .
,
,
, .
, Nintendo
, ,
, .
.
. ,
PepsiCo
Heineken, PepsiCo
, a Heineken
, Coca-Cola. ,

.
. ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
(Oleg Cassini) Jovan,
Glaxo SmithKline,
Cassini .
/ ,
Diane Von Furstenberg Cosmetics.
Jovan Von Furstenberg
Cassini.
Cassini .
, Cassini
Jovan Cassini
. Cassini
Jovan $789 .
, Cassini
.26 Laura Ashley
, 20
L'Oreal
, Laura Ashley.
, , L'Oreal -

628

111,

Laura Ashley,
L'Oreal , ,

27
Laura Ashley.

. ,

. ,
,
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
.

,
.

, . ,
,
.


, ,

. (franchising)
,
,
.

.
( franchisee)
(
franchisor) .
,
, ,
, ,
( )
.



. -, -

12.

629

,
,
.
McDonald's ,
,
, . -,
, ,
,
. McDonald's
, ,
,
McDonald's
. -,

,
. ,
McDonald's
.

.
, McDonald's,
.
,
,
. -,

, , . -
, , ,
-
.
, . ,
McDonald's, ,
, , , . ,
,
,

. ,
.

.
, McDonald's, Dunkin' Donuts, Baskin-Robbins, Pizza Hut
KFC, .
Benetton ,
120 . ,

630

III.

, Bridgestone Corporation,
Bridgestone Firestone;
.

,
. ,

. ,


.
,
. , McDonald's
(. 11).
McDonald's, ,
.
McDonald's ,
McDonald's
, .

.
McDonald's .
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
. , McDonald's
,
, . ,

. , McDonald's
,
McDonald's.



,
,
.
,
.

12.

631


(contract manufacturing)
, ,
.
,
. , Nike

;
Nike , -
. Mega Toys ( By (Charlie Woo)
$30 , -)
,
Mega Toys
.
,
,
. , Nike ,
(
Doonesbury)
,
Nike. 28

(management contract) ,
,

.
, .

,
.
,
- . ,
Hilton Hotels
,
Hilton, .
, Air France, British Airways KLM,

, .

,
( ,
),
.

632

HI.

(turnkey contract) ,
,
,
.
; ,
, .

,

.

, ,
,
.
.
,
Bechtel, Halliburton, Hyundai Group, Fletcher Challenge
Ltd Friedrich Krupp GmbH.

,
(, ),
. -

;

.

(-- --, build-operate-transfer), , , ,
.

.
,
. ,
.
,
( 7),
Elecrticity Supply Board International
Compagnie Generale des Faux
20 .
$600 .
20-
.

12.

633


(, ,
)
,
.


.

, , .
,
,


( , ,
Baskin-Robbins ).


.
,

(
IBM)
,

. ,
,
, ,
.
,

. 29

, ,
, .


(
, . .).
,

, ,
.

634

ill

,
.


.

. 3,

,

. ,

. , ,
,
, ,
, ,
. : 1)
( greenfield); 2)
( , brownfield) 3) .


( greenfield ( )
:
, ).
, ,
, /
, ,
. Fuji Film,
,
, Mercedes-Benz
Nissan .
. -
, ,
,
, .
,
,
.
. ,
.
,

, ,

12.

635

. , GM

( )
,
, ,
. ,
,

. ,



30
.
,
. -,
. -, ,
, .

; ,
.

. ,

.
Disney
.
Disney
, Disney
.
,
, 20
, .
,
$150 (
) Disney. , Disney
,
,
. 31

,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

636

111.

. ,
, , ,
.

, -
. ,
,
.
.

, . ,
Procter & Gamble
, Loreto Pobre , Grupo Carso
SA. Procter & Gamble
Loreto,
,
32
. American Eagle Outfitters
Thriftys.
150
. 33

. ,
Saudi Arabian Oil Co.
,
Petron Corporation Ssangyong
Oil Refining Company. 1974 ., ,
Koninklijke Netherland
,
.
,
TNTLtd., ,
,
TNT.34

. -
(, .) . ,

,

, -
. ,

. ,
Matsushita $6,6
. , -

12.

637

,
.

.
(joint ventures) ,
,
.

,
,

.
,
,
, 13.


.

, ,
, , .
,
, ,
.


.
.

, ,
.

,
.
.
, ,
.

, ,
, , .

638

III.


.
, -,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,

, , ,
, ,
.

.
,
, ,
.
.
,
.

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.

,
.

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,
, .
.

.
. , ,
, -
. ,
,
. ,
.

1. .
2. ,

.

12.

639

3. ?
?
4. .
5. .
6. ? ?
.
7. ?
?
8. ?
.
9.
.
10. ? ?
.


1. , ,
, ? .
2. , ,
,
?
3.
,
?
4.
?
5.
?
6.
?
7. .
?
8. , ,
sogo sosha, ?
.
9.

?
10.
?
?

640

III.


(:
.)
Heineken
,
.
1.

Heineken.
2. ,
Hei
neken. Heineken

.
3. ,
Heineken ,
.
Heineken

Heineken
; , ,
,
.

,
Heineken , ,
- , .
1.
,
,
Heineken.
2.
,
.
.
3. 10 ,
.
.
, ,
: ,
Heineken ,

12.

641

Heineken.
, .
4. , ,
. , ,
,
.
.

1. , Heineken

.

?
2. ,
?

Heineken

Heineken NV
Anheuser-Busch SABMiller. Hei
neken , .
Heineken 2002 ., 10,3 ( 2003 .
$1,13), 14% (
). Heineken ;
,
170 .
Heineken 1864 . (Gerald
Heineken) .
.
, , ,
. 1914 . Heineken
. ,
, ,
.
, (Leo van Munching).
, ,
Van Munching & Company,
Heineken .
Heineken,
.
1933 . , -

642

111.

Heineken Van Mun


ching & Company.
-
. 1948 . ,
,
.
Heineken.
50 .
;
, . ,
Kirin, Heineken
. 1968 . Heineken
, Amstel. 80- .,
, Heineken
. ,
,
Anheuser-Busch .

, Heineken
, , , .
,
Komaromi Sorgyar, Zlaty Bazant Brewery.
, ,
.

, Heineken
-. ,
,
. .
, .
, Heineken
. .
Miller, Lowenbrau ,
, ,
. , Miller
, Lowenbrau,
.
, , Lowenbrau

. ,
Lowenbrau,
, Heineken
, ,
.

12.

643

Heineken
, : Van Mun
ching & Company, Heineken USA
.
Heineken USA Heineken
,
, . Heineken
, ,
.
Heineken
,
. 2002 . Heineken
Al Ahram Bewerage Co. $280 .

,
Heineken .
2003 . .
1,3 ,
. - ,
,
. Al Ahram
Fayrouz. Heineken,
,
: Heineken
Fayrouz
,
.

1. ,
, Heineken.
2. Heineken
.
3. , Hei
neken .
4. ,
Heineken
Anheuser-Busch.
: Heineken Has Ambitious Plans for Islamic World, New York Times,
January 4, 2003, p. 4; Heineken 2002 Annual Report; Replacing Inventory with Infor
mation, Forbes, March 24, 1997, pp. 54-58; Heineken Finds Strong Local Brew,
Financial Times, February 7, 1996, p. 16; Heineken's Battle to Stay Top Bottle, Bu
sinessWeek, August 1, 1994, pp. 60-62; Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003
(Austin: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), p. 250.

644

III,

Guanxi woofies*:

,
.
, , ,
,
.
1.
?
2.
?
3.
?
?

* guanxi ( )
.
Woofies ,
, wholesale financial institutions ,
(, $100 000) . .

, ,
.
:
f
;
4- ;
4 ;
4- ;
4- .



Kellogg. ,
Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Rice Krispies Frosted Flakes, Kellogg
20- .,
50- .
, , , , ,
.
,
.

646

III.


,

.

, .
,
.
,

, .
,
,
. ,

. ,

Kellogg.
Kellogg General Mills,
, Cheerios Golden Grahams.
.
General Mills ,
.
General Mills , Kellogg,
50% ,
,
.
General Mills
(Bruce
Atwater) , General
Mills
- , .
- , :
Nestle,
. Nestle , .
Nestle ,
, .
, Nestle ,
. -
,
General Mills.

Nestle', , Nestle,
, General
Mills. Nestle, General Mills
Nestle
,
, , .

.
$80 ,
Cereal Partners Worldwide (CPW). CPW
(). General Mills -

13.

647

Nestle,
,
. Nestle,
,
,
.
/ :
$1
2000 .
CPW .

Disneyland Paris

. CPW

,
(
12%, 25%).
, CPW
.
75 , , ,
, Nestle General Mills.]


,
,
, , ,
, .
, ,

.
,
, . ,
, .

,
,
.
,
,
. ,
Nestle General Mills
.


,
, , -

648

III.

,
,
.
. (strategic alliance)

.
,
. , Kodak Fuji,
,
, Canon, Minolta Nikon.

, Advanced Photo System ( ).
,
2
.
(joint venture)
,
,
. , ,
- ,
. ,
,
,
. CPW
.

.
12, :
, , .
,
(
), .
,
.
,
.

. , ,
.
. -,
-
;
,
. -,

. -,

13.

649

. ,
,
,
3
-.
,
,
.
, .



. ,
,
, -
,
. ,
.
,
, (,
).
, ,

.
,
. ,
{Canon, Minolta
Nikon) {Fuji Kodak)
Advanced Photo System
.
:
Kodak Advantix,
Minolta Vectis, Nikon
Nuvis.4
, , ,
. , CPW,
,
.

,
, . , 1998 .
United Airlines British Airways
,
. ,
United Airlines , ,
Delta American Airlines

650

III.

(
).
United Airlines
British Airways.
,
, British Airways.
.


.
Pan Am . United Airlines
Pan Am,
.
British Airways
United Airlines,
, , .
British Airways,
, 1993 .
US Air. American Airlines British Airways
.
US Air,
. US Air
British Airways
.


, , ,
5
. . 13.1,

: ,
, ,
6
.

, ,
,
.
.


.7
,
,

13.

651

. 13.1.

.

.
, Warner Brothers, Time Warner,
,
.
,
. , Warner Brothers
Lusomundo, .
20
. , Warner Brothers Village
Roadshow ( ,
) 23
. 8
Cigna,
, Banco Excel Economico,
.
Cigna .
Cigna
,
, . Banco Excel,
,
,
. $19 ,
Excel Signa Seguradora.9
,
,
.
,

652

III.

.10 , ,
, ,
,
(. 13.1).

,
. ,

,
,
.
, Coca-Cola
,
Heaven and Earth,
.11
CultureQuest,
.


,

.
, ,
. , Boeing

13.1.

13.

653


Boeing 777
. -
,
,
, ,
. Boeing
,
,
777. Boeing
, Fuji, Mitsubishi Kawasaki, ,
20% 777. Boeing,
,
,
, Japan Airlines
Nippon Airways.


Kodak, Fuji .
, Kodak
, Fuji,
, .
,

Kodak. Kodak ,
, Fuji,
,
Kodak ,
.
, Fuji
, Kodak
, ,

654

III.

,
, .
, ,
.
Otis Elevator.
United Technologies, Otis
. ,
1984 . , , Otis

. Otis
,
.
, Otis
. ,
(. 13.2).
Otis $70 ,
25%.
13.2. Otis Elevator

13.

655

$260 .
Otis ,
.
Otis
.
. , Otis
. ,
158
. ,
, .
, Otis ,
,
. ,
. Otis $2
5000 .
, Otis .
,
.
. ,
Otis ;
.
Otis 118 000 . Otis
88% . , ,

.
: The Pioneers, Wall Street Journal, September 26, 1996, pp. R1, R14; Overseas, Otis and
Its Parent Get In on the Ground Floor, Wall Street Journal, N?n\ 2^, 1995, p. A6.

, Fuji,
Kodak. Kodak, ,
Sony, Betamax
VHS, Fuji.
, ,
Kodak, . ,
Kodak ,
,

.

,
. ,
, Otis Elevator,
.

656

III,


,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
12
.

.

, Toyota GM. General Motors
. (
),
.
Toyota
, NUMMI (New
United Motor Manufacturing, Inc.). ,
, Toyota.
, .
Toyota ,
; GM
.13
Toyota ,
. ( ).
GM , NUMMI,

, Saturn, .
().
GM .

, ,
,
.

, . ,
,
,
,

.
,
, ,

13,

657

,
,
, .
PepsiCo,
, Thomas J. Lipton Co,
Unilever.
RTD (ready-to-drink,
). Lipton, 50%
$400 ,

, Lipton. Co PepsiCo
,
15
. Siemens
Motorola ,
64 256 .
Motorola
,
$1,5 . Siemens
Motorola
,
, 40%
DRAM.16 -
.


. 13.2, ,
, .
,
, ,
.

;
,
- - ().

.

(comprehensive alliance) ,

,
, , , , -

658

III.

, , Sea Launch,
, ,
Kvaerner Group, -
Boeing. ,
, $6,6 .
,
.
.
,
.
.
-4, , -18,
10 .
,
. -

,
. Kvaerner, ,
,
, . Boeing

.
, , ,
, $200
Sea Launch. ; 18 ,
, Huges Electronics, Loral Space & Communications
Ltd. PanAmSat Corp.
, Sea Launch ,
.
: Old Soviet Missile Factory Takes New Aim, Wall Street Journal, October 23, 2000, p. C15.

.
,
, -.


.

. ,
-,
,
(
).

13.

659
. 13.2.

,

. , General
Mills
, , Nestle,
.

( General Mills
Nestle')
,
Kellogg.

,

.
. , ,

660

III.

-,
, -

.
, , - .
. (production alliance)
,

.
,
. , ,
NUMMI, Toyota GM,
GM ,
GM.
,
$500 ,
Chrysler BMW
1,4 .
,

.
,

, 400 000 ,
,
.

Mercosur. 17
BMW PSA Peugeot
Citroen ,
.
BMW, ,
, PSA ,
- . 18
. (marketing alliance)
,

.
, .
, , -,
,
.

,
. ,

13.

661

. ,
Mattel , Bandai,
. Bandai
Mattel, Barbie, Hot Wheels Fisher
Price. Mattel, ,
Bandai, Power Rangers Digimon ,
Mattel, Bandai
19
.
,
. ,
.
. (financial alliance)
,
, .
.
.
,
, ( )
- ,
.
Boeing
: Boeing
, ,
. ,
Boeing ,
,
.
20th Century Fox Paramount
Pictures ,
.
- . ,
,
, ,
,
. - (research and develop
ment alliance)
.
-
2000 . Intel, Micron Technology, Samsung, Hyundai, NEC Sie
mens,
(DRAM) . 2 0 Bayer AG
,
( , Millenium Pharma
ceuticals Morphosys),
. 21

662

111.


- General
Motors.

, GM
Toyota ,

Chevrolet Cavalier
Toyota
.
,
-
GM
Toyota, ,
.
,
, GM
,

.

,

, (
).
,
Toyota

,
. ,
,

.


. , Toyota

GM,
8090% .
GM
-. ,
G/W,
,


. ,
GM
Toyota
.
GM ,
,


.
,
, GM
Toyota,
,
.
: Is Cavalier Japanese for Edsel?
BusinessWeek, June 24,1996, p. 39; Shaking Up
an Old Giant, Forbes, May 20, 1996, pp. 68-80.

, ,
,
;
. ,

,
.
, ;

.

13.

663

, . , ,
,
. ,
,
. , Kodak, Fuji

. ,
Kodak, Fuji, ,
,
.

.
,
.
(R&D-consortium) ,

, .
,
. 2 2

. ,
, Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, Mitsubishi, Matsu
shita
.
,

.
,
- ESPRIT, RACE, BRITE, EURAM, JOULE SCIENCE.
, ,

.



,
11.
,
. 2 3
,
,
.

664

III,


,
(). ,
,
:
24
, .

: 1) ; 2)
; 3)
; 4) .
.
',
.
, , .
- .
, General Electric Corporation ( ,
)
Siemens -
.
, .
General Electric Corporation
,
,
. Siemens, ,
,
. 25 , CPW
,
General Mills Nestle'.
. ,

,
.
, .

, ,
.
,
,
, .
General Mills Nestle', :
, Nestle
, General Mills
Nestle . PepsiCo
Lipton
, .

13.

665

, Pep
siCo Lipton ,
, .

. , / ^ (
Matsushita)
. JVC

. JVC
,
, JVC
. Thomson SA,
,

, JVC. JVC

Thomson,
JVC 5 ,
800 000 ,
. JVC, Thomson
,
General Electric. Thomson
5 . ,
JVC
N
Thomson.26
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,

.
? ?
?
?

.
, . 27
, Corning, Inc. Asahi
Video Products Company,
Asahi Glass,
. Corning, -

666

111.

,
:
4- Asahi Glass
Corning ;
4- Corning
Asahi Glass
,
.
4- -

;
4 Asahi Glass
Corning, Coming
;
4 Corning
Asahi Glass.
Coming
,
, PPG, Dow Chemical,
Samsung, Siemens, Ciba-Geigy, IBM , , Asahi Glass.
.
-
. , ,
, (,

)
(,
).

, ,
,
,
.
.28

,
.
, ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
.

13.

667


, ,
. ,
,
-. , ,
,
, ,
- .
, ,
.

.
,
, .
, , Coming Genetech, , . Corning
. ,

Genentech, ,
.
Genentech , Corning
, Genentech.
, . 29

. ,
,
. ,
, .

, ,

,
. ( ) ,
. ,
.
- . -
(public-private venture) ,
.
.
-, ,
, ,
. ,

( Weyerhaeuser),
. -

668

III.

. ,
,

. ,
,
. ,

,
. , -'
Ranger Oil Ltd. Gulf Canada,

30
.
-, -
,
.
,

.
-
.

, .
.

.
-
,
. ,
,
. , ,
, -
.

. ,
(
),
.
-, , -

. ,
- , ,
. ,
,
.
,

13.

669

,
, .
.

,
.

.
. ,
Shanghai Bell, Alcatel
(Ministry of Post and Telecommunications),

,
, Siemens Lucent Technologies.
,
.
, , :
?
.
. Unilever
( )
White Cat, Uni
lever (),
,
. Daimler-Benz,

- Nanfang South China Motor
Corporation.
,
. , Nanfang
, ,
Daimler-Benz
,
.31 , 2002 ., New Balance
, ,
New Balance ,
,
. 32

,
. 33
(. . 13.3),
,
.

670

III.
. 13.3.


(shared management agreement)
.
- ,

.
.

,
. ,

. -

13.

671

,
, ,
Coca-Cola Group Danone
Coca-Cola Minute Maid
.
Danone ( 15 30%
),
Minute Maid.
:
. Danone
, a Coca-Cola
34
.
(assi
gned arrangement)
. , GM,
67% Raba,
, ,
35
.
Boeing ,
Fuji, Mitsubishi Kawasaki
777.
,

, , ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, .
(delegated agree
ment) ,
.
,
-.
,
,
. , ,
,

. , Beijin Jeep,
American Motors Beijin Automotive Works,
, . ,

,
. ,
. ,

672

III,

Beijing Jeep ,
.

,
,
, . . 13.4
,
:
, , ,
, .

-
.
,
.
,
Siemens, . 13.4.

13,

673

, General Electric Corporation,


.

-,
,
.

-
,
.
,
, , .

. ,

,

:
;
;
.
. AT&T
Olivetti, ,
,
,
. ,
, CultureQuest .



.
, ( )
, -

674

III,

.
. ,
,

36
.
, Unisys
Hitachi,
. Unisys
, Hitachi
,
. Unisys
Hitachi: ,
.
Ford Mazda,
Ford Escort.
, Mazda
Ford
.
: Ford -
, .

,
, .
, ,
. , General Mills Nestle
,
, 50/50. ,
,
.
,

.
,

;
;
() . , Rubbermaid


, .
, Rubbermaid,
DSM Group NV,

, Rubbermaid.37

13.

675

, ,

. ,
,
. ,


. ,
Nestle General Mills,
Nestle 10
.

-.
Fujitsu
International Computers, Ltd {ICL).
Fujitsu 80% ICL. 150
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2000 ., Sara Lee Courtaulds Textiles PLC,
.
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: web- Slimline (www.slimline.lk), Mast Industries
(www.mast.com), Sara Lee Courtaulds (www.saralee.com); Sri Lanka Keeps Victo
ria's Secret: Toiling in Comfort, Wall Street Journal, July 14, 1999; Thomas L. Fried
man, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books, 2000), pp. 177-178;
Dian Gomes, Introduction, A Place in the Sun (Pannala, Sri Lanka [privately prin
ted], 2001), p. xiii.

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: More U.S. Firms Expected to Fly Solo
in China, USA Today, April 10, 2000, p. 1B; Jim
Rohwer, China's Coming Telecom Battle, Fortune,
November 27, 2000, pp. 209-214.

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.
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nity .


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III.

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) $300 .
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.
(strategic business units),
,
.

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.
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, Poland Springs, Alcon Labs Nestle-Rowntree ( 14.1).
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719

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723

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, , , 80- ..
: About Us, web- Blockbuster, www.blockbuster.com, May 3, 2003; Case
Studies: Blockbuster Entertainment, web- XcelleNet, May 4, 2002.

III,
1 4 . 2 .


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III,


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;
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-
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Fortune, November 10, 2002, pp. 114-118; Quick
Studies, BusinessWeek, November 18, 2002,
pp. 48-49.

,
. ,
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30 .

, .

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III,

, ,
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. ,
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,
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;-.,.-,

III.


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.

.

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.

.

,

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, .
.
.

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.
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.
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733

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.


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?

734

III.


4-5 . ,
, Unipro Corpora
tion,
.
. , ,
.
Unipro
, .

,
. Unipro :
General Chemical ( ; 90%
);
Total Software ( ;
);
Pleasure Park ( );
Fundamental Foods ( ,
, ).
,
Unipro, . ( )
,
.
,
.
.
.

1.
, ?
2. , ,
, ?
3.
Unipro"}


Daimler Chrysler, ?
1998 . Daimler-Benz Chrysler,
, . -

14.

735

.
Daimler (Jurgen Schrempp)
, Chrysler, (Robert Eaton),
.

, , Daimler-Benz 58%
. , Daimler-Benz

. DaimlerChrysler
.

. Daimler
Chrysler
. Chrysler, ,

. Daimler
Chrysler ,
Chrysler, ,
, MercedesBenz . ,
: Daimler
Mercedes-Benz , ,
; Chrysler
-,
Jeep
. ,
DaimlerChrysler

. , , Daimler-Benz Chrysler
.
2000 . ,
, .
,
,
DaimlerChrysler
. 2001 . DaimlerChrysler
26 000 Chrysler,
20% . ,
, ,
? , .

, Daimler Chrysler.
Chrysler
, (
, -

736

HI,

, ,
). Daimler-Benz
.
, ,

, .
,
,
.
, Chrysler
, . ,

, ,
. Chrysler
(, Grand Cherokee)
. ,
-,
, Toyota Honda. Chrysler
(
Cruiser),
- . , Chrysler
,
$2000 .
,
(
, ,
).
.
, Daimler
Chrysler
Mercedes
.
Chrysler Dodge.
,
DaimlerChrysler.
Daimler Chrysler

. Chrysler -
Holiday Inns. Daimler
.
Chrysler,
$5
,
- .
$500

14.

737

Waldorf-Astoria St. Regis,


.
(
) . ,
, ,
Daimler Chrysler.
Chrysler
, . ,
Chrysler
, Daimler.
,
DaimlerChrysler,
, ,
Daimler Chrysler,


(
).
DaimlerChrysler
,
,
. ,
Daimler Chrysler ,
Nissan,
. DaimlerChrysler

, Mitsubishi Hyundai.
, .
DaimlerChrysler ?
Daimler
. - ,
, Chrysler,

Chrysler . ,

DaimlerChrysler
. - ,
.

; ,
.

1.
DaimlerChrysler.

738

111.

2.
DaimlerChrysler?
3.
DaimlerChrysler.
4. , ,
DaimlerChrysler?
5. ,
DaimlerChrysler.
: Germans Bring Cool Back to Chrysler, Houston Chronicle, January
6, 2002, p. 2D; Chrysler's New Bosses Give Refresher Course on Thrift and Style,
Wall Street Journal, January 4, 2002, p. Al; Chrysler's Resque Team, BusinessWeeek,
January 15, 2001, pp. 485-0; Purging Chrysler, Time, December 4, 2000, pp. 58-60;
DaimlerChrysler Hit by More Lawsuits, Labor Unrest, USA Today, November 30,
2000, p. 3B; For Two Car Gianys, a Megamerger Isn't the Road to Riches, Wall
Street Journal, October 27, 2000, pp. Al, A8; The Merger That Can't Get in Gear,
BusinessWeeek, July 31, 2000, pp. 46-47; Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz, Taken for
a Ride, BusinessWeeek, June 5, 2000, pp. 84-92.

,
, ,
.
, , .
,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,
, , -.
III . . .,
. XVI . (Singa
) ,
.
1613 . ,
, 200
.
, 1819 ,
(Thomas Stamford Raffles), -

14,

739

East India Company, .


, ,
, .

, , , ,
, .

, ,
.
, XIX .

- , .
, ()
, . ()
, ,
. , ,
, , .
dhow ( )
() .

.
.
, 1965 .,
. 1968
1997 .
9% . ,
.

. ,
, .
, ,
.

, ,
.
30%
.
,
, ,
, . ,
Shell, Thompson, Compaq Computer, Motorola Becton Dickinson,
.
.
, ,
.

740

III.

, 1 ,
$8 .
. (
),
, .
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
.
,
(
).

.
,
.

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,
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,
.
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, ,
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).
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.
. ,
.
,
. ,
, .

,
, Porsche .
:
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;
4-
;
4-
;
4-
;
4-
.

Porsche
Porsche
. ,
(Wendelin Wiedeking)
. ,

742

III.

,
. . -
.
. ,
.
Porsche
$97,5 .
, , Porsche
,
. ,
,
;
.
,
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,
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sche - , ,

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: , , .

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. ,
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,
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,
Porsche. Porsche .
, ,
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,
.

:
. ,
Porsche.
-
. ,
Cayenne, 2003 .
Porsche 25 000 .
, , - :
"Cayenne",
Porsche , .
"Porsche" "Porsche". "Cayenne"
"Porsche".

15.

743

, ,
:
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, .

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.

744

III.

.
,
, , , ,
- .



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),
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.
, , . ,
, ,
, .

(personality)
, .4
,
. ,
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,
.
,
. ,

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, ,
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.
: .
,
, .

,
.
.
, . 15.1,
(Big Five).6

15,

745

. 1 5 . 1 . :

(agreeableness)
.
, ,
.
, ,
. (conscien
tiousness)
. , -

746

III.

, ,
, , .
, ,
(emotional stability), , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
(extroversion),
, ,
(
). , (openness)
.
,
,
.
.

. ,

, .
. ,
, , ,
,


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,
.
,
,
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,
). , ,

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).7 ,


,
.

.
.
, , -

15.

747

,
.
, , ,
.
(locus of control)
, ,
8
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, , ,

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(self-efficacy) -
, .

.10
,
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. ,
,
.
.

,

, ,

. , -

748

111.

,
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,
11
.
(authoritarianism)
.

12
( -).
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,
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,
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, ,
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, , ,
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,
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,
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.
,

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.

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,
. .
,
, :

15.

749

,
.13
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)
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.
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,
.
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sfaction) , ,
.
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)
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,
. , ,
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) .

.
, ,
, , -

750

III.

,
, ,15
8300
106 .
, ,
, ,
.16
15.1

15.

751

. 15.1.
,
, ,
17
.
,
,
(,
18
1975 .).
. ,
,
(organizational commitment).

, .
, ,
, , ,


19
.
,

. 2 0
,
.
,
,
,


. , ,
,

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. 2 1 ,
. , ,
. ,

.

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,
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.

752

III,


,
. (perception) ,

. , ,
, , ,
.
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, ,
. ,
,
.

,
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
, .
,
, .

.
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.
,

.22

. , 3,
,
.
,
. ,
-
( , ,
23
). -

,
, .

, ,
. , -

15,

90% .
,
.
. ,

, .


,
, .



. ,
,
.
,

,

.

.
:
Beijin Youth Daily
,

, ;
.

, , 79%

, 91%
, 20% ,
, .
,
, ,
;
Sichuan Workers' News
,


,
,
;
,
,
. ,

. , ,
, ,
.
(Qian Ning),
(Qian Qichen), -

753

.

, ,
,
.
;
,

() .
, , ,
,
.


,

. 1995 1996 .
-
,

, ,
. 1996 .,
,


, ,

.

,
,


,
(
)
.


, -
,
. ,

,
.

.
: Kathy Chen, To China's Press, the U.S.
Is Crowded with Liars Who Prefer Pets to Kids, Wall
Street Journal, February 15,1997, p. A15.
Wall Street Journal, 1997
Dow Jones and Co., Inc. .

754

N1.
24

- .
,
, .
, ,
.
,
, ,
25
. ,

.


.
26
. -.
, .

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.
.
,
, .
,
. ,
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.
,
.
,
, 20.
, -
- .
,
10 ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, , , ,
. 27
,
,
(
20) . 28

15.

755



, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
, .


, .
, . ,
. ,
.
, , ( , ,
). ,
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.
, , ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
,

.

756

III,


. ,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
. IBM, Siemens Toshiba,
.
. ,
100 , IBM,
. ( ).
, ,
, .
, , -
, ,
.
,
, .
, , .
IBM , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
. IBM
, , ,
, .
, .
,
, IBM ( ,
, ).

. - ,
-
. ,

. ,
.
, , ,
.
: Siemens Climbs Back, BusinessWeek, June 5, 2000, pp. 79-82; Computer Chip Project
Brings Rivals Together, but the Cultures Clash, Wall Street Journal, May 3, 1994, pp. A1, A8; Hoover's
Handbook of American Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 774-775; Hoover's
Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 544-545, 614-615.

15,

757

. , ,
.


. ,
, ,
,
. ,
,

. , (reinforcement)
,

, ,
.
,
.
, ,

, 4,
,
.29 ,
,
,
,
.
( ,
, )

.
,


.

. ,

.
,
, .

,
.
, ,

758

III.


.
, ,
Mazda
30
Mazda .
, , ,
, .
,
.

.

. ,

. , ,
,
. , ,
,
. ,

, .
, ,
,

.
. ,
, ,
;
.
,

. ,
.
,
, . ,

, .31
, , ,
,
,
.

. ,
. ,
, ,

15,

759

,
.
,
. ,
, ,

, ,
.

. , ,
(Abraham Maslow),
: ,
, ,
.32
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
, . ,

.33 ,
, ,

.34
,
(David
McClelland), . , ,
( ,
)
. , ,
.35
, ,
, , , , . ,
,
, ,
(
), (
). ,
,


.36
(Frederick Herzberg)
, .37
, -

760

III,

,
.
. ,
, , ,
, ,
.38 ,
, ,
.

. ,
. ,
,

.

,
.39
,
, ,
. ,
: , ,
, .
, ,
,
.

.
. ,
,
, .
- ,
.
,
, . ,

, .
,
.

. ,
, Sony. ,
, ,
,

15,

761

. ,
,
Sony.

,
. , ,
(),

. ,
( ), ,
-. ,
,
. .
,
. ,
,
, . ,

. ,
,
,
.
,
.



. (leadership)
,
,

.40
. ,
. 15.2,
.

. ,

.

, .

762

111.


,
,
15.2

15.

763

.
.
, -
,
,
41
.
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, :
; ,
; ,
42
.
,
. ,
43
. . 15.2
,
. ,
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,
. ,
; ,
. ,
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,
.
,
,
, .
, ,

, . ,
, - ,
.
, ,
.

, . ,
,
. ,
( ),
,
. , Sony , -

764

III,
. 1 5 . 2 .


, , ,
.

.
, .
:
, ,
. ,
,

. , ,
,
.
,
,
.44

15.

765

,
. ,
, , ,

. ,
,
(, ,
), (. . ,
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.
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.

,
.

,
. ,

, . ,
,
.
, ,
.45
. , ,
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
.46
, ,
,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
. ,

. ,
,

766

III.

,
,
, ,
,
, .
.
,
. ,

,
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
,

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.

.
.

, , ,
, .47 ,

, . ,
.
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
.

,
.

48
, .


,

. (decision making) -

15.

767

,
, .

. 15.3,
.
.
,
,

. 49

,
. ,
Shell ,
. ,
,

. Shell ,
,
.

;
.
,
,
. Shell ,

. ,
, ,
,
. , ,

768

III.
. 15.3.

. ,
Shell
,
. ,
,
.

,

.

, Shell
.
,
, .
,
, ,
, . ,

. .
,
, ,
. ,
. -

15,

769

, Shell
,
. , .
,
.
,

,
. ,
, ,
,
.


,
50
. ,
.
1: . -
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,
, ,
.

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).
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.
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, ,

. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,

, .

770

111.


,
.
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. ringi (ringi
system) ,
;
.

,
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, .
,
, ,
. ,
ringisho
.
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.
, ,
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. , ,
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ringisho , ,
,
.

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, ringi ,
. 51
,
.
, ,

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,
.

, . ,

.
.

15.

771

,
,

;

52
.
3: .
.
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.
,
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, .

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.

. 53
4: .
.
,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
,
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,
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,
.
,
, ,
. . ,
,
. 54

772

III.

,
,

,
.
(
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. ,
(, ),
55
.
5: . ,
,

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.
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,
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.
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,
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,
.
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.

,
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.
;
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, ,
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15.



. ,

. ,
Dunes Hotel Casino -
.
.
,
.56


,
, ,
. ,

, ,
, ,
.

, ,
, .

. ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
, -

774

III.

,
.
, , ,
.
1. ;
,
.
2.
.
,
, ,
. .
3. .
,
,
.
4.
, , ,
,
.

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, . Sony
,
. ,
,
, /
,

.
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.

, , ,
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.

15.

775

,
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.

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.
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, , ,
, .
, ,
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.
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,
. ,
,
.

.
, , .
, ,

776

III.

-
Citigroup, , :
, ,
,
. (Terry Lockhart), -
Citigroup
,
.
,

.


. -
,
.
, ,
,

. :
-
- .
,


,
.
,

(Elisabeth Marx).
.

,
. ,
,


. :

.

.

,
,
,


Citigroup. ?
Citigroup

. ,


...

,

,
.
Citigroup ,
.
,
,


.
-

.

,
.

.
36% ,


,
23% .
64%
.

Citigroup,

.
: Bridging the Culture Gap, Financial
Times (London), January 28, 2002, p. 8; Elisabeth
Marx, Breaking Through Culture Schok: What You
Need to Succeed in International Business (Nicolas
Brealey Intercultural, London, June 2001); Elisabeth
Marx, Viewpoint Elisabeth Marx, Financial Times
(London), January 8, 2003, p. 19.

15,

777

. ringi ,

.
,
.
.
,
.
. ,
,

, . (
20 .)


.
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.
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.
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.
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.
.
.
.

, ,


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,
.

, ,

778

III,

.
.

.

.

, , ,
, .
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1. ,
.
2. .
3.
.
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.
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.
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.


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3. ,
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15,

779

4. ?
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.
.
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,
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.
,
:
4 ,
;
4 , ;
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,
. ,
, (
, ,
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.
,
, . ,

780

III,

,
, , .
15 .
15 ,
, , (
) .

1.
?
2.
?


Firestone
Bridgestone Corporation (
) , , -.
. 1988 .,

, Bridgestone
Firestone,
. Bridgestone
Firestone (John Nevin)
. ,
, . ,
. ,
- Firestone.
,
.
Bridgestone, -
.
, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, 1989 .
, -
. 1993 . ,
(Masatoshi Ono),
,

15.

781

Bridgestone.
,
, ,
Bridgestone .
90-
Firestone.
, ,
Ford Motor
Company. 90- Bridgestone/Firestone
,
Goodyear Michelin.
.
Firestone,
,
.
Wilderness,
Ford Explorer,
. Firestone Ford

.
,
.
,
Firestone, ,
,
.
. ,
,
. -
. ,
.
, ( ,
, ).

.
.
. -
. 2000 .
( ,
) ,
.
, , .
Bridgestone
, Firestone. ,

111.
(, , ,
- ),
Firestone 0 o h n Lampe).
, , -,

.

.
Firestone
, , ,
.
,
Ford
.
,
,

.

1. ,
Firestone, ?
2. Firestone
. -
, ?
3. , , Firestone
,
?
: Ono Leaves No Tracks in Nashville, USA Today, October 11, 2000,
p. 3B; New Firestone CEO Faces Huge Challenges, USA Today, October 11, 2000,
p. 3B; Bridgestone Consolidates 16 Tire Units into Four to Provide Better
Oversight, Wall Street Journal, October 19, 2000, p. A6; Hoover's Handbook of World
Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 116-117.



.

. , , -
. -

15,

783


, , ,
, ,
, . .
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.
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.
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, , (
) .
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.
.
, ,
.
, .
,
.
(comida) (),
, .
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.
,
, .
- ,
.
, (, , patron jefe).

.

784

III.

, ,
, .
.
,
, .

;
(padrino) .
, ,
,
; .
, ,

. ,
,
. , ,
.
,
, .
.
, .
,
.
.
{camarillas) (palancas)
.
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
, .
,
.
.
-
, ,
.
, : ,
.
, ,
,
.

Ben & Jerry's


, , 1997 .
(Perry Odak),
(Angelo Pezzani), (Bruce
Bowman) (Riv Hight)


, .
,

:
Ben & Jerry's ,
, .


.

: 7000
7-Eleven,

(Ken
Yamada),
,
Ben &Jerry's
.



1998 . ,

, ,

.



,

. ,
7-Eleven

,

. , ,
,
, Ben &
Jerry's,

,

.


1994 . Ben &
Jerry's
,

,
$4,5 .
,

,

. ,

.
,

;
,

. ,

Ben &Jerry's

, :

Haagen-Dazs.
,


.

, -

786

III.

7-Eleven,

(Masashiko
Iida),
,
.

Ben
&Jerry's

Ben
&Jerry's

(
Ben &Jerry's). 7-Eleven,
,
Haagen-Dazs , ,

, .
Ben & Jerry's
$300 .
Haagen-Dazs ,
, ,
.
, ,
Haagen-Dazs, ,
, ,
, , 7-Eleven,
.
, Ben &Jerry's, .

,

Ben &

Jerry's

.

Domino's
,
Pizza

.
,
, , Ben &Jerry's ,
,
,
.
.
(Jerry Greenfield),

Ben &
Jerry's,

1996 . Ben & Jerry's 1997 .

,

.

II!
(
), ,


.
1997 .


. ,
-
.

, 7-Eleven ,
-
: Ben &
Jerry's ,

?
, ,
.
,
, -
, ,

- ,


.
,

Ben
& Jerry's Homemade
.



,

.
7-Eleven

,
.

787
Domino's, ,
Domino's
.

,

Ben & Jerry's ,



.

,
,
,

7-Eleven.
,

Ben &
Jerry's
7-Eleven.
, ,
:
Ben &Jerry's,
,
,

. ,

,
, ,
23,3%,
.


2000 .
21%.

,
,


.

788

III.


7-Eleven
Ben &
Jerry's
,
.


. ,

,
-
,
. ,

,
,
Ben &Jerry's

,
.




,


7-Eleven.


Ben &Jerry's
7000
7-Eleven,
.

, Ben &
Jerry's
,
.
Ben & Jerry's
:
Ben & Jerry's ,
Haagen-Dazt

?

,
?
Ben &Jerry's 7-Eleven

.
,
Ben &Jerry's

,
. 7-Eleven
,

120 ,
473 (1
),
Ben &Jerry's.

,

,

.
,


.
,

,
$2
.
,
,

.
, 7-Eleven

,


.

Ben &Jerry's -

III


.

,

,
7-Eleven,

.

,
Ben & Jerry's ,


.
,
Ben &
Jerry's ,

, 7-Eleven.

,
,
.
1998 .
1997 .


.
1998 .,

1997 .

.



.
,

Ben & Jerry's
.

789
,

Ben &
Jerry's

.

Ben &Jerry's
,

. ,





.
;
,

,

Domino's Pizza .
,
.
Ben & Jerry's
-,

,


.
,
.


Ben &
Jerry's Domino's,




.

7-Eleven -

790

III.



,
7-Eleven. 7-Eleven
,
Ben &Jerry's

.
7-Eleven,


,
,

Ben & Jerry's.

,
7-Eleven,
, Ben &
Jerry's 10%

7-Eleven. ,
Ben &Jerry's

. ,


.
7-Eleven
Ben &Jerry's
,

.


.

, , ,
,
.
,

1997 ., ,
.

,
Ben &Jerry's
.
,
125 ,
Ben & Jerry's -

,
;
,
7-Eleven
.
160
Ben &Jerry's
,

,
Haagen-Dazs,

.

, ,


.

.
.
, Ben
& Jerry's
,
,

1998 .
.

1.


.
Ben &
Jerry's,

?
2.

III

3.

4.

Ben & Jerry's



7-Eleven,


Ben &Jerry's


.

Ben &Jerry's,

-
,
.
?
.

: Adapted from Ben &


Jerry's Japan, Richard Ivey School of
Business, University of Western Ontario,
Case (A) 2000-02-02.
Richard Ivey School
of Business.
Nissan
1980- .
BusinessWeek, For
tune Forbes,


.




, ,


(
keiretsu). ,


,

Toyota, Nissan Honda.

791
1990- .

.
(
), 1980- .,

,

.

Nissan. ,
1980- Nissan ,
1990- .
.

1980- . ,

,
.


,
.
( 11
,
.)

.

1990- .
.
1997-1998 .

XX .
Nissan,
,
1991 .
1992 1993 .

Nissan, 1994 .


.

, -

792

'

111,

Nissan

.
,


. ,
Nissan
,
,
,


. ,
,
- ,
. 1994
1995 . Nissan
. 1997 .
, 1998 .
. 1998
1999 .

.
Nissan

,
,

:
. 1999 .
Renault SA $5,4
37%
Nissan,

Renault

. Renault

, (Carlos Ghosn),
,
Nissan.

,

Nissan. 1999 . ,
,
,
,
Nissan $10
. ,

Nissan 21 000 .
16 000

Nissan.

,

,

,




, 2000
.

,
,


Nissan,

.



, - ,

,

Nissan.


,
:
, -
-

III

,

1
.

,
Nissan,
2,4 ( 2001 .
117 ),

2001 . ,
Nissan,

. , , Nissan
,
.
,
,
,

,
.


. ,
Nissan
,

,
. ,

Nissan:

.
,
,

Honda, Toyota, Chrysler Ford,


$1000 ,
Nissan.
Nissan

, Nissan
TBWA Worldwide

793

;
,
$1,1 .
,

,
. ,

Nissan 10%

Renault. , ,

Re
nault Nissan

20%. ,

,

keiretsu.
keiretsu,
keiretsu
,

.


,

.
Nissan


keiretsu,
Nissan
.
keiretsu
. ,

keiretsu

,
. ,
keiretsu, -

794

111,

Nissan,

, Nissan
.
60%
.

,
.
,
,

.
,
2
keiretsu.

,

Nissan 1394 ,
Nissan
keiretsu,
. ,
,
,
600.

,
Nissan

,

.
, ,
,
20% ,
Nissan,
.
, ,

,
Nissan. ,

. ,
-

(Keizo Obushi)
,

, Nissan

.
,
,
,
,
Nissan. ,


,
,
. , , ,
,

:

,
...
,
;

Nissan.
.3
,
,



.

- ,


,
-
-

.

-

III



.

,
(
,
) ,


.


,
.

, Nissan
,
,

.
Nissan
,
.
,
,
, ,
,
90- .
,
,

,



, .

1. Nissan


Renault
?
-

795


?
Nissan

keiretsu?


Nissan?
2. , Nissan

21 000


. ,
,
?

?

,

?
3.
,
Nissan -


?
,
? -

?
4. ,

,

,
-

? , ,

?
5. -
,

796

III.




Nissan,

.

?

:
, ,
?
6. ,
. 2002 .
Nissan
$6,1 ;
, 2002 .
11%,

.
,
( )

.
?
: Nissan Set to Announce
Records $6,1 Billion Profit, Financial Ti
mes, April 23,2003, p. 18; Look! Up in the
Sky! It's Nissan's Chief Executive, Wall
Street Journal, December, 27, 2001, p. Bl;
Feared 'Cost Killer' Who Became a Cor
porate Hero, Financial Times, December
17, 2001, p. II; Renault's Nissan Deal Be
gin to Come up Trumps, Financial Times,
July 18,2001, p. 20; Nissan Sizes Up TBWA

for $1 Bil Global Ad Prize, Advertising


Age, December 6, 1999, p. Iff; Remaking
Nissan, BusinessWeek, November 15,
1999, p. 70ff; The Circle is Broken, Fi
nancial Times, November 9, 1999, p. 18;
'Le Cost-Killer' Makes His Move,
Financial Times, November 9, 1999, p. 15;
Nissan's Ambitious Restructuring Plan
Delivers a Blow to Japan's Longstanding
System Corporated Families, Wall Street
Journal, October 20, 1999, p. A20;
Nissan's Cost Cutter Shows How He Got
His Nickname, Financial Times, October
19, 1999, p. 20; Nissan Outlines
Restructuring to Get into the Black, Wall
Street Journal, October 19, 1999, p. A18;
Nissan's Ghosn Faces Obstacles in
Carrying out 'Revival Plan', Wall Street
Journal, October 18,1999, p. A 37; 'Killer'
to Make Unkindest Cut, Financial Times,
October 18, 1999, p. 14; Can Japan Keep
11 Carmakers? Financial Times, July 22,
1998, p. 13; Nissan Finds the Road Is
Rough Despite Cost Cutting, Wall Street
Journal, April 4,1994, p. B4; The World's
Top Automakers Change Lanes, Fortune,
October 4,1993, p. 73ff.
III
Nissan

1. Remaking Nissan, BusinessWeek,


November 15, 1999, p. 71.
2. The Circle Is Broken, Financial
Times, November 9, 1999, p. 18.
3. 'Le Cost-Killer' Makes His Move,
Financial Times, November 9,1999, p. 15.

... .
, :
+ -
;
4- ,
;
4-
;
4- ,
;
4-
.

,
, Wal-Mart
.
1990- . . Wal-Mart
. 1999 .
Wal-Mart ,
Asda, 230 .
Wal-Mart, :
.

16,

799

Wal-Mart Asda,

. Wal-Mart
, ,
, .
Asda
,
. Wal-Mart
,
.

, Wal-Mart, ,
, Tesco, Safeway Sainsbury,
. , , :
2001 . Asda $745 $13,5 ,
8,4%,
Wal-Mart, 10,5%.
Wal-Mart
. 1997 . Wertkauf, 21
; Spar Handels AG, 74
.

.
, Wal-Mart,
.
, ,
, .
,
, Wal-Mart
,
.
Wal-Mart ,
.
, ,
, , .
,

Wal-Mart, . ,
.

.
, ,
.
Wal-Mart , ,
, .
, , Wal-Mart
,
.
,

. . , Wal-Mart

50 .

800

IV.

, Wal-Mart
, .
,
. 2002 .
Wal-Mart 38%,
.
, . (
) Wal-Mart
, ,
.1
Wal-Mart
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
.

,
, ,
, .2

.
,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
. , ,
, ;
,
.3
, . ,

16.

801

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.4

,
, :

. ,
.
,
.



.

, . 16.1.
-
.
,
, .
-

,
.5 11, -

. 1 6 . 1 .

802

IV.

: ,
.

, ,
,
.
, , ,
, Rolex,
BMW, Montblanc. ,
,

. , Rolex,
,
( $15 000) ,
Timex $19,95.
-,
.

, ,

. , ,

, : ,
( ),
. Texas Instruments, Hyundai,
Bic
. Timex
.
.


.
,
. ,
Ste. Suisse Microelectronique et d'Horlogerie SA (SMH),
Swatch,
,
. - ,

.

. Timex, Rolex SMH
( ) ,
,
-. Timex ,

16.

803

, ,
- : . :

.
:
. web-, www.prettygarlic.com,
, -: ,
, , . web-
, ,
. , ,
.
- Pizhou, 5,5 ,

. ;
15 000 . ,
, .
: The Web @ Work, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2000, p. B4; www.prettygarlic.com.


, Wal-Mart Target,
Saks Fifth Avenue Hatred's. Rolex
, ,
,
, ,
,
. , SMH
Swatch ,
30-50- Town and Country Archi
tectural Digest, Field and
Stream Popular Electronics.
, ,
, ,
.
,
, . ,
,
. , ,
-, , ,
,
Timex, Rolex.

-

804

IV.

, .
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
, Nike Coca-Cola,
,
.
, ,
. , , Caterpillar,

,
, .
-

6
, . ,

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) , .
-

product (), pricing (), promotion () place (
).
. 16.2.
-
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
: ,
- .

, , ,
-,
.
1. , . .
, ?

16.

805

. 16.2. -

2. , . . -
?
3. , . .
,
- ? 7
.
, , ,
, .
,
, , -
. , Land's End
1990- . ,
,
. Land's
End ,
,
, ,
.
Land's End , ,
. , -

806

IV.

-
, . . ,
.

, ,
,
8
.
, ,
. ,
, -
.
,
- ,
,
. ,
.
,
,
, .
,
.
-,

. ,
, Coca-Cola.
, ,
. , -
.
, - ,
. , 11,

, . ,
, .
,
, , , -.
1980- .,
, (
McKinsey & Company), ,
,
, ,
-.9 ,
,
-
, .

16.

807

, . ,
10
.
.
,
11
, .
,

.
,
. ,
: , .
:
,
.
12
, .
,
,
. Coca-Cola,
,
. ,

, ,
Iron Brew.

. , , ,
, .
,
. ,

.

. Whirlpool, ,
,
,
. , World Washer
,
, ,
. World Washer,
. ,
, ,
. 13

, ,
, .

808

IV,

- ,
.
, ,
.
,
. :
? ,
, , ,
. , ,
, .

.
( -) ,
-
. (. 11)
-,
.
:
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, , ,
;
2)
, -, -


-
(product). ,
(
), , ,

16,

809
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, , . ,

,
15
. ,
Toyota , ,
,
,
, ,
,
.
?

,
, ,
( ) (
). , Toyota, ,
.
,
Toyota .
, - -

810

IV.

. , ,
Toyota ,
.
, . ,
. ,
, Lexus Sports Coupe,
Toyota Soarer.
, ,
. , 1980- . Unilever
, - 85
15 Cornetto.
, Unilever -
,
- ,
16
.

.
:
? ,

, , ,
, . ,
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,
.
.
, , , .
: , .
, , ,
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. 17 - Big Boy
. 1 8


, . , ,
,
, , ,
, , .
,
. , Grupo Modelo SA, Co
rona, , ,
,
.

16.

811
19

, . ,
.
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,
, 2 0 (1 = 91,44 . . .).
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.


.
, ,
. ( -
-). ,
, .
, Procter & Gamble
, ,
. 2 1 ,
,
, , ,
. ,
. Gerber, ,
.
,
,
. Gerber
, . 22 Frito-Lay,
Pepsi,
, , ,
, ,
. 2 3
,
. ,
Gerber, Frito-Lay
.
.
, ,
.
, :
5000
, .

812

IV.

. ,
web- . ,
, ,
.
. ,
.
: , ?
, 50%
. web-
, , TRADOS.
TRADOS Kelly Services , 200 000
. , ,
, ,
, , . 10
Kelly Services, $255 000 . TRADOS
, .
70%.
,
. , web .
, , web-
. , ,
. , , .
,
.
,
- ,
. , , , 20 . Amazon,
Yahoo!, AOL . 55%
web- - .
, , , .
,
. ,
.
: Babel.net, BusinessWeek, December 17,2000, pp. 78-80; The Next Web, BusinessWeek,
March 4, 2002, pp. 99-101; Surfing in Tongues, BusinessWeek, December 11, 2000, pp. 84-86.

. ,

.24
. ,
,
.
,
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16,

813

, ,
.
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.



.
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. ,
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.
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.
, ,
,
.

() ,
.
, .
. ,
Avon ,

26
. Mars, Inc.
, , Marathon
Raider ,
27
Snickers Twix. , , -

814

IV.

,
. , Grupo Modelo SA
Corona Coronita, Corona
28
.
Coca-Cola Diet Coke,
. Coca-Cola Light.
\


- (pricing).

29
.
. ,
. , Toys R Us
, , ,
, .
,
, .
Toys R Us ,
, .
, Wal-Mart
.
,
, ,
. ,
. -

. ,
, . , , -

. , ,
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, , -
.

. ,

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).
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815

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, ,
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, . -
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, .
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, ,
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.
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.
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.

: 30
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, ,
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.
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816

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,
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.
,
, .

,
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,
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.
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16,

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,
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,

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.
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.
, ,
, ,
. ( .)
, ,
,
, .

. ,
.
Coca-Cola, , 1990- .,
.

16.

819

27%
,
Coca-Cola .31
Merck,
. Merck
,
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.32
, ,
, , - ,
, , . ,
,
.
,
$130 .33

, -
.

. ,
, , , ,

( ),
, . ,
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, 1300 .

, -
. , Charles of the Ritz
.

. , ,
.
.
,
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, ,

.
,
, ,
, .34

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IV,


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.
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.

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.

,
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,
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,
.
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,
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16.

21

, , .
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.
,
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.
, .
,
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, ,
, .

.
, .
, ,
.
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,
.
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.
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,
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10
37
. ,
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.

.
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.
. ,
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, , 20 ;
, , , -

822

IV.


:
,

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,
. , ,
65


.
, ,
.
,
;

.
,
, .
,
.

. -
Coca-Cola .



, 27 .
( $8000), .
Coca-Cola ,
.

,
, .
Coca-Cola
Perrier,
.


Al Ahram Beverages Co.
. ,
Coca-Cola
,
-
, !
: Advertising Breezes Along the Nile
River with Signs for Sails, Wall Street Journal, July
18, 1997, pp. A1.A11.
38

. , ,
,
,
39
.
.
.
,

40
. , Coca-Cola,
Bic, Levi's McDonald's,
.
,
. , 1990- . Coca-Cola
, Coca-Cola.
.41

, . Unilever
Dove.
, .

16.

823

, , ,
, : "Dove"
42
. Nestle
Kit Kat , "Kit Kat", ,
, ,
.
. IBM, ,

.
, IBM
, .
,
$22 $30 ( $150 ).
, IBM , .
,
, .
Levi Strauss,
43
Levi's 501 .
$500 000, Levi Strauss
$3 , , ,
$2,5 . 4 4

, .
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, . .
. 45


.
- ,

. 4 6

. ,
,
.
,
. Colgate-Palmolive, ,
,
.
,

824

IV,

. Colgate-Palmolive
.47

.
( ,
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1999, p. Bl. Wall Street Journal. 1999 Dow Jones and
Company, Inc. .

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Managing a High-Performance Knowledge-Sharing
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Journal (March 2000), pp. 345-368; A Case Study
of Model Changeovers in the Toyota Production
System, Organization Science (January-February
1999), pp. 52-60; Toyota's Fast Rebound After Fire
at Supplier Shows Why It Is Tough, Wall Street
Journal, May 8,1997, pp. A1, A6; Toyota Factories
in Japan Grind to a Halt, Wall Street Journal,
February 4, 1997, p. A14.

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Journal, July 28, 1994, pp. A1, A6; Levi's Law,
Far Eastern Economic Review, April 14, 1994,
p. 60; Tirn Smith, The Power of Business for
Human Rights, Business & Society Review (Winter
1994), pp. 36-38.

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29,1997, p. 7; More Firms Rely on "One-Stop" Shopping, Wall Street Journal, April 29, 1997, pp. B1, B4;
Sharpening the Claws, Forbes, July 26, 1999, pp. 102-105.

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Instruments Registration and Identification Systems), -

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, Harvard Business Review
. 35

,
. 13 The Eldora Company (EDC);
.
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880

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General Motors :
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Ford GM
DaimlerChrysler . web,
, : ,
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Renault Nissan, Oracle (
) Commerce One (). 2001 .
PSA Peugeot Citroen. , Ford, GM

, .
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. 2002 .
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, . Covisint
,
:
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,
.
2004 .
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,
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881

1.
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: Three Carmakers Create Link, USA Today, February 28, 2000, p. 8B;
Big Three Car Makers Plan Net Exchange, Wall Street Journal, February 28, 2000,
pp. A3, A16; Shawn Tully, The B2B Tool That Really Is Changing the World, For
tune, March 20, 2000, pp. 1321-45.


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882

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KLM Royal Dutch Airlines ...
. ,

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United, Delta, British Airways, Lufthansa, Air France, Japan Air Lines, Quantas Sin
gapore Airlines.

18.

885

KLM .
,
, ,
.
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24% ,
44%.
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887

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889

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,
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.
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. 18.1.

390

IV,
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(Specially Designated Nationals).

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.
: Casey Ochs, Export Letters of Credit,
Northwest Worldview, vol. 3, no. 2 (August 1996).
Copyright 1996 Northwest Corporation.
.

.
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,
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894

IV.

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VISA MasterCard.
, , ,
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, , ( 2
4%) , ,

18.

895

. 18.2.

.
1-3% .
, ,
.
. ,
. (countert
rade) ,
- . ,
, () .
(barter),
. , 1990- .
State Trading Corporation
. ,
100 000 , ,
, .
.

896

IV.

,
,
.
. ,

. ,
. Boeing, ,
,
, , , .

(buy-back), ,
. ,
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Chinatex, ,
7
. Internationale Vine of Latvia
PKL of Switzerland
.
,
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.8
(offset purcha
ses),
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Fiat,
.9
,
, .

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. ,
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.
(switching arran
gement)
, . . .

18.

897

,
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), ,
,
10
.

sogo sosha ( , 2),
.
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, ,
keiretsu
.11

:
. , , Marc Rich & Co.,
$3 .
1990- . ,
, .
70 000
(. 18.1). ,
.

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. ,
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, .12
, 1520% ,
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,
.
,
.
.
, ,
. , 2002 .
(.
2, ). DaimlerChrysler,
,
.14
. 18.1.
, , ,

898

IV.
1 8 . 1 . , Marc Rich

. , ,
.
, .
, .


.
,
.

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.

18.

899

,
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.

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(Eximbank).
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. 2002 . $13 .
: 2002 .
15
$1,8 .
( ) ( 10 )
,
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.


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,
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: ,
.

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, Saks Fifth Avenue,
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5 ,
10 . Saks ,
, . . 10 , -
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900

IV.
18.1

18.

901

902

IV.



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607
1,3 .
: 3000
,
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2009 .,
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.
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, ,
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.
Saks Fifth Avenue ,
. , :
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18.

903

18.2.

. Saks Fifth Avenue , . . ,


10 , .
,
.
. -, Saks
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.
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904

IV.

. , , ,
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. 8,
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, ,
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.
Saks
.
( Saks ,
), .
,
. 3,0 5,5%
.

,
,
.16
. Saks
, ,
10 ,
(offsetting asset) . ,
,

18.

905

8% (4% ).
, Credit Suisse,
4 807 692 , Saks , ,
(4 807 692 1,04).
, Saks
. ,

. , Saks ,
- ,
.
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, ,
Rolex .
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.
Saks
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Rolex ,
.
,
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,
.

. 18.2. ,
. ,
. ,
Goldman Sachs
, , (. . ),
() .
, ,
. ,
, Indo-Rama Synthetics. 1997 ., ,
,
$175 ,
. Indo-Rama
10% , ,
, 2650
. ,
80%.
, Astra International (
7), , , -

906

IV.

10% , .
,
,
17
1997-1998 .

18.2


, ,
, ,
.
,
. (translation exposure)
, -
,
.
, . (-

, .)
19,
.
, GM $15 Barclays Bank,
, General
Motors Import & Distribution Company Ltd., .
, 1 = $1,50.
, ,
10 . 1 = $1,45,

18.

907

- 10 .
GM ,
$14 500 000
(10 $1,45). , GM
$500 000 ($15 000 000 - $14 500 000).

, ,
, ,
. ,
. , AFLAC Inc.
.
, $4,8 ,
, .
$2,5 .

, $1,3 .
AFLA ,
18
.
Procter & Gamble Owens-Coming}9
,
, . ,
. ,
,
, , .
, , General Motors.
: ,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
, AFLA
( 75% ),
.

(
).
.

,
, ,
.
. , 2002 .
. -

908

IV.

: ,
, , ,
, ,
.

, ,
. , ,
, Toyota Nissan, ,

, . , Sony,
, ,
, ,
21
.
,
. ( 18.3
,
2003 .)

. , ,
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.
, 8.
, ,
, .
,
- .
,

.
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, ,
, .

18.

909

18.3.
1998 . 2003 .

910

IV,



,
( ).
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, ,
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,
.
:
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2) ;
3) .


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, ,
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.

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.
( ),
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, - .

,
.
,
,
(centralised cash management). ,
(-), ,
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.
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18.

911

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.
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, . . ,
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,
, .

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,
.)

.

. , Samsung, ,
,
, .



.
.

0,3% .

- .
Samsung : ,
. . 18.3,

912

IV.


. , Colefax and
Fowler
. 96,

15 . , ,
. 86
. - Colefax and Fowler
, ,
.
, ,
, .
Colefax and Fowler ,
. :
Colefax and Fowler.
, ,
. Colefax and Fowler
EDM, , ,
, Newsweek National Geographic. EDM
,
. EDM, , ,
. ,
, , EDM,
Colefax and Fowler .
,
. , Colefax and Fowler
45 000 .
.
: Small Cheques, Big Problems, Financial Times, June 21, 1994, p. 12.

$21 (1 + 3 + 6 +
+ 4 + 5 + 2). (
, .)
0,5% , Samsung $105 000
(0,5% $21 ) ,
.
,
(bilateral netting),
.
.
, 1 ,

18.

913

,
, $3 , ,
.
$2 , .
,
$2 ($6 - $4 = $2 ),
$3 ($5 - $2 = $3 ). , Samsung
$35 000 (0,5% $7 ).
, Samsung
(multilateral netting),
-. . 18.3,
, $7 ,
. $8 ,
$9 , $1 .
$5 , $6 ,
$1 . ,
,
, $1 ,
.
$1 , Samsung
$5000 (0,5% $1 ).
, ,
: 25, 20,
20, 5, .
, , ,
, , ,
, .
, , ,
.

914

IV.

18.3
( )

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,
,
.
(leads and lags strategy), ,
, , , ,
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,
,
, ,
.
, ,

. , ,

, .
Avon
1997 . Avon ,
, ;

, . Avon
,
, ,
.
- , , . Avon
.22

18.

915

, .
,
,
,
. ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, Tate & Lyle,
.
, ,

. ,
, $6 .23



.
, , , .
,
, .
,

, .

( :
) ,
, .
,
,
, , .
,

.
, ,
. ,
, , .
. ,
10%, -

916

IV,

, ,
, 10%.
, .
,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
, . ,
,
,
.
-, ,
.
. , ,
.
,
() . , 1990- . Adam Opel AG,
General Motors,
, .
- Opel,

. ,
,
.
, Hewlett-Packard (HP)

. HP $10
,
, .
HP ,
.

.
: ?
,
, :
.
,
,
.24

18,

917

, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
. , ,

5%,
.
. 5%-
,
.

5%. ,

,
,
.

,
, .
,

, .

. , PepsiCo

. ,
, PepsiCo
,
. ,
,
, .


. ,
,
,
. ,
,
. ,

, (-

918

IV.

,
.).

(hurdle rate) ,
.
.
,
.


(payback period) , ,
,
. , Placer Dome Inc.
,
$500 ,
Outokumpu OY. ,
,
.
:
.
, .
,
, ,
, , .

,
25
.
, .
,
.


,
,
. ,
.
.
,
, .26


(, -

18.

919

,
),
.
: 2002 .
$128,1 ,
$50,1 .27 ,

.
,
, ,

.
.

.
, .
,
, . 18.4.
. 18.4.


. -
,
, .

920

IV,

. ,

, .
, .
-, ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
,

. . 2002 .

$29,4 ,

15,4 .28 (,
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. ( ,
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,

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( ) .

,
.

.
.


, .
, -

18.

921

.
,
, .

,

, , .
,
Goldman Sachs, , Merrill Lynch Nomura.
, ,
,
.

. , KLM -
, , .
Sony -, ,
, , , , , , , ,
, .
,
,
, .

, ,
.
,
. , , Baltek Corporation -,

$30 .
, Baltek .
, ,
( ).29

,
.
,
-
.
, ,
8.

,
, ,
.30 ,
,

922

IV.

, . ,

. . ,
1990- . The Walt Disney Company
$400 , :
, 13 .
3%;
13,5%. , 7-8%.
, , .31

, Disney
, .32
,
-,
. , ,

. , ,
,
, ,
. .
, Cadbury Schweppes:
- , ,
.33
,
.
, ,

. ,
,
. , ,
. -
. , -

18.

923

,
.
.

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.
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.

.
.
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, .

.

.
,
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.
.
,
.

.
,
, ,
,

,
.

924

IV.

,
.

.
. ,
-,
.

1.
?
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
?
5. ?
6. ?
.
:
7. ?
?
8. ?
9.
?
10. ?


1. ,
, ?
2. ?
3. ?
?
4.
?
5. ,

,
.
, ?
?
6. , Colefax
& Fowler, -

18.

925

(. ). Colefax
& Fowler ? ,
-,
?


Belgian Lace Products (BLP),
. BLP ,

, , .
.
,

BLP. , ,
. ,
,
, , .
-
BLP ( , ):

: 15 000
: 12 500
: 17 500
: 11 250
: 7500
: 25 000
: 3 000 000
: $5000

: 50 000
: 15 000
: 750 10 000

: 75 000
: 12 500
: 5000, 1000 $9000

: 5 000 000
: 17 500
: 3 000 000 $8000

: $40 000
: 11 250

926

IV.

: $10 000 300 000


1,33 = 1
1 = $1,00
1 =120
, .
1. BLP. (
BLP , ,
2002 .) ?
,
? ?
2. ,
1% .
BLP
. , BLP
400 . ?
3.
, BLP?


,
BLP ?

, , -
, .
,
.
:
, - , , Markel
Corp., , , ,
40% ,
. ,
,
,
.

.
. ,
.
,
$1,2 , .

18.

927

Market,
, ,
,
1980- .,
: Was ist das "AR500"?

, ,
W.H. Kuster GmbH,
, Fico Triad SA . , ,
Simco Japan Inc. .
40- ,
. , 40% $26
- , .
, ( ),
, , , ,
.
,
, -
, ,
, , ,
.
:
, ;
,
; ,
, ;
, .
, ,
. , 52 ,
. , .
,
.
,
, , 70%
,
.
, Markel ,
,
, .
,
, Markel
, PNC Financial Services Group. Markel
, , 50 000 , -

928

IV.

,
.
, ,
. ,
, , 50% , ,
, , .
. , , Market
PNC 50 000 , .
$1,05 , $52 500. , Market
, $1,08,
$1500. ,
. . .
. 1998 . Market Kustern
, $1,18
,
1999 . , . , , .
, 26 2000 . 82
. , ,
, , .
Market , 2000 2001 . $625 000.
.
2001 . Market 10%.
63 , ,
. (,
, .) ,
- ,
, .
Market .
,
, . 2001 . $250 000
, ,
25% . 6%
,
.
,
.
Market ,
90 95 .
$1,08, ,

. Market .
, $1,05-1,07,
- $1,60, Market
$400 000 $500 000.

18.

929

,
, . .
, ,
,
. ,
.
, , .

1. Market,
.
?
2. Market .
?
3. Market ,
? .
4. Market ,
. ,
. Market
,
. ?
: Michael M. Phillips, Ship Those Boxes; Check the Euro! Watt Street
Journal, February 7, 2003, p. CI. .

: ?
,
,
.
,
.
, .
, ,
.
XIX .
1929 . , ,
.
1960- . 1979 .
.
, ,

930

IV,

, ,
.
, . 1980- .
. ,

.
1990- .
: ,
. 1994 .
Real Plan,
.
, .
. .
,
1990- . -
1997 1998 . (,
) .
1999 ., ,
.
R$l,21 R$2,20 , , ,
R$l,66 .
1990- .
. . .
,
,
. , 1990- ., ,
20%.
7%.
1999 . . ,
,
,
.

,
, .
.
, .
,
, ,
,
.
. -

. (, )
. ,

18.

931

.
(probleminhos) . ,
, .
, : ,
, . ,

. , .
, , ,
.

. ,

, .

, ,
-
.

-
20:00,
. ,
, .
,

.
, .

... Enron .
, :
,
;

;
,
;
, ,
;
,
;
;
.

1990- .
.
,
. ,

19.

933


().
. 2001 .
$26,1 . 2003 . ,
- 30%,
, Arthur Andersen,
, 4,3 .
- .
Arthur Andersen Enron,
. Enron 1985 .
, Houston Natural Gas InterNorth.
Enron ,

. 1980- .
Enron ,
.
1990- . Enron
.
2001 . Enron, ,
$618
$1,2
, .


.
Enron .
: ,
Enron
, Arthur Andersen
. Arthur Andersen
, a Enron .
.
, Enron, ,

, .
Arthur Andersen . ,
. Enron
Arthur Andersen, ,
,
. Arthur Andersen ,
.
.
Arthur Andersen ,
.
: ,
, ,
Enron.
, Enron . 20022003 .
-
. , Global
Crossing, Adelphia Communications, WorldCom, Tyco.
. -

934

IV.

Elan,
Comroad Royal Ahold NV,
1
.
,
,
2
.
.
, -
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.
( ) .
, ,
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,
.

, . ,
, ,
, .

,
.
-
,

.
,

, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
. -

19.

935

,

.


,
,
, , ,
,
. , , -
, .

. 19.1,
, ,
.3 ,
, .

. , ,
,
, (. 19.1. ,

936

IV,

) (FASB) .

, (
).
(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles,
GAAP),
,
.

.
, ,
4
.
,
5
(, FASB), . ,


, : Plan Comptable
General'. 1673 .
,
.

.
.
.
,
, .
,
.

, . , ,

. Arthur Andersen
: Enron,
, ,
.

.
.
,
.

1920- .,
1932 . .

.

19.

937


,
. ,
,
1898 1946 .
.

.
,

6
. ,
.

.
.
,
.
,
,
(Securities and Exchange Comission SEC).
, ,
Enron. ,
. , ,
,

. - , ,
. -
.
, ,
,
. 7 ,
,

. -
.
:
.
.
.
,
, . ,

. ,

, -

938

IV.

, .

,
.


, , .
,
. , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
.
,
. ,
. -

. -.
,
.
,
, .
, ,
.

. , ,
.
,
.
- .
: LIFO (last in, first out,
) FIFO (first in, first out,
). LIFO, ,
,
-
( , , ), FIFO.
FIFO
, LIFO. , ,
, . ,
.

19.

939

LIFO , , , ,
.
FIFO?
.
.

.

. .
:
, .

. ,

, .
, , .
(
),
( ).

,
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.
-
. ,
, . -

, , ,
.

, ,
. ,

.
,
, .
.
,
,
. , , ,
,
,
.

. ,

940

IV,

.
, , ,

.


,
.
, ,
. 1990- ., , Deutsche Bank
, $14 .9

.
,
,
. -
.
, , .

, ,
.
.
. :
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(),
, ;
:
,
,


;
-
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,
, ;
: , ,
, .

().
5 ,
10 .

-

19.
.
5-20 . .
. 19.1.


,
, . -
, , .
, -
.

, , ,

. ,
, ,
.
:
,
.

. - , ,

, . ,

. - ,
, ,
.10
Philips NV. , Philips
.
- , Philips
,
.' 1
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.
: - ,
, ,
.12 1999 ., , -

942

IV.

19.

943

944

IV.

DAX30 (
-) Volkswagen.

. : Volkswagen
.
, Volkswagen 2000 . ,
GAAP,
(),
.13
, ,
- , 1997-1998 .,
, .
,

;
,
, - .

,
,
.


.

, ,
.
,

. Coca-Cola, ,
,
, GAAP.14
,
:
. ,
:

.
,
, .
,
, . ,
, , ,
.13

19.

945



. -
,
, .


.
1973 .
{International Accounting Standards Committee, IAS ). IASC
, , , , ,
, , , . 2001 . IASC
,

(International Accounting Standards Board, IASB). IASB,
120 91 ,
,
. 16
IASB

- , ,
. IASB .

. , ,
IASB, ,
.

.
.
. ,

,
. ,
,
.

. , -
.
, LIFO, FIFO,
. ,
,
,
. -

946

IV.

,
() .
.
.
,
17
.
. :
18
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
:
.

, , .
. ,
DaimlerChrysler, Veba, Schering, Hoechst, Deutsche Bank Bayer,

,
, IASC / .


,
,
,
:
1) , ;
2)
.

- 1971 .
,
,
, . -
, , . 1971 .


.


18 ,
-

19.

947

.
,
, .
,

,
. 52 ,
1981 .,
(two-transaction approach).20
, Microsoft Corporation ,
Windows XP, Office XP Microsoft Excel
30 000 90 .
- 1 $1,60, . .
$48 000 (30 000 1,60), Microsoft, 52,
:

$48 000

$48 000

, 90 , Microsoft 30 000,
$1,50. Microsoft
$48 000, , $45 000.
:


$45 000
3000

$48 000


, .
,
. ,
, . . ,
.
Microsoft .
, , ,
(. 18).

,
. ,
. , 1990- .
Dell Computer 10% ,

948

IV,

$38
Dell. ,
, Dell ,
. Dell
21
.

,
, ,

.
,
.
,
, (translation)
, 18.

.

,
.

.
, ,
: (
), ( ),
- ?
,
,
, 52
.

- ,
(. . 19.2). ,
( 10%),
.
,

. ,
,
, . ,
Ford, 9,4% Kia Motors.
10 50%
, . ,

19.

949

19.2

Ford , 33%
Mazda. ,

, .
, ,
,
,
.

.
.
,
50% ,
Ford Volvo.
. ,
,
,
.
,
,
GAAP.

, .
, Adam Opel AG,
General Motors, , Opel
,
. Hewlett-Packard

.
, .


:
1) ,
. -

IV.
,
. ,
,
;
2) ,
. ,

.
.
,
.
,

. ,
, .
, Federal-Mogul,
, ,
,
.
,
.

,
.

. 52 ,

,
, .
. , ,
. . 19.3
.
,

100 = $1.
.
.

( . 19.4 31 2004 .). ,
(
), .


. ,
(. . 19.4).

19,

951

19.3

2004 .

,
.
,

.
19.4

2004 .

* - +
.

952

IV.

,
. ,
, . ,
.
,
,
22
, , 52.
, ,

, .



.
( ),
.
,
, :
.
,
.
,
.
( ) ,
. ,

.


: .


. ,
,
. ,
40% .

( )
. , ,
, ,
.

19.

953

:
1) ;
2) .
.
, ,
. , Samsung
,
.
,
,
.
. -,
,
. ,
- -.

,

: ,
.
.

,

. ,
,
.
-, ,
-.

, - ,
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, ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
.
.
- -
, ,
.

954

IV.

.
,
.
.
,
. ,
Ford, ,
, .
, Ford
,
, .

Toyota: , .
Toyota ,

, .
,
. ,
,
:
, , ,
. ,
.

,

. ,
, . 19.5,
.
.
, (
), -
-, ,
. ,
. ,
: ,
. ,
,
.
( )
.
( )
( ),
. , ,
, -

19.

955

19.5

.
,
,
23
, .

.
, , ,
.
, ,
,
,
.

, .
: , ,
.

,
. , -

956

IV,


24
.
, ,
.
, ,
: ,

.
,
,
. ,
, -
. , 1999 .
,
IBM, , 1991 .,
,
, 8 12%.
$260 , -
, IBM , . 25 ,
,
IBM, . ,
IBM , , , .
.

,
,
,
.
, 100%
. , ,
, , ,
,
, -
. ,
,
. , ,
. -
, ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, , .
.

.

19.




. ,
,
,
. ?
,

.


,
,
, , .
,
, ,
,
,
.

,

957

, ,
,
,
.
,


. (
,

,
,

.)
,


,
. ,


.


, , .
,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
. ,
,
, , 32 000
.
, .

24 .
: , , . ,
. 500 ,
$500 , 2200
, $200 .26 -

958

IV.


, . ,
, ,
, .


, ,
-,
.
, :
,
.


, , .
: 2002 .
$683 $289 .
, ,

(foreign sales corporations, FSC). ,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
. 27 2000 . ,
, ,

.
2000 .
.
, .
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
, .
,
. ,

.

19,

959

. ,
.

,
. ,

, .

,
.

,
,
.

,
. ,

,

.

. Caterpillar, ,
6.
. Caterpillar
,
. ,
: ,
,
.
, ,
.
(controlled foreign corporation, CFC)
, ,
10% , 50% .

,
, , ,
. ,
Volvo , Ford,
, a Mazda, Ford
33% , ,
.

960

IV.

,
: () (
F). ,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,

, .
,
, F
, , . ,
,
, -
.
,
, .
,


.


,
, (
).
, .

.
.


.
, ,

.
,
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,

, -

19,

961

.
, .


. ,
, , ,

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
.

, ,
, .
, 55 .
,
,
.
, ,

. , :
,
.28


, ,
-
,
(.
). ,

. 1990 . 50 ,
$492
.
, Novartis, Roche, Goodyear, Coca-Cola .;
.
.

, ,
29
.

962

IV.



,
,
(earnings stripping).
,
,

. ,

,
.
, ,


. , ;

.
, 1989 .
.


50%
.

.
,

,
.
,

,
.
1994 .
:
,

,
. ,
.


.

,

. ,

:

, .
: Foreign Firms Fume, Seek Loopholes
as U.S. Attempts to Collect More Taxes, Wall Street
Journal, June 14, 1994, p. A10.


, , 28%
.

, ,
, . 1980-
1990- .
, -
26,5% ,
. ,
Merck & . Nestle, :
,
. ,
, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co.,
(advance pricing agreement), -

19.

963

,
.

,
.
,
.
, ,

,
.

, ,
, .
,
, . ,

.
,
,

.
.

:


.
52 .

.
,
.

, .
,

.
, ,
. -

964

IV,


,
.

, .

.
-
.

, . ,

. , ,
, ( ),
.

1.
?
2. ?
3.
?
4.
?
5. ?
6. ,
?
7. ?
8. ,
, ?
?
9.
?


1.
, ?
2.
?
3.
?

19.

965

4.
?
5. ,
, .
? ?
, ,
?
6. ?
?
7. ,
, ,
?


.
, -
. ,
,
. ,
, , , -
,
. ,
.
web-.
, .
(, .
,
.)
1.
?
?
2. - ? ,
?
3. ?
?
4. ?
5. ?
6. -
?
- ,
?

966

IV.



1979 1981 .
() ,
. ,
. , ,
,
,
.

,
, .

Chevron, Exxon, Mobil Texaco,
. ( Exxon Mobil,
a Chevron Texaco.) 1970- .
,
.
1979 ., , ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
, . ,
.
, .
,
. ( ,
.
.)
. 1979-1981 .
Exxon $4,5 ,
Texaco, ,
$1,8 .
,
, .
, ,
, .
$4,5 $1,8
Exxon Texaco (
). ,
.

19.

967

, . Exxon Texaco
, .
, ,
,
.
, -
. ,
, -
. Exxon Texaco ,

, ,
,
.
Texaco.
. , $1,8
, ,

,
.
, 1997 .

. , Texaco $700 .

1. Texaco
? ? Texaco?
Texaco? ?
2.
Texaco,
?
3. ,
.
Exxon Texaco
, ?
4. ,

. ()...

" ", ""
.
? ?
: Courts Block Challenge of Big Tax refund for Texaco, The New York
Times, April 22, 1997, p. CI; Texaco "\Vins Billion-Dollar Tax Battle, Houston Chro
nicle, April 22, 1997, p. 1.

968

IV,

:

,
.
()
, .
1. ,
- ?
?
?
2.
?
?
3. 10
, ,
?

Loyola :
, .
, :

;
,
;
,
;
,

;

;
,
;
.

970

IV.

, !
,

. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
.
Toyota
, .
.
,
, . Toyota :
, . Toyota
, : ,
.
,
. , Toyota

.
Toyota ,
100 000 2700 300
. ,
, , .
,
.
, ,
.
14 .
, , , .
, , ,
. ,
, Toyota
. ,
.
-
. . -
, .

. ,

. ,
,
. ,
Toyota.

Toyota $13 000. ,
.
Toyota ,
, .

20. .,.

971

24 ( ).
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
Toyota.

, .
Toyota -.1

,
(),
,
.
,
,
. Toyota
: ,
.



, (human resource management,
HRM), , ,
,
.
, () , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
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, , :
.
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, -
, -.3

972

IV.

,
: ,
. (-)
, .

, .
,
.
,
, ,

.

. ,
,
.

,
. , Toyota, ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, Toyota,

.
,
, . , ,
,
. ,
.
Toyota ,
,
.
,
,

. ,

,
. , ,
, ,
,
.

20, ...

973

, ,
,
.

, .
. 20.1.
, .

. , ,


. ,

,
.

.

, ,
.

, , , ,
.

.
,
,
.
, , , ,
. ,
,
.

974

IV.
. 20.1.



. ,
.
,
, .



,
, .
, -.
,
, (
) ( ).
.
,
.

20. ...

975


,
.
. , ,
, ,
.
, 14.
1. .

.
,
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.
, ,

.

,

. ,
,
.
2. ().
,
,
. ,
-
.

.
. (
, ,
) ,
. ,
. . ,
,
-.4


.
,
.
3. .

976

IV,

( 14 ,
, ,
).
, ,
,

,
.
, :
.
, ,
, ;
( , , ,
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:
,
;
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,
,
;
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,
.


,
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. , ,
; ,
,
.

. , , , ,
.
.

20. ,..

977

, ,
-.
14,
- .
, -
,
.

,
.



( ).
: ,
.
(parent country nationals PCNs)
.
.

, -,
.

, , ,
,
. , Mercedes
.
,
.

. , ,
, ,
. , ,
(
) ,
. ,

. ,
/ ,
.
,
, .

/ .

978

IV.

(host country nationals HCNs)


, .

, .
, Intel, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, IBM Nortel
Networks, ,
.
, ,
, ,
- .5
.
-, ,
. -, ,
, ,
, . ,
.
, .
, Mercedes
, ,
, .
,
(thrird country nationals TCNs),
, .
,
/ .
,
, , .
, - ,
.
,
. , Nestle Philips NV,
, ,
, .
,
,
.

.
,

. ,


.
,

20. .,.

979

. . , ,
. ,
.

, .6

. ,
.
(),
.
. ,

.
.
,
.
,
. ,

: . -

:
, .


,
,
. . 20.2,
:
.
,
. , ,
, ,
,
. .
, ,
,
.
,
, .
,
, ,
, .

980

IV.
. 20.2. ,

,
, .
,
,

, , .

,
,
, .
.

. :
, , ,

. ,
, ,
. , Kal
,

.
.
Whirlpool, ,
,
, a Quaker Oats

. , , -

20, ...

981

. , Verizon
725 ,
7
.

.
, ,
, , .

,
. ,

. , ,
; . ,
.
.

, . ,
Upjohn Pharmacia ( ,
) 1990- . ,
- . ,
,
. ,
.
- , .
,
, ,
. 8
:
.
, 150 - Imperial Chemical Industries PLC,
,
. .
Nomura Securities,
.
, ,
,
, -, .
.
, .
, , ,
,
. ,
,

982

IV.

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